Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 602

Search results for: actuator fault

602 On the Representation of Actuator Faults Diagnosis and Systems Invertibility

Authors: F. Sallem, B. Dahhou, A. Kamoun


In this work, the main problem considered is the detection and the isolation of the actuator fault. A new formulation of the linear system is generated to obtain the conditions of the actuator fault diagnosis. The proposed method is based on the representation of the actuator as a subsystem connected with the process system in cascade manner. The designed formulation is generated to obtain the conditions of the actuator fault detection and isolation. Detectability conditions are expressed in terms of the invertibility notions. An example and a comparative analysis with the classic formulation illustrate the performances of such approach for simple actuator fault diagnosis by using the linear model of nuclear reactor.

Keywords: actuator fault, Fault detection, left invertibility, nuclear reactor, observability, parameter intervals, system inversion

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601 Fault Tolerant Control System Using a Multiple Time Scale SMC Technique and a Geometric Approach

Authors: Ghodbane Azeddine, Saad Maarouf, Boland Jean-Francois, Thibeault Claude


This paper proposes a new design of an active fault-tolerant flight control system against abrupt actuator faults. This overall system combines a multiple time scale sliding mode controller for fault compensation and a geometric approach for fault detection and diagnosis. The proposed control system is able to accommodate several kinds of partial and total actuator failures, by using available healthy redundancy actuators. The overall system first estimates the correct fault information using the geometric approach. Then, and based on that, a new reconfigurable control law is designed based on the multiple time scale sliding mode technique for on-line compensating the effect of such faults. This approach takes advantages of the fact that there are significant difference between the time scales of aircraft states that have a slow dynamics and those that have a fast dynamics. The closed-loop stability of the overall system is proved using Lyapunov technique. A case study of the non-linear model of the F16 fighter, subject to the rudder total loss of control confirms the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: actuator faults, fault detection and diagnosis, fault tolerant flight control, sliding mode control, multiple time scale approximation, geometric approach for fault reconstruction, lyapunov stability

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600 Reconfigurable Consensus Achievement of Multi Agent Systems Subject to Actuator Faults in a Leaderless Architecture

Authors: F. Amirarfaei, K. Khorasani


In this paper, reconfigurable consensus achievement of a team of agents with marginally stable linear dynamics and single input channel has been considered. The control algorithm is based on a first order linear protocol. After occurrence of a LOE fault in one of the actuators, using the imperfect information of the effectiveness of the actuators from fault detection and identification module, the control gain is redesigned in a way to still reach consensus. The idea is based on the modeling of change in effectiveness as change of Laplacian matrix. Then as special cases of this class of systems, a team of single integrators as well as double integrators are considered and their behavior subject to a LOE fault is considered. The well-known relative measurements consensus protocol is applied to a leaderless team of single integrator as well as double integrator systems, and Gersgorin disk theorem is employed to determine whether fault occurrence has an effect on system stability and team consensus achievement or not. The analyses show that loss of effectiveness fault in actuator(s) of integrator systems affects neither system stability nor consensus achievement.

Keywords: multi-agent system, actuator fault, stability analysis, consensus achievement

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599 Characteristic Matrix Faults for Flight Control System

Authors: Thanh Nga Thai


A major issue in air transportation is in flight safety. Recent developments in control engineering have an attractive potential for resolving new issues related to guidance, navigation, and control of flying vehicles. Many future atmospheric missions will require increased on board autonomy including fault diagnosis and the subsequent control and guidance recovery actions. To improve designing system diagnostic, an efficient FDI- fault detection and identification- methodology is necessary to achieve. Contribute to characteristic of different faults in sensor and actuator in the view of mathematics brings a lot of profit in some condition changes in the system. This research finds some profit to reduce a trade-off to achieve between fault detection and performance of the closed loop system and cost and calculated in simulation.

