Search results for: current losses
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9675

Search results for: current losses

9675 Estimation of Energy Losses of Photovoltaic Systems in France Using Real Monitoring Data

Authors: Mohamed Amhal, Jose Sayritupac


Photovoltaic (PV) systems have risen as one of the modern renewable energy sources that are used in wide ranges to produce electricity and deliver it to the electrical grid. In parallel, monitoring systems have been deployed as a key element to track the energy production and to forecast the total production for the next days. The reliability of the PV energy production has become a crucial point in the analysis of PV systems. A deeper understanding of each phenomenon that causes a gain or a loss of energy is needed to better design, operate and maintain the PV systems. This work analyzes the current losses distribution in PV systems starting from the available solar energy, going through the DC side and AC side, to the delivery point. Most of the phenomena linked to energy losses and gains are considered and modeled, based on real time monitoring data and datasheets of the PV system components. An analysis of the order of magnitude of each loss is compared to the current literature and commercial software. To date, the analysis of PV systems performance based on a breakdown structure of energy losses and gains is not covered enough in the literature, except in some software where the concept is very common. The cutting-edge of the current analysis is the implementation of software tools for energy losses estimation in PV systems based on several energy losses definitions and estimation technics. The developed tools have been validated and tested on some PV plants in France, which are operating for years. Among the major findings of the current study: First, PV plants in France show very low rates of soiling and aging. Second, the distribution of other losses is comparable to the literature. Third, all losses reported are correlated to operational and environmental conditions. For future work, an extended analysis on further PV plants in France and abroad will be performed.

Keywords: energy gains, energy losses, losses distribution, monitoring, photovoltaic, photovoltaic systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
9674 Reduction of High-Frequency Planar Transformer Conduction Losses Using a Planar Litz Wire Structure

Authors: Hamed Belloumi, Amira Zouaoui, Ferid kourda


A new trend in power converters is to design planar transformer that aim for low profile. However, at high frequency, the planar transformer ac losses become significant due to the proximity and skin effects. In this paper, the design and implementation of a novel planar Litz conductor is presented in order to equalize the flux linkage and improving the current distribution. The developed PCB litz wire structure minimizes the losses in a similar way to the conventional multi stranded Litz wires. In order to further illustrate the eddy current effect in different arrangements, a Finite-Element Analysis (FEA) tool is used to analyze current distribution inside the conductors. Finally, the proposed planar transformer has been integrated in an electronic stage to test at high signal levels.

Keywords: planar transformer, finite-element analysis, winding losses, planar Litz wire

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
9673 Reduction of Planar Transformer AC Resistance Using a Planar Litz Wire Structure

Authors: Hamed Belloumi, Aymen Ammouri, Ferid Kourda


A new trend in power converters is to design planar transformer that aim for low profile. However, at high frequency, the planar transformer ac losses become significant due to the proximity and skin effects. In this paper, the design and implementation of a novel planar litz conductor is presented in order to equalize the flux linkage and improving the current distribution. The developed PCB litz wire structure minimizes the losses in a similar way to the conventional multi stranded litz wires. In order to further illustrate the eddy current effect in different arrangements, a finite-element analysis (FEA) tool is used to analyze current distribution inside the conductors. Finally, the proposed planar transformer has been integrated in an electronic stage to test at high signal levels.

Keywords: planar transformer, finite-element analysis (FEA), winding losses, planar litz wire

Procedia PDF Downloads 496
9672 Power Circuit Schemes in AC Drive is Made by Condition of the Minimum Electric Losses

Authors: M. A. Grigoryev, A. N. Shishkov, D. A. Sychev


The article defines the necessity of choosing the optimal power circuits scheme of the electric drive with field regulated reluctance machine. The specific weighting factors are calculation, the linear regression dependence of specific losses in semiconductor frequency converters are presented depending on the values of the rated current. It is revealed that with increase of the carrier frequency PWM improves the output current waveform, but increases the loss, so you will need depending on the task in a certain way to choose from the carrier frequency. For task of optimization by criterion of the minimum electrical losses regression dependence of the electrical losses in the frequency converter circuit at a frequency of a PWM signal of 0 Hz. The surface optimization criterion is presented depending on the rated output torque of the motor and number of phases. In electric drives with field regulated reluctance machine with at low output power optimization criterion appears to be the worst for multiphase circuits. With increasing output power this trend hold true, but becomes insignificantly different optimal solutions for three-phase and multiphase circuits. This is explained to the linearity of the dependence of the electrical losses from the current.

