Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2709

Search results for: acetic acid

2709 The Catalytic Properties of PtSn/Al2O3 for Acetic Acid Hydrogenation

Authors: Mingchuan Zhou, Haitao Zhang, Hongfang Ma, Weiyong Ying


Alumina supported platinum and tin catalysts with different loadings of Pt and Sn were prepared and characterized by low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption, H2-temperature programed reduction and CO pulse chemisorption. Pt and Sn below 1% loading were suitable for acetic acid hydrogenation. The best performance over 0.75Pt1Sn/Al2O3 can reach 87.55% conversion of acetic acid and 47.39% selectivity of ethanol. The operating conditions of acetic acid hydrogenation over 1Pt1Sn/Al2O3 were investigated. High reaction temperature can enhance the conversion of acetic acid, but it decreased total selectivity of ethanol and acetyl acetate. High pressure and low weight hourly space velocity were beneficial to both conversion of acetic acid and selectivity to ethanol.

Keywords: acetic acid, hydrogenation, operating condition, PtSn

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
2708 Quality Rabbit Skin Gelatin with Acetic Acid Extract

Authors: Wehandaka Pancapalaga


This study aimed to analyze the water content, yield, fat content, protein content, viscosity, gel strength, pH, melting and organoleptic rabbit skin gelatin with acetic acid extraction levels are different. The materials used in this study were Rex rabbit skin male. Treatments that P1 = the extraction of acetic acid 2% (v / v); P2 = the extraction of acetic acid 3% (v / v); P3 = the extraction of acetic acid 4 % (v / v). P5 = the extraction of acetic acid 5% (v / v). The results showed that the greater the concentration of acetic acid as the extraction of rabbit skin can reduce the water content and fat content of rabbit skin gelatin but increase the protein content, viscosity, pH, gel strength, yield and melting point rabbit skin gelatin. texture, color and smell of gelatin rabbits there were no differences with cow skin gelatin. The results showed that the quality of rabbit skin gelatin accordance Indonesian National Standard (SNI). Conclusion 5% acetic acid extraction produces the best quality gelatin.

Keywords: gelatin, skin rabbit, acetic acid extraction, quality

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2707 Effect of Acetic Acid Fermentation on Bioactive Components and Anti-Xanthine Oxidase Activities in Vinegar Brewed from Monascus-Fermented Soybeans

Authors: Kyung-Soon Choi, Ji-Young Hwang, Young-Hee Pyo


Vinegars have been used as an alternative remedy for treating gout, but the scientific basis remains to be elucidated. In this study, acetic acid fermentation was applied for the first time to Monascus-fermented soybeans to examine its effect on the bioactive components together with the xanthine oxidase inhibitory (XOI) activity of the soy vinegar. The content of total phenols (0.47~0.97 mg gallic acid equivalents/mL) and flavonoids (0.18~0.39 mg quercetin equivallents/mL) were spectrophotometrically determined, and the content of organic acid (10.22~59.76 mg/mL) and isoflavones (6.79~7.46 mg/mL) were determined using HPLC-UV. The analytical method for ubiquinones (0.079~0.276 μg/mL) employed saponification before solvent extraction and quantification using LC-MS. Soy vinegar also showed significant XOI (95.3%) after 20 days of acetic acid fermentation at 30 °C. The results suggest that soy vinegar has potential as a novel medicinal food.

Keywords: acetic acid fermentation, bioactive component, soy vinegar, xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
2706 Effect of Sodium Chloride in the Recovery of Acetic Acid from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Aidaoui Ahleme, Hasseine Abdelmalek


Acetic acid is one of the simplest and most widely used carboxylic acids having many important chemical and industrial applications. Total worldwide production of acetic acid is about 6.5 million tonnes per year. A great deal of efforts has been made in developing feasible and economic method for recovery of carboxylic acids. Among them, Liquid-liquid extraction using aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) has been demonstrated to be a highly efficient separation technique. The study of efficiently separating and recovering Acetic acid from aqueous solutions is an important significance on industry and environmentally sustainable development. Many research groups in different countries are working in this field and some methods are proposed in the literature. In this work, effect of sodium chloride with different content (5%, 10% and 20%) on the liquid-liquid equilibrium data of (water+ acetic acid+ DCM) system is investigated. The addition of the salt in an aqueous solution introduces ionic forces which affect liquid-liquid equilibrium and which influence directly the distribution coefficient of the solute. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that when the percentage of salt increases in the aqueous solution, the equilibrium between phases is modified in favor of the extracted phase.

Keywords: acetic acid recovery, aqueous solution, salting-effect, sodium chloride

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
2705 The Performance of PtSn/Al₂O₃ with Cylindrical Particles for Acetic Acid Hydrogenation

Authors: Mingchuan Zhou, Haitao Zhang, Hongfang Ma, Weiyong Ying


Alumina supported PtSn catalysts with cylindrical particles were prepared and characterized by using low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption and X-ray diffraction. Low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption demonstrate that the tableting changed the texture properties of catalysts. XRD pattern indicate that the crystal structure of supports had no change after reaction. The performances over particles of PtSn/Al2O3 catalysts were investigated with regards to reaction temperature, pressure, and H2/AcOH mole ratio. After tableting, the conversion of acetic acid and selectivity of ethanol and acetyl acetate decreased. High reaction temperature and pressure can improve conversion of acetic acid. H2/AcOH mole ratio of 9.36 showed the best performance on acetic acid hydrogenation. High pressure had benefits for the selectivity of ethanol and other two parameters had no obvious effect on selectivity.  

