Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Search results for: decentralization

52 Tax Competition and Partial Tax Coordination under Fiscal Decentralization

Authors: Patricia Sanz-Cordoba, Bernd Theilen

Abstract:

This article analyzes the conditions where decentralization and partial tax harmonization in a coalition of asymmetric jurisdictions plays a role in the fight of fiscal competition (i.e. the race to bottom). Starting from a centralized economies, we use the ZM-W model to analyze the fiscal competition and coordination among three countries. We find that the asymmetry of jurisdictions facilitates partial tax harmonization between jurisdictions when these asymmetries are not too large. Furthermore, when the asymmetries are large enough, the level of labor tax plays an important role in the decision of decentralize capital tax. Accordingly, decentralization is achievable when labor tax is low. This result indicates that decentralization and partial tax harmonization between jurisdictions can be possible results in order to fight the negative externalities from fiscal competition, and more in the European Union countries where the asymmetries are substantial.

Keywords: centralization, decentralization, fiscal competition, partial tax harmonization

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51 The Relevance of PISA Tests in the Decentralization of the Educational System in Romania

Authors: Nitu Marilena Cristina

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Decentralization of the education system is an educational policy option necessary from the perspective of democratizing internal life and streamlining service administration public. The experience of recent years has shown that decisions taken at central level do not to take into account all situations and especially all the specific needs and interests of the various institutions and individuals. A democratic society implies that the decision-making process is brought closer to the place of application, allowing citizens to take part in the decision-making that affects them directly or indirectly. Essentially decentralization of pre-university education is the transfer of authority, responsibility and resources in decision-making and general management, and financially to the educational units and the local community. This creates a frame of an effective collaboration between school and community. Modern theories on the leadership of education advocate the adoption of decentralization measures and participatory strategies. Numerous countries confronted with the educational impasse has appealed to these strategies. Reforming projects have begun application diversified and nuanced social decentralization models according to the specific social and educational situation. Analysis of legal provisions and measures adopted in the framework of the reform process indicates that, at least formally, decentralization is the solution chosen.

Keywords: decentralization, educational, management, reforming

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50 Decentralization and Participatory Approach in the Cultural Heritage Management in Local Thailand

Authors: Amorn Kritsanaphan

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This paper illustrates the decentralization of cultural heritage management in local Thailand, a place similar to other middle- income developing countries characterized by rapid tourism-industrialization, weakness formal state institutions and procedures, and intensity use of the cultural heritage resources. The author conducted field research in local Thailand, principally using qualitative primary data gathering. These were combined with records reviews and content analysis of documents. The author also attended local public meetings, and social activities, and interacted casually with local residents and governments. Cultural heritage management has been supposed to improve through multi-stakeholder participation and decentralization. However, processes and outcomes are far from being straightforward and depend on a variety of contingencies and contexts involved. Multi-stakeholder and participatory approach in decentralization of the cultural heritage management in Thailand have pushed to the forefront and sharpened a number of existing problems. However, under the decentralization, the most significant contribution has been in creating real political space where various local stakeholders have become active, respond and address their concerns in various ways vis-à-vis cultural heritage problems. Improving cultural heritage sustainability and viability of local livelihoods through decentralization and participatory approach is by no means certain. However, the shift instead creates spaces potent with possibilities for a meaningful and constructive engagement between and among local state and non-state actors that can lead to synergies and positive outcomes.

Keywords: decentralization, participatory approach, cultural heritage management, multi-stakeholder approach

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49 The Dynamic of Decentralization of Education Policy in Post-Reform Indonesia: Local Perspectives

Authors: Mudiyati Rahmatunnisa

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This study is about the implementation of decentralization of education policy in today’s Indonesia’s reform era. The policy has made education as one of the basic public services that must be performed by the local governments. After more than a decade of implementing the policy, what have been achieved? Has the implementation of educational affairs in the region been able to improve the quality of education services in the region? What obstacles or challenges faced by the region in the implementation of the educational affairs? How does region overcome obstacles or challenges? In answering those strategic questions, this study will particularly investigate the implementation of educational affairs in the city and District of Cirebon, the two district level of governments in West Java Province. The two loci of study provide interesting insight, given the range of previous studies did not specifically investigate using a local perspective (city and district level). This study employs a qualitative research method through case studies. Operationally, this study is sustained by several data collection techniques, i.e. interviews, documentary method, and systematic observation. Needless to say, there have been many factors distorting the ideal construction of decentralization of education policy.

Keywords: decentralization, decentralization of education, policy implementation, public service

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48 The Problem of Relation between Concepts Empathy and Decentration in Psychology

Authors: Elina Asriyan, Lusine Stepanyan

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This article is devoted to the study of connection between empathy and decentration. We have discovered a positive connection between these two indicators. Empathy is a variety of emotional decentration, and due to the decentration development process. To understand the investigated phenomenon it was applied a complex approach. The recorded results state that empathy and decentralization are interconnected with each other; empathy being a type of emotional decentralization is conditioned by the formation process of decentration.

