Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 80

Search results for: reforming

80 Reforming of CO₂-Containing Natural Gas by Using an AC Gliding Arc Discharge Plasma System

Authors: Krittiya Pornmai, Sumaeth Chavadej

Abstract:

The increasing in global energy demand has affected the climate change caused by the generation of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the objective of this work was to investigate a direct production of synthesis gas from a CO₂-containing natural gas by using gliding arc discharge plasma technology. In this research, the effects of steam reforming, combined steam reforming and partial oxidation, and using multistage gliding arc discharge system on the process performance have been discussed. The simulated natural gas used in this study contains 70% methane, 5% ethane, 5% propane, and 20% carbon dioxide. In comparison with different plasma reforming processes (under their optimum conditions), the steam reforming provides the highest H₂ selectivity resulting from the cracking reaction of steam. In addition, the combined steam reforming and partial oxidation process gives a very high CO production implying that the addition of both oxygen and steam can offer the acceptably highest synthesis gas production. The stage number of plasma reactor plays an important role in the improvement of CO₂ conversion. Moreover, 3 stage number of plasma reactor is considered as an optimum stage number for the reforming of CO₂-containing natural gas with steam and partial oxidation in term of providing low energy consumption as compared with other plasma reforming processes.

Keywords: natural gas, reforming process, gliding arc discharge, plasma technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
79 Iridium-Based Bimetallic Catalysts for Hydrogen Production through Glycerol Aqueous-Phase Reforming

Authors: Francisco Espinosa, Juan Chavarría

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Glycerol is a byproduct of biodiesel production that can be used for aqueous-phase reforming to obtain hydrogen. Iridium is a material that has high activity and hydrogen selectivity for steam phase reforming. Nevertheless, a drawback for the use of iridium in aqueous-phase reforming is the low activity in water-gas shift reaction. Therefore, in this work, it is proposed the use of nickel and copper as a second metal in the catalyst to reach a synergetic effect. Iridium, iridium-nickel and iridium-copper catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation and evaluated in the aqueous-phase reforming of glycerol using CeO₂ or La₂O₃ as support. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, XPS, and EDX. The reactions were carried out in a fixed bed reactor feeding a solution of glycerol 10 wt% in water at 270°C, and reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography. It was found that IrNi/CeO₂ reached highest glycerol conversion and hydrogen production, slightly above 70% and 43 vol% respectively. In terms of conversion, iridium is a promising metal, and its activity for hydrogen production can be enhanced when adding a second metal.

Keywords: aqueous-phase reforming, glycerol, hydrogen production, iridium

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
78 Simulation of the Performance of the Reforming of Methane in a Primary Reformer

Authors: A. Alkattib, M. Boumaza

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Steam reforming is industrially important as it is incorporated in several major chemical processes including the production of ammonia, methanol, hydrogen and ox alcohols. Due to the strongly endothermic nature of the process, a large amount of heat is supplied by fuel burning (commonly natural gas) in the furnace chamber. Reaction conversions, tube catalyst life, energy consumption and CO2 emission represent the principal factors affecting the performance of this unit and are directly influenced by the high operating temperatures and pressures. This study presents a simulation of the performance of the reforming of methane in a primary reformer, through a developed empirical relation which enables to investigate the effects of operating parameters such as the pressure, temperature, steam to carbon ratio on the production of hydrogen, as well as the fraction of non-converted methane. It appears from this analysis that the exit temperature Te, the operating pressure as well the steam to carbon ratio has an important effect on the reforming of methane.

Keywords: reforming, methane, performance, hydrogen, parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
77 Study on Pressurized Reforming System for the Application of Hydrogen Permeable Membrane Applying to Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: Kwangho Lee, Joongmyeon Bae

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Fuel cells are spotlighted in the world for being highly efficient and environmentally friendly. A hydrogen fuel for a fuel cell is obtained from a number of sources. Most of fuel cell for APU(Auxiliary power unit) system using diesel fuel as a hydrogen source. Diesel fuel has many advantages, such as high hydrogen storage density, easy to transport and also well-infra structure. However, conventional diesel reforming system for PEMFC(Proton exchange membrane fuel cell) requires a large volume and complex CO removal system for the lower the CO level to less than 10ppm. In addition, the PROX(Preferential Oxidation) reaction cooling load is needed because of the strong exothermic reaction. However, the hydrogen separation membrane that we propose can be eliminated many disadvantages, because the volume is small and permeates only pure hydrogen. In this study, we were conducted to the pressurized diesel reforming and water-gas shift reaction experiment for the hydrogen permeable membrane application.

Keywords: hydrogen, diesel, reforming, ATR, WGS, PROX, membrane, pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
76 Produced Gas Conversion of Microwave Carbon Receptor Reforming

Authors: Young Nam Chun, Mun Sup Lim

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Carbon dioxide and methane, the major components of biomass pyrolysis/gasification gas and biogas, top the list of substances that cause climate change, but they are also among the most important renewable energy sources in modern society. The purpose of this study is to convert carbon dioxide and methane into high-quality energy using char and commercial activated carbon obtained from biomass pyrolysis as a microwave receptor. The methane reforming process produces hydrogen and carbon. This carbon is deposited in the pores of the microwave receptor and lowers catalytic activity, thereby reducing the methane conversion rate. The deposited carbon was removed by carbon gasification due to the supply of carbon dioxide, which solved the problem of microwave receptor inactivity. In particular, the conversion rate remained stable at over 90% when the ratio of carbon dioxide to methane was 1:1. When the reforming results of carbon dioxide and methane were compared after fabricating nickel and iron catalysts using commercial activated carbon as a carrier, the conversion rate was higher in the iron catalyst than in the nickel catalyst and when no catalyst was used. 