Keywords: acetic acid hydrogenation, cylindrical particles, ethanol, PtSn

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
2704 The Ability of Organic Acids Production by Lactic Acid Bacteria in M17 Broth and Squid, Shrimp, Octopus, Eel Infusion Broth

Authors: Fatih Özogul, Sezen Özçeli̇k, Yesim Özogul


Lactic, acetic, succinic, propionic, formic and butyric acid production by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were monitored in M17 broth (the control) and some fish (squid, shrimp, octopus, and eel) infusion broth by using HPLC method. There were significant differences in terms of lactic, acetic, succinic, propionic, formic and butyric acid production (p < 0.005) among bacterial strains. Acetic acid production was the lowest by LAB while succinic acid followed by propionic acid was synthesized at the highest levels. Lactic acid production ranged from 0 to 938 mg/L by all LAB strains in different infusion broth. The highest acetic acid production was found by Lb. acidophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactic in octopus and shrimp infusion broth, with values of 872 and 674 mg/L, respectively while formic acid formation ranged from 1747 mg/L by Lb. acidophilus in octopus infusion broth to 69 mg/L by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis in shrimp infusion broth. Propionic acid and butyric acid productions by St. thermophilus were 9852 and 3999 mg/L in shrimp infusion broth while Leu. mes. subsp. cremoris synthesized 312 and 9 mg/L of those organic acid in European squid infusion broth, respectively. Apparently, LAB strains had a great capability to generate succinic acid followed by propionic and butyric acid. In addition, other organic acid production differed significantly depending on bacterial strains and growth medium.

Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria , organic acid, HPLC analysis, growth medium

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2703 Effect of Alcoholic and Acetous Fermentations on Phenolic Acids of Kei-Apple (Dovyalis Caffra L.) Fruit

Authors: Neil Jolly, Louisa Beukes, Santiago Benito-SaEz


Kei-apple is a tree found on the African continent. Limited information exists on the effect of alcoholic and acetous fermentation on the phytochemicals. The fruit has increased L-malic, ascorbic, and phenolic acids. Juice was co-inoculated with Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to induce alcoholic fermentation and acetous fermentation using acetic acid bacteria. Saccharomyces cerevisiae+S. pombe wines and vinegars had highest pH. Total acidity, soluble solids and L-malic acid decreased during alcoholic and acetous fermentation with highest in S. cerevisiae wines and vinegars. Volatile acidity was highest in S. pombe vinegars but not different from S. cerevisiae and S. cerevisiae+S. pombe. Gallic acid was highest in S. pombe wines and vinegars. Syringic acid was highest in S. cerevisiae wines and vinegars. S. cerevisiae+S. pombe wines were highest in caffeic, p-coumaric and protocatechuic acids. Schizosaccharomyces pombe vinegars were highest in caffeic and p-coumaric acids. Ferulic and sinapic acids were highest in S. pombe and S. cerevisiae wines, respectively. Chlorogenic acid was most abundant in both wines and vinegars. Saccharomyces cerevisiae+S. pombe and S. cerevisiae had a positive effect on most phenolic acids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae +acetic acid bacteria had an increased effect on syringic and chlorogenic acids. Schizosaccharomyces pombe+acetic acid bacteria resulted in an increase in gallic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids. Acetic acid bacteria had minimal performance with respect to volatile acidity production in comparison to commercial vinegars. Acetic acid bacteria selection should therefore be reconsidered and the decrease of certain phenolic acids during acetous fermentation needs to be investigated.

Keywords: acetic acid bacteria, liquid chromatography, phenolics, saccharomyces cerevisiae, schizosaccharomyces pombe

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2702 Biohydrogen and Potential Vinegar Production from Agricultural Wastes Using Thermotoga neopolitana

Authors: Nidhi Nalin


This study is theoretical modelling of the fermentation process of glucose in agricultural wastes like discarded peaches to produce hydrogen, acetic acid, and carbon dioxide using Thermotoga neopolitana bacteria. The hydrogen gas produced in this process can be used in hydrogen fuel cells to generate power, and the fermented broth with acetic acid and salts could be utilized as salty vinegar if enough acetic acid is produced. The theoretical modelling was done using SuperPro software, and the results indicated how much sugar (discarded peaches) is required to produce both hydrogen and vinegar for the process to be profitable.

Keywords: fermentation, thermotoga, hydrogen, vinegar, biofuel

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2701 Steam Reforming of Acetic Acid over Microwave-Synthesized Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 Supported Ni Catalysts

Authors: Panumard Kaewmora, Thirasak Rirksomboon, Vissanu Meeyoo


Due to the globally growing demands of petroleum fuel and fossil fuels, the scarcity or even depletion of fossil fuel sources could be inevitable. Alternatively, the utilization of renewable sources, such as biomass, has become attractive to the community. Biomass can be converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. In water phase of bio-oil, acetic acid which is one of its main components can be converted to hydrogen with high selectivity over effective catalysts in steam reforming process. Steam reforming of acetic acid as model compound has been intensively investigated for hydrogen production using various metal oxide supported nickel catalysts and yet they seem to be rapidly deactivated depending on the support utilized. A catalyst support such as Ce1-xZrxO2 mixed oxide was proposed for alleviating this problem with the anticipation of enhancing hydrogen yield. However, catalyst preparation methods play a significant role in catalytic activity and performance of the catalysts. In this work, Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 mixed oxide solid solution support was prepared by urea hydrolysis using microwave as heat source. After that nickel metal was incorporated at 15 wt% by incipient wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by several techniques including BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XRF, SEM, and TEM as well as tested for the steam reforming of acetic acid at various operating conditions. Preliminary results showed that a hydrogen yield of ca. 32% with a relatively high acetic conversion was attained at 650°C.

