Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 17

Search results for: sea bream

17 Meat Yield and Proximate Composition Relations of Seabream (Sparus aurata) and Seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in Different Sizes

Authors: Mehmet Celik, Celal Erbas, Mehtap Baykal, Aygül Kucukgulmez, Mahmut Ali Gokce, Bilge Kaan Tekelioglu

Abstract:

In this study, determination of differences in fresh meat yield and proximate compositions of different weight groups of sea bream and sea bass grown in cages in Izmir region of the Aegean Sea were aimed. For this purpose, the length and weight of five different weight groups of sea bass (I: 175.8±5.2, II: 227.3±10.2, III: 293.3±21.3, IV: 404±9.9, V: 508.7±46 g) and sea bream (I: 146.6±13.6, II: 239.8±21.7, III: 279.2±20.8, IV: 400.9±10.5, V: 546.8±0.8 g) were measured and the amount of edible and non-edible parts were determined. Besides this, protein, lipid, dry matter, ash, condition factor, HSI and VSI values were compared according to different weight groups for each species. According to the results of analysis, while the absolute meat yields of sea bream was between 69-294 g, it was between 71-252 g for the sea bass and the highest meat yields were found in fifth (V) weight groups of fish for both species. The relative meat yield (%) was determined in weight group II for sea bass and in the IV. group in sea bream with 51.9%. However, the amount of muscle tissue lipids in I. and V. weight groups of sea bream ranged between 3.6 to 11.9 % and ranged between 6.2 to 9.0 % for sea bass respectively. Protein, fillet and ash content increased in direct proportion to the weight. As a result, it can be speculated that when the meat yield and lipid rates were considered, IV. group in sea bream and II. group in sea bass are the most advantageous groups for the consumers. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Scientific Research Project Unit of the University of Cukurova, Turkey under grant no FBA-2015-3830.

Keywords: sea bream, sea bass, meat yield, proximate composition, different weight

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16 Proximate Compositions and Fatty Acid Profiles of Farmed and Wild Striped Sea Bream (Lithognathus mormyrus)

Authors: Mahmut Ali Gökçe, Oguz Tasbozan, Celal Erbas, Zafer Akpinar, S. Surhan Tabakoglu, Mehmet Celik, Bilge Kaan Tekelioglu

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate proximate compositions and fatty acid profiles of marketable size striped sea bream of obtained from fish cages of aquaculture companies and fishermen. Ten fish samples were used for both groups. The average total weight of farmed and wild samples was 252,75 ± 36,78 g and 193,0 ± 32 g respectively. While the protein level of farmed samples was (23,49±0,15) higher than that of wild fish (21,80±0,18), lipid level was less (1,55±0,08) in farmed group than wild fish samples (2,52±0,07). Amount of Σ SFA was significantly higher in wild group (44,09±0,9) than the farmed (32,79±1,13) group. Total MUFA were 36,38±29,91 in wild and 29,91±1,52 in farmed fish. However, Σ PUFA (27,89±1,53) and EPA+DHA values (15,73±1,63) of farmed samples were significantly higher than the wild (14,06 ±3,67 and 9,7±0,86) counterparts. Σώ3/ώ6 rate was better in farmed group with 2,54±0,84 in comparison with (1,59±0,06) the other group. As a result, it can be speculated that the farmed striped sea bream can be preferred by the consumers. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Scientific Research Project Unit of the University of Cukurova, Turkey under grant no FBA-2016-5073.

Keywords: striped sea bream, Litognathus mormyrus, proximate composition, fatty acid profile

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15 Comparison of Fatty Acids Composition of Three Commercial Fish Species Farmed in the Adriatic Sea

Authors: Jelka Pleadin, Greta Krešić, Tina Lešić, Ana Vulić, Renata Barić, Tanja Bogdanović, Dražen Oraić, Ana Legac, Snježana Zrnčić