Keywords: field regulated reluctance machine, the electrical losses, multiphase power circuit, the surface optimization criterion

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
9671 Lattice Network Model for Calculation of Eddy Current Losses in a Solid Permanent Magnet

Authors: Jan Schmidt, Pierre Köhring


Permanently excited machines are set up with magnets that are made of highly energetic magnetic materials. Inherently, the permanent magnets warm up while the machine is operating. With an increasing temperature, the electromotive force and hence the degree of efficiency decrease. The reasons for this are slot harmonics and distorted armature currents arising from frequency inverter operation. To prevent or avoid demagnetizing of the permanent magnets it is necessary to ensure that the magnets do not excessively heat up. Demagnetizations of permanent magnets are irreversible and a breakdown of the electrical machine is inevitable. For the design of an electrical machine, the knowledge of the behavior of heating under operating conditions of the permanent magnet is of crucial importance. Therefore, a calculation model is presented with which the machine designer can easily calculate the eddy current losses in the magnetic material.

Keywords: analytical model, eddy current, losses, lattice network, permanent magnet

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9670 Analysis of Direct Current Motor in LabVIEW

Authors: E. Ramprasath, P. Manojkumar, P. Veena


DC motors have been widely used in the past centuries which are proudly known as the workhorse of industrial systems until the invention of the AC induction motors which makes a huge revolution in industries. Since then, the use of DC machines have been decreased due to enormous factors such as reliability, robustness and complexity but it lost its fame due to the losses. A new methodology is proposed to construct a DC motor through the simulation in LabVIEW to get an idea about its real time performances, if a change in parameter might have bigger improvement in losses and reliability.

Keywords: analysis, characteristics, direct current motor, LabVIEW software, simulation

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9669 Control Methods Used to Minimize Losses in High-Speed Electrical Machines

Authors: Mohammad Hedar


This paper presents selected topics from the area of high-speed electrical machine control with a focus on loss minimization. It focuses on pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) set-up in order to minimize the inrush current peak. An overview of these machines and the control topologies that have been used with these machines are reported. The critical problem that happens when controlling a high-speed electrical motor is the high current peak in the start-up process, which will cause high power-losses. The main goal of this paper is to clarify how the inrush current peak can be minimized in the start-up process. PAM control method is proposed to use in the frequency inverter, simulation results for PAM & PWM control method, and steps to improve the PAM control are reported. The simulations were performed with data for PMSM (nominal speed: 25 000 min-1, power: 3.1 kW, load: 1.2 Nm).

Keywords: control topology, frequency inverter, high-speed electrical machines, PAM, power losses, PWM

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
9668 Solutions for Quality Pre-Control of Crimp Contacts

Authors: C. F. Ocoleanu, G. Cividjian, Gh. Manolea


In this paper, we present two solutions for connections quality pre-control of Crimp Contacts and to identify in the first moments the connections improperly executed, before final assembly of a electrical machines. The first solution supposed experimental determination of specific losses by calculated the initial rate of temperature rise. This can be made drawing the tangent at the origin at heating curve. The method can be used to identify bad connections by passing a current through the winding at ambient temperature and simultaneously record connections temperatures in the first few minutes since the current is setting. The second proposed solution is to apply to each element crimping a thermal indicator one level, and making a test heating with a heating current corresponding to critical temperature indicator.