Keywords: fault detection and identification, sensor faults, actuator faults, flight control system

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598 Actuator Fault Detection and Fault Tolerant Control of a Nonlinear System Using Sliding Mode Observer

Authors: R. Loukil, M. Chtourou, T. Damak


In this work, we use the Fault detection and isolation and the Fault tolerant control based on sliding mode observer in order to introduce the well diagnosis of a nonlinear system. The robustness of the proposed observer for the two techniques is tested through a physical example. The results in this paper show the interaction between the Fault tolerant control and the Diagnosis procedure.

Keywords: fault detection and isolation FDI, fault tolerant control FTC, sliding mode observer, nonlinear system, robustness, stability

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597 Fault Tolerant Control of the Dynamical Systems Based on Internal Structure Systems

Authors: Seyed Mohammad Hashemi, Shahrokh Barati


The problem of fault-tolerant control (FTC) by accommodation method has been studied in this paper. The fault occurs in any system components such as actuators, sensors or internal structure of the system and leads to loss of performance and instability of the system. When a fault occurs, the purpose of the fault-tolerant control is designate strategy that can keep the control loop stable and system performance as much as possible perform it without shutting down the system. Here, the section of fault detection and isolation (FDI) system has been evaluated with regard to actuator's fault. Designing a fault detection and isolation system for a multi input-multi output (MIMO) is done by an unknown input observer, so the system is divided to several subsystems as the effect of other inputs such as disturbing given system state equations. In this observer design method, the effect of these disturbances will weaken and the only fault is detected on specific input. The results of this approach simulation can confirm the ability of the fault detection and isolation system design. After fault detection and isolation, it is necessary to redesign controller based on a suitable modification. In this regard after the use of unknown input observer theory and obtain residual signal and evaluate it, PID controller parameters redesigned for iterative. Stability of the closed loop system has proved in the presence of this method. Also, In order to soften the volatility caused by Annie variations of the PID controller parameters, modifying Sigma as a way acceptable solution used. Finally, the simulation results of three tank popular example confirm the accuracy of performance.

Keywords: fault tolerant control, fault detection and isolation, actuator fault, unknown input observer

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596 Fault Detection and Isolation in Sensors and Actuators of Wind Turbines

Authors: Shahrokh Barati, Reza Ramezani


Due to the countries growing attention to the renewable energy producing, the demand for energy from renewable energy has gone up among the renewable energy sources; wind energy is the fastest growth in recent years. In this regard, in order to increase the availability of wind turbines, using of Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system is necessary. Wind turbines include of various faults such as sensors fault, actuator faults, network connection fault, mechanical faults and faults in the generator subsystem. Although, sensors and actuators have a large number of faults in wind turbine but have discussed fewer in the literature. Therefore, in this work, we focus our attention to design a sensor and actuator fault detection and isolation algorithm and Fault-tolerant control systems (FTCS) for Wind Turbine. The aim of this research is to propose a comprehensive fault detection and isolation system for sensors and actuators of wind turbine based on data-driven approaches. To achieve this goal, the features of measurable signals in real wind turbine extract in any condition. The next step is the feature selection among the extract in any condition. The next step is the feature selection among the extracted features. Features are selected that led to maximum separation networks that implemented in parallel and results of classifiers fused together. In order to maximize the reliability of decision on fault, the property of fault repeatability is used.

Keywords: FDI, wind turbines, sensors and actuators faults, renewable energy

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595 Fault Detection and Isolation in Attitude Control Subsystem of Spacecraft Formation Flying Using Extended Kalman Filters

Authors: S. Ghasemi, K. Khorasani


In this paper, the problem of fault detection and isolation in the attitude control subsystem of spacecraft formation flying is considered. In order to design the fault detection method, an extended Kalman filter is utilized which is a nonlinear stochastic state estimation method. Three fault detection architectures, namely, centralized, decentralized, and semi-decentralized are designed based on the extended Kalman filters. Moreover, the residual generation and threshold selection techniques are proposed for these architectures.