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Fish has been acknowledged as an integral component of a well-balanced diet, providing a healthy source of energy, high-quality proteins, vitamins, essential minerals and, especially, n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFA), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3 EPA), and docosahexaenoicacid, (22:6 n-3 DHA), whose pleiotropic effects in terms of health promotion and disease prevention have been increasingly recognised. In this study, the fatty acids composition of three commercially important farmed fish species: sea bream (Sparus aurata), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and dentex (Dentex dentex) was investigated. In total, 60 fish samples were retrieved during 2015 (n = 30) and 2016 (n = 30) from different locations in the Adriatic Sea. Methyl esters of fatty acids were analysed using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID). The results show that the most represented fatty acid in all three analysed species is oleic acid (C18:1n-9, OA), followed by linoleic acid (C18:2n-6, LA) and palmitic acid (C16:0, PA). Dentex was shown to have two to four times higher eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid content as compared to sea bream and sea bass. The recommended n-6/n-3 ratio was determined in all fish species but obtained results pointed to statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in fatty acid composition among the analysed fish species and their potential as a dietary source of valuable fatty acids. Sea bass and sea bream had a significantly higher proportion of n-6 fatty acids, while dentex had a significantly higher proportion of n-3 (C18:4n-3, C20:4n-3, EPA, DHA) fatty acids. A higher hypocholesterolaemic and hypercholesterolaemic fatty acids (HH) ratio was determined for sea bass and sea bream, which comes as the consequence of a lower share of SFA determined in these two species in comparison to dentex. Since the analysed fish species vary in their fatty acids composition consumption of diverse fish species would be advisable. Based on the established lipid quality indicators, dentex, a fish species underutilised by the aquaculture, seems to be a highly recommendable and important source of fatty acids recommended to be included into the human diet.

Keywords: dentex, fatty acids, farmed fish, sea bass, sea bream

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14 Product Quality and Profitability of Sea Bream Fish Farms in Greece

Authors: C. Nathanailides, S. Anastasiou, P. Logothetis, G. Kanlis

Abstract:

Production parameters of gilt head sea bream fish farm such as feeding regimes, mortalities, fish densities were used to calculate the economic efficiency of six different aquaculture sites from West Greece. Samples of farmed sea bream were collected and lipid content, microbial load and filleting yield of the samples were used as quality criteria. The results indicate that Lipid content, filleting yield and microbial load of fish originating from different fish farms varied significantly with improved quality exhibited in fish farms which exhibited improved Feed conversion rates and lower mortalities. Changes in feeding management practices such as feed quality and feeding regimes have a significant impact on the financial performance of sea bass farms. Fish farms which exhibited improved feeding conversion rates also exhibited increased profitability. Improvements in the FCR explained about 13.4 % of the difference in profitability of the different aquaculture sites. Lower mortality and higher growth rates were also exhibited by the fish farms which exhibited improved FCR. It is concluded that best feeding management practices resulted in improved product quality and profitability.

Keywords: aquaculture economics, gilt head sea, production fish, feeding management

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13 A Galectin from Rock Bream Oplegnathus fasciatus: Molecular Characterization and Immunological Properties