Keywords: microwave, gas reforming, greenhouse gas, microwave receptor, catalyst

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75 The Feasibility of Glycerol Steam Reforming in an Industrial Sized Fixed Bed Reactor Using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Simulations

Authors: Mahendra Singh, Narasimhareddy Ravuru

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For the past decade, the production of biodiesel has significantly increased along with its by-product, glycerol. Biodiesel-derived glycerol massive entry into the glycerol market has caused its value to plummet. Newer ways to utilize the glycerol by-product must be implemented or the biodiesel industry will face serious economic problems. The biodiesel industry should consider steam reforming glycerol to produce hydrogen gas. Steam reforming is the most efficient way of producing hydrogen and there is a lot of demand for it in the petroleum and chemical industries. This study investigates the feasibility of glycerol steam reforming in an industrial sized fixed bed reactor. In this paper, using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations, the extent of the transport resistances that would occur in an industrial sized reactor can be visualized. An important parameter in reactor design is the size of the catalyst particle. The size of the catalyst cannot be too large where transport resistances are too high, but also not too small where an extraordinary amount of pressure drop occurs. The goal of this paper is to find the best catalyst size under various flow rates that will result in the highest conversion. Computational fluid dynamics simulated the transport resistances and a pseudo-homogenous reactor model was used to evaluate the pressure drop and conversion. CFD simulations showed that glycerol steam reforming has strong internal diffusion resistances resulting in extremely low effectiveness factors. In the pseudo-homogenous reactor model, the highest conversion obtained with a Reynolds number of 100 (29.5 kg/h) was 9.14% using a 1/6 inch catalyst diameter. Due to the low effectiveness factors and high carbon deposition rates, a fluidized bed is recommended as the appropriate reactor to carry out glycerol steam reforming.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamic, fixed bed reactor, glycerol, steam reforming, biodiesel

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
74 Microwave Plasma Dry Reforming of Methane at High CO2/CH4 Feed Ratio

Authors: Nabil Majd Alawi, Gia Hung Pham, Ahmed Barifcani

Abstract:

Dry reforming of methane that converts two greenhouses gases (CH4 and CO2) to synthesis gas (a mixture of H2 and CO) was studied in a commercial bench scale microwave (MW) plasma reactor system at atmospheric pressure. The CO2, CH4 and N2 conversions; H2, CO selectivities and yields, and syngas ratio (H2/CO) were investigated in a wide range of total feed flow rate (0.45 – 2.1 L/min), MW power (700 – 1200 watt) and CO2/CH4 molar ratio (2 – 5). At the feed flow rates of CH4, CO2 and N2 of 0.2, 0.4 and 1.5 L/min respectively, and the MWs input power of 700 W, the highest conversions of CH4 and CO2, selectivity and yield of H2, CO and H2/CO ratio of 79.35%, 44.82%, 50.12, 58.42, 39.77%, 32.89%, and 0.86, respectively, were achieved. The results of this work show that the product ratio increases slightly with the increasing total feed flow rate, but it decreases significantly with the increasing MW power and feeds CO2/CH4 ratio.

Keywords: dry reforming of methane, microwave discharge, plasma technology, synthesis gas production

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73 Steam Reforming of Acetic Acid over Microwave-Synthesized Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 Supported Ni Catalysts

Authors: Panumard Kaewmora, Thirasak Rirksomboon, Vissanu Meeyoo

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Due to the globally growing demands of petroleum fuel and fossil fuels, the scarcity or even depletion of fossil fuel sources could be inevitable. Alternatively, the utilization of renewable sources, such as biomass, has become attractive to the community. Biomass can be converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. In water phase of bio-oil, acetic acid which is one of its main components can be converted to hydrogen with high selectivity over effective catalysts in steam reforming process. Steam reforming of acetic acid as model compound has been intensively investigated for hydrogen production using various metal oxide supported nickel catalysts and yet they seem to be rapidly deactivated depending on the support utilized. A catalyst support such as Ce1-xZrxO2 mixed oxide was proposed for alleviating this problem with the anticipation of enhancing hydrogen yield. However, catalyst preparation methods play a significant role in catalytic activity and performance of the catalysts. In this work, Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 mixed oxide solid solution support was prepared by urea hydrolysis using microwave as heat source. After that nickel metal was incorporated at 15 wt% by incipient wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by several techniques including BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XRF, SEM, and TEM as well as tested for the steam reforming of acetic acid at various operating conditions. Preliminary results showed that a hydrogen yield of ca. 32% with a relatively high acetic conversion was attained at 650°C.

Keywords: acetic acid, steam reforming, microwave, nickel, ceria, zirconia

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
72 Process Integration of Natural Gas Hydrate Production by CH₄-CO₂/H₂ Replacement Coupling Steam Methane Reforming

Authors: Mengying Wang, Xiaohui Wang, Chun Deng, Bei Liu, Changyu Sun, Guangjin Chen, Mahmoud El-Halwagi

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Significant amounts of natural gas hydrates (NGHs) are considered potential new sustainable energy resources in the future. However, common used methods for methane gas recovery from hydrate sediments require high investment but with low gas production efficiency, and may cause potential environment and security problems. Therefore, there is a need for effective gas production from hydrates. The natural gas hydrate production method by CO₂/H₂ replacement coupling steam methane reforming can improve the replacement effect and reduce the cost of gas separation. This paper develops a simulation model of the gas production process integrated with steam reforming and membrane separation. The process parameters (i.e., reactor temperature, pressure, H₂O/CH₄ ratio) and the composition of CO₂ and H₂ in the feed gas are analyzed. Energy analysis is also conducted. Two design scenarios with different composition of CO₂ and H₂ in the feed gas are proposed and evaluated to assess the energy efficiency of the novel system. Results show that when the composition of CO₂ in the feed gas is between 43 % and 72 %, there is a certain composition that can meet the requirement that the flow rate of recycled gas is equal to that of feed gas, so as to ensure that the subsequent production process does not need to add feed gas or discharge recycled gas. The energy efficiency of the CO₂ in feed gas at 43 % and 72 % is greater than 1, and the energy efficiency is relatively higher when the CO₂ mole fraction in feed gas is 72 %.