Keywords: component, formation flight of satellites, extended Kalman filter, fault detection and isolation, actuator fault

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594 Design of Permanent Sensor Fault Tolerance Algorithms by Sliding Mode Observer for Smart Hybrid Powerpack

Authors: Sungsik Jo, Hyeonwoo Kim, Iksu Choi, Hunmo Kim


In the SHP, LVDT sensor is for detecting the length changes of the EHA output, and the thrust of the EHA is controlled by the pressure sensor. Sensor is possible to cause hardware fault by internal problem or external disturbance. The EHA of SHP is able to be uncontrollable due to control by feedback from uncertain information, on this paper; the sliding mode observer algorithm estimates the original sensor output information in permanent sensor fault. The proposed algorithm shows performance to recovery fault of disconnection and short circuit basically, also the algorithm detect various of sensor fault mode.

Keywords: smart hybrid powerpack (SHP), electro hydraulic actuator (EHA), permanent sensor fault tolerance, sliding mode observer (SMO), graphic user interface (GUI)

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593 Residual Evaluation by Thresholding and Neuro-Fuzzy System: Application to Actuator

Authors: Y. Kourd, D. Lefebvre, N. Guersi


The monitoring of industrial processes is required to ensure operating conditions of industrial systems through automatic detection and isolation of faults. In this paper we propose a method of fault diagnosis based on neuro-fuzzy technique and the choice of a threshold. The validation of this method on a test bench "Actuator Electro DAMADICS Benchmark". In the first phase of the method, we construct a model represents the normal state of the system to fault detection. With residuals analysis generated and the choice of thresholds for signatures table. These signatures provide us with groups of non-detectable faults. In the second phase, we build faulty models to see the flaws in the system that are not located in the first phase.

Keywords: residuals analysis, threshold, neuro-fuzzy system, residual evaluation

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592 Plasma Actuator Application to Control Surfaces of a Model Aircraft

Authors: Yuta Moriyama, Etsuo Morishita


Plasma actuator is very effective to recover stall flows over an upper airfoil surface. We first manufacture the actuator, test the stability of the device by trial and error basis and find the conditions for steady operations. We visualize the flow around an airfoil in the smoke tunnel and observe the stall recovery. The plasma actuator is stationary device and has no moving parts, and it might be an ideal device to control a model aircraft. We can use the actuator not only as a stall recovery device but also as a spoiler. We put the actuator near the leading edge of an elevator of a model aircraft as a spoiler, and measure the aerodynamic forces by a three-component balance. We observe the effect of the plasma actuator on the aerodynamic forces and the device effectiveness changes depending on the angle of attack whether it is positive or negative. We also visualize the flow caused by the plasma actuator by a desk-top Schlieren photography which is otherwise very difficult in a low-speed wind tunnel experiment.

Keywords: aerodynamics, plasma actuator, model aircraft, wind tunnel

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591 Applied Actuator Fault Accommodation in Flight Control Systems Using Fault Reconstruction Based FDD and SMC Reconfiguration

Authors: A. Ghodbane, M. Saad, J. F. Boland, C. Thibeault


Historically, actuators’ redundancy was used to deal with faults occurring suddenly in flight systems. This technique was generally expensive, time consuming and involves increased weight and space in the system. Therefore, nowadays, the on-line fault diagnosis of actuators and accommodation plays a major role in the design of avionic systems. These approaches, known as Fault Tolerant Flight Control systems (FTFCs) are able to adapt to such sudden faults while keeping avionics systems lighter and less expensive. In this paper, a (FTFC) system based on the Geometric Approach and a Reconfigurable Flight Control (RFC) are presented. The Geometric approach is used for cosmic ray fault reconstruction, while Sliding Mode Control (SMC) based on Lyapunov stability theory is designed for the reconfiguration of the controller in order to compensate the fault effect. Matlab®/Simulink® simulations are performed to illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed flight control system against actuators’ faulty signal caused by cosmic rays. The results demonstrate the successful real-time implementation of the proposed FTFC system on a non-linear 6 DOF aircraft model.