Keywords: empathy, decentration, emotional decentration, egocentricity

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47 The Paradox of Decentralization and Civic Culture: An Exploratory Study Applied to Local Governments in Papua New Guinea

Authors: Francis Wargirai

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Since gaining independence in 1975, Papua New Guinea`s core challenge has been the consolidation of democracy against a backdrop of enormous social, political and territorial diversity. Consequently, the government has implemented several political reforms including decentralization. Constitutional planners believed that national unity, would be better achieved by sharing state power over centralization. They anticipated that this would institutionalize a democratic civic culture by providing opportunities to groups and individuals to make political decisions within their jurisdiction. This would then eventually lead to confidence and participation in the larger entity of the state. In retrospect, civil society and community based groups are largely underrated and have had minimal influence on decisions at the local level, consequently contributing to nepotism, patronism and cynicism. By applying an elitist approach to analyze how national political leaders exert their influence and power within the local government system and local communities, this paper argues that decentralization has fragmented local communities. With an absence of political party roots and deeply divided ethnic groups, national political leaders have used divide and rule tactics resulting in mistrust among citizens. Through their influence and power within local governments to dictate projects and services to certain areas, this has resulted in skepticism and divisions among civil society along different cultural cleavages. This has been a contributing factor to anomalies in democratic consolidation and democratic political culture in Papua New Guinea.

Keywords: civic culture, cultural cleavages, decentralization, democratic consolidation

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46 Money Laundering and Governance in Cryptocurrencies: The Double-Edged Sword of Blockchain Technology

Authors: Jiaqi Yan, Yani Shi

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With the growing popularity of bitcoin transactions, criminals have exploited the bitcoin like cryptocurrencies, and cybercriminals such as money laundering have thrived. Unlike traditional currencies, the Internet-based virtual currencies can be used anonymously via the blockchain technology underpinning. In this paper, we analyze the double-edged sword features of blockchain technology in the context of money laundering. In particular, the traceability feature of blockchain-based system facilitates a level of governance, while the decentralization feature of blockchain-based system may bring governing difficulties. Based on the analysis, we propose guidelines for policy makers in governing blockchain-based cryptocurrency systems.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, money laundering, blockchain, decentralization, traceability

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45 The Research on Decentralization Supervision Mechanism of Town and Village Culture Based On Authenticity Evaluation

Authors: Chao Ma

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In this paper, the evaluation criteria of authenticity evaluation system model are taken as the foundation so as to discuss the establishment problems about decentralization supervision system and mechanism of historical cultural town and village. The filtration of fitting towns and village's authenticity is conducted from the level, characteristic index and authentic assessment of evaluation model, thereby, supervising subject -interest related- coordinate organization can be taken as the venation in the management level, thus supervision mechanism of town and village's cultural inheritance can be combed, and the cultural inheritance management system and mechanism which is suitable to historical and cultural Chinese town and village will be provided. As the settlement with strong self-organizing characteristic, town and village don't recognize the management system as deeply as city. Therefore, it is necessary to establish town and village cultural evaluation system based on authenticity evaluation criteria. In this paper, authenticity evaluation system is established by taking this village's value evaluation criteria and protection as the cores, and the classification of participating options is beneficial to distribute local limited resources, protect hierarchically and accord with the local characters of town and village, build the evaluation system to run through the whole process of cultural inheritance, moreover, provide abundant information resources and make sure the value judgment criteria, thus supervision and management can be strengthened to effectively guard risk. By the above judgement and filtration of participating options, the management object with clear functions and supervision and coordination organization are established, thereby, the managerial logic of interest-related persons' decentralization can be clarified, evaluation system can be established, and the more targeted decentralization supervision system and mechanism of historical and cultural village will be built ultimately. Taking this method as a fundamental in cultural protection of town and village, not only can it be carried forward in the mass media, but also can cultivate the identity sense of indigenous people to come back historical and cultural villages, and resist the replacement of city culture.

Keywords: authenticity, rural culture, inheritance, supervision

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44 Sub-Municipal Government as a Tool for Decentralization

Authors: Mirko Klaric

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In different countries, sub-municipal units have different organizational and political positions. In some countries, the role of sub-municipal units is important; in others, it is marginal. That depends on the organization of the local government system in different countries, and the political role of local self-government units, their size, public authorities, and the possibility for managing various local public tasks. This paper attempts to analyze the sub-municipal government as an organizational form of local governance participation of citizens in the local community with a comparative perspective. Secondly, it presents elements that generally format sub-municipal government as a tool for strengthening of democratization processes in local government units. Those elements are crucial for the understanding of the dynamic in relation to local government vs. sub-municipal government. Special focus is put on the sub-municipal government in South-Eastern European countries, which have a common history and institutional framework, with this main question: how can sub-municipal government contribute to strengthening democratic processes in these countries. In centralized countries, the sub-municipal government usually has a reduced role, which relates to managing public tasks connected with local community needs. The purpose of this comparative research methodology is used for analyzing the present organization and role of sub-municipal government in local government systems in Croatia and other significant countries in Europe, with a special focus on the states in South-Eastern Europe and Croatia. Comparative analyses attempt to show that local government systems with bigger local government units have more significant sub-municipal government. On the other hand, local government systems with small local government units don’t have a strong sub-municipal government. Finally, this paper aims to present ideas on how the sub-municipal government can improve decentralization and contribute to better development of the local community and the whole of society.