Keywords: Gas production, hydrate, process integration, steam reforming

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
71 Preparation and Characterization of a Nickel-Based Catalyst Supported by Silica Promoted by Cerium for the Methane Steam Reforming Reaction

Authors: Ali Zazi, Ouiza Cherifi

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Natural gas currently represents a raw material of choice for the manufacture of a wide range of chemical products via synthesis gas, among the routes of transformation of methane into synthesis gas The reaction of the oxidation of methane by gas vapor 'water. This work focuses on the study of the effect of cerieum on the nickel-based catalyst supported by silica for the methane vapor reforming reaction, with a variation of certain parameters of the reaction. The reaction temperature, the H₂O / CH₄ ratio and the flow rate of the reaction mixture (CH₄-H₂O). Two catalysts were prepared by impregnation of Degussa silica with a solution of nickel nitrates and a solution of cerium nitrates [Ni (NO₃) 2 6H₂O and Ce (NO₃) 3 6H₂O] so as to obtain the 1.5% nickel concentrations. For both catalysts and plus 1% cerium for the second catalyst. These Catalysts have been characterized by physical and chemical analysis techniques: BET technique, Atomic Absorption, IR Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. These characterizations indicated that the nitrates had impregnated the silica. And that the NiO and Ce₂O3 phases are present and Ni°(after reaction). The BET surface of the silica decreases without being affected. The catalytic tests carried out on the two catalysts for the steam reforming reactions show that the addition of cerium to the nickel improves the catalytic performances of the nickel. And that these performances also depend on the parameters of the reaction, namely the temperature, the rate of the reaction mixture, and the ratio (H₂O / CH₄).

Keywords: heterogeneous catalysis, steam reforming, Methane, Nickel, Cerium, synthesis gas, hydrogen

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70 Effect of Catalyst Preparation Method on Dry Reforming of Methane with Supported and Promoted Catalysts

Authors: Sanjay P. Gandhi, Sanjay S. Patel

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Dry (CO2) reforming of methane (DRM) is both scientific and industrial importance. In recent decades, CO2 utilization has become increasingly important in view of the escalating global warming phenomenon. This reaction produces syngas that can be used to produce a wide range of products, such as higher alkanes and oxygenates by means of Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. DRM is inevitably accompanied by deactivation due to carbon deposition. DRM is also a highly endothermic reaction and requires operating temperatures of 800–1000 °C to attain high equilibrium conversion of CH4 and CO2 to H2 and CO and to minimize the thermodynamic driving force for carbon deposition. The catalysts used are often composed of transition Methods like Nickel, supported on metallic and non-metallic oxides such as alumina and silica. However, many of these catalysts undergo severe deactivation due to carbon deposition. Noble metals have also been studied and are typically found to be much more resistant to carbon deposition than Ni catalysts, but are generally uneconomical. Noble metals can also be used to promote the Ni catalysts in order to increase their resistance to deactivation. In order to design catalysts that minimize deactivation, it is necessary to understand the elementary steps involved in the activation and conversion of CH4 and CO2. CO2 reforming methane over promoted catalyst was studied. The influence of ZrO2, CeO2 and the behavior of Ni-Al2O3 Catalyst, prepare by wet-impregnation and Co-precipitated method was studied. XRD, BET Analysis for different promoted and unprompted Catalyst was studied.

Keywords: CO2 reforming of methane, Ni catalyst, promoted and unprompted catalyst, effect of catalyst preparation

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
69 Comparative Study of Ni Catalysts Supported by Silica and Modified by Metal Additions Co and Ce for The Steam Reforming of Methane

Authors: Ali Zazi, Ouiza Cherifi

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The Catalysts materials Ni-SiO₂, Ni-Co-SiO₂ and Ni-Ce-SiO₂ were synthetized by classical method impregnation and supported by silica. This involves combing the silica with an adequate rate of the solution of nickel nitrates, or nickel nitrate and cobalt nitrate, or nickel nitrate and cerium nitrate, mixed, dried and calcined at 700 ° c. These catalysts have been characterized by different physicochemical analysis techniques. The atomic absorption spectrometry indicates that the real contents of nickel, cerium and cobalt are close to the theoretical contents previously assumed, which let's say that the nitrate solutions have impregnated well the silica support. The BET results show that the surface area of the specific surfaces decreases slightly after impregnation with nickel nitrates or Co and Ce metals and a further slight decrease after the reaction. This is likely due to coke deposition. X-ray diffraction shows the presence of the different SiO₂ and NiO phases for all catalysts—theCoO phase for that promoted by Co and the Ce₂O₂ phase for that promoted by Ce. The methane steam reforming reaction was carried out on a quartz reactor in a fixed bed. Reactants and products of the reaction were analyzed by a gas chromatograph. This study shows that the metal addition of Cerium or Cobalt improves the majority of the catalytic performance of Ni for the steam reforming reaction of methane. And we conclude the classification of our Catalysts in order of decreasing activity and catalytic performances as follows: Ni-Ce / SiO₂ >Ni-Co / SiO₂> Ni / SiO₂ .

