Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3389

Search results for: decentralization consensus algorithm

3389 Consensus Problem of High-Order Multi-Agent Systems under Predictor-Based Algorithm

Authors: Cheng-Lin Liu, Fei Liu

Abstract:

For the multi-agent systems with agent's dynamics described by high-order integrator, and usual consensus algorithm composed of the state coordination control parts is proposed. Under communication delay, consensus algorithm in asynchronously-coupled form just can make the agents achieve a stationary consensus, and sufficient consensus condition is obtained based on frequency-domain analysis. To recover the original consensus state of the high-order agents without communication delay, besides, a predictor-based consensus algorithm is constructed via multiplying the delayed neighboring agents' states by a delay-related compensation part, and sufficient consensus condition is also obtained. Simulation illustrates the correctness of the results.

Keywords: high-order dynamic agents, communication delay, consensus, predictor-based algorithm

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3388 Research on Dynamic Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance Consensus Algorithm

Authors: Cao Xiaopeng, Shi Linkai

Abstract:

The practical Byzantine fault-tolerant algorithm does not add nodes dynamically. It is limited in practical application. In order to add nodes dynamically, Dynamic Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance Algorithm (DPBFT) was proposed. Firstly, a new node sends request information to other nodes in the network. The nodes in the network decide their identities and requests. Then the nodes in the network reverse connect to the new node and send block information of the current network. The new node updates information. Finally, the new node participates in the next round of consensus, changes the view and selects the master node. This paper abstracts the decision of nodes into the undirected connected graph. The final consistency of the graph is used to prove that the proposed algorithm can adapt to the network dynamically. Compared with the PBFT algorithm, DPBFT has better fault tolerance and lower network bandwidth.

Keywords: practical byzantine, fault tolerance, blockchain, consensus algorithm, consistency analysis

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3387 An Investigation Enhancing E-Voting Application Performance

Authors: Aditya Verma

Abstract:

E-voting using blockchain provides us with a distributed system where data is present on each node present in the network and is reliable and secure too due to its immutability property. This work compares various blockchain consensus algorithms used for e-voting applications in the past, based on performance and node scalability, and chooses the optimal one and improves on one such previous implementation by proposing solutions for the loopholes of the optimally working blockchain consensus algorithm, in our chosen application, e-voting.

Keywords: blockchain, parallel bft, consensus algorithms, performance

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3386 A Survey on Important Factors of the Ethereum Network Performance

Authors: Ali Mohammad Mobaser Azad, Alireza Akhlaghinia

Abstract:

Blockchain is changing our world and launching a new generation of decentralized networks. Meanwhile, Blockchain-based networks like Ethereum have been created and they will facilitate these processes using tools like smart contracts. The Ethereum has fundamental structures, each of which affects the activity of the nodes. Our purpose in this paper is to review similar research and examine various components to demonstrate the performance of the Ethereum network and to do this, and we used the data published by the Ethereum Foundation in different time spots to examine the number of changes that determine the status of network performance. This will help other researchers understand better Ethereum in different situations.

Keywords: blockchain, ethereum, smart contract, decentralization consensus algorithm

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3385 Tax Competition and Partial Tax Coordination under Fiscal Decentralization

Authors: Patricia Sanz-Cordoba, Bernd Theilen

Abstract:

This article analyzes the conditions where decentralization and partial tax harmonization in a coalition of asymmetric jurisdictions plays a role in the fight of fiscal competition (i.e. the race to bottom). Starting from a centralized economies, we use the ZM-W model to analyze the fiscal competition and coordination among three countries. We find that the asymmetry of jurisdictions facilitates partial tax harmonization between jurisdictions when these asymmetries are not too large. Furthermore, when the asymmetries are large enough, the level of labor tax plays an important role in the decision of decentralize capital tax. Accordingly, decentralization is achievable when labor tax is low. This result indicates that decentralization and partial tax harmonization between jurisdictions can be possible results in order to fight the negative externalities from fiscal competition, and more in the European Union countries where the asymmetries are substantial.