Keywords: public administration, local government, sub-municipal government, decentralization

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43 The Nexus of Federalism and Economic Development: A Politico-Economic Analysis of Balochistan, Pakistan

Authors: Rameesha Javaid

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Balochistan, the largest landmass named after and dominated by the 55% Baloch population, which has had a difficult anti-center history like their brothers the Kurds of Middle East, reluctantly acceded to Pakistan in 1947. The region, which attained the status of a province after two decades of accession, has lagged behind in social development and economic growth as compared to the other three federating units. The province has seen the least financial autonomy and administrative decentralization both in autocratic and democratic dispensations under geostrategic and security considerations. Significant corrections have been recently made in the policy framework through changing the formula for intra-provincial National Finance Award, curtailing the number of subjects under federal control, and reactivating the Council of Common Interests. Yet policymaking remains overwhelmingly bureaucratic under a weak parliamentary oversight. The provincial coalition governments are unwieldy and directionless. The government machinery has much less than the optimal capability, character, integrity, will, and opportunity to perform. Decentralization further loses its semblance in the absence of local governments for long intervals and with the hold of hereditary tribal chiefs. Increased allocations failed to make an impact in the highest per capita cost environment due to long distances and scattered settlements. Decentralization, the basic ingredient of federalism has remained mortgaged to geo-strategic factors, internal security perceptions, autocratic and individualistic styles of governments, bureaucratic policymaking structures, bad governance, non-existent local governments, and feudalistic tribal lords. This suboptimal federalism speaks for the present underdevelopment in Balochistan and will earmark the milestones in the future.

Keywords: Balochistan, economic development, federalism, political economy

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42 The Antecedent Variables of Government Financial Accounting System (SAKD) Implementation and Its Consequences: Empirical Study on the Device of Regional Coordinating Agency for Development of Cross County, City Region III Central Java Province, Indo

Authors: Dona Primasari

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This study examines the antecedent variables of Government Financial Acccounting System (SAKD) implementation and its consequence. The antecedent variables are: decentralization of decision making, adaptation, and the manager support. The consequences are satisfaction and performance officer. This research represents the empirical test which used convenience sampling technics in data collection. The data were collected from 167 officers of local government in the Regional Coordinating Agency for Development of Cross County/City Region III Central Java Province. Data analysis used Structural Equation Model (SEM) with the AMOS 18.0 program. The result of hypothesis examination indicates that six raised hypothesis are accepted and two hypothesis are rejected.

Keywords: decentralization of decision making, adaptation officer, manager support, implementation of Government Accounting Financial System (SAKD), satisfaction and performance officer

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41 A Study of Welfare State and Indian Democracy by Exploration of Social Welfare Programmes in India

Authors: Kuldeep Singh

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The present paper is an attempt for tracing the changes in the welfare state in Indian democracy from the starting point till now and aims to critical analyse the social-welfare programmes in India with respect to welfare state. After getting independence from Britishers, India became a welfare state and is aiming towards the upliftment of its citizens. Indian democracy is considered to be the largest amongst democratic countries, instead of this after forty-five years of independence, Panchayati Raj Institution became one of the branches of democratic decentralization institutions in India by 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment in 1992. Unfortunately, desired purpose of introducing Panchayati Raj Institution is not achieved after all these delayed efforts. The basic problem regarding achievement of welfare state in India in true sense is unawareness and non-implementation of these social-welfare programmes. Presently, Indian government is only focusing on economic growth of the country but lacking from the social point. The doctrinal method of research is used in this research paper. In the concluding remarks, researcher is partly favoring the government in introducing welfare programmes as there are abundant of welfare schemes and programmes, but majority are facing implementation problem. In last, researcher has suggested regarding programmes and schemes that these should be qualitative in nature and power would be given to effective machinery for further check upon their proper implementation and aware the citizens regarding their rights so that welfare state would be achieved.

Keywords: democratic decentralization, Indian democracy, Panchayati Raj institution, social-welfare programmes, welfare state

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40 Buffer Zone a Means of Reduction of Deforestation on Protected Area: A Case Study of Gunung Palung National Park in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Authors: Dhruba Khatri, Uttam Ghimire, Nabin Kumar Thapalia

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Protected area management in Indonesia is based on MAB program and ICDPs have become Indonesia’s main approach to biodiversity conservation since the early 1990s. However, very few ICDPs have realized the importance of biodiversity conservation in Indonesia and significantly enhanced as a result of currently planned project activities. Gunung Palung National Park in West Kalimantan was damaged illegal logging after decentralization. It made clear through the field survey: (1) Agroforestry did not make reduce to deforestation on regional level and (2) local people who engaging illegal logging activities have two characteristics that for their life and for vent of surplus labor in village. From these results, it became clear that a local resident had a bilateral character as an actor of conservation and the deforestation and also it confirmed that a market also was working on both of the conservation and deforestation. Therefore, surplus labor can be the key actors for future program design and at the same time it is necessary corroborative system which central government, local government, and local people are concerned with the process of policy making under the situation that management body of national park and buffer zone was separated.

