Search results for: photon losses
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1236

Search results for: photon losses

1236 Photon-Electron Interaction in the Different Medium

Authors: Vahid Borji


The interaction between photons and particles is a common phenomenon in nature that is discussed in order to obtain information about the environment and the conditions governing the phenomena. In the astrophysics, like others, we study these interactions to get useful knowledge and can be predict aftercoming events. One of the events is the transition of photon beam through medium with special conditions, like shocked medium. In our discussion, we have studied this situation and obtained results for different conditions that transition of photon depends on the energy of photon and distributions of electrons in medium.

Keywords: cross section, astrophysics, GRB, photon

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
1235 Photon Blockade in Non-Hermitian Optomechanical Systems with Nonreciprocal Couplings

Authors: J. Y. Sun, H. Z. Shen


We study the photon blockade at exceptional points for a non-Hermitian optomechanical system coupled to the driven whispering-gallery-mode microresonator with two nanoparticles under the weak optomechanical coupling approximation, where exceptional points emerge periodically by controlling the relative angle of the nanoparticles. We find that conventional photon blockade occurs at exceptional points for the eigenenergy resonance of the single-excitation subspace driven by a laser field and discuss the physical origin of conventional photon blockade. Under the weak driving condition, we analyze the influences of the different parameters on conventional photon blockade. We investigate conventional photon blockade at nonexceptional points, which exists at two optimal detunings due to the eigenstates in the single-excitation subspace splitting from one (coalescence) at exceptional points to two at nonexceptional points. Unconventional photon blockade can occur at nonexceptional points, while it does not exist at exceptional points since the destructive quantum interference cannot occur due to the two different quantum pathways to the two-photon state not being formed. The realization of photon blockade in our proposal provides a viable and flexible way for the preparation of single-photon sources in the non-Hermitian optomechanical system.

Keywords: optomechanical systems, photon blockade, non-hermitian, exceptional points

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1234 Modelling and Optimization Analysis of Silicon/MgZnO-CBTSSe Tandem Solar Cells

Authors: Vallisree Sivathanu, Kumaraswamidhas Lakshmi Annamalai, Trupti Ranjan Lenka


We report a tandem solar cell model with Silicon as the bottom cell absorber material and Cu₂BaSn(S, Se)₄(CBTSSe) as absorber material for the top cell. As a first step, the top and bottom cells were modelled and validated by comparison with the experiment. Once the individual cells are validated, then the tandem structure is modelled with Indium Tin Oxide(ITO) as conducting layer between the top and bottom cells. The tandem structure yielded better open circuit voltage and fill factor; however, the efficiency obtained is 7.01%. The top cell and the bottom cells are investigated with the help of electron-hole current density, photogeneration rate, and external quantum efficiency profiles. In order to minimize the various loss mechanisms in the tandem solar cell, the material parameters are optimized within experimentally achievable limits. Initially, the top cell optimization was carried out; then, the bottom cell is optimized for maximizing the light absorption, and upon minimizing the current and photon losses in the tandem structure, the maximum achievable efficiency is predicted to be 19.52%.

Keywords: CBTSSe, silicon, tandem, solar cell, device modeling, current losses, photon losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
1233 Two-Photon Fluorescence in N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots

Authors: Chi Man Luk, Ming Kiu Tsang, Chi Fan Chan, Shu Ping Lau


Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) were fabricated by microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The optical properties of the N-GQDs were studied. The luminescence of the N-GQDs can be tuned by varying the excitation wavelength. Furthermore, two-photon luminescence of the N-GQDs excited by near-infrared laser can be obtained. It is shown that N-doping play a key role on two-photon luminescence. The N-GQDs are expected to find application in biological applications including bioimaging and sensing.