Keywords: cerium, cobalt, heterogeneous catalysis, hydrogen, methane, steam reforming, synthesis gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
68 Solar Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Glycerol Reforming Using Ternary Cu/TiO2/Graphene

Authors: Tumelo W. P. Seadira, Thabang Ntho, Cornelius M. Masuku, Michael S. Scurrell

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A ternary Cu/TiO2/rGO photocatalysts was prepared using solvothermal method. Firstly, pure anatase TiO2 hollow spheres were prepared with titanium butoxide, ethanol, ammonium sulphate, and urea via hydrothermal method; and Cu nanoparticles were subsequently loaded on the surface of the hollow spheres by wet impregnation. During the solvothermal process, the deposition and well dispersion of Cu-TiO2 hollow spheres composites onto the graphene oxide surface, as well as the reduction of graphene oxide to graphene were achieved. The morphological and structural properties of the prepared samples were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Tellet (BET), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis DRS, and photoelectrochemical. The activities of the prepared catalysts were tested for hydrogen production via simultaneous photocatalytic water-splitting and glycerol reforming under visible light irradiation. The excellent photocatalytic activity of the Cu-TiO2-hollow-spheres/rGO catalyst was attributed the rGO which acts as both storage and transferor of electrons generated at the Cu and TiO2 heterojunction, thus increasing the electron-hole pairs separation. This paper reports the preparation of photocatalyst which is highly active by coupling reduced graphene oxide with nano-structured TiO2 with high surface area that can efficiently harvest the visible light for effective water-splitting and glycerol photocatalytic reforming in order to achieve efficient hydrogen evolution.

Keywords: glycerol reforming, hydrogen evolution, graphene oxide, Cu/TiO2-hollow-spheres/rGO

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
67 Implementation of Maqasid Syari'ah in the Concept of Reforming the Indonesian Marriage Law Based on Gender Equality: Study of the Counter Legal Draft Compilation of Islamic Law

Authors: Nirmalasanti Pramesi

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In 2004 the CLD KHI Team offered several new ideas in the field of Islamic family law, such as marriage, inheritance (waris), and waqf. The new idea is based on six main principles; pluralism, nationality, human rights, democracy, maslahah, and gender equality. However, the existence of this has actually caused various criticisms, appreciations, and controversies. For this reason, CLD-KHI, as the idea of reforming family law, especially in the field of marriage, really needs to be studied academically with a comprehensive method as an unfinished problem. The main issues examined in this study are what are the ideas for reforming the law of marriage that have been formulated by the CLD KHI team, as well as how to implement Maqasid Sharia in legal reform. The methodology used in this research is a qualitative method with a normative-empirical-sociological approach. The results of this research show every substance of the idea considers aspects of locality, nationality, and global ethics. The Maqasid approach used in most of the legal provisions is moderate (wasati). Meanwhile, in matters of wali niqah and inheritance, it is adjusted to the context of Indonesian society.

Keywords: Maqasid syari'ah, CLD KHI, marriage law reform, moderate

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
66 One Dimensional Reactor Modeling for Methanol Steam Reforming to Hydrogen

Authors: Hongfang Ma, Mingchuan Zhou, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

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One dimensional pseudo-homogenous modeling has been performed for methanol steam reforming reactor. The results show that the models can well predict the industrial data. The reactor had minimum temperature along axial because of endothermic reaction. Hydrogen productions and temperature profiles along axial were investigated regarding operation conditions such as inlet mass flow rate and mass fraction of methanol, inlet temperature of external thermal oil. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, low inlet temperature, and high mass fraction of methanol decreased minimum temperature along axial. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, high mass fraction of methanol, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil made cold point forward. Low mass fraction, high mass flow rate, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil increased hydrogen production. One dimensional models can be a guide for industrial operation.

Keywords: reactor, modeling, methanol, steam reforming

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
65 The Experiment and Simulation Analysis of the Effect of CO₂ and Steam Addition on Syngas Composition of Natural Gas Non-Catalyst Partial Oxidation

Authors: Zhenghua Dai, Jianliang Xu, Fuchen Wang

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Non-catalyst partial oxidation technology has been widely used to produce syngas by reforming of hydrocarbon, including gas (natural gas, shale gas, refinery gas, coalbed gas, coke oven gas, pyrolysis gas, etc.) and liquid (residual oil, asphalt, deoiled asphalt, biomass oil, etc.). For natural gas non-catalyst partial oxidation, the H₂/CO(v/v) of syngas is about 1.8, which is agreed well with the request of FT synthesis. But for other process, such as carbonylation and glycol, the H₂/CO(v/v) should be close to 1 and 2 respectively. So the syngas composition of non-catalyst partial oxidation should be adjusted to satisfy the request of different chemical synthesis. That means a multi-reforming method by CO₂ and H₂O addition. The natural gas non-catalytic partial oxidation hot model was established. The effects of O₂/CH4 ratio, steam, and CO₂ on the syngas composition were studied. The results of the experiment indicate that the addition of CO₂ and steam into the reformer can be applied to change the syngas H₂/CO ratio. The reactor network model (RN model) was established according to the flow partition of industrial reformer and GRI-Mech 3.0. The RN model results agree well with the industrial data. The effects of steam, CO₂ on the syngas compositions were studied with the RN model.

Keywords: non-catalyst partial oxidation, natural gas, H₂/CO, CO₂ and H₂O addition, multi-reforming method

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64 The Onus of Human to Society in Accordance with Constitution and Traditions

Authors: Qamar Raza

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This paper deals with the human concern and onus which every person should provide to his/her society. Especially the rules and regulations described in constitution or traditions which we have inherited from ancestors should be followed, and also our lives should be led in accordance with them. The main concern of paper would be personal behavior with others in a good manner especially what he/she should exercise for society’s welfare. As human beings are the fundamental organ of society, who play a crucial role in reforming the society, they should try their best to develop it as well as maintain harmony, peace, we-feeling and mutual contact in the society. Focusing on how the modern society and its elements keep society successful. Regulations of our constitution and tradition are essential for reforming the society. In a nutshell, a human has to mingle in his society and keep mutual respect and understand the value of others as well as for himself.

