Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Dražen Oraić

6 Comparison of Fatty Acids Composition of Three Commercial Fish Species Farmed in the Adriatic Sea

Authors: Jelka Pleadin, Greta Krešić, Tina Lešić, Ana Vulić, Renata Barić, Tanja Bogdanović, Dražen Oraić, Ana Legac, Snježana Zrnčić


Fish has been acknowledged as an integral component of a well-balanced diet, providing a healthy source of energy, high-quality proteins, vitamins, essential minerals and, especially, n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFA), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3 EPA), and docosahexaenoicacid, (22:6 n-3 DHA), whose pleiotropic effects in terms of health promotion and disease prevention have been increasingly recognised. In this study, the fatty acids composition of three commercially important farmed fish species: sea bream (Sparus aurata), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and dentex (Dentex dentex) was investigated. In total, 60 fish samples were retrieved during 2015 (n = 30) and 2016 (n = 30) from different locations in the Adriatic Sea. Methyl esters of fatty acids were analysed using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID). The results show that the most represented fatty acid in all three analysed species is oleic acid (C18:1n-9, OA), followed by linoleic acid (C18:2n-6, LA) and palmitic acid (C16:0, PA). Dentex was shown to have two to four times higher eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid content as compared to sea bream and sea bass. The recommended n-6/n-3 ratio was determined in all fish species but obtained results pointed to statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in fatty acid composition among the analysed fish species and their potential as a dietary source of valuable fatty acids. Sea bass and sea bream had a significantly higher proportion of n-6 fatty acids, while dentex had a significantly higher proportion of n-3 (C18:4n-3, C20:4n-3, EPA, DHA) fatty acids. A higher hypocholesterolaemic and hypercholesterolaemic fatty acids (HH) ratio was determined for sea bass and sea bream, which comes as the consequence of a lower share of SFA determined in these two species in comparison to dentex. Since the analysed fish species vary in their fatty acids composition consumption of diverse fish species would be advisable. Based on the established lipid quality indicators, dentex, a fish species underutilised by the aquaculture, seems to be a highly recommendable and important source of fatty acids recommended to be included into the human diet.

Keywords: dentex, fatty acids, farmed fish, sea bass, sea bream

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5 Corporate Governance and Initial Public Offerings: Case of Croatia

Authors: Domagoj Hruska, Drazen Milkovic, Maja Darabos


This paper empirically investigates the performance of Croatian initial public offerings (IPOs) throughout 20 years period, from 1996 until 2016. By proving the comprehensive evaluation of reasons and consequences of IPO initiatives in Croatia we give analytic evidence on the influence of this corporate action on the development of corporate governance. Furthermore, the paper discusses the relationship between internal and external corporate governance mechanisms in companies that initialize entering the financial markets. The paper will provide a synthesis of evidence of IPO-s in Croatia based on in-depth case studies of 13 cases of IPO-s. The major findings of the paper include identification of reasons for conducting IPO-s and calculation of underpricing effect and change of market capitalization. To the best of the author's knowledge, the results of the paper provide the analytical framework for understanding the impact of IPOs on the corporate governance system in transition countries.

Keywords: corporate governance, Croatia, initial public offering, transition economy

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4 Operating Speed Models on Tangent Sections of Two-Lane Rural Roads

Authors: Dražen Cvitanić, Biljana Maljković


This paper presents models for predicting operating speeds on tangent sections of two-lane rural roads developed on continuous speed data. The data corresponds to 20 drivers of different ages and driving experiences, driving their own cars along an 18 km long section of a state road. The data were first used for determination of maximum operating speeds on tangents and their comparison with speeds in the middle of tangents i.e. speed data used in most of operating speed studies. Analysis of continuous speed data indicated that the spot speed data are not reliable indicators of relevant speeds. After that, operating speed models for tangent sections were developed. There was no significant difference between models developed using speed data in the middle of tangent sections and models developed using maximum operating speeds on tangent sections. All developed models have higher coefficient of determination then models developed on spot speed data. Thus, it can be concluded that the method of measuring has more significant impact on the quality of operating speed model than the location of measurement.