Keywords: actuators’ faults, fault detection and diagnosis, fault tolerant flight control, sliding mode control, geometric approach for fault reconstruction, Lyapunov stability

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590 A Comparison of Inverse Simulation-Based Fault Detection in a Simple Robotic Rover with a Traditional Model-Based Method

Authors: Murray L. Ireland, Kevin J. Worrall, Rebecca Mackenzie, Thaleia Flessa, Euan McGookin, Douglas Thomson


Robotic rovers which are designed to work in extra-terrestrial environments present a unique challenge in terms of the reliability and availability of systems throughout the mission. Should some fault occur, with the nearest human potentially millions of kilometres away, detection and identification of the fault must be performed solely by the robot and its subsystems. Faults in the system sensors are relatively straightforward to detect, through the residuals produced by comparison of the system output with that of a simple model. However, faults in the input, that is, the actuators of the system, are harder to detect. A step change in the input signal, caused potentially by the loss of an actuator, can propagate through the system, resulting in complex residuals in multiple outputs. These residuals can be difficult to isolate or distinguish from residuals caused by environmental disturbances. While a more complex fault detection method or additional sensors could be used to solve these issues, an alternative is presented here. Using inverse simulation (InvSim), the inputs and outputs of the mathematical model of the rover system are reversed. Thus, for a desired trajectory, the corresponding actuator inputs are obtained. A step fault near the input then manifests itself as a step change in the residual between the system inputs and the input trajectory obtained through inverse simulation. This approach avoids the need for additional hardware on a mass- and power-critical system such as the rover. The InvSim fault detection method is applied to a simple four-wheeled rover in simulation. Additive system faults and an external disturbance force and are applied to the vehicle in turn, such that the dynamic response and sensor output of the rover are impacted. Basic model-based fault detection is then employed to provide output residuals which may be analysed to provide information on the fault/disturbance. InvSim-based fault detection is then employed, similarly providing input residuals which provide further information on the fault/disturbance. The input residuals are shown to provide clearer information on the location and magnitude of an input fault than the output residuals. Additionally, they can allow faults to be more clearly discriminated from environmental disturbances.

Keywords: fault detection, ground robot, inverse simulation, rover

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589 Effect of Fault Depth on Near-Fault Peak Ground Velocity

Authors: Yanyan Yu, Haiping Ding, Pengjun Chen, Yiou Sun


Fault depth is an important parameter to be determined in ground motion simulation, and peak ground velocity (PGV) demonstrates good application prospect. Using numerical simulation method, the variations of distribution and peak value of near-fault PGV with different fault depth were studied in detail, and the reason of some phenomena were discussed. The simulation results show that the distribution characteristics of PGV of fault-parallel (FP) component and fault-normal (FN) component are distinctly different; the value of PGV FN component is much larger than that of FP component. With the increase of fault depth, the distribution region of the FN component strong PGV moves forward along the rupture direction, while the strong PGV zone of FP component becomes gradually far away from the fault trace along the direction perpendicular to the strike. However, no matter FN component or FP component, the strong PGV distribution area and its value are both quickly reduced with increased fault depth. The results above suggest that the fault depth have significant effect on both FN component and FP component of near-fault PGV.

Keywords: fault depth, near-fault, PGV, numerical simulation

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588 Fault Detection and Isolation of a Three-Tank System using Analytical Temporal Redundancy, Parity Space/Relation Based Residual Generation

Authors: A. T. Kuda, J. J. Dayya, A. Jimoh


This paper investigates the fault detection and Isolation technique of measurement data sets from a three tank system using analytical model-based temporal redundancy which is based on residual generation using parity equations/space approach. It further briefly outlines other approaches of model-based residual generation. The basic idea of parity space residual generation in temporal redundancy is dynamic relationship between sensor outputs and actuator inputs (input-output model). These residuals where then used to detect whether or not the system is faulty and indicate the location of the fault when it is faulty. The method obtains good results by detecting and isolating faults from the considered data sets measurements generated from the system.