Authors: W. S. Thulasitha, N. Umasuthan, G. I. Godahewa, Jehee Lee

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In fish, innate immune defense is the first immune response against microbial pathogens which consists of several antimicrobial components. Galectins are one of the carbohydrate binding lectins that have the ability to identify pathogen by recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns. Galectins play a vital role in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus is one of the most important cultured species in Korea and Japan. Considering the losses due to microbial pathogens, present study was carried out to understand the molecular and functional characteristics of a galectin in normal and pathogenic conditions, which could help to establish an understanding about immunological components of rock bream. Complete cDNA of rock bream galectin like protein B (rbGal like B) was identified from the cDNA library, and the in silico analysis was carried out using bioinformatic tools. Genomic structure was derived from the BAC library by sequencing a specific clone and using Spidey. Full length of rbGal like B (contig14775) cDNA containing 517 nucleotides was identified from the cDNA library which comprised of 435 bp in the open reading frame encoding a deduced protein composed of 145 amino acids. The molecular mass of putative protein was predicted as 16.14 kDa with an isoelectric point of 8.55. A characteristic conserved galactose binding domain was located from 12 to 145 amino acids. Genomic structure of rbGal like B consisted of 4 exons and 3 introns. Moreover, pairwise alignment showed that rock bream rbGal like B shares highest similarity (95.9 %) and identity (91 %) with Takifugu rubripes galectin related protein B like and lowest similarity (55.5 %) and identity (32.4 %) with Homo sapiens. Multiple sequence alignment demonstrated that the galectin related protein B was conserved among vertebrates. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that rbGal like B protein clustered together with other fish homologs in fish clade. It showed closer evolutionary link with Takifugu rubripes. Tissue distribution and expression patterns of rbGal like B upon immune challenges were performed using qRT-PCR assays. Among all tested tissues, level of rbGal like B expression was significantly high in gill tissue followed by kidney, intestine, heart and spleen. Upon immune challenges, it showed an up-regulated pattern of expression with Edwardsiella tarda, rock bream irido virus and poly I:C up to 6 h post injection and up to 24 h with LPS. However, In the presence of Streptococcus iniae rbGal like B showed an up and down pattern of expression with the peak at 6 - 12 h. Results from the present study revealed the phylogenetic position and role of rbGal like B in response to microbial infection in rock bream.

Keywords: galectin like protein B, immune response, Oplegnathus fasciatus, molecular characterization

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12 A Kunitz-Type Serine Protease Inhibitor from Rock Bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus Involved in Immune Responses

Authors: S. D. N. K. Bathige, G. I. Godahewa, Navaneethaiyer Umasuthan, Jehee Lee

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Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (KTIs) are identified in various organisms including animals, plants and microbes. These proteins shared single or multiple Kunitz inhibitory domains link together or associated with other types of domains. Characteristic Kunitz type domain composed of around 60 amino acid residues with six conserved cysteine residues to stabilize by three disulfide bridges. KTIs are involved in various physiological processes, such as ion channel blocking, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation. In this study, two Kunitz-type domain containing protein was identified from rock bream database and designated as RbKunitz. The coding sequence of RbKunitz encoded for 507 amino acids with 56.2 kDa theoretical molecular mass and 5.7 isoelectric point (pI). There are several functional domains including MANEC superfamily domain, PKD superfamily domain, and LDLa domain were predicted in addition to the two characteristic Kunitz domain. Moreover, trypsin interaction sites were also identified in Kunitz domain. Homology analysis revealed that RbKunitz shared highest identity (77.6%) with Takifugu rubripes. Completely conserved 28 cysteine residues were recognized, when comparison of RbKunitz with other orthologs from different taxonomical groups. These structural evidences indicate the rigidity of RbKunitz folding structure to achieve the proper function. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using neighbor-joining method and exhibited that the KTIs from fish and non-fish has been evolved in separately. Rock bream was clustered with Takifugu rubripes. The SYBR Green qPCR was performed to quantify the RbKunitz transcripts in different tissues and challenged tissues. The mRNA transcripts of RbKunitz were detected in all tissues (muscle, spleen, head kidney, blood, heart, skin, liver, intestine, kidney and gills) analyzed and highest transcripts level was detected in gill tissues. Temporal transcription profile of RbKunitz in rock bream blood tissues was analyzed upon LPS (lipopolysaccharide), Poly I:C (Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid) and Edwardsiella tarda challenge to understand the immune responses of this gene. Compare to the unchallenged control RbKunitz exhibited strong up-regulation at 24 h post injection (p.i.) after LPS and E. tarda injection. Comparatively robust expression of RbKunits was observed at 3 h p.i. upon Poly I:C challenge. Taken together all these data indicate that RbKunitz may involve into to immune responses upon pathogenic stress, in order to protect the rock bream.