Keywords: operating speed, continuous speed data, tangent sections, spot speed, consistency

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3 A View from inside: Case Study of Social Economy Actors in Croatia

Authors: Drazen Simlesa, Jelena Pudjak, Anita Tonkovic Busljeta


Regarding social economy (SE), Croatia is, on general level, considered as ex-communist country with good tradition, bad performance in second part of 20th Century because of political control in the business sector, which has in transition period (1990-1999) became a problem of ignorance in public administration (policy level). Today, social economy in Croatia is trying to catch up with other EU states on all important levels of SE sector: legislative and institutional framework, financial infrastructure, education and capacity building, and visibility. All four are integral parts of Strategy for the Development of Social Entrepreneurship in the Republic of Croatia for the period of 2015 – 2020. Within iPRESENT project, funded by Croatian Science Foundation, we have mapped social economy actors and after many years there is a clear and up to date social economy base. At the ICSE 2016 we will present main outcomes and results of this process. In the second year of the project we conducted a field research across Croatia carried out 19 focus groups with most influential, innovative and inspirational social economy actors. We divided interview questions in four themes: laws on social economy and public policies, definition/ideology of social economy and cooperation on SE scene, the level of democracy and working conditions, motivation and existence of intrinsic values. The data that are gathered through focus group interviews has been analysed via qualitative data analysis software (Atlas ti.). Major finding that will be presented in ICSA 2016 are: Social economy actors are mostly unsatisfied with legislative and institutional framework in Croatia and consider it as unsupportive and confusing. Social economy actors consider SE to be in the line with WISE model and as a tool for community development. The SE actors that are more active express satisfaction with cooperation amongst SE actors and other partners and stakeholders, but the ones that are in more isolated conditions (spatially) express need for more cooperation and networking. Social economy actors expressed their praise for democratic atmosphere in their organisations and fair working conditions. And finally, they expressed high motivation to continue to work in the social economy and are dedicated to the concept, including even those that were at the beginning interested just in getting a quick job. It means that we can detect intrinsic values for employees in social economy organisations. This research enabled us to describe for the first time in Croatia the view from the inside, attitudes and opinion of employees of social economy organisations.

Keywords: employees, focus groups, mapping, social economy

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2 Factors of Self-Sustainability in Social Entrepreneurship: Case Studies of ACT Group Čakovec and Friskis and Svettis Stockholm

Authors: Filip Majetić, Dražen Šimleša, Jelena Puđak, Anita Bušljeta Tonković, Svitlana Pinchuk


This paper focuses on the self-sustainability aspect of social entrepreneurship (SE). We define SE as a form of entrepreneurship that is social/ecological mission oriented. It means SE organizations start and run businesses and use them to accomplish their social/ecological missions i.e. to solve social/ecological problems or fulfill social/ecological needs. Self-sustainability is defined as the capability of an SE organization to operate by relying on the money earned through trading its products in the free market. For various reasons, the achievement of self-sustainability represents a fundamental (business) challenge for many SE organizations. Those that are not able to operate using the money made through commercial activities, in order to remain active, rely on alternative, non-commercial streams of income such as grants, donations, and public subsidies. Starting from this widespread (business) challenge, we are interested in exploring elements that (could) influence the self-sustainability in SE organizations. Therefore, the research goal is to empirically investigate some of the self-sustainability factors of two notable SE organizations from different socio-economic contexts. A qualitative research, using the multiple case study approach, was conducted. ACT Group Čakovec (ACT) from Croatia was selected for the first case because it represents one of the leading and most self-sustainable SE organization in the region (in 2015 55% of the organization’s budget came from commercial activities); Friskis&Svettis Stockholm (F&S) from Sweden was selected for the second case because it is a rare example of completely self-sustainable SE organization in Europe (100% of the organization’s budget comes from commercial activities). The data collection primarily consists of conducting in-depth interviews. Additionally, the content of some of the organizations' official materials are analyzed (e.g. business reports, marketing materials). The interviewees are selected purposively and include: six highly ranked F&S members who represent five different levels in the hierarchy of their organization; five highly ranked ACT members who represent three different levels in the hierarchy of the organization. All of the interviews contain five themes: a) social values of the organization, b) organization of work, c) non-commercial income sources, d) marketing/collaborations, and e) familiarity with the industry characteristics and trends. The gathered data is thematically analyzed through the coding process for which Atlas.ti software for qualitative data analysis is used. For the purpose of creating thematic categories (codes), the open coding is used. The research results intend to provide new theoretical insights on factors of SE self-sustainability and, preferably, encourage practical improvements in the field.