Keywords: fault detection, fault isolation, disturbing influences, system failure, parity equation/relation, structured parity equations

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587 Fault-Tolerant Fuzzy Gain-Adaptive PID Control for a 2 DOF Helicopter, TRMS System

Authors: Abderrahmen Bouguerra, Kamel Kara, Djamel Saigaa, Samir Zeghlache, Keltoum Loukal


In this paper, a Fault-Tolerant control of 2 DOF Helicopter (TRMS System) Based on Fuzzy Gain-Adaptive PID is presented. In particular, the introduction part of the paper presents a Fault-Tolerant Control (FTC), the first part of this paper presents a description of the mathematical model of TRMS, an adaptive PID controller is proposed for fault-tolerant control of a TRMS helicopter system in the presence of actuator faults, A fuzzy inference scheme is used to tune in real-time the controller gains, The proposed adaptive PID controller is compared with the conventional PID. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: fuzzy control, gain-adaptive PID, helicopter model, PID control, TRMS system

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586 Dynamics Characterizations of Dielectric Electro- Active Polymer Pull Actuator for Vibration Control

Authors: Abdul Malek Abdul Wahab, Emiliano Rustighi


The elastomeric dielectric material has become a new alternative for actuator technology recently. The characteristic of dielectric elastomer that induces significant strain by applying voltage attracts the attention of many researchers to study this material in actuator technology. Thus, for a couple of years, Danfoss Ventures A/S has established their dielectric electro-active polymer (DEAP), which called Polypower. The main objective of this work was to investigate the characterization of PolyPower folded actuator as a ‘pull’ actuator for vibration control. A range of experiment was carried out on folded actuator including passive (without electrical stimulate) and active (with electrical stimulate) testing. For both categories static and dynamic testing have been done to determine the behavior of folded DEAP actuator. Voltage-Strain experiment determines that DEAP folded actuator is the non-linear system. The voltage supplied has no effect on the natural frequency which shows by ongoing dynamic testing. Finally, varies AC voltage with different amplitude and frequency has been provided to DEAP folded actuator. This experiment shows the parameter that influences the performance of DEAP folded actuator. As a result, the actuator performance dominated by the frequency dependence of the elastic response and was less influenced by dielectric properties.

Keywords: elastomeric dielectric, dielectric electro-active polymer, folded actuator, voltage-strain

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585 Dynamics Characterizations of Dielectric Electro- Active Polymer Pull Actuator for Vibration Control

Authors: A. M. Wahab, E. Rustighi


Elastomeric dielectric material has recently become a new alternative for actuator technology. The characteristics of dielectric elastomers placed between two electrodes to withstand large strain when electrodes are charged has attracted the attention of many researcher to study this material for actuator technology. Thus, in the past few years Danfoss Ventures A/S has established their own dielectric electro-active polymer (DEAP), which was called PolyPower. The main objective of this work was to investigate the dynamic characteristics for vibration control of a PolyPower actuator folded in ‘pull’ configuration. A range of experiments was carried out on the folded actuator including passive (without electrical load) and active (with electrical load) testing. For both categories static and dynamic testing have been done to determine the behavior of folded DEAP actuator. Voltage-Strain experiments show that the DEAP folded actuator is a non-linear system. It is also shown that the voltage supplied has no effect on the natural frequency. Finally, varying AC voltage with different amplitude and frequency shows the parameters that influence the performance of DEAP folded actuator. As a result, the actuator performance dominated by the frequency dependence of the elastic response and was less influenced by dielectric properties.