Keywords: constitution, human beings, society, traditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
63 Parametric Analysis of Syn-gas Fueled SOFC with Internal Reforming

Authors: Sanjay Tushar Choudhary

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This paper focuses on the thermodynamic analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). In the present work the SOFC has been modeled to work with internal reforming of fuel which takes place at high temperature and direct energy conversion from chemical energy to electrical energy takes place. The fuel-cell effluent is a high-temperature steam which can be used for co-generation purposes. Syn-gas has been used here as fuel which is essentially produced by steam reforming of methane in the internal reformer of the SOFC. A thermodynamic model of SOFC has been developed for planar cell configuration to evaluate various losses in the energy conversion process within the fuel cell. Cycle parameters like fuel utilization ratio and the air-recirculation ratio have been varied to evaluate the thermodynamic performance of the fuel cell. Output performance parameters like terminal voltage, cell-efficiency and power output have been evaluated for various values of current densities. It has been observed that a combination of a lower value of air-circulation ratio and higher values of fuel utilization efficiency gives a better overall thermodynamic performance.

Keywords: current density, SOFC, suel utilization factor, recirculation ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
62 Ni Mixed Oxides Type-Spinel for Energy: Application in Dry Reforming of Methane for Syngas (H2 and CO) Production

Authors: Bedarnia Ishak

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In the recent years, the dry reforming of methane has received considerable attention from an environmental view point because it consumes and eliminates two gases (CH4 and CO2) responsible for global warming by greenhouse effect. Many catalysts containing noble metal (Rh, Ru, Pd, Pt and Ir) or transition metal (Ni, Co and Fe) have been reported to be active in this reaction. Compared to noble metals, Ni-materials are cheap but very easily deactivated by coking. Ni-based mixed oxides structurally well-defined like perovskites and spinels are being studied because they possibly make solid solutions and allow to vary the composition and thus the performances properties. In this work, nano-sized nickel ferrite oxides are synthesized using three different methods: Co-precipitation (CP), hydrothermal (HT) and sol gel (SG) methods and characterized by XRD, Raman, XPS, BET, TPR, SEM-EDX and TEM-EDX. XRD patterns of all synthesized oxides showed the presence of NiFe2O4 spinel, confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Hematite was present only in CP sample. Depending on the synthesis method, the surface area, particle size, as well as the surface Ni/Fe atomic ratio (XPS) and the behavior upon reduction varied. The materials were tested in methane dry reforming with CO2 at 1 atm and 650-800 °C. The catalytic activity of the spinel samples was not very high (XCH4 = 5-20 mol% and XCO2 = 25-40 mol %) when no pre-reduction step was carried out. A significant contribution of RWGS explained the low values of H2/CO ratio obtained. The reoxidation step of the catalyst carried out after reaction showed little amounts of coke deposition. The reducing pretreatment was particularly efficient in the case of SG (XCH4 = 80 mol% and XCO2 = 92 mol%, at 800 °C), with H2/CO > 1. In conclusion, the influence of preparation was strong for most samples and the catalytic behavior could be interpreted by considering the distribution of cations among octahedral (Oh) and tetrahedral (Td) sites as in (Ni2+1-xFe3+x) Td (Ni2+xFe3+2-x) OhO2-4 influenced the reducibility of materials and thus their catalytic performance.

Keywords: NiFe2O4, dry reforming of methane, spinel oxide, oxide zenc

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
61 Ni Mixed Oxides Type-Spinel for Energy: Application in Dry Reforming of Methane for Syngas (H2 & Co) Production

Authors: Bouhenni Mohamed Saif El Islam

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In the recent years, the dry reforming of methane has received considerable attention from an environmental view point because it consumes and eliminates two gases (CH4 and CO2) responsible for global warming by greenhouse effect. Many catalysts containing noble metal (Rh, Ru, Pd, Pt and Ir) or transition metal (Ni, Co and Fe) have been reported to be active in this reaction. Compared to noble metals, Ni-materials are cheap but very easily deactivated by coking. Ni-based mixed oxides structurally well-defined like perovskites and spinels are being studied because they possibly make solid solutions and allow to vary the composition and thus the performances properties. In this work, nano-sized nickel ferrite oxides are synthesized using three different methods: Co-precipitation (CP), hydrothermal (HT) and sol gel (SG) methods and characterized by XRD, Raman, XPS, BET, TPR, SEM-EDX and TEM-EDX. XRD patterns of all synthesized oxides showed the presence of NiFe2O4 spinel, confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Hematite was present only in CP sample. Depending on the synthesis method, the surface area, particle size, as well as the surface Ni/Fe atomic ratio (XPS) and the behavior upon reduction varied. The materials were tested in methane dry reforming with CO2 at 1 atm and 650-800 °C. The catalytic activity of the spinel samples was not very high (XCH4 = 5-20 mol% and XCO2 = 25-40 mol %) when no pre-reduction step was carried out. A significant contribution of RWGS explained the low values of H2/CO ratio obtained. The reoxidation step of the catalyst carried out after reaction showed little amounts of coke deposition. The reducing pretreatment was particularly efficient in the case of SG (XCH4 = 80 mol% and XCO2 = 92 mol%, at 800 °C), with H2/CO > 1. In conclusion, the influence of preparation was strong for most samples and the catalytic behavior could be interpreted by considering the distribution of cations among octahedral (Oh) and tetrahedral (Td) sites as in (Ni2+1-xFe3+x)Td (Ni2+xFe3+2-x)OhO2-4 influenced the reducibility of materials and thus their catalytic performance.