Keywords: Kunitz-type, rock bream, immune response, serine protease inhibitor

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11 Non-Mammalian Pattern Recognition Receptor from Rock Bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): Genomic Characterization and Transcriptional Profile upon Bacterial and Viral Inductions

Authors: Thanthrige Thiunuwan Priyathilaka, Don Anushka Sandaruwan Elvitigala, Bong-Soo Lim, Hyung-Bok Jeong, Jehee Lee

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Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a phylogeneticaly conserved family of pattern recognition receptors, which participates in the host immune responses against various pathogens and pathogen derived mitogen. TLR21, a non-mammalian type, is almost restricted to the fish species even though those can be identified rarely in avians and amphibians. Herein, this study was carried out to identify and characterize TLR21 from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) designated as RbTLR21, at transcriptional and genomic level. In this study, the full length cDNA and genomic sequence of RbTLR21 was identified using previously constructed cDNA sequence database and BAC library, respectively. Identified RbTLR21 sequence was characterized using several bioinformatics tools. The quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) experiment was conducted to determine tissue specific expressional distribution of RbTLR21. Further, transcriptional modulation of RbTLR21 upon the stimulation with Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae), rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) and Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) was analyzed in spleen tissues. The complete coding sequence of RbTLR21 was 2919 bp in length which can encode a protein consisting of 973 amino acid residues with molecular mass of 112 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 8.6. The anticipated protein sequence resembled a typical TLR domain architecture including C-terminal ectodomain with 16 leucine rich repeats, a transmembrane domain, cytoplasmic TIR domain and signal peptide with 23 amino acid residues. Moreover, protein folding pattern prediction of RbTLR21 exhibited well-structured and folded ectodomain, transmembrane domain and cytoplasmc TIR domain. According to the pair wise sequence analysis data, RbTLR21 showed closest homology with orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) TLR21with 76.9% amino acid identity. Furthermore, our phylogenetic analysis revealed that RbTLR21 shows a close evolutionary relationship with its ortholog from Danio rerio. Genomic structure of RbTLR21 consisted of single exon similar to its ortholog of zebra fish. Sevaral putative transcription factor binding sites were also identified in 5ʹ flanking region of RbTLR21. The RBTLR 21 was ubiquitously expressed in all the tissues we tested. Relatively, high expression levels were found in spleen, liver and blood tissues. Upon induction with rock bream iridovirus, RbTLR21 expression was upregulated at the early phase of post induction period even though RbTLR21 expression level was fluctuated at the latter phase of post induction period. Post Edwardsiella tarda injection, RbTLR transcripts were upregulated throughout the experiment. Similarly, Streptococcus iniae induction exhibited significant upregulations of RbTLR21 mRNA expression in the spleen tissues. Collectively, our findings suggest that RbTLR21 is indeed a homolog of TLR21 family members and RbTLR21 may be involved in host immune responses against bacterial and DNA viral infections.

Keywords: rock bream, toll like receptor 21 (TLR21), pattern recognition receptor, genomic characterization

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10 Dietary Effect of Probiotic Bacteria, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JFP-2 Isolate from Jeju Island`s Traditional Fermented Food, on Innate Immune Response of Oplegnathus fasciatus Challenged with Vibrio anguillarum

Authors: Dong Hwi Kim, Dharaneedharan Subramanian, So Hyun Park, Ha-Ri Choi, Ji-Hyung Kim, Dong-Hoon Lee, Moon Soo Heo

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The present study was performed to evaluate the use of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JFP-2 isolated from a traditional fermented sea food, as probiotic bacteria in the diets for Rock-bream, Oplegnathus faciatus. A total of 180 fish (187.4 ± 2.7 g) were divided into two groups, control (C) and probiotic (P) group (90 fish per group) in triplicate. C group was fed with basal diet without probiotic, while P group was fed with B. amyloliquefaciens spores at concentration of 1.4 x 106 colony forming units per gram (CFU/g) of feed. After two months of feeding experiments, P group fish showed significant improvements in body weight (BW), weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and food conversion ratio (FCR) compared with C group. Also, bi-weekly assessment of serum protein, glucose, fatty acid profile showed a significant increase in probiotic fed fish than that of control fish group. Similar increase in serum antioxidant and lysozyme activity was found in probiotic fed fish group. Twenty days challenge experiment shows decrease mortality in probiotic fed fish group when compared with that of control group. Hence, these results indicate that the use of B. amyloliquefaciens JFP-2 as a feed supplement, is beneficial to improve the health status of Oplegnathus fasciatus challenged with Vibrio anguillarum.