Keywords: centralization, decentralization, fiscal competition, partial tax harmonization

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3384 Rank-Based Chain-Mode Ensemble for Binary Classification

Authors: Chongya Song, Kang Yen, Alexander Pons, Jin Liu

Abstract:

In the field of machine learning, the ensemble has been employed as a common methodology to improve the performance upon multiple base classifiers. However, the true predictions are often canceled out by the false ones during consensus due to a phenomenon called “curse of correlation” which is represented as the strong interferences among the predictions produced by the base classifiers. In addition, the existing practices are still not able to effectively mitigate the problem of imbalanced classification. Based on the analysis on our experiment results, we conclude that the two problems are caused by some inherent deficiencies in the approach of consensus. Therefore, we create an enhanced ensemble algorithm which adopts a designed rank-based chain-mode consensus to overcome the two problems. In order to evaluate the proposed ensemble algorithm, we employ a well-known benchmark data set NSL-KDD (the improved version of dataset KDDCup99 produced by University of New Brunswick) to make comparisons between the proposed and 8 common ensemble algorithms. Particularly, each compared ensemble classifier uses the same 22 base classifiers, so that the differences in terms of the improvements toward the accuracy and reliability upon the base classifiers can be truly revealed. As a result, the proposed rank-based chain-mode consensus is proved to be a more effective ensemble solution than the traditional consensus approach, which outperforms the 8 ensemble algorithms by 20% on almost all compared metrices which include accuracy, precision, recall, F1-score and area under receiver operating characteristic curve.

Keywords: consensus, curse of correlation, imbalance classification, rank-based chain-mode ensemble

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3383 Reconfigurable Consensus Achievement of Multi Agent Systems Subject to Actuator Faults in a Leaderless Architecture

Authors: F. Amirarfaei, K. Khorasani

Abstract:

In this paper, reconfigurable consensus achievement of a team of agents with marginally stable linear dynamics and single input channel has been considered. The control algorithm is based on a first order linear protocol. After occurrence of a LOE fault in one of the actuators, using the imperfect information of the effectiveness of the actuators from fault detection and identification module, the control gain is redesigned in a way to still reach consensus. The idea is based on the modeling of change in effectiveness as change of Laplacian matrix. Then as special cases of this class of systems, a team of single integrators as well as double integrators are considered and their behavior subject to a LOE fault is considered. The well-known relative measurements consensus protocol is applied to a leaderless team of single integrator as well as double integrator systems, and Gersgorin disk theorem is employed to determine whether fault occurrence has an effect on system stability and team consensus achievement or not. The analyses show that loss of effectiveness fault in actuator(s) of integrator systems affects neither system stability nor consensus achievement.

Keywords: multi-agent system, actuator fault, stability analysis, consensus achievement

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3382 The Relevance of PISA Tests in the Decentralization of the Educational System in Romania

Authors: Nitu Marilena Cristina

Abstract:

Decentralization of the education system is an educational policy option necessary from the perspective of democratizing internal life and streamlining service administration public. The experience of recent years has shown that decisions taken at central level do not to take into account all situations and especially all the specific needs and interests of the various institutions and individuals. A democratic society implies that the decision-making process is brought closer to the place of application, allowing citizens to take part in the decision-making that affects them directly or indirectly. Essentially decentralization of pre-university education is the transfer of authority, responsibility and resources in decision-making and general management, and financially to the educational units and the local community. This creates a frame of an effective collaboration between school and community. Modern theories on the leadership of education advocate the adoption of decentralization measures and participatory strategies. Numerous countries confronted with the educational impasse has appealed to these strategies. Reforming projects have begun application diversified and nuanced social decentralization models according to the specific social and educational situation. Analysis of legal provisions and measures adopted in the framework of the reform process indicates that, at least formally, decentralization is the solution chosen.