Keywords: acetic acid, steam reforming, microwave, nickel, ceria, zirconia

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2700 Optimization of Diluted Organic Acid Pretreatment on Rice Straw Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Rotchanaphan Hengaroonprasan, Malinee Sriariyanun, Prapakorn Tantayotai, Supacharee Roddecha, Kraipat Cheenkachorn


Lignocellolusic material is a substance that is resistant to be degraded by microorganisms or hydrolysis enzymes. To be used as materials for biofuel production, it needs pretreatment process to improve efficiency of hydrolysis. In this work, chemical pretreatments on rice straw using three diluted organic acids, including acetic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, were optimized. Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the effect of three pretreatment parameters, acid concentration, treatment time, and reaction temperature, on pretreatment efficiency were statistically evaluated. The results indicated that dilute oxalic acid pretreatment led to the highest enhancement of enzymatic saccharification by commercial cellulase and yielded sugar up to 10.67 mg/ml when using 5.04% oxalic acid at 137.11 oC for 30.01 min. Compared to other acid pretreatment by acetic acid, citric acid, and hydrochloric acid, the maximum sugar yields are 7.07, 6.30, and 8.53 mg/ml, respectively. Here, it was demonstrated that organic acids can be used for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials to enhance of hydrolysis process, which could be integrated to other applications for various biorefinery processes.

Keywords: lignocellolusic biomass, pretreatment, organic acid response surface methodology, biorefinery

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2699 Salting Effect in Partially Miscible Systems of Water/Acétic Acid/1-Butanol at 298.15k: Experimental Study and Estimation of New Solvent-Solvent and Salt-Solvent Binary Interaction Parameters for NRTL Model

Authors: N. Bourayou, A. -H. Meniai, A. Gouaoura


The presence of salt can either raise or lower the distribution coefficient of a solute acetic acid in liquid- liquid equilibria. The coefficient of solute is defined as the ratio of the composition of solute in solvent rich phase to the composition of solute in diluents (water) rich phase. The phenomena are known as salting–out or salting-in, respectively. The effect of monovalent salt, sodium chloride and the bivalent salt, sodium sulfate on the distribution of acetic acid between 1-butanol and water at 298.15K were experimentally shown to be effective in modifying the liquid-liquid equilibrium of water/acetic acid/1-butanol system in favour of the solvent extraction of acetic acid from an aqueous solution with 1-butanol, particularly at high salt concentrations of both salts. All the two salts studied are found to have to salt out effect for acetic acid in varying degrees. The experimentally measured data were well correlated by Eisen-Joffe equation. NRTL model for solvent mixtures containing salts was able to provide good correlation of the present liquid-liquid equilibrium data. Using the regressed salt concentration coefficients for the salt-solvent interaction parameters and the solvent-solvent interaction parameters obtained from the same system without salt. The calculated phase equilibrium was in a quite good agreement with the experimental data, showing the ability of NRTL model to correlate salt effect on the liquid-liquid equilibrium.

Keywords: activity coefficient, Eisen-Joffe, NRTL model, sodium chloride

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2698 Experimental Assessment of Artificial Flavors Production

Authors: M. Unis, S. Turky, A. Elalem, A. Meshrghi


The Esterification kinetics of acetic acid with isopropnol in the presence of sulfuric acid as a homogenous catalyst was studied with isothermal batch experiments at 60,70 and 80°C and at a different molar ratio of isopropnol to acetic acid. Investigation of kinetics of the reaction indicated that the low of molar ratio is favored for esterification reaction, this is due to the reaction is catalyzed by acid. The maximum conversion, approximately 60.6% was obtained at 80°C for molar ratio of 1:3 acid : alcohol. It was found that increasing temperature of the reaction, increases the rate constant and conversion at a certain mole ratio, that is due to the esterification is exothermic. The homogenous reaction has been described with simple power-law model. The chemical equilibrium combustion calculated from the kinetic model in agreement with the measured chemical equilibrium.