Keywords: NiFe2O4, dry reforming of methane, spinel oxide, XCO2

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
60 Methanol Steam Reforming with Heat Recovery for Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production

Authors: Horng-Wen Wu, Yi Chao, Rong-Fang Horng

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This study is to develop a methanol steam reformer with a heat recovery zone, which recovers heat from exhaust gas of a diesel engine, and to investigate waste heat recovery ratio at the required reaction temperature. The operation conditions of the reformer are reaction temperature (200 °C, 250 °C, and 300 °C), steam to carbonate (S/C) ratio (0.9, 1.1, and 1.3), and N2 volume flow rate (40 cm3/min, 70 cm3/min, and 100 cm3/min). Finally, the hydrogen concentration, the CO, CO2, and N2 concentrations are measured and recorded to calculate methanol conversion efficiency, hydrogen flow rate, and assisting combustion gas and impeding combustion gas ratio. The heat source of this reformer comes from electric heater and waste heat of exhaust gas from diesel engines. The objective is to recover waste heat from the engine and to make more uniform temperature distribution within the reformer. It is beneficial for the reformer to enhance the methanol conversion efficiency and hydrogen-rich gas production. Experimental results show that the highest hydrogen flow rate exists at N2 of the volume rate 40 cm3/min and reforming reaction temperature of 300 °C and the value is 19.6 l/min. With the electric heater and heat recovery from exhaust gas, the maximum heat recovery ratio is 13.18 % occurring at water-methanol (S/C) ratio of 1.3 and the reforming reaction temperature of 300 °C.

Keywords: heat recovery, hydrogen-rich production, methanol steam reformer, methanol conversion efficiency

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59 Numerical Model of Crude Glycerol Autothermal Reforming to Hydrogen-Rich Syngas

Authors: A. Odoom, A. Salama, H. Ibrahim

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Hydrogen is a clean source of energy for power production and transportation. The main source of hydrogen in this research is biodiesel. Glycerol also called glycerine is a by-product of biodiesel production by transesterification of vegetable oils and methanol. This is a reliable and environmentally-friendly source of hydrogen production than fossil fuels. A typical composition of crude glycerol comprises of glycerol, water, organic and inorganic salts, soap, methanol and small amounts of glycerides. Crude glycerol has limited industrial application due to its low purity thus, the usage of crude glycerol can significantly enhance the sustainability and production of biodiesel. Reforming techniques is an approach for hydrogen production mainly Steam Reforming (SR), Autothermal Reforming (ATR) and Partial Oxidation Reforming (POR). SR produces high hydrogen conversions and yield but is highly endothermic whereas POR is exothermic. On the downside, PO yields lower hydrogen as well as large amount of side reactions. ATR which is a fusion of partial oxidation reforming and steam reforming is thermally neutral because net reactor heat duty is zero. It has relatively high hydrogen yield, selectivity as well as limits coke formation. The complex chemical processes that take place during the production phases makes it relatively difficult to construct a reliable and robust numerical model. Numerical model is a tool to mimic reality and provide insight into the influence of the parameters. In this work, we introduce a finite volume numerical study for an 'in-house' lab-scale experiment of ATR. Previous numerical studies on this process have considered either using Comsol or nodal finite difference analysis. Since Comsol is a commercial package which is not readily available everywhere and lab-scale experiment can be considered well mixed in the radial direction. One spatial dimension suffices to capture the essential feature of ATR, in this work, we consider developing our own numerical approach using MATLAB. A continuum fixed bed reactor is modelled using MATLAB with both pseudo homogeneous and heterogeneous models. The drawback of nodal finite difference formulation is that it is not locally conservative which means that materials and momenta can be generated inside the domain as an artifact of the discretization. Control volume, on the other hand, is locally conservative and suites very well problems where materials are generated and consumed inside the domain. In this work, species mass balance, Darcy’s equation and energy equations are solved using operator splitting technique. Therefore, diffusion-like terms are discretized implicitly while advection-like terms are discretized explicitly. An upwind scheme is adapted for the advection term to ensure accuracy and positivity. Comparisons with the experimental data show very good agreements which build confidence in our modeling approach. The models obtained were validated and optimized for better results.

Keywords: autothermal reforming, crude glycerol, hydrogen, numerical model

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58 Simulation and Optimization of an Annular Methanol Reformer

Authors: Shu-Bo Yang, Wei Wu, Yuan-Heng Liu

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This research aims to design a heat-exchanger type of methanol reformer coupled with a preheating design in gPROMS® environment. The endothermic methanol steam reforming reaction (MSR) and the exothermic preferential oxidation reaction (PROX) occur in the inner tube and the outer tube of the reformer, respectively. The effective heat transfer manner between the inner and outer tubes is investigated. It is verified that the countercurrent-flow type reformer provides the higher hydrogen yield than the cocurrent-flow type. Since the hot spot temperature appears in the outer tube, an improved scheme is proposed to suppress the hot spot temperature by splitting the excess air flowing into two sites. Finally, an optimization algorithm for maximizing the hydrogen yield is employed to determine optimal operating conditions.

Keywords: methanol reformer, methanol steam reforming, optimization, simulation

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57 Reforming Traditional and Cultural Practices in Nigeria for Enhancement and Sustainable Development in the 21st Century: A Case Study of the Jukun People

Authors: Iliya Ibrahim Gimba

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Human beings or groups over the world have a traditional and cultural practices which guide and direct their ways of life. They value and promote these practices not minding the attitude of others towards them. In spite of the place of culture which is an embodiment of these practices in every human society some people still reduce the understanding of culture to idolatry and other archaic and anachronistic arts good perhaps only for the museum. Others consider culture to be just drumming and dancing. Whether a culture is “good” or “bad”, civilized or barbaric, it can be reformed for the betterment of the society. Hence, this paper focuses on reforming traditional and cultural practices in Nigeria for enhancing development in the 21st century using the Jukun people as a case study. Relevant literatures from journals, reports, published books among others will be consulted.