Keywords: decentralization, educational, management, reforming

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3381 Decentralization and Participatory Approach in the Cultural Heritage Management in Local Thailand

Authors: Amorn Kritsanaphan

Abstract:

This paper illustrates the decentralization of cultural heritage management in local Thailand, a place similar to other middle- income developing countries characterized by rapid tourism-industrialization, weakness formal state institutions and procedures, and intensity use of the cultural heritage resources. The author conducted field research in local Thailand, principally using qualitative primary data gathering. These were combined with records reviews and content analysis of documents. The author also attended local public meetings, and social activities, and interacted casually with local residents and governments. Cultural heritage management has been supposed to improve through multi-stakeholder participation and decentralization. However, processes and outcomes are far from being straightforward and depend on a variety of contingencies and contexts involved. Multi-stakeholder and participatory approach in decentralization of the cultural heritage management in Thailand have pushed to the forefront and sharpened a number of existing problems. However, under the decentralization, the most significant contribution has been in creating real political space where various local stakeholders have become active, respond and address their concerns in various ways vis-à-vis cultural heritage problems. Improving cultural heritage sustainability and viability of local livelihoods through decentralization and participatory approach is by no means certain. However, the shift instead creates spaces potent with possibilities for a meaningful and constructive engagement between and among local state and non-state actors that can lead to synergies and positive outcomes.

Keywords: decentralization, participatory approach, cultural heritage management, multi-stakeholder approach

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3380 SISSLE in Consensus-Based Ripple: Some Improvements in Speed, Security, Last Mile Connectivity and Ease of Use

Authors: Mayank Mundhra, Chester Rebeiro

Abstract:

Cryptocurrencies are rapidly finding wide application in areas such as Real Time Gross Settlements and Payments Systems. Ripple is a cryptocurrency that has gained prominence with banks and payment providers. It solves the Byzantine General’s Problem with its Ripple Protocol Consensus Algorithm (RPCA), where each server maintains a list of servers, called Unique Node List (UNL) that represents the network for the server, and will not collectively defraud it. The server believes that the network has come to a consensus when members of the UNL come to a consensus on a transaction. In this paper we improve Ripple to achieve better speed, security, last mile connectivity and ease of use. We implement guidelines and automated systems for building and maintaining UNLs for resilience, robustness, improved security, and efficient information propagation. We enhance the system so as to ensure that each server receives information from across the whole network rather than just from the UNL members. We also introduce the paradigm of UNL overlap as a function of information propagation and the trust a server assigns to its own UNL. Our design not only reduces vulnerabilities such as eclipse attacks, but also makes it easier to identify malicious behaviour and entities attempting to fraudulently Double Spend or stall the system. We provide experimental evidence of the benefits of our approach over the current Ripple scheme. We observe ≥ 4.97x and 98.22x in speedup and success rate for information propagation respectively, and ≥ 3.16x and 51.70x in speedup and success rate in consensus.

Keywords: Ripple, Kelips, unique node list, consensus, information propagation

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3379 The Dynamic of Decentralization of Education Policy in Post-Reform Indonesia: Local Perspectives

Authors: Mudiyati Rahmatunnisa

Abstract:

This study is about the implementation of decentralization of education policy in today’s Indonesia’s reform era. The policy has made education as one of the basic public services that must be performed by the local governments. After more than a decade of implementing the policy, what have been achieved? Has the implementation of educational affairs in the region been able to improve the quality of education services in the region? What obstacles or challenges faced by the region in the implementation of the educational affairs? How does region overcome obstacles or challenges? In answering those strategic questions, this study will particularly investigate the implementation of educational affairs in the city and District of Cirebon, the two district level of governments in West Java Province. The two loci of study provide interesting insight, given the range of previous studies did not specifically investigate using a local perspective (city and district level). This study employs a qualitative research method through case studies. Operationally, this study is sustained by several data collection techniques, i.e. interviews, documentary method, and systematic observation. Needless to say, there have been many factors distorting the ideal construction of decentralization of education policy.