Keywords: artificial flavors, esterification, chemical equilibria, isothermal

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2697 Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeasts and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Alcoholic and Acetous Fermentations: Effect on Phenolic Acids of Kei-Apple (Dovyalis caffra L.) Vinegar

Authors: Phillip Minnaar, Neil Jolly, Louisa Beukes, Santiago Benito-Saez


Dovyalis caffra is a tree found on the African continent. Limited information exists on the effect of acetous fermentation on the phytochemicals of Kei-apple fruit. The phytochemical content of vinegars is derived from compounds present in the fruit the vinegar is made of. Kei-apple fruit juice was co-inoculated with Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to induce alcoholic fermentation (AF). Acetous fermentation followed AF, using an acetic acid bacteria consortium as an inoculant. Juice had the lowest pH and highest total acidity (TA). The wine had the highest pH and vinegars lowest TA. Total soluble solids and L-malic acid decreased during AF and acetous fermentation. Volatile acidity concentration was not different among vinegars. Gallic, syringic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and chlorogenic acids increased during acetous fermentation, whereas ferulic, sinapic, and protocatechuic acids decreased. Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid in both wines and vinegars. It is evident from this investigation that Kei-apple vinegar is a source of plant-derived phenolics, which evolved through fermentation. However, the AAB selection showed minimal performance with respect to VA production. Acetic acid bacteria selection for acetous fermentation should be reconsidered, and the reasons for the decrease of certain phenolic acids during acetous fermentation needs to be investigated.

Keywords: acetic acid bacteria, acetous fermentation, liquid chromatography, phenolic acids

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2696 Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of Natural Bioactive 3,4-DihydroisocoumarinAnalogues

Authors: Hummera Rafique, Aamer Saeed


Synthesis of structural analogues of various well known bioactive natural 3,4-dihydroisocoumarins viz. Scorzocreticin, Annulatomarin, Montroumarin, and Thunberginol B, have been carried out starting from 3,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl acetic acid. 3,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl acetic acid was then condensed with various aryl acid chlorides (a-e) to afford the corresponding 6,8-dimethoxy-7-methyl-3-aryl isocoumarins (5a-e). The alkaline hydrolysis of isocoumarins yields keto-acids (3a-e), which were then reduced to hydroxyacids, followed by cyclodehydration with acetic anhydride furnish corresponding 3,4-dihydroisocoumarins (7a-e). Finally, demethylation of 3,4-dihydroisocoumarins was carried out to afford 6,8-dihydroxy-7-methyl-3-aryl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarins (7a-e). Antibacterial evaluation of all the synthesized compounds were carried out against ten bacterial strains, it was concluded that isocoumarins (5a-e) and 3,4-dihydroisocoumarins (7a-e) are more active against gram positive bacteria then gram negative. However, the 6,8-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin derivatives (8a-e) are more active against gram negative then gram positive.

Keywords: 3, 5-Dimethoxy-4-methylhomophthalic acid, natural 3, 4-Dihydroisocoumarin analogues, antibacterial activity, isocoumarins, demethylation

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
2695 Characterization of Penicillin V Acid and Its Related Compounds by HPLC

Authors: Bahdja Guerfi, N. Hadhoum, I. Azouz, M. Bendoumia, S. Bouafia, F. Z. Hadjadj Aoul


Background: 'Penicillin V' is a narrow, bactericidal antibiotic of the beta-lactam family of the naturally occurring penicillin group. It is limited to infections due to the germs defined as sensitive. The objective of this work was to identify and to characterize Penicillin V acid and its related compounds by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: Firstly phenoxymethylpenicillin was identified by an infrared absorption. The organoleptic characteristics, pH, and determination of water content were also studied. The dosage of Penicillin V acid active substance and the determination of its related compounds were carried on waters HPLC, equipped with a UV detector at 254 nm and Discovery HS C18 column (250 mm X 4.6 mm X 5 µm) which is maintained at room temperature. The flow rate was about 1 ml per min. A mixture of water, acetonitrile and acetic acid (65:35:01) was used as mobile phase for phenoxyacetic acid ‘impurity B' and a mixture of water, acetonitrile and acetic acid (650:150:5.75) for the assay and 4-hydroxypenicillin V 'impurity D'. Results: The identification of Penicillin V acid active substance and the evaluation of its chemical quality showed conformity with USP 35th edition. The Penicillin V acid content in the raw material is equal to 1692.22 UI/mg. The percentage content of phenoxyacetic acid and 4-hydroxypenicillin V was respectively: 0.035% and 0.323%. Conclusion: Through these results, we can conclude that the Penicillin V acid active substance tested is of good physicochemical quality.

Keywords: characterization, HPLC, Penicillin V acid, related substances

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2694 Somatic Embryogenesis Derived from Protoplast of Murraya Paniculata L. Jack and Their Regeneration into Plant Flowering in vitro

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin


The in vitro flowering of orange jessamine plantlets derived from protoplast was affected by the manipulation of plant growth regulators, sugar and light conditions. MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and supplemented with 0.001 mg 1-1 indole-acetic-acid was found to be a suitable medium for development of globular somatic embryos derived from protoplasts to form heart-shaped somatic embryos with cotyledon-like structures. The highest percentage (85 %) of flowering was achieved with plantlet on half-strength MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and 0.001 mg1-1 indole-acetic-acid in light. Exposure to darkness for more than 3 weeks followed by re-exposure to light reduced flowering. Flowering required a 10-day exposure to indole-acetic-acid. Photoperiod with 18 h and 79.4 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity promoted in vitro flowering in high frequencies. The sucrose treatment affected the flower bud size distribution. Flower buds originating from plantlet derived from protoplasts developed into normal flowers.