Keywords: buffer zone, decentralization, Gunung Palung National Park, illegal logging, Indonesia

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39 Mobile Assembly of Electric Vehicles: Decentralized, Low-Invest and Flexible

Authors: Achim Kampker, Kai Kreiskoether, Johannes Wagner, Sarah Fluchs

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The growing speed of innovation in related industries requires the automotive industry to adapt and increase release frequencies of new vehicle derivatives which implies a significant reduction of investments per vehicle and ramp-up times. Emerging markets in various parts of the world augment the currently dominating established main automotive markets. Local content requirements such as import tariffs on final products impede the accessibility of these micro markets, which is why in the future market exploitation will not be driven by pure sales activities anymore but rather by setting up local assembly units. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the concept of decentralized assembly and to discuss and critically assess some currently researched and crucial approaches in production technology. In order to determine the scope in which complementary mobile assembly can be profitable for manufacturers, a general cost model is set up and each cost driver is assessed with respect to varying levels of decentralization. One main result of the paper is that the presented approaches offer huge cost-saving potentials and are thus critical for future production strategies. Nevertheless, they still need to be further exploited in order for decentralized assembly to be profitable for companies. The optimal level of decentralization must, however, be specifically determined in each case and cannot be defined in general.

Keywords: automotive assembly, e-mobility, production technology, release capability, small series assembly

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38 Managerial Leadership Styles of Deans in Indonesian Universities

Authors: Jenny Ngo, Harry De Boer, Jurgen Enders

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Indonesian higher education has experienced significant changes over the last decade. In 1999, the government published an overall strategy for decentralization and enhancement of local autonomy in many sectors, including (higher) education. Indonesian higher education reforms have forced universities to restructure their internal university governance to become more entrepreneurial. These new types of internal university governance are likely to affect the institutions’ leadership and management. This paper discusses the approach and findings of a study on the managerial leadership styles of deans in Indonesian universities. The study aims to get a better understanding of styles exhibited by deans manifested in their behaviors. Using the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, in combination with the competing values framework, a large-scale survey was conducted to gather information on the deans’ behaviors, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Based on the responses of a sample of 218 deans, the study identifies a number of leadership styles: the Master, the Competitive Consultant, the Consensual Goal-Setter, the Focused Team Captain, and the Informed Trust-Builder style. The study demonstrates that attitudes are the primary determinant of the styles that were found. Perceived behavioral control is a factor that explains some managerial leadership styles. By understanding the attitudes of deans in Indonesian universities, and their leadership styles, universities can strengthen their management and governance, and thus improve their effectiveness.

Keywords: deans, Indonesian higher education, leadership and management styles, decentralization

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37 Research and Design of Functional Mixed Community: A Model Based on the Construction of New Districts in China

Authors: Wu Chao

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The urban design of the new district in China is different from other existing cities at the city planning level, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, etc. And the urban problems of these super-cities are same as many big cities around the world. The goal of the new district construction plan is to enable people to live comfortably, to improve the well-being of residents, and to create a way of life different from that of other urban communities. To avoid the emergence of the super community, the idea of "decentralization" is taken as the overall planning idea, and the function and form of each community are set up with a homogeneous allocation of resources so that the community can grow naturally. Similar to the growth of vines in nature, each community groups are independent and connected through roads, with clear community boundaries that limit their unlimited expansion. With a community contained 20,000 people as a case, the community is a mixture for living, production, office, entertainment, and other functions. Based on the development of the Internet, to create more space for public use, and can use data to allocate resources in real time. And this kind of shared space is the main part of the activity space in the community. At the same time, the transformation of spatial function can be determined by the usage feedback of all kinds of existing space, and the use of space can be changed by the changing data. Take the residential unit as the basic building function mass, take the lower three to four floors of the building as the main flexible space for use, distribute functions such as entertainment, service, office, etc. For the upper living space, set up a small amount of indoor and outdoor activity space, also used as shared space. The transformable space of the bottom layer is evenly distributed, combined with the walking space connected the community, the service and entertainment network can be formed in the whole community, and can be used in most of the community space. With the basic residential unit as the replicable module, the design of the other residential units runs through the idea of decentralization and the concept of the vine community, and the various units are reasonably combined. At the same time, a small number of office buildings are added to meet the special office needs. The new functional mixed community can change many problems of the present city in the future construction, at the same time, it can keep its vitality through the adjustment function of the Internet.