Keywords: decentralization, decentralization of education, policy implementation, public service

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3378 A Method for Consensus Building between Teachers and Learners in a Value Co-Creative Learning Service

Authors: Ryota Sugino, Satoshi Mizoguchi, Koji Kimita, Keiichi Muramatsu, Tatsunori Matsui, Yoshiki Shimomura

Abstract:

Improving added value and productivity of services entails improving both value-in-exchange and value-in-use. Value-in-use is realized by value co-creation, where providers and receivers create value together. In higher education services, value-in-use comes from learners achieving learning outcomes (e.g., knowledge and skills) that are consistent with their learning goals. To enhance the learning outcomes of a learner, it is necessary to enhance and utilize the abilities of the teacher along with the abilities of the learner. To do this, however, the learner and the teacher need to build a consensus about their respective roles. Teachers need to provide effective learning content; learners need to choose the appropriate learning strategies by using the learning content through consensus building. This makes consensus building an important factor in value co-creation. However, methods to build a consensus about their respective roles may not be clearly established, making such consensus difficult. In this paper, we propose some strategies for consensus building between a teacher and a learner in value co-creation. We focus on a teacher and learner co-design and propose an analysis method to clarify a collaborative design process to realize value co-creation. We then analyze some counseling data obtained from a university class. This counseling aimed to build a consensus for value-in-use, learning outcomes, and learning strategies between the teacher and the learner.

Keywords: consensus building, value co-creation, higher education, learning service

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3377 Distributed Control Strategy for Dispersed Energy Storage Units in the DC Microgrid Based on Discrete Consensus

Authors: Hanqing Yang, Xiang Meng, Qi Li, Weirong Chen

Abstract:

The SOC (state of charge) based droop control has limitations on the load power sharing among different energy storage units, due to the line impedance. In this paper, a distributed control strategy for dispersed energy storage units in the DC microgrid based on discrete consensus is proposed. Firstly, a sparse information communication network is built. Thus, local controllers can communicate with its neighbors using voltage, current and SOC information. An average voltage of grid can be evaluated to compensate voltage offset by droop control, and an objective virtual resistance fulfilling above requirement can be dynamically calculated to distribute load power according to the SOC of the energy storage units. Then, the stability of the whole system and influence of communication delay are analyzed. It can be concluded that this control strategy can improve the robustness and flexibility, because of having no center controller. Finally, a model of DC microgrid with dispersed energy storage units and loads is built, the discrete distributed algorithm is established and communication protocol is developed. The co-simulation between Matlab/Simulink and JADE (Java agent development framework) has verified the effectiveness of proposed control strategy.

Keywords: dispersed energy storage units, discrete consensus algorithm, state of charge, communication delay

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3376 The Problem of Relation between Concepts Empathy and Decentration in Psychology

Authors: Elina Asriyan, Lusine Stepanyan

Abstract:

This article is devoted to the study of connection between empathy and decentration. We have discovered a positive connection between these two indicators. Empathy is a variety of emotional decentration, and due to the decentration development process. To understand the investigated phenomenon it was applied a complex approach. The recorded results state that empathy and decentralization are interconnected with each other; empathy being a type of emotional decentralization is conditioned by the formation process of decentration.

Keywords: empathy, decentration, emotional decentration, egocentricity

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3375 Middle-Level Management Involvement in Strategy Process, and Organizational Performance

Authors: Mazyar Taghavi

Abstract:

This research examines middle-level managers’ involvement in strategy process in 15 manufacturing and service companies in Iran. We considered two dominant theoretical arguments for expecting a positive association. According to the first direction involvement improves organizational performance by improving the quality of strategic decisions. According to the second track, middle managers contribute to increased levels of performance through strategic consensus among them. Results indicate that involvement in the strategy is related to organizational performance. Involvement is associated with consensus (i.e. strategic understanding and commitment) among middle-level managers. However, findings indicate that consensus is not related to the organizational performance.