Keywords: graphene quantum dots, nitrogen doping, photoluminescence, two-photon fluorescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 615
1232 Additive Manufacturing of Microstructured Optical Waveguides Using Two-Photon Polymerization

Authors: Leonnel Mhuka


Background: The field of photonics has witnessed substantial growth, with an increasing demand for miniaturized and high-performance optical components. Microstructured optical waveguides have gained significant attention due to their ability to confine and manipulate light at the subwavelength scale. Conventional fabrication methods, however, face limitations in achieving intricate and customizable waveguide structures. Two-photon polymerization (TPP) emerges as a promising additive manufacturing technique, enabling the fabrication of complex 3D microstructures with submicron resolution. Objectives: This experiment aimed to utilize two-photon polymerization to fabricate microstructured optical waveguides with precise control over geometry and dimensions. The objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of TPP as an additive manufacturing method for producing functional waveguide devices with enhanced performance. Methods: A femtosecond laser system operating at a wavelength of 800 nm was employed for two-photon polymerization. A custom-designed CAD model of the microstructured waveguide was converted into G-code, which guided the laser focus through a photosensitive polymer material. The waveguide structures were fabricated using a layer-by-layer approach, with each layer formed by localized polymerization induced by non-linear absorption of the laser light. Characterization of the fabricated waveguides included optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and optical transmission measurements. The optical properties, such as mode confinement and propagation losses, were evaluated to assess the performance of the additive manufactured waveguides. Conclusion: The experiment successfully demonstrated the additive manufacturing of microstructured optical waveguides using two-photon polymerization. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed the intricate 3D structures with submicron resolution. The measured optical transmission indicated efficient light propagation through the fabricated waveguides. The waveguides exhibited well-defined mode confinement and relatively low propagation losses, showcasing the potential of TPP-based additive manufacturing for photonics applications. The experiment highlighted the advantages of TPP in achieving high-resolution, customized, and functional microstructured optical waveguides. Conclusion: his experiment substantiates the viability of two-photon polymerization as an innovative additive manufacturing technique for producing complex microstructured optical waveguides. The successful fabrication and characterization of these waveguides open doors to further advancements in the field of photonics, enabling the development of high-performance integrated optical devices for various applications

Keywords: Additive Manufacturing, Microstructured Optical Waveguides, Two-Photon Polymerization, Photonics Applications

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1231 Comparison of Dose Rate and Energy Dependence of Soft Tissue Equivalence Dosimeter with Electron and Photon Beams Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Bakhtiar Azadbakht, Karim Adinehvand, Amin Sahebnasagh


The purpose of this study was to evaluate dependence of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter 1/T2 on different electron and photon energies as well as on different mean dose rates for a standard clinically used Co-60 therapy unit and an ELECTA linear accelerator. A multi echo sequence with 32 equidistant echoes was used for the evaluation of irradiated polymer gel dosimeters. The optimal post-manufacture irradiation and post imaging times were both determined to be one day. The sensitivity of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter with irradiation of photon and electron beams was represented by the slope of calibration curve in the linear region measured for each modality. The response of PAGAT gel with photon and electron beams is very similar in the lower dose region. The R2-dose response was linear up to 30Gy. In electron beams the R2-dose response for doses less than 3Gy is not exact, but in photon beams the R2-dose response for doses less than 2Gy is not exact. Dosimeter energy dependence was studied for electron energies of 4, 12 and 18MeV and photon energies of 1.25, 4, 6 and 18MV. Dose rate dependence was studied in 6MeV electron beam and 6MV photon beam with the use of dose rates 80, 160, 240, 320, 400, and 480cGy/min. Evaluation of dosimeters were performed on Siemens Symphony, Germany 1.5T Scanner in the head coil. In this study no trend in polymer-gel dosimeter 1/T2 dependence was found on mean dose rate and energy for electron and photon beams.