Keywords: decentralization, mixed functional community, shared space, spatial usage data

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36 A Paradigm Model of Educational Policy Review Strategies To Develop Professional Schools

Authors: Farhad Shafiepour Motlagh, and Narges Salehi

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Purpose: The aim of the present study was a paradigm model of educational policy review strategies for the development of Professional schools in Iran. Research Methodology: The research method was based on Grounded theory. The statistical population included all articles of the ten years 2022-2010 and the method of sampling in a purposeful manner to the extent of theoretical saturation to 31 articles. For data analysis, open coding, axial coding and selective coding were used. Results: The results showed that causal conditions include social requirements (social expectations, educational justice, social justice); technology requirements (use of information and communication technology, use of new learning methods), educational requirements (development of educational territory, Development of educational tools and development of learning methods), contextual conditions including dual dimensions (motivational-psychological context, context of participation and cooperation), strategic conditions including (decentralization, delegation, organizational restructuring), intervention conditions (poor knowledge) Human resources, centralized system governance) and outcomes (school productivity, school professionalism, graduate entry into the labor market) were obtained. Conclusion: A review of educational policy is necessary to develop Iran's Professional schools, and this depends on decentralization, delegation, and, of course, empowerment of school principals.

Keywords: school productivity, professional schools, educational policy, paradigm

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35 Community Participation in Decentralized Management of Natural Resources in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone of West Africa

Authors: Clarisse Umutoni, Augustine Ayantunde, Matthew Turner, Germain J. Sawadogo

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Decentralized governance of natural resources is considered one of the key strategies for promoting sustainable management of natural resources at local level. The rationale behind decentralization of natural resources is that local populations are both better situated and more highly motivated than outside agencies to manage the resources in an ecologically and economically sustainable manner. Effective decentralized natural resource management requires strong local natural resource institutions. Therefore, strengthening local institutions governing natural resource management is essential to promoting strong participation of local communities in managing their resources. This paper investigated the existing local institutions (rules, norms and or local conventions) governing the management of natural resources and forms of community participation in the development of these natural resource institutions. Group discussions and individual interviews were conducted to collect data. Our findings showed significant variation within the study sites regarding the level of knowledge of existing local rules and norms governing the management of natural resources by the respondents. The results also show that participation was dominated by a small group of individuals, often community leaders and elites. The results suggest that women are marginalized. In general, factors which influence the level of participation include; age, year of residence in the community, gender and education level. This study also highlights the strengths of local natural resource institutions especially if enforced. Presently, the big challenge that faces the institutions governing natural resource use in the study area is the system of representativeness in the community in the development of local rules and norms as community leaders and household heads often dominate, which does not encourage active participation of community members. Therefore, for effective implementation of local natural resource institutions, the interest of key natural resource users should be taken into account. It is also important to promote rules and norms that attempt to protect or strengthen women’s access to natural resources in the community.

Keywords: decentralization, land use plan, local institutions, Mali

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34 The Impact of Public Finance Management on Economic Growth and Development in South Africa

Authors: Zintle Sikhunyana

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Management of public finance in many countries such as South Africa is affected by political decisions and by policies around fiscal decentralization amongst the government spheres. Economic success is said to be determined by efficient management of public finance and by the policies or strategies that are implemented to support efficient public finance management. Policymakers focus on pay attention to how economic policies have been implemented and how they are directed into ensuring stable development. This will allow policymakers to address economic challenges through the usage of fiscal policy parameters that are linked to the achieved rate of economic growth and development. Efficient public finance management reduces the likelihood of corruption and corruption is said to have negative effects on economic growth and development. Corruption in public finance refers to an act of using funds for personal benefits. To achieve macroeconomic objectives, governments make use of government expenditure and government expenditure is financed through tax revenue. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the potential impact of public finance management on economic growth and development in South Africa. The secondary data obtained from the South African Reserve Bank (SARB) and World Bank for 1980- 2020 has been utilized to achieve the research objectives. To test the impact of public finance management on economic growth and development, the study will use Seeming Unrelated Regression Equation (SURE) Modelling that allows researchers to model multiple equations with interdependent variables. The advantages of using SUR are that it efficiently allows estimation of relationships between variables by combining information on different equations and SUR test restrictions that involve parameters in different equations. The findings have shown that there is a positive relationship between efficient public finance management and economic growth/development. The findings also show that efficient public finance management has an indirect positive impact on economic growth and development. Corruption has a negative impact on economic growth and development. It results in an efficient allocation of government resources and thereby improves economic growth and development. The study recommends that governments who aim to stimulate economic growth and development should target and strengthen public finance management policies or strategies.

Keywords: corruption, economic growth, economic development, public finance management, fiscal decentralization

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33 A Survey on Important Factors of the Ethereum Network Performance

Authors: Ali Mohammad Mobaser Azad, Alireza Akhlaghinia

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Blockchain is changing our world and launching a new generation of decentralized networks. Meanwhile, Blockchain-based networks like Ethereum have been created and they will facilitate these processes using tools like smart contracts. The Ethereum has fundamental structures, each of which affects the activity of the nodes. Our purpose in this paper is to review similar research and examine various components to demonstrate the performance of the Ethereum network and to do this, and we used the data published by the Ethereum Foundation in different time spots to examine the number of changes that determine the status of network performance. This will help other researchers understand better Ethereum in different situations.