Keywords: middle-level management, strategy process, organizational performance, strategy consensus

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3374 Network Based Speed Synchronization Control for Multi-Motor via Consensus Theory

Authors: Liqin Zhang, Liang Yan

Abstract:

This paper addresses the speed synchronization control problem for a network-based multi-motor system from the perspective of cluster consensus theory. Each motor is considered as a single agent connected through fixed and undirected network. This paper presents an improved control protocol from three aspects. First, for the purpose of improving both tracking and synchronization performance, this paper presents a distributed leader-following method. The improved control protocol takes the importance of each motor’s speed into consideration, and all motors are divided into different groups according to speed weights. Specifically, by using control parameters optimization, the synchronization error and tracking error can be regulated and decoupled to some extent. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed strategy. In practical engineering, the simplified models are unrealistic, such as single-integrator and double-integrator. And previous algorithms require the acceleration information of the leader available to all followers if the leader has a varying velocity, which is also difficult to realize. Therefore, the method focuses on an observer-based variable structure algorithm for consensus tracking, which gets rid of the leader acceleration. The presented scheme optimizes synchronization performance, as well as provides satisfactory robustness. What’s more, the existing algorithms can obtain a stable synchronous system; however, the obtained stable system may encounter some disturbances that may destroy the synchronization. Focus on this challenging technological problem, a state-dependent-switching approach is introduced. In the presence of unmeasured angular speed and unknown failures, this paper investigates a distributed fault-tolerant consensus tracking algorithm for a group non-identical motors. The failures are modeled by nonlinear functions, and the sliding mode observer is designed to estimate the angular speed and nonlinear failures. The convergence and stability of the given multi-motor system are proved. Simulation results have shown that all followers asymptotically converge to a consistent state when one follower fails to follow the virtual leader during a large enough disturbance, which illustrates the good performance of synchronization control accuracy.

Keywords: consensus control, distributed follow, fault-tolerant control, multi-motor system, speed synchronization

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3373 Co-Evolutionary Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm and Firefly Algorithm for Solving Unconstrained Optimization Problems

Authors: R. M. Rizk-Allah

Abstract:

This paper presents co-evolutionary fruit fly optimization algorithm based on firefly algorithm (CFOA-FA) for solving unconstrained optimization problems. The proposed algorithm integrates the merits of fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA), firefly algorithm (FA) and elite strategy to refine the performance of classical FOA. Moreover, co-evolutionary mechanism is performed by applying FA procedures to ensure the diversity of the swarm. Finally, the proposed algorithm CFOA- FA is tested on several benchmark problems from the usual literature and the numerical results have demonstrated the superiority of the proposed algorithm for finding the global optimal solution.

Keywords: firefly algorithm, fruit fly optimization algorithm, unconstrained optimization problems

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3372 A Consensus Approach to the Formulation of a School ICT Policy: A Q-Methodology Case Study

Authors: Thiru Vandeyar

Abstract:

This study sets out to explore how teachers’ beliefs and attitudes about ICT policy influence a consensus approach to the formulation of a school ICT policy. This case study proposes Q- methodology as an innovative method to facilitate a school’s capacity to develop policy reflecting teacher beliefs and attitudes. Q-methodology is used as a constructivist approach to the formulation of an ICT policy. Data capture was a mix of Q-methodology and qualitative principles. Data was analyzed by means of document, content and cluster analysis methods. Findings were threefold: First, teachers’ beliefs and attitudes about ICT policy influenced a consensus approach by including teachers as policy decision-makers. Second, given the opportunity, teachers have the inherent ability to deconstruct and critically engage with policy statements according to their own professional beliefs and attitudes. And third, an inclusive approach to policy formulation may inform the practice of school leaders and policymakers alike on how schools may develop their own policy.