Keywords: temperature, crimp contact, thermal indicator, current distribution, specific losses

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9667 Driving Forces of Net Carbon Emissions in a Tropical Dry Forest, Oaxaca, México

Authors: Rogelio Omar Corona-Núñez, Alma Mendoza-Ponce


The Tropical Dry Forest not only is one of the most important tropical ecosystems in terms of area, but also it is one of the most degraded ecosystems. However, little is known about the degradation impacts on carbon stocks, therefore in carbon emissions. There are different studies which explain its deforestation dynamics, but there is still a lack of understanding of how they correlate to carbon losses. Recently different authors have built current biomass maps for the tropics and Mexico. However, it is not clear how well they predict at the local scale, and how they can be used to estimate carbon emissions. This study quantifies the forest net carbon losses by comparing the potential carbon stocks and the different current biomass maps in the Southern Pacific coast in Oaxaca, Mexico. The results show important differences in the current biomass estimates with not a clear agreement. However, by the aggregation of the information, it is possible to infer the general patterns of biomass distribution and it can identify the driving forces of the carbon emissions. This study estimated that currently ~44% of the potential carbon stock estimated for the region is still present. A total of 6,764 GgC has been emitted due to deforestation and degradation of the forest at a rate of above ground biomass loss of 66.4 Mg ha-1. Which, ~62% of the total carbon emissions can be regarded as being due to forest degradation. Most of carbon losses were identified in places suitable for agriculture, close to rural areas and to roads while the lowest losses were accounted in places with high water stress and within the boundaries of the National Protected Area. Moreover, places not suitable for agriculture, but close to the coast showed carbon losses as a result of urban settlements.

Keywords: above ground biomass, deforestation, degradation, driving forces, tropical deciduous forest

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
9666 Effects of Compensation on Distribution System Technical Losses

Authors: B. Kekezoglu, C. Kocatepe, O. Arikan, Y. Hacialiefendioglu, G. Ucar


One of the significant problems of energy systems is to supply economic and efficient energy to consumers. Therefore studies has been continued to reduce technical losses in the network. In this paper, the technical losses analyzed for a portion of European side of Istanbul MV distribution network for different compensation scenarios by considering real system and load data and results are presented. Investigated system is modeled with CYME Power Engineering Software and optimal capacity placement has been proposed to minimize losses.

Keywords: distribution system, optimal capacitor placement, reactive power compensation, technical losses

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9665 Modelling and Optimization Analysis of Silicon/MgZnO-CBTSSe Tandem Solar Cells

Authors: Vallisree Sivathanu, Kumaraswamidhas Lakshmi Annamalai, Trupti Ranjan Lenka


We report a tandem solar cell model with Silicon as the bottom cell absorber material and Cu₂BaSn(S, Se)₄(CBTSSe) as absorber material for the top cell. As a first step, the top and bottom cells were modelled and validated by comparison with the experiment. Once the individual cells are validated, then the tandem structure is modelled with Indium Tin Oxide(ITO) as conducting layer between the top and bottom cells. The tandem structure yielded better open circuit voltage and fill factor; however, the efficiency obtained is 7.01%. The top cell and the bottom cells are investigated with the help of electron-hole current density, photogeneration rate, and external quantum efficiency profiles. In order to minimize the various loss mechanisms in the tandem solar cell, the material parameters are optimized within experimentally achievable limits. Initially, the top cell optimization was carried out; then, the bottom cell is optimized for maximizing the light absorption, and upon minimizing the current and photon losses in the tandem structure, the maximum achievable efficiency is predicted to be 19.52%.

Keywords: CBTSSe, silicon, tandem, solar cell, device modeling, current losses, photon losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
9664 Addressing Food Grain Losses in India: Energy Trade-Offs and Nutrition Synergies

Authors: Matthew F. Gibson, Narasimha D. Rao, Raphael B. Slade, Joana Portugal Pereira, Joeri Rogelj