Keywords: blockchain, ethereum, smart contract, decentralization consensus algorithm

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32 Federalizing the Philippines: What Does It Mean for the Igorot Indigenous Peoples?

Authors: Shierwin Agagen Cabunilas

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The unitary form of Philippine government has built a tradition of bureaucracy that strengthened oligarch and clientele politics. Consequently, the Philippines is lagged behind development. There is so much poverty, unemployment, and inadequate social services. In addition, it seems that the rights of national ethnic minority groups like the Igorots to develop their political and economic interests, linguistic and cultural heritage are neglected. Given these circumstances, a paradigm shift is inevitable. The author advocates a transition from a unitary to a federal system of government. Contrary to the notion that a unitary system facilitates better governance, it actually stifles it. As a unitary government, the Philippines seems (a) to exhibit incompetence in delivering efficient, necessary services to the people and (b) to exclude the minority from political participation and policy making. This shows that Philippine unitary system is highly centralized and operates from a top-bottom scheme. However, a federal system encourages decentralization, plurality and political participation. In my view, federalism is beneficial to the Philippine society and congenial to the Igorot indigenous peoples insofar as participative decision-making and development goals are concerned. This research employs critical and constructive analyses. The former interprets some complex practices of Philippine politics while the latter investigates how theories of federalism can be appropriated to deal with political deficits, ethnic diversity, and indigenous peoples’ rights to self-determination. The topic is developed accordingly: First, the author briefly examines the unitary structure of the Philippines and its impact on inter-governmental affairs and processes, asserting that bureaucracy and corruption, for example, are counterproductive to a participative political life, to economic development and to the recognition of national ethnic minorities. Second, he scrutinizes why federalism might transform this. Here, he assesses various opposing philosophical contentions on federal system in managing ethnically diverse society, like the Philippines, and argue that decentralization of political power, economic and cultural developments are reasons to exit from unitary government. Third, he suggests that federalism can be instrumental to Igorots self-determination. Self-determination is neither opposed to national development nor to the ideals of democracy – liberty, justice, solidarity. For example, as others have already noted, a politics in the vernacular facilitates greater participation among the people. Hence, there is a greater chance to arrive at policies that serve the interest of the people. Some may wary that decentralization disintegrates a nation. According to the author, however, the recognition of minority rights which includes self-determination may promote filial devotion to the state. If Igorot indigenous peoples have access to suitable institutions to determine their political life, economic goals, social needs, i.e., education, culture, language, chances are it moves the country forward to development fostering national unity. Remarkably, federal system thus best responds to the Philippines’s democratic and development deficits. Federalism can also significantly rectify the practices that oppress and dislocate national ethnic minorities as it ensures the creation of localized institutions for optimum political, economic, cultural determination and maximizes representation in the public sphere.

Keywords: federalism, Igorot, indigenous peoples, self-determination

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31 Technology Assessment: Exploring Possibilities to Encounter Problems Faced by Intellectual Property through Blockchain

Authors: M. Ismail, E. Grifell-Tatjé, A. Paz

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A significant discussion on the topic of blockchain as a solution to the issues of intellectual property highlights the relevance that this topic holds. Some experts label this technology as destructive since it holds immense potential to change course of traditional practices. The extent and areas to which this technology can be of use are still being researched. This paper provides an in-depth review on the intellectual property and blockchain technology. Further it explores what makes blockchain suitable for intellectual property, the practical solutions available and the support different governments are offering. This paper further studies the framework of universities in context of its outputs and how can they be streamlined using blockchain technology. The paper concludes by discussing some limitations and future research question.

Keywords: blockchain, decentralization, open innovation, intellectual property, patents, university-industry relationship

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30 Population Centralization in Urban Area and Metropolitans in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Urban Centralization in Iran

Authors: Safar Ghaedrahmati, Leila Soltani

Abstract:

Population centralization in urban area and metropolitans, especially in developing countries such as Iran increase metropolitan's problems. For few decades, the population of cities in developing countries, including Iran had a higher growth rate than the total growth rate of countries’ population. While in developed countries, the development of the big cities began decades ago and generally allowed for controlled and planned urban expansion, the opposite is the case in developing countries, where rapid urbanization process is characterized by an unplanned existing urban expansion. The developing metropolitan cities have enormous difficulties in coping both with the natural population growth and the urban physical expansion. Iranian cities are usually the heart of economic and cultural changes that have occurred after the Islamic revolution in 1979. These cities are increasingly having impacts via political–economical arrangement and chiefly by urban management structures. Structural features have led to the population growth of cities and urbanization (in number, population and physical frame) and the main problems in them. On the other hand, the lack of birth control policies and the deceptive attractions of cities, particularly big cities, and the birth rate has shot up, something which has occurred mainly in rural regions and small cities. The population of Iran has increased rapidly since 1956. The 1956 and 1966 decennial censuses counted the population of Iran at 18.9 million and 25.7 million, respectively, with a 3.1% annual growth rate during the 1956–1966 period. The 1976 and 1986 decennial censuses counted Iran’s population at 33.7 and 49.4 million, respectively, a 2.7% and 3.9% annual growth rate during the 1966–1976 and 1976–1986 periods. The 1996 count put Iran’s population at 60 million, a 1.96% annual growth rate from 1986–1996 and the 2006 count put Iran population at 72 million. A recent major policy of urban economic and industrial decentralization is a persistent program of the government. The policy has been identified as a result of the massive growth of Tehran in the recent years, up to 9 million by 2010. Part of the growth of the capitally resulted from the lack of economic opportunities elsewhere and in order to redress the developing primacy of Tehran and the domestic pressures which it is undergoing, the policy of decentralization is to be implemented as quickly as possible. Type of research is applied and method of data collection is documentary and methods of analysis are; population analysis with urban system analysis and urban distribution system