Keywords: indole-acetc-acid, light-intensity, Murraya-paniculata, photoperiod, plantlet, Zeatin

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
2693 Development and Total Error Concept Validation of Common Analytical Method for Quantification of All Residual Solvents Present in Amino Acids by Gas Chromatography-Head Space

Authors: A. Ramachandra Reddy, V. Murugan, Prema Kumari


Residual solvents in Pharmaceutical samples are monitored using gas chromatography with headspace (GC-HS). Based on current regulatory and compendial requirements, measuring the residual solvents are mandatory for all release testing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). Generally, isopropyl alcohol is used as the residual solvent in proline and tryptophan; methanol in cysteine monohydrate hydrochloride, glycine, methionine and serine; ethanol in glycine and lysine monohydrate; acetic acid in methionine. In order to have a single method for determining these residual solvents (isopropyl alcohol, ethanol, methanol and acetic acid) in all these 7 amino acids a sensitive and simple method was developed by using gas chromatography headspace technique with flame ionization detection. During development, no reproducibility, retention time variation and bad peak shape of acetic acid peaks were identified due to the reaction of acetic acid with the stationary phase (cyanopropyl dimethyl polysiloxane phase) of column and dissociation of acetic acid with water (if diluent) while applying temperature gradient. Therefore, dimethyl sulfoxide was used as diluent to avoid these issues. But most the methods published for acetic acid quantification by GC-HS uses derivatisation technique to protect acetic acid. As per compendia, risk-based approach was selected as appropriate to determine the degree and extent of the validation process to assure the fitness of the procedure. Therefore, Total error concept was selected to validate the analytical procedure. An accuracy profile of ±40% was selected for lower level (quantitation limit level) and for other levels ±30% with 95% confidence interval (risk profile 5%). The method was developed using DB-Waxetr column manufactured by Agilent contains 530 µm internal diameter, thickness: 2.0 µm, and length: 30 m. A constant flow of 6.0 mL/min. with constant make up mode of Helium gas was selected as a carrier gas. The present method is simple, rapid, and accurate, which is suitable for rapid analysis of isopropyl alcohol, ethanol, methanol and acetic acid in amino acids. The range of the method for isopropyl alcohol is 50ppm to 200ppm, ethanol is 50ppm to 3000ppm, methanol is 50ppm to 400ppm and acetic acid 100ppm to 400ppm, which covers the specification limits provided in European pharmacopeia. The accuracy profile and risk profile generated as part of validation were found to be satisfactory. Therefore, this method can be used for testing of residual solvents in amino acids drug substances.

Keywords: amino acid, head space, gas chromatography, total error

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2692 Optimization of Chitosan Membrane Production Parameters for Zinc Ion Adsorption

Authors: Peter O. Osifo, Hein W. J. P. Neomagus, Hein V. D. Merwe


Chitosan materials from different sources of raw materials were characterized in order to determine optimal preparation conditions and parameters for membrane production. The membrane parameters such as molecular weight, viscosity, and degree of deacetylation were used to evaluate the membrane performance for zinc ion adsorption. The molecular weight of the chitosan was found to influence the viscosity of the chitosan/acetic acid solution. An increase in molecular weight (60000-400000 kg.kmol-1) of the chitosan resulted in a higher viscosity (0.05-0.65 Pa.s) of the chitosan/acetic acid solution. The effect of the degree of deacetylation on the viscosity is not significant. The effect of the membrane production parameters (chitosan- and acetic acid concentration) on the viscosity is mainly determined by the chitosan concentration. For higher chitosan concentrations, a membrane with a better adsorption capacity was obtained. The membrane adsorption capacity increases from 20-130 mg Zn per gram of wet membrane for an increase in chitosan concentration from 2-7 mass %. Chitosan concentrations below 2 and above 7.5 mass % produced membranes that lack good mechanical properties. The optimum manufacturing conditions including chitosan concentration, acetic acid concentration, sodium hydroxide concentration and crosslinking for chitosan membranes within the workable range were defined by the criteria of adsorption capacity and flux. The adsorption increases (50-120 mg.g-1) as the acetic acid concentration increases (1-7 mass %). The sodium hydroxide concentration seems not to have a large effect on the adsorption characteristics of the membrane however, a maximum was reached at a concentration of 5 mass %. The adsorption capacity per gram of wet membrane strongly increases with the chitosan concentration in the acetic acid solution but remains constant per gram of dry chitosan. The optimum solution for membrane production consists of 7 mass % chitosan and 4 mass % acetic acid in de-ionised water. The sodium hydroxide concentration for phase inversion is at optimum at 5 mass %. The optimum cross-linking time was determined to be 6 hours (Percentage crosslinking of 18%). As the cross-linking time increases the adsorption of the zinc decreases (150-50 mg.g-1) in the time range of 0 to 12 hours. After a crosslinking time of 12 hours, the adsorption capacity remains constant. This trend is comparable to the effect on flux through the membrane. The flux decreases (10-3 with an increase in crosslinking time range of 0 to 12 hours and reaches a constant minimum after 12 hours.

Keywords: chitosan, membrane, waste water, heavy metal ions, adsorption

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2691 Development of 90y-Chitosan Complex for Radiosynovectomy

Authors: A. Mirzaei, S. Zolghadri, M. Athari-Allaf, H. Yousefnia, A. R. Jalilian


Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common autoimmune disease, leading to the destruction of the joints. The aim of this study was the preparation of 90Y-chitosan complex as a novel agent for radiosynovectomy. The complex was prepared in the diluted acetic acid solution. At the optimized condition, the radiochemical purity of higher than 99% was obtained by ITLC method on Whatman No. 1 and by using a mixture of methanol/water/acetic acid (4:4:2) as the mobile phase. The complex was stable in acidic media (pH=3) and its radiochemical purity was above 98% even after 48 hours. The biodistribution data in rats showed that there was no significant leakage of the injected activity even after 48 h. Considering all of the excellent features of the complex, 90Y-chitosan can be used to manipulate synovial inflammation effectively.