Globally, India’s population is among the most severely impacted by nutrient deficiency, yet millions of tonnes of food are lost before reaching consumers. Across food groups, grains represent the largest share of daily calories and overall losses by mass in India. If current losses remain unresolved and follow projected population rates, we estimate, by 2030, losses from grains for human consumption could increase by 1.3-1.8 million tonnes (Mt) per year against current levels of ~10 Mt per year. This study quantifies energy input to minimise storage losses across India, responsible for a quarter of grain supply chain losses. In doing so, we identify and explore a Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) triplet between SDG₂, SDG₇, and SDG₁₂ and provide insight for development of joined up agriculture and health policy in the country. Analyzing rice, wheat, maize, bajra, and sorghum, we quantify one route to reduce losses in supply chains, by modelling the energy input to maintain favorable climatic conditions in modern silo storage. We quantify key nutrients (calories, protein, zinc, iron, vitamin A) contained within these losses and calculate roughly how much deficiency in these dietary components could be reduced if grain losses were eliminated. Our modelling indicates, with appropriate uncertainty, maize has the highest energy input intensity for storage, at 110 kWh per tonne of grain (kWh/t), and wheat the lowest (72 kWh/t). This energy trade-off represents 8%-16% of the energy input required in grain production. We estimate if grain losses across the supply chain were saved and targeted to India’s nutritionally deficient population, average protein deficiency could reduce by 46%, calorie by 27%, zinc by 26%, and iron by 11%. This study offers insight for development of Indian agriculture, food, and health policy by first quantifying and then presenting benefits and trade-offs of tackling food grain losses.

Keywords: energy, food loss, grain storage, hunger, India, sustainable development goal, SDG

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
9663 Loss Analysis by Loading Conditions of Distribution Transformers

Authors: A. Bozkurt, C. Kocatepe, R. Yumurtaci, İ. C. Tastan, G. Tulun


Efficient use of energy, with the increase in demand of energy and also with the reduction of natural energy sources, has improved its importance in recent years. Most of the losses in the system from electricity produced until the point of consumption is mostly composed by the energy distribution system. In this study, analysis of the resulting loss in power distribution transformer and distribution power cable is realized which are most of the losses in the distribution system. Transformer losses in the real distribution system were analyzed by CYME Power Engineering Software program. These losses are disclosed for different voltage levels and different loading conditions.

Keywords: distribution system, distribution transformer, power cable, technical losses

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9662 A Comprehensive Evaluation of IGBTs Performance under Zero Current Switching

Authors: Ly. Benbahouche


Currently, several soft switching topologies have been studied to achieve high power switching efficiency, reduced cost, improved reliability and reduced parasites. It is well known that improvement in power electronics systems always depend on advanced in power devices. The IGBT has been successfully used in a variety of switching applications such as motor drives and appliance control because of its superior characteristics. The aim of this paper is focuses on simulation and explication of the internal dynamics of IGBTs behaviour under the most popular soft switching schemas that is Zero Current Switching (ZCS) environments. The main purpose of this paper is to point out some mechanisms relating to current tail during the turn-off and examination of the response at turn-off with variation of temperature, inductance L, snubber capacitors Cs, and bus voltage in order to achieve an improved understanding of internal carrier dynamics. It is shown that the snubber capacitor, the inductance and even the temperature controls the magnitude and extent of the tail current, hence the turn-off time (switching speed of the device). Moreover, it has also been demonstrated that the ZCS switching can be utilized efficiently to improve and reduce the power losses as well as the turn-off time. Furthermore, the turn-off loss in ZCS was found to depend on the time of switching of the device.

Keywords: PT-IGBT, ZCS, turn-off losses, dV/dt

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9661 Air-Blast Ultrafast Disconnectors and Solid-State Medium Voltage DC Breaker: A Modified Version to Lower Losses and Higher Speed

Authors: Ali Kadivar, Kaveh Niayesh


MVDC markets for green power generations, Navy, subsea oil and gas electrification, and transportation electrification are extending rapidly. The lack of fast and powerful DC circuit breakers (CB) is the most significant barrier to realizing the medium voltage DC (MVDC) networks. A concept of hybrid circuit breakers (HCBs) benefiting from ultrafast disconnectors (UFD) is proposed. A set of mechanical switches substitute the power electronic commutation switches to reduce the losses during normal operation in HCB. The success of current commutation in such breakers relies on the behaviour of elongated, wall constricted arcs during the opening across the contacts inside the UFD. The arc voltage dependencies on the contact speed of UFDs is discussed through multiphysics simulations contact opening speeds of 10, 20 and 40 m/s. The arc voltage at a given current increases exponentially with the contact opening velocity. An empirical equation for the dynamic arc characteristics is presented for the tested UFD, and the experimentally verfied characteristics for voltage-current are utilized for the current commutation simulation prior to apply on a 14 kV experimental setup. Different failures scenarios due to the current commutation are investigated