Keywords: ICT, policy, teacher beliefs, consensus

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3371 A Hybrid Multi-Objective Firefly-Sine Cosine Algorithm for Multi-Objective Optimization Problem

Authors: Gaohuizi Guo, Ning Zhang

Abstract:

Firefly algorithm (FA) and Sine Cosine algorithm (SCA) are two very popular and advanced metaheuristic algorithms. However, these algorithms applied to multi-objective optimization problems have some shortcomings, respectively, such as premature convergence and limited exploration capability. Combining the privileges of FA and SCA while avoiding their deficiencies may improve the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithm. This paper proposes a hybridization of FA and SCA algorithms, named multi-objective firefly-sine cosine algorithm (MFA-SCA), to develop a more efficient meta-heuristic algorithm than FA and SCA.

Keywords: firefly algorithm, hybrid algorithm, multi-objective optimization, sine cosine algorithm

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3370 Consensus Reaching Process and False Consensus Effect in a Problem of Portfolio Selection

Authors: Viviana Ventre, Giacomo Di Tollo, Roberta Martino

Abstract:

The portfolio selection problem includes the evaluation of many criteria that are difficult to compare directly and is characterized by uncertain elements. The portfolio selection problem can be modeled as a group decision problem in which several experts are invited to present their assessment. In this context, it is important to study and analyze the process of reaching a consensus among group members. Indeed, due to the various diversities among experts, reaching consensus is not necessarily always simple and easily achievable. Moreover, the concept of consensus is accompanied by the concept of false consensus, which is particularly interesting in the dynamics of group decision-making processes. False consensus can alter the evaluation and selection phase of the alternative and is the consequence of the decision maker's inability to recognize that his preferences are conditioned by subjective structures. The present work aims to investigate the dynamics of consensus attainment in a group decision problem in which equivalent portfolios are proposed. In particular, the study aims to analyze the impact of the subjective structure of the decision-maker during the evaluation and selection phase of the alternatives. Therefore, the experimental framework is divided into three phases. In the first phase, experts are sent to evaluate the characteristics of all portfolios individually, without peer comparison, arriving independently at the selection of the preferred portfolio. The experts' evaluations are used to obtain individual Analytical Hierarchical Processes that define the weight that each expert gives to all criteria with respect to the proposed alternatives. This step provides insight into how the decision maker's decision process develops, step by step, from goal analysis to alternative selection. The second phase includes the description of the decision maker's state through Markov chains. In fact, the individual weights obtained in the first phase can be reviewed and described as transition weights from one state to another. Thus, with the construction of the individual transition matrices, the possible next state of the expert is determined from the individual weights at the end of the first phase. Finally, the experts meet, and the process of reaching consensus is analyzed by considering the single individual state obtained at the previous stage and the false consensus bias. The work contributes to the study of the impact of subjective structures, quantified through the Analytical Hierarchical Process, and how they combine with the false consensus bias in group decision-making dynamics and the consensus reaching process in problems involving the selection of equivalent portfolios.

Keywords: analytical hierarchical process, consensus building, false consensus effect, markov chains, portfolio selection problem

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3369 Approximating Fixed Points by a Two-Step Iterative Algorithm

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce a two-step iterative algorithm to prove a strong convergence result for approximating common fixed points of three contractive-like operators. Our algorithm basically generalizes an existing algorithm..Our iterative algorithm also contains two famous iterative algorithms: Mann iterative algorithm and Ishikawa iterative algorithm. Thus our result generalizes the corresponding results proved for the above three iterative algorithms to a class of more general operators. At the end, we remark that nothing prevents us to extend our result to the case of the iterative algorithm with error terms.

Keywords: contractive-like operator, iterative algorithm, fixed point, strong convergence

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3368 Robust Stabilization against Unknown Consensus Network

Authors: Myung-Gon Yoon, Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

This paper considers a robust stabilization problem of a single agent in a multi-agent consensus system composed of identical agents, when the network topology of the system is completely unknown. It is shown that the transfer function of an agent in a consensus system can be described as a multiplicative perturbation of the isolated agent transfer function in frequency domain. Applying known robust stabilization results, we present sufficient conditions for a robust stabilization of an agent against unknown network topology.