Keywords: chitosan, Y-90, radiosynovectomy, biodistribution

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2690 Protoplast Cultures of Murraya paniculata L. Jack and Their Regeneration into Plant Precocious Flowering

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin


Protoplasts isolated from embryogenic callus of Murraya paniculata (L. Jack.) were cultured in MT (Murashige and Tucker, 1969) basal medium containing 5% sucrose supplemented with kinetin, malt extract (ME) and 0.6 M sorbitol. About 85% of the surviving protoplasts formed a cell wall within 6 d of culture and the first cell division was observed 7 days after isolation. The highest plating effi¬ciency was obtained on MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose supplemented with 0.01 mg 1-1 kinetin 600 mg 1-1 ME, MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and supplemented with 0.01 mg 1-1 Indole-acetic-acid (IAA) was found to be a medium suitable for the development somatic embryos into heart-shaped somatic embryos. The highest percentage of shoot formation was obtained using 0.1 mg 1-1 Indole-acitic-acid (IAA) 0..1 mg 1-1 gibberellic acid (GA3). In this investigation 40 plants were survived and grew normally in the soil. After two months maitained in the soil plants formed flower and flower developed into fruits on the soil treated with BA.

Keywords: gibberellic-acid, indole-acetic-acid, protoplast, precocious-flowering, somatic-embryo

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2689 Knowledge of Pap Smear Test and Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid in Cervical Cancer Patients in Manado

Authors: Eric Ng, Freddy W. Wagey, Frank M. M. Wagey


Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide and the most common cancer in many low- and middle-income countries. The main causes are the lack of prevention programs and effective therapy, as well as the lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness for early detection. The Pap smear test and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) allow the cervical lesion to be detected so that progression to cervical cancer can be avoided. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of Pap smear test and VIA in cervical cancer patients. Methodology: A total of 67 cervical cancer patients in Manado who volunteered to participate in the research were identified as the sample. The data were collected during the month of November 2019-January 2020 with a questionnaire about the respondents' knowledge relating to Pap smear test and VIA. Questionnaire data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: Knowledge of pap smear among cervical cancer patients were good in 9 respondents (13.4%), moderate in 20 respondents (29.9%), and bad in 38 respondents (56.7%), whereas the knowledge of VIA was good in 13 respondents (19.4%), moderate in 15 respondents (22.4%), and bad in 39 respondents (58.2%). Conclusion: Majority of cervical cancer patients in Manado still had bad knowledge about Pap smear tests and VIA.

Keywords: cervical cancer, knowledge, pap smear test, visual inspection with acetic acid

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2688 Benzimidazole as Corrosion Inhibitor for Heat Treated 6061 Al-SiCp Composite in Acetic Acid

Authors: Melby Chacko, Jagannath Nayak


6061 Al-SiCp composite was solutionized at 350 °C for 30 minutes and water quenched. It was then underaged at 140 °C (T6 treatment). The aging behaviour of the composite was studied using Rockwell B hardness measurement. Corrosion behaviour of the underaged sample was studied in different concentrations of acetic acid and at different temperatures. Benzimidazole at different concentrations was used for the inhibition studies. Inhibition efficiency of benzimidazole was calculated for different experimental conditions. Thermodynamic parameters were found out which suggested benzimidazole is an efficient inhibitor and it adsorbed onto the surface of composite by mixed adsorption where chemisorption is predominant.

Keywords: 6061 Al-SiCp composite, T6 treatment, corrosion inhibition, chemisorption

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2687 Optimization of Batch to Up-Scaling of Soy-Based Prepolymer Polyurethane

Authors: Flora Elvistia Firdaus


The chemical structure of soybean oils have to be chemically modified through its tryglyceride to attain resemblance properties with petrochemicals. Sulfur acid catalyst in peracetic acid co-reagent has good performance on modified soybean oil strucutures through its unsaturated fatty acid moiety to the desired hydroxyl functional groups. A series of screening reactions have indicated that the ratio of acetic/peroxide acid 1:7.25 (mol/mol) with temperature of 600°C for soy-epoxide synthesis are prevailed for up-scaling of bodied soybean into 10 and 20 folds from initials. A two-step process was conducted for the preparation of soy-polyol in designated temperatures.

Keywords: soybean, polyol, up-scaling, polyurethane

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2686 Effect Indol Acetic Acid on Liver of Albino Rats

Authors: Ezaldin A. M. Mohammed, Youssef K. H. Abdalhafid, Masoud. M. Zatout


The study aims to clarify the toxic effect of plant hormones, which are widely used in agriculture. One of these is the plant hormones (indole acetic acid); has been ٳata hormone to rats at 100 ppm salt solution of 0.2 per day after day for a period of forty days before conception until the fourteenth day or sixteenth or childbirth. Treatment brought about a marked shortage in the rate of increase in the weight of mice., And a percentage of the weight of the liver there was a distinct increase in the relative weight of the liver. As well as the increase in pathological changes and increase the size of the nuclei and Kupffer cell, as noted widespread and dense clusters of inflammatory cells accompanied by about the erosion of liver tissue and blood ٳrchah. Biochemical analyzes showed a marked decrease of the liver in antioxidant enzymes and an increase in the rate of free radicals. It was also noted an increase in cases of abortion. The owner of so many birth defects. It was also noted the lack of body weight in fetuses and increase the absorption rate of embryos in fetuses of mothers treatment compared to the control group. Showed microscopic examinations of the liver of mice born in the transaction and the decay in the presence of hepatic cells and edema, blood vessels and increase the rate of cell death.