Keywords: MVDC breakers, DC circuit breaker, fast operating breaker, ultra-fast elongated arc

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9660 Tribological Investigation of Piston Ring Liner Assembly

Authors: Bharatkumar Sutaria, Tejaskumar Chaudhari


An engine performance can be increased by minimizing losses. There are various losses observed in the engines. i.e. thermal loss, heat loss and mechanical losses. Mechanical losses are in the tune of 15 to 20 % of the overall losses. Piston ring assembly contributes the highest friction in the mechanical frictional losses. The variation of piston speed in stroke length the friction force development is not uniform. In present work, comparison has been made between theoretical and experimental friction force under different operating conditions. The experiments are performed using variable operating parameters such as load, speed, temperature and lubricants. It is found that reducing trend of friction force and friction coefficient is in good nature with mixed lubrication regime of the Stribeck curve. Overall outcome from the laboratory test performance of segmented piston ring assembly using multi-grade oil offers reasonably good results at room and elevated temperatures.

Keywords: friction force, friction coefficient, piston rings, Stribeck curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 457
9659 Quantification of Effect of Linear Anionic Polyacrylamide on Seepage in Irrigation Channels

Authors: Hamil Uribe, Cristian Arancibia


In Chile, the water for irrigation and hydropower generation is delivery essentially through unlined channels on earth, which have high seepage losses. Traditional seepage-abatement technologies are very expensive. The goals of this work were to quantify water loss in unlined channels and select reaches to evaluate the use of linear anionic polyacrylamide (LA-PAM) to reduce seepage losses. The study was carried out in Maule Region, central area of Chile. Water users indicated reaches with potential seepage losses, 45 km of channels in total, whose flow varied between 1.07 and 23.6 m³ s⁻¹. According to seepage measurements, 4 reaches of channels, 4.5 km in total, were selected for LA-PAM application. One to 4 LA-PAM applications were performed at rates of 11 kg ha⁻¹, considering wet perimeter area as basis of calculation. Large channels were used to allow motorboat moving against the current to carry-out LA-PAM application. For applications, a seeder machine was used to evenly distribute granulated polymer on water surface. Water flow was measured (StreamPro ADCP) upstream and downstream in selected reaches, to estimate seepage losses before and after LA-PAM application. Weekly measurements were made to quantify treatment effect and duration. In each case, water turbidity and temperature were measured. Channels showed variable losses up to 13.5%. Channels showing water gains were not treated with PAM. In all cases, LA-PAM effect was positive, achieving average loss reductions of 8% to 3.1%. Water loss was confirmed and it was possible to reduce seepage through LA-PAM applications provided that losses were known and correctly determined when applying the polymer. This could allow increasing irrigation security in critical periods, especially under drought conditions.

Keywords: canal seepage, irrigation, polyacrylamide, water management

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9658 The Effect of Catastrophic Losses on Insurance Cycle: Case of Croatia

Authors: Drago Jakovčević, Maja Mihelja Žaja


This paper provides an analysis of the insurance cycle in the Republic of Croatia and whether they are affected by catastrophic losses on a global level. In general, it is considered that insurance cycles are particularly pronounced in periods of financial crisis, but are also affected by the growing number of catastrophic losses. They cause the change of insurance cycle and premium growth and intensification and narrowing of the coverage conditions, so these variables move in the same direction and these phenomena point to a new cycle. The main goal of this paper is to determine the existence of insurance cycle in the Republic of Croatia and investigate whether catastrophic losses have an influence on insurance cycles.

Keywords: catastrophic loss, insurance cycle, premium, Republic of Croatia

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
9657 Postharvest Losses and Handling Improvement of Organic Pak-Choi and Choy Sum