Keywords: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Oplegnathus fasciatus, probiotic feed, rock bream

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9 Effects of IMUNO-2865® as Immune Supplement for the Aquaculture Industry

Authors: Ivan Zupan, Tomislav Saric, Suzana Tkalcic

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IMUNO-2865® is a commercially available, β–glucan based, natural hemicellulose compound with proven immunostimulative properties in people, domestic and some aquatic animals. During the experimental feeding trial with IMUNO-2865® in juvenile wild-caught chub under laboratory conditions, supplementation resulted in overall higher growth performance for all experimental groups regardless of the concentration of the added compound. The maximum, 5% concentration of the supplement, resulted in highest weight gain and calculated specific growth rate. In sea bream, as economically most important species in the Mediterranean aquaculture, significant increases in numbers of monocytes and heterophils were observed in the group supplemented with 2.5 % of IMUNO-2865® in the feed. An overall increase of erythrocytes was noted by the end of the experiment, although with variable distribution among groups. Blood Ca++ levels, total proteins, and total NH₃ were significantly higher after 60 days of feeding in all treatment groups compared to the control and remained elevated in the treated group following the secession of supplementation. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and serum paraoxonase PON1 (U/L) showed similar trends. All these parameters are playing a significant role in either oxygen supplementation of tissues, or anabolic and catabolic processes that on molecular levels contribute to the overall health and immune-building capacity of cells and tissues. The complete lack of mortality in sea bream and presented increases in cellular, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in the blood suggest that the IMUNO-2865® represents a safe dietary supplement for in aquaculture, with an overall positive and potentially immunostimulative effect on farmed fish.

Keywords: IMUNO-2865®, β–glucans, Mediterranean aquaculture, fish imunnostimulans

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8 Transcriptional Evidence for the Involvement of MyD88 in Flagellin Recognition: Genomic Identification of Rock Bream MyD88 and Comparative Analysis

Authors: N. Umasuthan, S. D. N. K. Bathige, W. S. Thulasitha, I. Whang, J. Lee

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The MyD88 is an evolutionarily conserved host-expressed adaptor protein that is essential for proper TLR/ IL1R immune-response signaling. A previously identified complete cDNA (1626 bp) of OfMyD88 comprised an ORF of 867 bp encoding a protein of 288 amino acids (32.9 kDa). The gDNA (3761 bp) of OfMyD88 revealed a quinquepartite genome organization composed of 5 exons (with the sizes of 310, 132, 178, 92 and 155 bp) separated by 4 introns. All the introns displayed splice signals consistent with the consensus GT/AG rule. A bipartite domain structure with two domains namely death domain (24-103) coded by 1st exon, and TIR domain (151-288) coded by last 3 exons were identified through in silico analysis. Moreover, homology modeling of these two domains revealed a similar quaternary folding nature between human and rock bream homologs. A comprehensive comparison of vertebrate MyD88 genes showed that they possess a 5-exonic structure. In this structure, the last three exons were strongly conserved, and this suggests that a rigid structure has been maintained during vertebrate evolution. A cluster of TATA box-like sequences were found 0.25 kb upstream of cDNA starting position. In addition, putative 5'-flanking region of OfMyD88 was predicted to have TFBS implicated with TLR signaling, including copies of NFB1, APRF/ STAT3, Sp1, IRF1 and 2 and Stat1/2. Using qPCR technique, a ubiquitous mRNA expression was detected in liver and blood. Furthermore, a significantly up-regulated transcriptional expression of OfMyD88 was detected in head kidney (12-24 h; >2-fold), spleen (6 h; 1.5-fold), liver (3 h; 1.9-fold) and intestine (24 h; ~2-fold) post-Fla challenge. These data suggest a crucial role for MyD88 in antibacterial immunity of teleosts.