Keywords: Jukun, traditional and cultural practices, sustainable development, human

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56 Viability Analysis of a Centralized Hydrogen Generation Plant for Use in Oil Refining Industry

Authors: C. Fúnez Guerra, B. Nieto Calderón, M. Jaén Caparrós, L. Reyes-Bozo, A. Godoy-Faúndez, E. Vyhmeister

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The global energy system is experiencing a change of scenery. Unstable energy markets, an increasing focus on climate change and its sustainable development is forcing businesses to pursue new solutions in order to ensure future economic growth. This has led to the interest in using hydrogen as an energy carrier in transportation and industrial applications. As an energy carrier, hydrogen is accessible and holds a high gravimetric energy density. Abundant in hydrocarbons, hydrogen can play an important role in the shift towards low-emission fossil value chains. By combining hydrogen production by natural gas reforming with carbon capture and storage, the overall CO2 emissions are significantly reduced. In addition, the flexibility of hydrogen as an energy storage makes it applicable as a stabilizer in the renewable energy mix. The recent development in hydrogen fuel cells is also raising the expectations for a hydrogen powered transportation sector. Hydrogen value chains exist to a large extent in the industry today. The global hydrogen consumption was approximately 50 million tonnes (7.2 EJ) in 2013, where refineries, ammonia, methanol production and metal processing were main consumers. Natural gas reforming produced 48% of this hydrogen, but without carbon capture and storage (CCS). The total emissions from the production reached 500 million tonnes of CO2, hence alternative production methods with lower emissions will be necessary in future value chains. Hydrogen from electrolysis is used for a wide range of industrial chemical reactions for many years. Possibly, the earliest use was for the production of ammonia-based fertilisers by Norsk Hydro, with a test reactor set up in Notodden, Norway, in 1927. This application also claims one of the world’s largest electrolyser installations, at Sable Chemicals in Zimbabwe. Its array of 28 electrolysers consumes 80 MW per hour, producing around 21,000 Nm3/h of hydrogen. These electrolysers can compete if cheap sources of electricity are available and natural gas for steam reforming is relatively expensive. Because electrolysis of water produces oxygen as a by-product, a system of Autothermal Reforming (ATR) utilizing this oxygen has been analyzed. Replacing the air separation unit with electrolysers produces the required amount of oxygen to the ATR as well as additional hydrogen. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the technical and economic potential of large-scale production of hydrogen for oil refining industry. Sensitivity analysis of parameters such as investment costs, plant operating hours, electricity price and sale price of hydrogen and oxygen are performed.

Keywords: autothermal reforming, electrolyser, hydrogen, natural gas, steam methane reforming

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55 H2 Permeation Properties of a Catalytic Membrane Reactor in Methane Steam Reforming Reaction

Authors: M. Amanipour, J. Towfighi, E. Ganji Babakhani, M. Heidari

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Cylindrical alumina microfiltration membrane (GMITM Corporation, inside diameter=9 mm, outside diameter=13 mm, length= 50 mm) with an average pore size of 0.5 micrometer and porosity of about 0.35 was used as the support for membrane reactor. This support was soaked in boehmite sols, and the mean particle size was adjusted in the range of 50 to 500 nm by carefully controlling hydrolysis time, and calcined at 650 °C for two hours. This process was repeated with different boehmite solutions in order to achieve an intermediate layer with an average pore size of about 50 nm. The resulting substrate was then coated with a thin and dense layer of silica by counter current chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method. A boehmite sol with 10 wt.% of nickel which was prepared by a standard procedure was used to make the catalytic layer. BET, SEM, and XRD analysis were used to characterize this layer. The catalytic membrane reactor was placed in an experimental setup to evaluate the permeation and hydrogen separation performance for a steam reforming reaction. The setup consisted of a tubular module in which the membrane was fixed, and the reforming reaction occurred at the inner side of the membrane. Methane stream, diluted with nitrogen, and deionized water with a steam to carbon (S/C) ratio of 3.0 entered the reactor after the reactor was heated up to 500 °C with a specified rate of 2 °C/ min and the catalytic layer was reduced at presence of hydrogen for 2.5 hours. Nitrogen flow was used as sweep gas through the outer side of the reactor. Any liquid produced was trapped and separated at reactor exit by a cold trap, and the produced gases were analyzed by an on-line gas chromatograph (Agilent 7890A) to measure total CH4 conversion and H2 permeation. BET analysis indicated uniform size distribution for catalyst with average pore size of 280 nm and average surface area of 275 m2.g-1. Single-component permeation tests were carried out for hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide at temperature range of 500-800 °C, and the results showed almost the same permeance and hydrogen selectivity values for hydrogen as the composite membrane without catalytic layer. Performance of the catalytic membrane was evaluated by applying membranes as a membrane reactor for methane steam reforming reaction at gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 10,000 h−1 and 2 bar. CH4 conversion increased from 50% to 85% with increasing reaction temperature from 600 °C to 750 °C, which is sufficiently above equilibrium curve at reaction conditions, but slightly lower than membrane reactor with packed nickel catalytic bed because of its higher surface area compared to the catalytic layer.

Keywords: catalytic membrane, hydrogen, methane steam reforming, permeance

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54 Bio-Oil Compounds Sorption Enhanced Steam Reforming