Authors: Pichaya Poonlarp, Danai Boonyakiat, C. Chuamuangphan, M. Chanta


Current consumers’ behavior trends have changed towards more health awareness, the well-being of society and interest of nature and environment. The Royal Project Foundation is, therefore, well aware of organic agriculture. The project only focused on using natural products and utilizing its highland biological merits to increase resistance to diseases and insects for the produce grown. The project also brought in basic knowledge from a variety of available research information, including, but not limited to, improvement of soil fertility and a control of plant insects with biological methods in order to lay a foundation in developing and promoting farmers to grow quality produce with a high health safety. This will finally lead to sustainability for future highland agriculture and a decrease of chemical use on the highland area which is a source of natural watershed. However, there are still shortcomings of the postharvest management in term of quality and losses, such as bruising, rottenness, wilting and yellowish leaves. These losses negatively affect the maintenance and a shelf life of organic vegetables. Therefore, it is important that a research study of the appropriate and effective postharvest management is conducted for an individual organic vegetable to minimize product loss and find root causes of postharvest losses which would contribute to future postharvest management best practices. This can be achieved through surveys and data collection from postharvest processes in order to conduct analysis for causes of postharvest losses of organic pak-choi, baby pak-choi, and choy sum. Consequently, postharvest losses reduction strategies of organic vegetables can be achieved. In this study, postharvest losses of organic pak choi, baby pak-choi, and choy sum were determined at each stage of the supply chain starting from the field after harvesting, at the Development Center packinghouse, at Chiang Mai packinghouse, at Bangkok packing house and at the Royal Project retail shop in Chiang Mai. The results showed that postharvest losses of organic pak-choi, baby pak-choi, and choy sum were 86.05, 89.05 and 59.03 percent, respectively. The main factors contributing to losses of organic vegetables were due to mechanical damage and underutilized parts and/or short of minimum quality standard. Good practices had been developed after causes of losses were identified. Appropriate postharvest handling and management, for example, temperature control, hygienic cleaning, and reducing the duration of the supply chain, postharvest losses of all organic vegetables should be able to remarkably reduced postharvest losses in the supply chain.

Keywords: postharvest losses, organic vegetables, handling improvement, shelf life, supply chain

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9656 Switching Losses in Power Electronic Converter of Switched Reluctance Motor

Authors: Ali Asghar Memon


A cautious and astute selection of switching devices used in power electronic converters of a switched reluctance (SR) motor is required. It is a matter of choice of best switching devices with respect to their switching ability rather than fulfilling the number of switches. This paper highlights the computational determination of switching losses comprising of switch-on, switch-off and conduction losses respectively by using experimental data in simulation model of a SR machine. The finding of this research is helpful for proper selection of electronic switches and suitable converter topology for switched reluctance motor.

Keywords: converter, operating modes, switched reluctance motor, switching losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 485
9655 Three Phase PWM Inverter for Low Rating Energy Efficient Systems

Authors: Nelson Lujara


The paper presents a practical three-phase PWM inverter suitable for low voltage, low rating energy efficient systems. The work in the paper is conducted with the view to establishing the significance of the loss contribution from the PWM inverter in the determination of the complete losses of a photovoltaic (PV) array-powered induction motor drive water pumping system. Losses investigated include; conduction and switching loss of the devices and gate drive losses. It is found that the PWM inverter operates at a reasonable variable efficiency that does not fall below 92% depending on the load. The results between the simulated and experimental results for the system with or without a maximum power tracker (MPT) compares very well, within an acceptable range of 2% margin.

Keywords: energy, inverter, losses, photovoltaic

Procedia PDF Downloads 619
9654 Energy Efficiency Analysis of Electrical Submersible Pump on Mature Oil Field Offshore Java Sea

Authors: Marda Vidrianto, Tania Surya Utami


Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) is an artificial lift of choice to produce oil on Offshore Java Sea. It is selected based on the production rate capacity and running life expectation. ESP performance in a mature field is highly affected by oil well conditions. The presence of sand, scale, gas, and low influx will create unstable ESP operation hence lowering the run life expectation and system efficiency. This paper reviews the current energy usage and efficiency on every part of the ESP system. The hydraulic and electrical losses, as well as system efficiency for each well, are calculated to identify energy losses and the possibility for improvement. It is shown that high back pressure on the system and low-efficiency pump are the major contributors to energy losses. It was found that optimized production rate and the use of advanced technology on pump and motor unit could improve energy efficiency.