Keywords: population centralization, cities of Iran, urban centralization, urban system

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29 Blockchain Platform Configuration for MyData Operator in Digital and Connected Health

Authors: Minna Pikkarainen, Yueqiang Xu

Abstract:

The integration of digital technology with existing healthcare processes has been painfully slow, a huge gap exists between the fields of strictly regulated official medical care and the quickly moving field of health and wellness technology. We claim that the promises of preventive healthcare can only be fulfilled when this gap is closed – health care and self-care becomes seamless continuum “correct information, in the correct hands, at the correct time allowing individuals and professionals to make better decisions” what we call connected health approach. Currently, the issues related to security, privacy, consumer consent and data sharing are hindering the implementation of this new paradigm of healthcare. This could be solved by following MyData principles stating that: Individuals should have the right and practical means to manage their data and privacy. MyData infrastructure enables decentralized management of personal data, improves interoperability, makes it easier for companies to comply with tightening data protection regulations, and allows individuals to change service providers without proprietary data lock-ins. This paper tackles today’s unprecedented challenges of enabling and stimulating multiple healthcare data providers and stakeholders to have more active participation in the digital health ecosystem. First, the paper systematically proposes the MyData approach for healthcare and preventive health data ecosystem. In this research, the work is targeted for health and wellness ecosystems. Each ecosystem consists of key actors, such as 1) individual (citizen or professional controlling/using the services) i.e. data subject, 2) services providing personal data (e.g. startups providing data collection apps or data collection devices), 3) health and wellness services utilizing aforementioned data and 4) services authorizing the access to this data under individual’s provided explicit consent. Second, the research extends the existing four archetypes of orchestrator-driven healthcare data business models for the healthcare industry and proposes the fifth type of healthcare data model, the MyData Blockchain Platform. This new architecture is developed by the Action Design Research approach, which is a prominent research methodology in the information system domain. The key novelty of the paper is to expand the health data value chain architecture and design from centralization and pseudo-decentralization to full decentralization, enabled by blockchain, thus the MyData blockchain platform. The study not only broadens the healthcare informatics literature but also contributes to the theoretical development of digital healthcare and blockchain research domains with a systemic approach.

Keywords: blockchain, health data, platform, action design

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28 Intended and Unintended Outcomes of Partnerships at the Local Level in Slovakia

Authors: Daniel Klimovský

Abstract:

Slovakia belongs to the most fragmented countries if one looks at its local government structure. The Slovak central governments implemented both broad devolution and fiscal decentralization some decades ago. However, neither territorial consolidation nor size categorization of local competences and powers has been implemented yet. Taking this fact into account, it is clear that the local governments are challenged not only by their citizens as customers but also by effectiveness as well as efficiency of delivered services. The paper is focused on behavior of the local governments in Slovakia and their approaches towards other local partners, including other local governments. Analysis of set of interviews shows that inter-municipal cooperation is the most common local partnership in Slovakia, but due to diversity of the local governments, this kind of cooperation leads to both intended and unintended outcomes. While in many cases the local governments are more efficient as well as effective in delivery of local services thanks to inter-municipal cooperation, there are many cases where inter-municipal cooperation fails, and it brings rather questionable or even negative outcomes.

Keywords: local governments, local partnerships, inter-municipal cooperation, delivery of local services

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27 New Public Management: Step towards Democratization

Authors: Aneri Mehta, Krunal Mehta

Abstract:

Administration is largely based on two sciences: ‘management science’ and ‘political science’. The approach of new public management is more inclined towards the management science. Era of ‘New Public Management’ has affected the developing countries very immensely. Public management reforms are needed to enhance the development of the countries. This reform mainly includes capacity building, control of corruption, political decentralization, debureaucratization and public empowerment. This gives the opportunity to create self-sustaining change in the governance. This paper includes the link of approach of new public management and their effect on building effective democratization in the country. This approach mainly focuses on rationality and effectiveness of governance system. These need to have deep efforts on technological, organizational, social and cultural fields. Bringing citizen participation in governance is main objective of NPM. The shift from traditional public management to new public management have low success rate of reforms. This research includes case study of RTI which is a big step of government towards citizen centric approach of governance. The aspect of ‘publicness’ in the democratic policy implementation is important for good governance in India.