Keywords: polymer gels, PAGAT gel, electron and photon beams, MRI

Procedia PDF Downloads 459
1230 Neutron Contamination in 18 MV Medical Linear Accelerator

Authors: Onur Karaman, A. Gunes Tanir


Photon radiation therapy used to treat cancer is one of the most important methods. However, photon beam collimator materials in Linear Accelerator (LINAC) head generally contains heavy elements is used and the interaction of bremsstrahlung photon with such heavy nuclei, the neutron can be produced inside the treatment rooms. In radiation therapy, neutron contamination contributes to the risk of secondary malignancies in patients, also physicians working in this field. Since the neutron is more dangerous than photon, it is important to determine neutron dose during radiotherapy treatment. In this study, it is aimed to analyze the effect of field size, distance from axis and depth on the amount of in-field and out-field neutron contamination for ElektaVmat accelerator with 18 MV nominal energy. The photon spectra at the distance of 75, 150, 225, 300 cm from target and on the isocenter of beam were scored for 5x5, 10x10, 20x20, 30x30 and 40x40 cm2 fields. Results demonstrated that the neutron spectra and dose are dependent on field size and distances. Beyond 225 cm of isocenter, the dependence of the neutron dose on field size is minimal. As a result, it is concluded that as the open field increases, neutron dose determined decreases. It is important to remember that when treating with high energy photons, the dose from contamination neutrons must be considered as it is much greater than the photon dose.

Keywords: radiotherapy, neutron contamination, linear accelerators, photon

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
1229 Two-Photon Ionization of Silver Clusters

Authors: V. Paployan, K. Madoyan, A. Melikyan, H. Minassian


Resonant two-photon ionization (TPI) is a valuable technique for the study of clusters due to its ultrahigh sensitivity. The comparison of the observed TPI spectra with results of calculations allows to deduce important information on the shape, rotational and vibrational temperatures of the clusters with high accuracy. In this communication we calculate the TPI cross-section for pump-probe scheme in Ag neutral cluster. The pump photon energy is chosen to be close to the surface plasmon (SP) energy of cluster in dielectric media. Since the interband transition energy in Ag exceeds the SP resonance energy, the main contribution into the TPI comes from the latter. The calculations are performed by separating the coordinates of electrons corresponding to the collective oscillations and the individual motion that allows to take into account the resonance contribution of excited SP oscillations. It is shown that the ionization cross section increases by two orders of magnitude if the energy of the pump photon matches the surface plasmon energy in the cluster.

Keywords: resonance enhancement, silver clusters, surface plasmon, two-photon ionization

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1228 The Dynamic Metadata Schema in Neutron and Photon Communities: A Case Study of X-Ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy

Authors: Amir Tosson, Mohammad Reza, Christian Gutt


Metadata stands at the forefront of advancing data management practices within research communities, with particular significance in the realms of neutron and photon scattering. This paper introduces a groundbreaking approach—dynamic metadata schema—within the context of X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS). XPCS, a potent technique unravelling nanoscale dynamic processes, serves as an illustrative use case to demonstrate how dynamic metadata can revolutionize data acquisition, sharing, and analysis workflows. This paper explores the challenges encountered by the neutron and photon communities in navigating intricate data landscapes and highlights the prowess of dynamic metadata in addressing these hurdles. Our proposed approach empowers researchers to tailor metadata definitions to the evolving demands of experiments, thereby facilitating streamlined data integration, traceability, and collaborative exploration. Through tangible examples from the XPCS domain, we showcase how embracing dynamic metadata standards bestows advantages, enhancing data reproducibility, interoperability, and the diffusion of knowledge. Ultimately, this paper underscores the transformative potential of dynamic metadata, heralding a paradigm shift in data management within the neutron and photon research communities.

Keywords: metadata, FAIR, data analysis, XPCS, IoT

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1227 Cell-Cell Interactions in Diseased Conditions Revealed by Three Dimensional and Intravital Two Photon Microscope: From Visualization to Quantification

Authors: Satoshi Nishimura


Although much information has been garnered from the genomes of humans and mice, it remains difficult to extend that information to explain physiological and pathological phenomena. This is because the processes underlying life are by nature stochastic and fluctuate with time. Thus, we developed novel "in vivo molecular imaging" method based on single and two-photon microscopy. We visualized and analyzed many life phenomena, including common adult diseases. We integrated the knowledge obtained, and established new models that will serve as the basis for new minimally invasive therapeutic approaches.