Keywords: dielectric electro-active polymer, pull actuator, static, dynamic, electromechanical

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584 Design of Torque Actuator in Hybrid Multi-DOF System with Taking into Account Magnetic Saturation

Authors: Hyun-Seok Hong, Tae-Chul Jeong, Huai-Cong Liu, Ju Lee


In this paper, proposes to replace the three-phase SPM for tilting by a single-phase torque actuator of the hybrid multi-DOF system. If a three-phase motor for tilting SPM as acting as instantaneous, low electricity use efficiency, controllability is bad disadvantages. It uses a single-phase torque actuator has a high electrical efficiency compared, good controllability. Thus this will have a great influence on the development and practical use of the system. This study designed a single phase torque actuator in consideration of the magnetic saturation. And compared the SPM and FEM analysis and validation through testing of the production model.

Keywords: hybrid multi-DOF system, SPM, torque actuator, UAV, drone

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583 Sliding Mode Control for Active Suspension System with Actuator Delay

Authors: Aziz Sezgin, Yuksel Hacioglu, Nurkan Yagiz


Sliding mode controller for a vehicle active suspension system is designed in this study. The widely used quarter car model is preferred and it is aimed to improve the ride comfort of the passengers. The effect of the actuator time delay, which may arise due to the information processing, sensors or actuator dynamics, is also taken into account during the design of the controller. A sliding mode controller was designed that has taken into account the actuator time delay by using Smith predictor. The successful performance of the designed controller is confirmed via numerical results.

Keywords: sliding mode control, active suspension system, actuator, time delay, vehicle

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582 Fault-Tolerant Control Study and Classification: Case Study of a Hydraulic-Press Model Simulated in Real-Time

Authors: Jorge Rodriguez-Guerra, Carlos Calleja, Aron Pujana, Iker Elorza, Ana Maria Macarulla


Society demands more reliable manufacturing processes capable of producing high quality products in shorter production cycles. New control algorithms have been studied to satisfy this paradigm, in which Fault-Tolerant Control (FTC) plays a significant role. It is suitable to detect, isolate and adapt a system when a harmful or faulty situation appears. In this paper, a general overview about FTC characteristics are exposed; highlighting the properties a system must ensure to be considered faultless. In addition, a research to identify which are the main FTC techniques and a classification based on their characteristics is presented in two main groups: Active Fault-Tolerant Controllers (AFTCs) and Passive Fault-Tolerant Controllers (PFTCs). AFTC encompasses the techniques capable of re-configuring the process control algorithm after the fault has been detected, while PFTC comprehends the algorithms robust enough to bypass the fault without further modifications. The mentioned re-configuration requires two stages, one focused on detection, isolation and identification of the fault source and the other one in charge of re-designing the control algorithm by two approaches: fault accommodation and control re-design. From the algorithms studied, one has been selected and applied to a case study based on an industrial hydraulic-press. The developed model has been embedded under a real-time validation platform, which allows testing the FTC algorithms and analyse how the system will respond when a fault arises in similar conditions as a machine will have on factory. One AFTC approach has been picked up as the methodology the system will follow in the fault recovery process. In a first instance, the fault will be detected, isolated and identified by means of a neural network. In a second instance, the control algorithm will be re-configured to overcome the fault and continue working without human interaction.

Keywords: fault-tolerant control, electro-hydraulic actuator, fault detection and isolation, control re-design, real-time

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581 Aerodynamic Devices Development for Model Aircraft Control and Wind-Driven Bicycle

Authors: Yuta Moriyama, Tsuyoshi Yamazaki, Etsuo Morishita


Several aerodynamic devices currently attract engineers and research students. The plasma actuator is one of them, and it is very effective to control the flow. The actuator recovers a separated flow to an attached one. The actuator is also inversely applied to a spoiler. The model aircraft might be controlled by this actuator. We develop a model aircraft with the plasma actuator. Another interesting device is the Wells turbine which rotates in one direction. The present authors propose a bicycle with the Wells turbine in the wheels. Power reduction is measured when the turbine is driven by an electric motor at the exit of a wind tunnel. Several Watts power reduction might be possible. This means that the torque of the bike can be augmented by the turbine in the cross wind. These devices are tested in the wind tunnel with a three-component balance and the aerodynamic forces and moment are obtained. In this paper, we introduce these devices and their aerodynamic characteristics. The control force and moment of the plasma actuator are clarified and the power reduction of the bicycle is quantified.