Authors: Esther Acha, Jose Cambra, De Chen

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Hydrogen is considered an important energy vector for the 21st century. Nowadays there are some difficulties for hydrogen economy implantation, and one of them is the high purity required for hydrogen. This energy vector is still being mainly produced from fuels, from wich hydrogen is produced as a component of a mixture containing other gases, such as CO, CO2 and H2O. A forthcoming sustainable pathway for hydrogen is steam-reforming of bio-oils derived from biomass, e.g. via fast pyrolysis. Bio-oils are a mixture of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, sugars phenols, guaiacols, syringols, furans, multi-functional compounds and also up to a 30 wt% of water. The sorption enhanced steam reforming (SESR) process is attracting a great deal of attention due to the fact that it combines both hydrogen production and CO2 separation. In the SESR process, carbon dioxide is captured by an in situ sorbent, which shifts the reversible reforming and water gas shift reactions to the product side, beyond their conventional thermodynamic limits, giving rise to a higher hydrogen production and lower cost. The hydrogen containing mixture has been obtained from the SESR of bio-oil type compounds. Different types of catalysts have been tested. All of them contain Ni at around a 30 wt %. Two samples have been prepared with the wet impregnation technique over conventional (gamma alumina) and non-conventional (olivine) supports. And a third catalysts has been prepared over a hydrotalcite-like material (HT). The employed sorbent is a commercial dolomite. The activity tests were performed in a bench-scale plant (PID Eng&Tech), using a stainless steel fixed bed reactor. The catalysts were reduced in situ in the reactor, before the activity tests. The effluent stream was cooled down, thus condensed liquid was collected and weighed, and the gas phase was analysed online by a microGC. The hydrogen yield, and process behavior was analysed without the sorbent (the traditional SR where a second purification step will be needed but that operates in steady state) and the SESR (where the purification step could be avoided but that operates in batch state). The influence of the support type and preparation method will be observed in the produced hydrogen yield. Additionally, the stability of the catalysts is critical, due to the fact that in SESR process sorption-desorption steps are required. The produced hydrogen yield and hydrogen purity has to be high and also stable, even after several sorption-desorption cycles. The prepared catalysts were characterized employing different techniques to determine the physicochemical properties of the fresh-reduced and used (after the activity tests) materials. The characterization results, together with the activity results show the influence of the catalysts preparation method, calcination temperature, or can even explain the observed yield and conversion.

Keywords: CO2 sorbent, enhanced steam reforming, hydrogen

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53 Dry Reforming of Methane Using Metal Supported and Core Shell Based Catalyst

Authors: Vinu Viswanath, Lawrence Dsouza, Ugo Ravon

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Syngas typically and intermediary gas product has a wide range of application of producing various chemical products, such as mixed alcohols, hydrogen, ammonia, Fischer-Tropsch products methanol, ethanol, aldehydes, alcohols, etc. There are several technologies available for the syngas production. An alternative to the conventional processes an attractive route of utilizing carbon dioxide and methane in equimolar ratio to generate syngas of ratio close to one has been developed which is also termed as Dry Reforming of Methane technology. It also gives the privilege to utilize the greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4. The dry reforming process is highly endothermic, and indeed, ΔG becomes negative if the temperature is higher than 900K and practically, the reaction occurs at 1000-1100K. At this temperature, the sintering of the metal particle is happening that deactivate the catalyst. However, by using this strategy, the methane is just partially oxidized, and some cokes deposition occurs that causing the catalyst deactivation. The current research work was focused to mitigate the main challenges of dry reforming process such coke deposition, and metal sintering at high temperature.To achieve these objectives, we employed three different strategies of catalyst development. 1) Use of bulk catalysts such as olivine and pyrochlore type materials. 2) Use of metal doped support materials, like spinel and clay type material. 3) Use of core-shell model catalyst. In this approach, a thin layer (shell) of redox metal oxide is deposited over the MgAl2O4 /Al2O3 based support material (core). For the core-shell approach, an active metal is been deposited on the surface of the shell. The shell structure formed is a doped metal oxide that can undergo reduction and oxidation reactions (redox), and the core is an alkaline earth aluminate having a high affinity towards carbon dioxide. In the case of metal-doped support catalyst, the enhanced redox properties of doped CeO2 oxide and CO2 affinity property of alkaline earth aluminates collectively helps to overcome coke formation. For all of the mentioned three strategies, a systematic screening of the metals is carried out to optimize the efficiency of the catalyst. To evaluate the performance of them, the activity and stability test were carried out under reaction conditions of temperature ranging from 650 to 850 ̊C and an operating pressure ranging from 1 to 20 bar. The result generated infers that the core-shell model catalyst showed high activity and better stable DR catalysts under atmospheric as well as high-pressure conditions. In this presentation, we will show the results related to the strategy.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, dry reforming, supports, core shell catalyst

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52 The Public Policy of Energy Subsidies Reform in Egypt

Authors: Doaa Nounou

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This research examines the public policy energy subsidies reform efforts in Egypt since 2014. Egypt’s widely used energy subsidies have been controversial since they were first introduced, as they inadequately target the poorest part of the population. Also, their effect on economic development and democratic transition became very challenging in recent years. This research argues that although subsidy reform is a highly politicalized issue in democratizing countries, there are still a number of pragmatic public policies that can be applied to make the subsidy system function more efficiently and at the same time decrease inequality which could facilitate a more orderly and peaceful transition to democracy. Therefore, this research attempts to study the role of the executive branch in reforming the subsidy programmes to support the poor and bring about structural changes to achieve social justice and economic growth. This research also attempts to analyze the role of the military and civil society in reforming the subsidy system. Moreover, it attempts to discuss the role of the state media in social mobilization to rationalize consumption and its contribution to subsidies reform.

Keywords: subsidies, public policy, political economy, democratization, equality

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51 Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Butanol over Ag/TiO2

Authors: Thabelo Nelushi, Michael Scurrell, Tumelo Seadira

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Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues which arise from occurrence of gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the atmosphere. Exposure to these greenhouse gases results in health risk. Hydrogen is regarded as an alternative energy source which is a clean energy carrier for the future. There are different methods to produce hydrogen such as steam reforming, coal gasification etc., however the challenge with these processes is that they emit CO and CO2 gases and are costly. Photocatalytic reforming is a substitute process which is fascinating due to the combination of solar energy and renewable sources and the use of semiconductor materials such as catalysts. TiO2 is regarded as the most promising catalysts. TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal method and Ag/TiO2 are being investigated for photocatalytic production of hydrogen from butanol. The samples were characterized by raman spectroscopy, TEM/SEM, XRD, XPS, EDAX, DRS and BET surface area. 2 wt% Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticle showed enhanced hydrogen production compared to a non-doped TiO2. The results of characterization and photoactivity shows that TiO2 nanoparticles play a very important role in producing high hydrogen by utilizing solar irradiation.

Keywords: butanol, hydrogen production, silver particles, TiO2 nanoparticles

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