Keywords: two photon microscope, intravital visualization, thrombus, artery

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1226 Microwave Single Photon Source Using Landau-Zener Transitions

Authors: Siddhi Khaire, Samarth Hawaldar, Baladitya Suri


As efforts towards quantum communication advance, the need for single photon sources becomes imminent. Due to the extremely low energy of a single microwave photon, efforts to build single photon sources and detectors in the microwave range are relatively recent. We plan to use a Cooper Pair Box (CPB) that has a ‘sweet-spot’ where the two energy levels have minimal separation. Moreover, these qubits have fairly large anharmonicity making them close to ideal two-level systems. If the external gate voltage of these qubits is varied rapidly while passing through the sweet-spot, due to Landau-Zener effect, the qubit can be excited almost deterministically. The rapid change of the gate control voltage through the sweet spot induces a non-adiabatic population transfer from the ground to the excited state. The qubit eventually decays into the emission line emitting a single photon. The advantage of this setup is that the qubit can be excited without any coherent microwave excitation, thereby effectively increasing the usable source efficiency due to the absence of control pulse microwave photons. Since the probability of a Landau-Zener transition can be made almost close to unity by the appropriate design of parameters, this source behaves as an on-demand source of single microwave photons. The large anharmonicity of the CPB also ensures that only one excited state is involved in the transition and multiple photon output is highly improbable. Such a system has so far not been implemented and would find many applications in the areas of quantum optics, quantum computation as well as quantum communication.

Keywords: quantum computing, quantum communication, quantum optics, superconducting qubits, flux qubit, charge qubit, microwave single photon source, quantum information processing

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1225 Evaluated Nuclear Data Based Photon Induced Nuclear Reaction Model of GEANT4

Authors: Jae Won Shin


We develop an evaluated nuclear data based photonuclear reaction model of GEANT4 for a more accurate simulation of photon-induced neutron production. The evaluated photonuclear data libraries from the ENDF/B-VII.1 are taken as input. Incident photon energies up to 140 MeV which is the threshold energy for the pion production are considered. For checking the validity of the use of the data-based model, we calculate the photoneutron production cross-sections and yields and compared them with experimental data. The results obtained from the developed model are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data for (γ,xn) reactions.

Keywords: ENDF/B-VII.1, GEANT4, photoneutron, photonuclear reaction

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1224 Linearly Polarized Single Photon Emission from Nonpolar, Semipolar and Polar Quantum Dots in GaN/InGaN Nanowires

Authors: Snezana Lazic, Zarko Gacevic, Mark Holmes, Ekaterina Chernysheva, Marcus Müller, Peter Veit, Frank Bertram, Juergen Christen, Yasuhiko Arakawa, Enrique Calleja


The study reports how the pencil-like morphology of a homoepitaxially grown GaN nanowire can be exploited for the fabrication of a thin conformal InGaN nanoshell, hosting nonpolar, semipolar and polar single photon sources (SPSs). All three SPS types exhibit narrow emission lines (FWHM~0.35 - 2 meV) and high degrees of linear optical polarization (P > 70%) in the low-temperature micro-photoluminescence (µ-PL) experiments and are characterized by a pronounced antibunching in the photon correlation measurements (gcorrected(2)(0) < 0.3). The quantum-dot-like exciton localization centers induced by compositional fluctuations within the InGaN nanoshell are identified as the driving mechanism for the single photon emission. As confirmed by the low-temperature transmission electron microscopy combined with cathodoluminescence (TEM-CL) study, the crystal region (i.e. non-polar m-, semi-polar r- and polar c-facets) hosting the single photon emitters strongly affects their emission wavelength, which ranges from ultra-violet for the non-polar to visible for the polar SPSs. The photon emission lifetime is also found to be facet-dependent and varies from sub-nanosecond time scales for the non- and semi-polar SPSs to a few nanoseconds for the polar ones. These differences are mainly attributed to facet-dependent indium content and electric field distribution across the hosting InGaN nanoshell. The hereby reported pencil-like InGaN nanoshell is the first single nanostructure able to host all three types of single photon emitters and is thus a promising building block for tunable quantum light devices integrated into future photonic and optoelectronic circuits.