Keywords: advance technology, energy efficiency, ESP, mature field, production rate

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9653 Experimental Support for the District Metered Areas/Pressure Management Areas Application

Authors: K. Ilicic, D. Smoljan


The purpose of the paper is to present and verify a methodology of decreasing water losses by introducing and managing District Metered Areas (DMA) and Pressure Management Areas (PMA) by analyzing the results of the application of the methodology to the water supply system of the city of Zagreb. Since it is a relatively large system that has been expanding rapidly, approach to addressing water losses was possible only by splitting the system to smaller flow and pressure zones. Besides, the geographical and technical limitations had imposed the necessity of high pressure in the system that needed to be reduced to the technically optimal level. Results of activities were monitored on a general and local level by establishing, monitoring, and controlling indicators that had been established by the International Water Association (IWA), among which the most recognizable were non-revenue water, water losses and real losses as presented in the paper.

Keywords: district metered area, pressure metered area, active leakage control, water losses

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9652 Increasing Power Transfer Capacity of Distribution Networks Using Direct Current Feeders

Authors: Akim Borbuev, Francisco de León


Economic and population growth in densely-populated urban areas introduce major challenges to distribution system operators, planers, and designers. To supply added loads, utilities are frequently forced to invest in new distribution feeders. However, this is becoming increasingly more challenging due to space limitations and rising installation costs in urban settings. This paper proposes the conversion of critical alternating current (ac) distribution feeders into direct current (dc) feeders to increase the power transfer capacity by a factor as high as four. Current trends suggest that the return of dc transmission, distribution, and utilization are inevitable. Since a total system-level transformation to dc operation is not possible in a short period of time due to the needed huge investments and utility unreadiness, this paper recommends that feeders that are expected to exceed their limits in near future are converted to dc. The increase in power transfer capacity is achieved through several key differences between ac and dc power transmission systems. First, it is shown that underground cables can be operated at higher dc voltage than the ac voltage for the same dielectric stress in the insulation. Second, cable sheath losses, due to induced voltages yielding circulation currents, that can be as high as phase conductor losses under ac operation, are not present under dc. Finally, skin and proximity effects in conductors and sheaths do not exist in dc cables. The paper demonstrates that in addition to the increased power transfer capacity utilities substituting ac feeders by dc feeders could benefit from significant lower costs and reduced losses. Installing dc feeders is less expensive than installing new ac feeders even when new trenches are not needed. Case studies using the IEEE 342-Node Low Voltage Networked Test System quantify the technical and economic benefits of dc feeders.

Keywords: DC power systems, distribution feeders, distribution networks, power transfer capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
9651 Loss Allocation in Radial Distribution Networks for Loads of Composite Types

Authors: Sumit Banerjee, Chandan Kumar Chanda


The paper presents allocation of active power losses and energy losses to consumers connected to radial distribution networks in a deregulated environment for loads of composite types. A detailed comparison among four algorithms, namely quadratic loss allocation, proportional loss allocation, pro rata loss allocation and exact loss allocation methods are presented. Quadratic and proportional loss allocations are based on identifying the active and reactive components of current in each branch and the losses are allocated to each consumer, pro rata loss allocation method is based on the load demand of each consumer and exact loss allocation method is based on the actual contribution of active power loss by each consumer. The effectiveness of the proposed comparison among four algorithms for composite load is demonstrated through an example.

Keywords: composite type, deregulation, loss allocation, radial distribution networks

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9650 Exergy Losses Relation with Driving Forces in Heat Transfer Process

Authors: S. Ali Ashrafizadeh, M. Amidpour, N. Hedayat


Driving forces along with transfer coefficient affect on heat transfer rate, on the other hand, with regard to the relation of these forces with irriversibilities they are effective on exergy losses. Therefore, the driving forces can be used as a relation between heat transfer rate, transfer coefficients and exergy losses. In this paper, first, the relation of the exergetic efficiency and resistant forces is obtained, next the relation between exergy efficiency, relative driving force, heat transfer rate and heat resistances is considered. In all cases, results are argued graphically. Finally, a case study inspected by obtained results.