Keywords: aerodynamics, model aircraft, plasma actuator, Wells turbine

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580 Prediction of the Performance of a Bar-Type Piezoelectric Vibration Actuator Depending on the Frequency Using an Equivalent Circuit Analysis

Authors: J. H. Kim, J. H. Kwon, J. S. Park, K. J. Lim


This paper has investigated a technique that predicts the performance of a bar-type unimorph piezoelectric vibration actuator depending on the frequency. This paper has been proposed an equivalent circuit that can be easily analyzed for the bar-type unimorph piezoelectric vibration actuator. In the dynamic analysis, rigidity and resonance frequency, which are important mechanical elements, were derived using the basic beam theory. In the equivalent circuit analysis, the displacement and bandwidth of the piezoelectric vibration actuator depending on the frequency were predicted. Also, for the reliability of the derived equations, the predicted performance depending on the shape change was compared with the result of a finite element analysis program.

Keywords: actuator, piezoelectric, performance, unimorph

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579 Asynchronous Sequential Machines with Fault Detectors

Authors: Seong Woo Kwak, Jung-Min Yang


A strategy of fault diagnosis and tolerance for asynchronous sequential machines is discussed in this paper. With no synchronizing clock, it is difficult to diagnose an occurrence of permanent or stuck-in faults in the operation of asynchronous machines. In this paper, we present a fault detector comprised of a timer and a set of static functions to determine the occurrence of faults. In order to realize immediate fault tolerance, corrective control theory is applied to designing a dynamic feedback controller. Existence conditions for an appropriate controller and its construction algorithm are presented in terms of reachability of the machine and the feature of fault occurrences.

Keywords: asynchronous sequential machines, corrective control, fault diagnosis and tolerance, fault detector

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578 A Review of HVDC Modular Multilevel Converters Subjected to DC and AC Faults

Authors: Jude Inwumoh, Adam P. R. Taylor, Kosala Gunawardane


Modular multilevel converters (MMC) exhibit a highly scalable and modular characteristic with good voltage/power expansion, fault tolerance capability, low output harmonic content, good redundancy, and a flexible front-end configuration. Fault detection, location, and isolation, as well as maintaining fault ride-through (FRT), are major challenges to MMC reliability and power supply sustainability. Different papers have been reviewed to seek the best MMC configuration with fault capability. DC faults are the most common fault, while the probability that AC fault occurs in a modular multilevel converter (MCC) is low; though, AC faults consequence are severe. This paper reviews several MMC topologies and modulation techniques in tackling faults. These fault control strategies are compared based on cost, complexity, controllability, and power loss. A meshed network of half-bridge (HB) MMC topology was optimal in rendering fault ride through than any other MMC topologies but only when combined with DC circuit breakers (CBS), AC CBS, and fault current limiters (FCL).

Keywords: MMC-HVDC, DC faults, fault current limiters, control scheme

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577 A Study on User Authentication Method Using Haptic Actuator and Security Evaluation

Authors: Yo Han Choi, Hee Suk Seo, Seung Hwan Ju, Sung Hyu Han


As currently various portable devices were launched, smart business conducted using them became common. Since smart business can use company-internal resources in an external remote place, user authentication that can identify authentic users is an important factor. Commonly used user authentication is a method of using user ID and Password. In the user authentication using ID and Password, the user should see and enter authentication information him or herself. In this user authentication system depending on the user’s vision, there is the threat of password leaks through snooping in the process which the user enters his or her authentication information. This study designed and produced a user authentication module using an actuator to respond to the snooping threat.