Keywords: Friskis&Svettis, self-sustainability factors, social entrepreneurship, Stockholm

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1 Use of Sewage Sludge Ash as Partial Cement Replacement in the Production of Mortars

Authors: Domagoj Nakic, Drazen Vouk, Nina Stirmer, Mario Siljeg, Ana Baricevic


Wastewater treatment processes generate significant quantities of sewage sludge that need to be adequately treated and disposed. In many EU countries, the problem of adequate disposal of sewage sludge has not been solved, nor is determined by the unique rules, instructions or guidelines. Disposal of sewage sludge is important not only in terms of satisfying the regulations, but the aspect of choosing the optimal wastewater and sludge treatment technology. Among the solutions that seem reasonable, recycling of sewage sludge and its byproducts reaches the top recommendation. Within the framework of sustainable development, recycling of sludge almost completely closes the cycle of wastewater treatment in which only negligible amounts of waste that requires landfilling are being generated. In many EU countries, significant amounts of sewage sludge are incinerated, resulting in a new byproduct in the form of ash. Sewage sludge ash is three to five times less in volume compared to stabilized and dehydrated sludge, but it also requires further management. The combustion process also destroys hazardous organic components in the sludge and minimizes unpleasant odors. The basic objective of the presented research is to explore the possibilities of recycling of the sewage sludge ash as a supplementary cementitious material. This is because of the main oxides present in the sewage sludge ash (SiO2, Al2O3 and Cao, which is similar to cement), so it can be considered as latent hydraulic and pozzolanic material. Physical and chemical characteristics of ashes, generated by sludge collected from different wastewater treatment plants, and incinerated in laboratory conditions at different temperatures, are investigated since it is a prerequisite of its subsequent recycling and the eventual use in other industries. Research was carried out by replacing up to 20% of cement by mass in cement mortar mixes with different obtained ashes and examining characteristics of created mixes in fresh and hardened condition. The mixtures with the highest ash content (20%) showed an average drop in workability of about 15% which is attributed to the increased water requirements when ash was used. Although some mixes containing added ash showed compressive and flexural strengths equivalent to those of reference mixes, generally slight decrease in strength was observed. However, it is important to point out that the compressive strengths always remained above 85% compared to the reference mix, while flexural strengths remained above 75%. Ecological impact of innovative construction products containing sewage sludge ash was determined by analyzing leaching concentrations of heavy metals. Results demonstrate that sewage sludge ash can satisfy technical and environmental criteria for use in cementitious materials which represents a new recycling application for an increasingly important waste material that is normally landfilled. Particular emphasis is placed on linking the composition of generated ashes depending on its origin and applied treatment processes (stage of wastewater treatment, sludge treatment technology, incineration temperature) with the characteristics of the final products. Acknowledgement: This work has been fully supported by Croatian Science Foundation under the project '7927 - Reuse of sewage sludge in concrete industry – from infrastructure to innovative construction products'.

Keywords: cement mortar, recycling, sewage sludge ash, sludge disposal

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