Keywords: single agent control, multi-agent system, transfer function, graph angle

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3367 Power-Aware Adaptive Coverage Control with Consensus Protocol

Authors: Mert Turanli, Hakan Temeltas

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new approach to coverage control problem by using adaptive coordination and power aware control laws. Nonholonomic mobile nodes position themselves suboptimally according to a time-varying density function using Centroidal Voronoi Tesellations. The Lyapunov stability analysis of the adaptive and decentralized approach is given. A linear consensus protocol is used to establish synchronization among the mobile nodes. Also, repulsive forces prevent nodes from collision. Simulation results show that by using power aware control laws, energy consumption of the nodes can be reduced.

Keywords: power aware, coverage control, adaptive, consensus, nonholonomic, coordination

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3366 An Algorithm to Compute the State Estimation of a Bilinear Dynamical Systems

Authors: Abdullah Eqal Al Mazrooei

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce a mathematical algorithm which is used for estimating the states in the bilinear systems. This algorithm uses a special linearization of the second-order term by using the best available information about the state of the system. This technique makes our algorithm generalizes the well-known Kalman estimators. The system which is used here is of the bilinear class, the evolution of this model is linear-bilinear in the state of the system. Our algorithm can be used with linear and bilinear systems. We also here introduced a real application for the new algorithm to prove the feasibility and the efficiency for it.

Keywords: estimation algorithm, bilinear systems, Kakman filter, second order linearization

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3365 The Paradox of Decentralization and Civic Culture: An Exploratory Study Applied to Local Governments in Papua New Guinea

Authors: Francis Wargirai

Abstract:

Since gaining independence in 1975, Papua New Guinea`s core challenge has been the consolidation of democracy against a backdrop of enormous social, political and territorial diversity. Consequently, the government has implemented several political reforms including decentralization. Constitutional planners believed that national unity, would be better achieved by sharing state power over centralization. They anticipated that this would institutionalize a democratic civic culture by providing opportunities to groups and individuals to make political decisions within their jurisdiction. This would then eventually lead to confidence and participation in the larger entity of the state. In retrospect, civil society and community based groups are largely underrated and have had minimal influence on decisions at the local level, consequently contributing to nepotism, patronism and cynicism. By applying an elitist approach to analyze how national political leaders exert their influence and power within the local government system and local communities, this paper argues that decentralization has fragmented local communities. With an absence of political party roots and deeply divided ethnic groups, national political leaders have used divide and rule tactics resulting in mistrust among citizens. Through their influence and power within local governments to dictate projects and services to certain areas, this has resulted in skepticism and divisions among civil society along different cultural cleavages. This has been a contributing factor to anomalies in democratic consolidation and democratic political culture in Papua New Guinea.

Keywords: civic culture, cultural cleavages, decentralization, democratic consolidation

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3364 Group Consensus of Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Variables for Decision-Making Problem

Authors: Chen T. Chen, Hui L. Cheng

Abstract:

Due to the different knowledge, experience and expertise of experts, they usually provide the different opinions in the group decision-making process. Therefore, it is an important issue to reach the group consensus of opinions of experts in group multiple-criteria decision-making (GMCDM) process. Because the subjective opinions of experts always are fuzziness and uncertainties, it is difficult to use crisp values to describe the real opinions of experts or decision-makers. It is reasonable for experts to use the linguistic variables to express their opinions. The hesitant fuzzy set are extended from the concept of fuzzy sets. Experts use the hesitant fuzzy sets can be flexible to describe their subjective opinions. In order to aggregate the hesitant fuzzy linguistic variables of all experts effectively, an adjustment method based on distance function will be presented in this paper. Based on the opinions adjustment method, this paper will present an effective approach to adjust the hesitant fuzzy linguistic variables of all experts to reach the group consensus. Then, a new hesitant linguistic GMCDM method will be presented based on the group consensus of hesitant fuzzy linguistic variables. Finally, an example will be implemented to illustrate the computational process to enhance the practical value of the proposed model.