Keywords: indol acetic acid, liver, pathological changes, albino rats

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2685 Studies of Carbohydrate, Antioxidant, Nutrient and Genomic DNA Characterization of Fresh Olive Treated with Alkaline and Acidic Solvent: An Innovation

Authors: A. B. M. S. Hossain, A. Abdelgadir, N. A. Ibrahim


Fresh ripen olive cannot be consumed immediately after harvest due to the excessive bitterness having polyphenol as antioxidant. Industrial processing needs to be edible the fruit. The laboratory processing technique has been used to make it edible by using acid (vinegar, 5% acetic acid) and alkaline solvent (NaOH). Based on the treatment and consequence, innovative data have been found in this regard. The experiment was conducted to investigate biochemical content, nutritional and DNA characterization of olive fruit treated with alkaline (Sodium chloride anhydrous) and acidic solvent (5% acetic acid, vinegar). The treatments were used as control (no water), water control, 10% sodium chloride anhydrous (NaOH), vinegar (5% acetic acid), vinegar + NaOH and vinegar + NaOH + hot water treatment. Our results showed that inverted sugar and glucose content were higher in the vinegar and NaOH treated olive than in other treatments. Fructose content was the highest in vinegar + NaOH treated fruit. Nutrient contents NO3 K, Ca and Na were found higher in the treated fruit than the control fruit. Moreover, maximum K content was observed in the case of all treatments compared to the other nutrient content. The highest acidic (lower pH) condition (sour) was found in treated fruit. DNA yield was found higher in water control than acid and alkaline treated olives. DNA band was wider in the olive treated water control compared to the NaOH, vinegar, vinegar + NaOH and vinegar + NaOH + Hot water treatment. Finally, results suggest that vinegar + NaOH treated olive fruit was the best for fresh olive homemade processing after harvesting for edible purpose.

Keywords: olive, vinegar, sugars, DNA band, bioprocess biotechnology

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2684 Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Co (II) Ternary Complexes Involving N-(2-Acetamido) Iminodiacete and Some Amino Acids Acid by Periodate

Authors: Ahmed A. Abdel-Khalek, Reham A. Mohamed


The kinetics of oxidation of the cobalt (II) complexes, [CoII(ADA)(Gly)(H2O)2]-, (ADA = N-(2-acetamido) iminodi-acetic acid and (Gly = Glycine) by periodate in aqueous acetate medium to cobalt (III) have been studied spectrophotometrically at 530 nm over the 30–50°C and a variety pH 4.57-5.25 range and I = 0.50 mol dm-3 under pseudo first order condition by taking large excess of oxidant [IO4-] and it obeys the following rate law: Rate=[CoII(ADA)(Gly)(H2O)2]-[H5IO6]{k4K6+(k5K7K5/[H+])}. Also, the kinetics of oxidation of the cobalt(II) complexes, [CoII(ADA)(Val)(H2O)2]- (ADA = N-(2-acetamido) iminodi-acetic acid and (Val = valine) by periodate in aqueous medium to cobalt (III) have been studied spectrophotometrically at 580 nm over the 30–50°C and a variety pH 4.3-5.12 range and I = 0.50 mol dm-3 under pseudo first order condition by taking large excess of oxidant [IO4-] and it obeys the following rate law: Rate=[CoII(ADA)(Val)(H2O)2]-[H5IO6]{k4K6+(k5K7K5/[H+])}

Keywords: periodate, oxidation, cobalt (II), glycine, valine acid, n-(2-acetamido imino-diacetato)

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2683 The Production of Collagen and Collagen Peptides from Nile Tilapia Skin Using Membrane Technology

Authors: M. Thuanthong, W. Youravong, N. Sirinupong


Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is one of fish species cultured in Thailand with a high production volume. A lot of skin is generated during fish processing. In addition, there are many research reported that fish skin contains abundant of collagen. Thus, the use of Nile tilapia skin as collagen source can increase the benefit of industrial waste. In this study, Acid soluble collagen (ASC) was extracted at 5, 15 or 25 ˚C with 0.5 M acetic acid then the acid was removed out and collagen was concentrated by ultrafiltration-diafiltration (UFDF). The triple helix collagen from UFDF process was used as substrate to produce collagen peptides by alcalase hydrolysis in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) coupling with 1 kDa molecular weight cut off (MWCO) polysulfone hollow fiber membrane. The results showed that ASC extracted at high temperature (25 ˚C) with 0.5 M acetic acid for 5 h still preserved triple helix structure. In the UFDF process, the acid removal was higher than 90 % without any effect on ASC properties, particularly triple helix structure as indicated by circular dichroism spectrum. Moreover, Collagen from UFDF was used to produce collagen peptides by EMR. In EMR, collagen was pre-hydrolyzed by alcalase for 60 min before introduced to membrane separation. The EMR operation was operated for 10 h and provided a good of protein conversion stability. The results suggested that there is a successfulness of UF in application for acid removal to produce ASC with desirable preservation of its quality. In addition, the EMR was proven to be an effective process to produce low molecular weight peptides with ACE-inhibitory activity properties.