Keywords: actuator, user authentication, security evaluation, haptic actuator

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576 Predictive Functional Control with Disturbance Observer for Tendon-Driven Balloon Actuator

Authors: Jun-ya Nagase, Toshiyuki Satoh, Norihiko Saga, Koichi Suzumori


In recent years, Japanese society has been aging, engendering a labour shortage of young workers. Robots are therefore expected to perform tasks such as rehabilitation, nursing elderly people, and day-to-day work support for elderly people. The pneumatic balloon actuator is a rubber artificial muscle developed for use in a robot hand in such environments. This actuator has a long stroke, and a high power-to-weight ratio compared with the present pneumatic artificial muscle. Moreover, the dynamic characteristics of this actuator resemble those of human muscle. This study evaluated characteristics of force control of balloon actuator using a predictive functional control (PFC) system with disturbance observer. The predictive functional control is a model-based predictive control (MPC) scheme that predicts the future outputs of the actual plants over the prediction horizon and computes the control effort over the control horizon at every sampling instance. For this study, a 1-link finger system using a pneumatic balloon actuator is developed. Then experiments of PFC control with disturbance observer are performed. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of its control of a pneumatic balloon actuator for a robot hand.

Keywords: disturbance observer, pneumatic balloon, predictive functional control, rubber artificial muscle

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575 Analysis of Microstructure around Opak River Pleret Area, Bantul Regency, Special Region of Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia, as a Result of Opak Fault Reactivation, Using Stereographic Method

Authors: Gayus Pratama Polunggu, Pamela Felita Adibrata, Hafidh Fathur Riza


Opak Fault is a large fault that extends from the northeast to the southwest of Yogyakarta Special Region. Opak Fault allegedly re-active after the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake, about eleven years ago. Opak Fault is a big fault, therefore the activation will bring up the microstructure around the Opak River. This microstructure will reveal a different direction of force from the Opak Fault because the trigger for the emergence of the microstructure is the reactivation of the Opak Fault. In other words, this microstructure is a potentially severe weak area during a tectonic disaster. This research was conducted to find out the impact from the reactivation of Opak Fault that triggered the emergence of microstructure around Opak River which is very useful for disaster mitigation information around research area. This research used the approach from literature study in the form of the journal of structural geology and field study. The method used is a laboratory analysis in the form of stereographic analysis.

Keywords: Opak fault, reactivation, microstructure, stereographic

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574 Cross Project Software Fault Prediction at Design Phase

Authors: Pradeep Singh, Shrish Verma


Software fault prediction models are created by using the source code, processed metrics from the same or previous version of code and related fault data. Some company do not store and keep track of all artifacts which are required for software fault prediction. To construct fault prediction model for such company, the training data from the other projects can be one potential solution. The earlier we predict the fault the less cost it requires to correct. The training data consists of metrics data and related fault data at function/module level. This paper investigates fault predictions at early stage using the cross-project data focusing on the design metrics. In this study, empirical analysis is carried out to validate design metrics for cross project fault prediction. The machine learning techniques used for evaluation is Naïve Bayes. The design phase metrics of other projects can be used as initial guideline for the projects where no previous fault data is available. We analyze seven data sets from NASA Metrics Data Program which offer design as well as code metrics. Overall, the results of cross project is comparable to the within company data learning.

Keywords: software metrics, fault prediction, cross project, within project.

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573 Voltage Profile Enhancement in the Unbalanced Distribution Systems during Fault Conditions

Authors: K. Jithendra Gowd, Ch. Sai Babu, S. Sivanagaraju


Electric power systems are daily exposed to service interruption mainly due to faults and human accidental interference. Short circuit currents are responsible for several types of disturbances in power systems. The fault currents are high and the voltages are reduced at the time of fault. This paper presents two suitable methods, consideration of fault resistance and Distributed Generator are implemented and analyzed for the enhancement of voltage profile during fault conditions. Fault resistance is a critical parameter of electric power systems operation due to its stochastic nature. If not considered, this parameter may interfere in fault analysis studies and protection scheme efficiency. The effect of Distributed Generator is also considered. The proposed methods are tested on the IEEE 37 bus test systems and the results are compared.

Keywords: distributed generation, electrical distribution systems, fault resistance

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