Keywords: heat transfer, exergy losses, exergetic efficiency, driving forces

Procedia PDF Downloads 587
9649 A Single Phase ZVT-ZCT Power Factor Correction Boost Converter

Authors: Yakup Sahin, Naim Suleyman Ting, Ismail Aksoy


In this paper, a single phase soft switched Zero Voltage Transition and Zero Current Transition (ZVT-ZCT) Power Factor Correction (PFC) boost converter is proposed. In the proposed PFC converter, the main switch turns on with ZVT and turns off with ZCT without any additional voltage or current stresses. Auxiliary switch turns on and off with zero current switching (ZCS). Also, the main diode turns on with zero voltage switching (ZVS) and turns off with ZCS. The proposed converter has features like low cost, simple control and structure. The output current and voltage are controlled by the proposed PFC converter in wide line and load range. The theoretical analysis of converter is clarified and the operating steps are given in detail. The simulation results of converter are obtained for 500 W and 100 kHz. It is observed that the semiconductor devices operate with soft switching (SS) perfectly. So, the switching power losses are minimum. Also, the proposed converter has 0.99 power factor with sinusoidal current shape.

Keywords: power factor correction, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition, soft switching

Procedia PDF Downloads 782
9648 Zero Voltage Switched Full Bridge Converters for the Battery Charger of Electric Vehicle

Authors: Rizwan Ullah, Abdar Ali, Zahid Ullah


This paper illustrates the study of three isolated zero voltage switched (ZVS) PWM full bridge (FB) converters to charge the high voltage battery in the charger of electric vehicle (EV). EV battery chargers have several challenges such as high efficiency, high reliability, low cost, isolation, and high power density. The cost of magnetic and filter components in the battery charger is reduced when switching frequency is increased. The increase in the switching frequency increases switching losses. ZVS is used to reduce switching losses and to operate the converter in the battery charger at high frequency. The performance of each of the three converters is evaluated on the basis of ZVS range, dead times of the switches, conduction losses of switches, circulating current stress, circulating energy, duty cycle loss, and efficiency. The limitations and merits of each PWM FB converter are reviewed. The converter with broader ZVS range, high efficiency and low switch stresses is selected for battery charger applications in EV.

Keywords: electric vehicle, PWM FB converter, zero voltage switching, circulating energy

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9647 Pressure Losses on Realistic Geometry of Tracheobronchial Tree

Authors: Michaela Chovancova, Jakub Elcner


Real bronchial tree is very complicated piping system. Analysis of flow and pressure losses in this system is very difficult. Due to the complex geometry and the very small size in the lower generations is examination by CFD possible only in the central part of bronchial tree. For specify the pressure losses of lower generations is necessary to provide a mathematical equation. Determination of mathematical formulas for calculating the pressure losses in the real lungs is due to its complexity and diversity lengthy and inefficient process. For these calculations is necessary the lungs to slightly simplify (same cross-section over the length of individual generation) or use one of the models of lungs. The simplification could cause deviations from real values. The article compares the values of pressure losses obtained from CFD simulation of air flow in the central part of the real bronchial tree with the values calculated in a slightly simplified real lungs by using a mathematical relationship derived from the Bernoulli equation and continuity equation. Then, evaluate the desirability of using this formula to determine the pressure loss across the bronchial tree.

Keywords: pressure gradient, airways resistance, real geometry of bronchial tree, breathing

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9646 Proprietary Blend Synthetic Rubber as Loss Circulation Material in Drilling Operation

Authors: Zatil Afifah Omar, Siti Nur Izati Azmi, Kathi Swaran, Navin Kumar


Lost circulation has always been one of the greatest problems faced by drilling companies during drilling operations due to excessive drilling Fluids losses. Loss of circulation leads to Huge cost and non-productive time. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sealing efficiency of a proprietary blend of synthetic rubber as loss circulation material in comparison with a conventional product such as calcium carbonate, graphite, cellulosic, and nutshells. Sand Bed Tester with a different proprietary blend of synthetic rubber compositions has been used to determine the effectiveness of the LCM in preventing drilling fluids losses in a lab scale. Test results show the proprietary blend of synthetic rubber have good bridging properties and sealing Off fractures of various sizes. The finish product is environmentally friendly with lower production lead time and lower production cost compared to current conventional loss circulation materials used in current drilling operations.

Keywords: loss circulation materials, drilling operation, sealing efficiency, LCM

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