Keywords: group multi-criteria decision-making, linguistic variables, hesitant fuzzy linguistic variables, distance function, group consensus

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3363 Handshake Algorithm for Minimum Spanning Tree Construction

Authors: Nassiri Khalid, El Hibaoui Abdelaaziz et Hajar Moha

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce and analyse a probabilistic distributed algorithm for a construction of a minimum spanning tree on network. This algorithm is based on the handshake concept. Firstly, each network node is considered as a sub-spanning tree. And at each round of the execution of our algorithm, a sub-spanning trees are merged. The execution continues until all sub-spanning trees are merged into one. We analyze this algorithm by a stochastic process.

Keywords: Spanning tree, Distributed Algorithm, Handshake Algorithm, Matching, Probabilistic Analysis

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3362 Model-Free Distributed Control of Dynamical Systems

Authors: Javad Khazaei, Rick Blum

Abstract:

Distributed control is an efficient and flexible approach for coordination of multi-agent systems. One of the main challenges in designing a distributed controller is identifying the governing dynamics of the dynamical systems. Data-driven system identification is currently undergoing a revolution. With the availability of high-fidelity measurements and historical data, model-free identification of dynamical systems can facilitate the control design without tedious modeling of high-dimensional and/or nonlinear systems. This paper develops a distributed control design using consensus theory for linear and nonlinear dynamical systems using sparse identification of system dynamics. Compared with existing consensus designs that heavily rely on knowing the detailed system dynamics, the proposed model-free design can accurately capture the dynamics of the system with available measurements and input data and provide guaranteed performance in consensus and tracking problems. Heterogeneous damped oscillators are chosen as examples of dynamical system for validation purposes.

Keywords: consensus tracking, distributed control, model-free control, sparse identification of dynamical systems

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3361 Improving the Performance of Back-Propagation Training Algorithm by Using ANN

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) can be trained using backpropagation (BP). It is the most widely used algorithm for supervised learning with multi-layered feed-forward networks. Efficient learning by the BP algorithm is required for many practical applications. The BP algorithm calculates the weight changes of artificial neural networks, and a common approach is to use a two-term algorithm consisting of a learning rate (LR) and a momentum factor (MF). The major drawbacks of the two-term BP learning algorithm are the problems of local minima and slow convergence speeds, which limit the scope for real-time applications. Recently the addition of an extra term, called a proportional factor (PF), to the two-term BP algorithm was proposed. The third increases the speed of the BP algorithm. However, the PF term also reduces the convergence of the BP algorithm, and criteria for evaluating convergence are required to facilitate the application of the three terms BP algorithm. Although these two seem to be closely related, as described later, we summarize various improvements to overcome the drawbacks. Here we compare the different methods of convergence of the new three-term BP algorithm.

Keywords: neural network, backpropagation, local minima, fast convergence rate

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3360 Tabu Random Algorithm for Guiding Mobile Robots

Authors: Kevin Worrall, Euan McGookin

Abstract:

The use of optimization algorithms is common across a large number of diverse fields. This work presents the use of a hybrid optimization algorithm applied to a mobile robot tasked with carrying out a search of an unknown environment. The algorithm is then applied to the multiple robots case, which results in a reduction in the time taken to carry out the search. The hybrid algorithm is a Random Search Algorithm fused with a Tabu mechanism. The work shows that the algorithm locates the desired points in a quicker time than a brute force search. The Tabu Random algorithm is shown to work within a simulated environment using a validated mathematical model. The simulation was run using three different environments with varying numbers of targets. As an algorithm, the Tabu Random is small, clear and can be implemented with minimal resources. The power of the algorithm is the speed at which it locates points of interest and the robustness to the number of robots involved. The number of robots can vary with no changes to the algorithm resulting in a flexible algorithm.

Keywords: algorithms, control, multi-agent, search and rescue

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