Keywords: public management, development, public empowerment, governance

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26 Urban Innovations: Towards a Comprehensive and Sustainable City Development

Authors: Sarang Yeola

Abstract:

A smart city can be defined as a city that uses Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to enhance its sustainability, workability and livability. It can be viewed as a ‘System of Systems’. We propose decentralization of power and centralization of system. We are presenting a bird's eye view of the system as a whole. The holistic view includes the entirety of human activity in an area including city governments, schools, hospitals, infrastructure, resources, business and people. The main objective for development of Nashik as a smart city is to identify the flaws of the existing systems, eliminate them and come up with innovative and feasible solutions for the betterment of masses. The Make in India is a visionary proposal for FDI in India. It should be managed that the campaign and the industrial estates work in synchronization for boosting the setup of new industrial units in and around Nashik. A smart grid is a modernized electrical grid that uses analog or digital information and communications technology to gather and act on information. We have identified major domains for making Nashik a smart city by surveying the existing infrastructure, challenges and problems faced and the proposed solutions through innovative ideas.

Keywords: transport, (bus rapid transit system) BRTS, metrorail, autos

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25 Advocacy for Increasing Health Care Budget in Parepare City with DALY Approach: Case Study on Improving Public Health Insurance Budget

Authors: Kasman, Darmawansyah, Alimin Maidin, Amran Razak

Abstract:

Background: In decentralization, advocacy is needed to increase the health budget in Parepare District. One of the advocacy methods recommended by the World Bank is the economic loss approach. Methods: This research is observational in the field of health economics that contributes directly to the magnitude of the economic loss of the community and the government and provides advocacy to the executive and legislative to see the harm it causes. Results: The research results show the amount of direct cost, which consists of household expenditure for transport Rp.295,865,500. Indirect Cost of YLD of Rp.14.688.000, and YLL of Rp.28.986.336.00, so the amount of DALY is Rp.43.674.336.000. The total economic loss of Rp.43.970.201.500. These huge economic losses can be prevented by increasing the allocation of health budgets for promotive and preventive efforts and expanding the coverage of health insurance for the community. Conclusion: There is a need to advocate the executive and legislative about the importance of guarantee on public health financing by conducting studies in terms of economic losses so that all strategic alliances believe that health is an investment.

Keywords: advocacy, economic lost, health insurance, economic losses

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24 Federalism and Foreign Affairs: The International Relations of Mexican Sub-State Governments

Authors: Jorge A. Schiavon

Abstract:

This article analyzes the international relations of sub-State governments (IRSSG) in Mexico. It aims to answer five questions: 1) What explains the recent and dramatic increase in their international activities? 2) What is the impact of federalism on the foreign affairs of the federal units? 3) What are the levels or degrees of IRSSG and how have they changed over the last years? 4) How do Mexican federal units institutionalize their international activities? 5) What are the perceptions and capacities of the federal units in their internationalization process? The first section argues that the growth in the IRSSG is generated by growing interdependence and globalization in the international system, and democratization, decentralization and structural reform in the national arena. The second section sustains that the renewed Mexican federalism has generated the incentives for SSG to participate more intensively in international affairs. The third section defends that there is a wide variation in their degree of international participation, which is measured in three moments in time (2004 2009 and 2014), and explains how this activity has changed in the last decade. The fourth section studies the institutionalization of the IRSSG in Mexico through the analysis of Inter-Institutional Agreements (IIA). Finally, the last section concentrates in explaining the perceptions and capacities of Mexican sub-State governments to conduct international relations.

Keywords: federalism, foreign policy, international relations of sub-state governments, paradiplomacy, Mexico

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23 A Correlational Study of Political Accountability of Sanguniang Barangay (Barangay Council) and Barangay Readiness for Climate Change

Authors: Ester B. Onag, Manuel Morga, Belen Tangco

Abstract:

Evidence-based research attested that Climate Change is a global phenomenon that has a massive impact on the economy, the government and the people. To minimize its impact, the national government must undertake social orders to ensure the needs of the people by implementing developmental policies that provide adequate social service to improve the quality of life for all. This research attempts to evaluate the political accountability of the Sangguniang Barangay of Malabon on its readiness for climate change. Which, the theory of decentralization takes an active participation, where the the national policies for climate change are adopted by local ordinances and it is enforced, monitored, and reported through the Barangay ordinance enacted by the Sangguniang Barangay. This paper also analyzes certain factors anchored on the political accountability of the Sangguniang Barangay which determines the state of their readiness in climate change, such as the gravity of their accountability which extends beyond the lines of their responsibility as stated in the local government code. It also evaluated the degree of their capabilities in actual legislation, the nature of their prioritization through their enacted ordinances and the extent of participation from different stakeholders of barangay such as the sectoral representatives and the citizens in which their participation is a means that leads to community awareness.

Keywords: climate change, local government, Sangguniang Barangay, government

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