Keywords: MyD88, innate immunity, flagellin, genomic analysis

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7 Variability of Product Quality and Profitability of Fish Farms in Greece

Authors: Sophia Anastasiou, Cosmas Nathanailides, Fotini Kakali, Panagiotis Logothetis, Gregorios Kanlis

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The method and rearing conditions of aquaculture may very between different regions and aquaculture sites. Globally, the Aquaculture industry faces a challenge to develop aquaculture methods which safeguard the economic viability of the company, the welfare of farmed fish and final product quality and sustainable development of aquaculture. Marine fish farms in Greece operate in different locations and farmed fish are exposed to a variety of rearing conditions. This paper investigates the variability of product quality and the financial performance of different marine fish farms operating in West Greece. Production parameters of gilthead sea bream fish farm such as feeding regimes, mortalities, fish densities were used to calculate the economic efficiency of six different aquaculture sites from West Greece. Samples of farmed sea bream were collected and lipid content, microbial load and filleting yield of the samples were used as quality criteria. The results indicate that Lipid content, filleting yield and microbial load of fish originating from different fish farms varied significantly with improved quality exhibited in fish farms which exhibited improved Feed conversion rates and lower mortalities. Changes in feeding management practices such as feed quality and feeding regimes have a significant impact on the financial performance of sea bass farms. Fish farms which exhibited improved feeding conversion rates also exhibited increased profitability. Improvements in the FCR explained about 13.4 % of the difference in profitability of the different aquaculture sites. Lower mortality and higher growth rates were also exhibited by the fish farms which exhibited improved FCR. It is concluded that best feeding management practices resulted in improved product quality and profitability.

Keywords: fish quality, aquaculture management, feeding management, profitability

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6 Sorting Fish by Hu Moments

Authors: J. M. Hernández-Ontiveros, E. E. García-Guerrero, E. Inzunza-González, O. R. López-Bonilla

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This paper presents the implementation of an algorithm that identifies and accounts different fish species: Catfish, Sea bream, Sawfish, Tilapia, and Totoaba. The main contribution of the method is the fusion of the characteristics of invariance to the position, rotation and scale of the Hu moments, with the proper counting of fish. The identification and counting is performed, from an image under different noise conditions. From the experimental results obtained, it is inferred the potentiality of the proposed algorithm to be applied in different scenarios of aquaculture production.

Keywords: counting fish, digital image processing, invariant moments, pattern recognition

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5 The Effects of Nanoemulsions Based on Commercial Oils: Sunflower, Canola, Corn, Olive, Soybean, and Hazelnut Oils for the Quality of Farmed Sea Bass at 2±2°C

Authors: Yesim Ozogul, Mustafa Durmuş, Fatih Ozogul, Esmeray Kuley Boğa, Yılmaz Uçar, Hatice Yazgan

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The effects of oil-in-water nanoemulsions on the sensory, chemical (total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), peroxide value (PV) and free fatty acids (FFA), and microbiological qualities (total viable count (TVC), total psychrophilic bacteria, and total Enterbactericaea bacteria) of sea bream fillets stored at 2 ± 2°C were investigated. Physical properties of emulsions (viscosity, the particle size of droplet, thermodynamic stability, refractive index and surface tension) were determined. The results showed that the use of nanoemulsion extended the shelf life of fish 2 days when compared with the control. Treatment with nanoemulsions significantly (p<0.05) decreased the values of biochemical parameters during storage period. Bacterial growth was inhibited by the use of nanoemulsions. Based on the results, it can be concluded that nanoemulsions based on commercial oils extended the shelf life and improved the quality of sea bass fillets during storage period.

Keywords: lipid oxidation, nanoemulsion, sea bass, quality parameters

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4 Fasted and Postprandial Response of Serum Physiological Response, Hepatic Antioxidant Abilities and Hsp70 Expression in M. amblycephala Fed Different Dietary Carbohydrate

Authors: Chuanpeng Zhou

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The effect of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) level on serum physiological response, hepatic antioxidant abilities and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression of Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) was studied. Two isonitrogenous (28.56% crude protein) and isolipidic (5.28% crude lipid) diets were formulated to contain 30% or 53% wheat starch. Diets were fed for 90 days to fish in triplicate tanks (28 fish per tank). At the end of feeding trial, significantly higher serum triglyceride level, insulin level, cortisol level, malondialdehyde (MDA) content were observed in fish fed the 53% CHO diet, while significantly lower serum total protein content, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) were found in fish fed the 53% CHO diet compared with those fed the 30% diet. The relative level of hepatic heat shock protein 70 mRNA was significantly higher in the 53% CHO group than that in the 30% CHO at 6, 12, and 48 h after feeding. The results of this study indicated that ingestion of 53% dietary CHO impacted the nonspecific immune ability and caused metabolic stress of Megalobrama amblycephala.