Keywords: acid soluble collagen, ultrafiltration-diafiltration, enzymatic membrane reactor, ace-inhibitory activity

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2682 Acetic Acid Assisted Phytoextraction of Chromium (Cr) by Energy Crop (Arundo donax L.) in Cr Contaminated Soils

Authors: Muhammad Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Tauqeer, Hamza Rafaqat, Muhammad Naveed, Muhammad Awais Irshad


Soil pollution with chromium (Cr) has become one of the most important concerns due to its toxicity for humans. To date, various remediation approaches have been employed for the remediation and management of Cr contaminated soils. Phytoextraction is an eco-friendly and emerging remediation approach which has gained attention due to several advantages over conventional remediation approach. The use of energy crops for phytoremediation is an emerging trend worldwide. These energy crops have high tolerance against various environmental stresses, the potential to grow in diverse ecosystems and high biomass production make them a suitable candidate for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The removal efficiency of plants in phytoextraction depends upon several soil and plant factors including solubility, bioavailability and metal speciation in soils. A pot scale experiment was conducted to evaluate the phytoextraction potential of Arundo donax L. with the application of acetic acid (A.A) in Cr contaminated soils. Plants were grown in pots filled with 5 kg soils for 90 days. After 30 days plants acclimatization in pot conditions, plants were treated with various levels of Cr (2.5 mM, 5 mM, 7.5 mM, 10 mM) and A.A (Cr 2.5 mM + A.A 2.5 mM, Cr 5 mM + A.A 2.5 mM, Cr 7.5 mM + A.A 2.5 mM, Cr 10 mM + A.A 2.5 mM). The application of A.A significantly increased metal uptake and in roots and shoots of A. donax. This increase was observed at Cr 7.5 mM + A.A 2.5 mM but at high concentrations, visual symptoms of Cr toxicity were observed on leaves. Similarly, A.A applications also affect the activities of key enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxidase dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in leaves of A. donax. Based on results it is concluded that the applications of A.A acid for phytoextraction is an alternative approach for the management of Cr affected soils and synthetic chelators should be replaced with organic acids.

Keywords: acetic acid, A. donax, chromium, energy crop, phytoextraction

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2681 Comparative Study between Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers on Ulcerative Colitis Induced Experimentally in Rats

Authors: Azza H. El-Medany, Hanan H. Hagar, Jamila H. El-Medany


Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of chronic inflammatory diseases primarily affecting colon with unknown etiology. Some researches papers mentioned the possibility of the use of drugs that affect the angiotensin II in reducing the complication of ulcerative colitis. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential protective and therapeutic effects of captopril and valsartan on ulcerative colitis induced experimentally in rats using acetic acid. The results were assessed by histological assessment of colonic tissues and measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), transforming growth factor (TGF-1B), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), reduced glutathione (GSH) and platelet activating factor (PAF) levels in colonic tissues. Oral pre-treatment with captopril or valsartan in a dose of 30 mgkg-1 body weight for 2 weeks before induction of colitis (prophylactic groups) and continuously for 2 weeks after induction (therapeutic groups) significantly reduce MDA, TNF-α, PAF, TGF-1B and ACE levels in colonic tissues as compared to acetic acid control group. Also, a significant increase in GSH level was observed in colonic tissues. Captopril and valsartan attenuated the macroscopic and microscopic colonic damage induced by acetic acid. These results suggest that either captopril or valsartan may be effective as prophylactic or treatment of UC through inhibition of ACE and scavenging effect on oxygen-derived free radicals.

Keywords: captopril, valsartan, angiotensin converting enzyme, reduced glutathione, tumor necrosis factor

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2680 Effect of Peppermint Essential Oil versus a Mixture of Formic and Propionic Acids on Corn Silage Volatile Fatty Acid Score

Authors: Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Ali Hodjatpanah Montazeri, Alireza Vakili, Mansoor Tahmasbei


To compare peppermint essential oil versus a mixture of formic and propionic acids a study was conducted to their effects on volatile fatty acid proportion and VFA score of corn silage. Chopped whole crop corn (control) was treated with peppermint essential oil (240 mg kg-1 DM) or a mixture of formic and propionic acids (2:1) at 0.4% of fresh forage weight, and ensiled for 30 days. Then, silage extract was provided and the concentration of each VFA was determined using gas chromatography. The VFA score was calculated according to the patented formula proposed by Dairy One Scientific Committee. The score is calculated based on the positive impact of lactic and acetic acids versus the negative effect of butyric acid to achieve a single value for evaluating silage quality. The essential oil declined pH and increased the concentration of lactic and acetic acids in the silage extract. All corn silages evaluated in this study had a VFA score between 6 through 8. However, silage with peppermint essential oils had lower volatile fatty acids score than those of the other treatments. Both of applied additives caused a significant improvement in silage aerobic stability.

Keywords: peppermint, essential oil, corn silage, VFA (volatile fatty acids)

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