Keywords: Megalobrama amblycephala, carbohydrate, fasted and postprandial response, immunity, Hsp70

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3 Seasonal Variability of the Price and Quality of Fresh Red Porgy Fish Sold in the Local Market of Igoumenitsa, NW Greece

Authors: C. Nathanailides, P. Logothetis, G. Kanlis S. Anastasiou, L. Kokokiris, P. Mpeza

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Farmed Red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) is one of the “new candidate fish species” for the diversification of Mediterranean aquaculture which is predomintly based on the cultivation of the European sea bass, (Dicenfrarchus labrax), and the gilthead sea bream, (Sparus aurata). The quality of farmed red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) was investigated with samples obtained from the local fish market in the region of Igoumenitsa, NW Greece. Sample of the fish (ungutted and with scales) were purchased from three local fish mongers and transported to the laboratory within few minutes in foamed polystyrene boxes in ice. The average weight of whole fish ranged between 271-289g. A sample of the fish flesh taken from the upper epaxial region was transferred aseptically to a stomacher bag containing sterile Buffered Peptone Water solution (0.1%) and homogenized. After serial dilutions in 0.1% peptone water, the homogenates were spread on the surface of agar plates. Total viable counts (TVC) were determined using plate count agar after incubation at 30 oC for 3 days. The quality attributes monitored during the present work included bacterial load (total mesophilic) and the pH of the flesh. There was a marginal increase in the price of fresh red porgy sold during the summer time, with prices ranging, over a period of four seasons, from 5.85 to 7.5 per kilo. The results of the microbiological analysis indicate that with the exception of summer samples (which exhibited 5.23 (±0.13) log cfu/g), the bacterial load remained well below the legal limits and was around 3.1 log cfu/g. The pH values varied between 6.54 and 6.69. The results indicate a possible influence of season on the bacterial load of fish sold in the market. Nevertheless, the parameters investigated in the present work indicate that the bacteria load was well below the legal limit and that fish were sold within few days after harvesting. The peak of bacterial load in the summer samples may be a result of a post-harvesting contamination of the farmed fish and temperature fluctuations during handling and transportation.

Keywords: fish quality, marketing, aquaculture, Pagrus pagrus

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2 Searching SNPs Variants in Myod-1 and Myod-2 Genes Linked to Body Weight in Gilthead Seabream, Sparus aurata L.

Authors: G. Blanco-Lizana, C. García-Fernández, J. A. Sánchez

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Growth is a productive trait regulated by a large and complex gene network with very different effect. Some of they (candidate genes) have a higher effect and are excellent resources to search in them polymorphisms correlated with differences in growth rates. This study was focused on the identification of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in MyoD-1 and MyoD-2 genes, members of the family of myogenic regulatory genes with a key role in the differentiation and development of muscular tissue.(MFRs), and its evaluation as potential markers in genetic selection programs for growth in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Through a sequencing in 30 seabream (classified as unrelated by microsatellite markers) of 1.968bp in MyoD-1 gene [AF478568 .1] and 1.963bp in MyoD-2 gene [AF478569.1], three SNPs were identified in each gene (SaMyoD-1 D2100A (D indicate a deletion) SaMyoD-1 A2143G and SaMyoD-1 A2404G and SaMyoD-2_A785C, SaMyoD-2_C1982T and SaMyoD-2_A2031T). The relationships between SNPs and body weight were evaluated by SNP genotyping of 53 breeders from two broodstocks (A:18♀-9♂; B:16♀-10♂) and 389 offspring divided into two groups (slow- and fast-growth) with significant differences in growth at 18 months of development (A18Slow: N=107, A18Fast: N=103, B18Slow: N=92 and B18Fast: N=87) (Borrell et al., 2011). Haplotype and diplotype were reconstructed from genotype data by Phase 2.1 software. Differences among means of different diplotypes were calculated by one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey test. Association analysis indicated that single SNP did not show significant effect on body weight. However, when the analysis is carried out considering haplotype data it was observed that the DGG haplotipe of MyoD-1 gen and CCA haplotipe of MyoD- 2gen were associated to with lower body weight. This haplotype combination always showed the lowest mean body weight (P<0.05) in three (A18Slow, A18Fast & B18Slow) of the four groups tested. Individuals with DGG haplotipe of MyoD-1 gen have a 25,5% and those with CCA haplotipe of MyoD- 2gen showed 14-18% less on mean body weight. Although further studies are need to validate the role of these 3 SNPs as marker for body weight, the polymorphism-trait association established in this work create promising expectations on the use of these variants as genetic tool for future giltead seabream breeding programs.

Keywords: growth, MyoD-1 and MyoD-2 genes, selective breeding, SNP-haplotype

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1 Green Building Risks: Limits on Environmental and Health Quality Metrics for Contractors

Authors: Erica Cochran Hameen, Bobuchi Ken-Opurum, Mounica Guturu

Abstract:

The United Stated (U.S.) populous spends the majority of their time indoors in spaces where building codes and voluntary sustainability standards provide clear Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) metrics. The existing sustainable building standards and codes are aimed towards improving IEQ, health of occupants, and reducing the negative impacts of buildings on the environment. While they address the post-occupancy stage of buildings, there are fewer standards on the pre-occupancy stage thereby placing a large labor population in environments much less regulated. Construction personnel are often exposed to a variety of uncomfortable and unhealthy elements while on construction sites, primarily thermal, visual, acoustic, and air quality related. Construction site power generators, equipment, and machinery generate on average 9 decibels (dBA) above the U.S. OSHA regulations, creating uncomfortable noise levels. Research has shown that frequent exposure to high noise levels leads to chronic physiological issues and increases noise induced stress, yet beyond OSHA no other metric focuses directly on the impacts of noise on contractors’ well-being. Research has also associated natural light with higher productivity and attention span, and lower cases of fatigue in construction workers. However, daylight is not always available as construction workers often perform tasks in cramped spaces, dark areas, or at nighttime. In these instances, the use of artificial light is necessary, yet lighting standards for use during lengthy tasks and arduous activities is not specified. Additionally, ambient air, contaminants, and material off-gassing expelled at construction sites are one of the causes of serious health effects in construction workers. Coupled with extreme hot and cold temperatures for different climate zones, health and productivity can be seriously compromised. This research evaluates the impact of existing green building metrics on construction and risk management, by analyzing two codes and nine standards including LEED, WELL, and BREAM. These metrics were chosen based on the relevance to the U.S. construction industry. This research determined that less than 20% of the sustainability context within the standards and codes (texts) are related to the pre-occupancy building sector. The research also investigated the impact of construction personnel’s health and well-being on construction management through two surveys of project managers and on-site contractors’ perception of their work environment on productivity. To fully understand the risks of limited Environmental and Health Quality metrics for contractors (EHQ) this research evaluated the connection between EHQ factors such as inefficient lighting, on construction workers and investigated the correlation between various site coping strategies for comfort and productivity. Outcomes from this research are three-pronged. The first includes fostering a discussion about the existing conditions of EQH elements, i.e. thermal, lighting, ergonomic, acoustic, and air quality on the construction labor force. The second identifies gaps in sustainability standards and codes during the pre-occupancy stage of building construction from ground-breaking to substantial completion. The third identifies opportunities for improvements and mitigation strategies to improve EQH such as increased monitoring of effects on productivity and health of contractors and increased inclusion of the pre-occupancy stage in green building standards.

Keywords: construction contractors, health and well-being, environmental quality, risk management

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