Keywords: GaN nanowire, InGaN nanoshell, linear polarization, nonpolar, semipolar, polar quantum dots, single-photon sources

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1223 An Approach for Detection Efficiency Determination of High Purity Germanium Detector Using Cesium-137

Authors: Abdulsalam M. Alhawsawi


Estimation of a radiation detector's efficiency plays a significant role in calculating the activity of radioactive samples. Detector efficiency is measured using sources that emit a variety of energies from low to high-energy photons along the energy spectrum. Some photon energies are hard to find in lab settings either because check sources are hard to obtain or the sources have short half-lives. This work aims to develop a method to determine the efficiency of a High Purity Germanium Detector (HPGe) based on the 662 keV gamma ray photon emitted from Cs-137. Cesium-137 is readily available in most labs with radiation detection and health physics applications and has a long half-life of ~30 years. Several photon efficiencies were calculated using the MCNP5 simulation code. The simulated efficiency of the 662 keV photon was used as a base to calculate other photon efficiencies in a point source and a Marinelli Beaker form. In the Marinelli Beaker filled with water case, the efficiency of the 59 keV low energy photons from Am-241 was estimated with a 9% error compared to the MCNP5 simulated efficiency. The 1.17 and 1.33 MeV high energy photons emitted by Co-60 had errors of 4% and 5%, respectively. The estimated errors are considered acceptable in calculating the activity of unknown samples as they fall within the 95% confidence level.

Keywords: MCNP5, MonteCarlo simulations, efficiency calculation, absolute efficiency, activity estimation, Cs-137

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1222 Effects of Compensation on Distribution System Technical Losses

Authors: B. Kekezoglu, C. Kocatepe, O. Arikan, Y. Hacialiefendioglu, G. Ucar


One of the significant problems of energy systems is to supply economic and efficient energy to consumers. Therefore studies has been continued to reduce technical losses in the network. In this paper, the technical losses analyzed for a portion of European side of Istanbul MV distribution network for different compensation scenarios by considering real system and load data and results are presented. Investigated system is modeled with CYME Power Engineering Software and optimal capacity placement has been proposed to minimize losses.

Keywords: distribution system, optimal capacitor placement, reactive power compensation, technical losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 655
1221 A Model of the Universe without Expansion of Space

Authors: Jia-Chao Wang


A model of the universe without invoking space expansion is proposed to explain the observed redshift-distance relation and the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB). The main hypothesized feature of the model is that photons traveling in space interact with the CMB photon gas. This interaction causes the photons to gradually lose energy through dissipation and, therefore, experience redshift. The interaction also causes some of the photons to be scattered off their track toward an observer and, therefore, results in beam intensity attenuation. As observed, the CMB exists everywhere in space and its photon density is relatively high (about 410 per cm³). The small average energy of the CMB photons (about 6.3×10⁻⁴ eV) can reduce the energies of traveling photons gradually and will not alter their momenta drastically as in, for example, Compton scattering, to totally blur the images of distant objects. An object moving through a thermalized photon gas, such as the CMB, experiences a drag. The cause is that the object sees a blue shifted photon gas along the direction of motion and a redshifted one in the opposite direction. An example of this effect can be the observed CMB dipole: The earth travels at about 368 km/s (600 km/s) relative to the CMB. In the all-sky map from the COBE satellite, radiation in the Earth's direction of motion appears 0.35 mK hotter than the average temperature, 2.725 K, while radiation on the opposite side of the sky is 0.35 mK colder. The pressure of a thermalized photon gas is given by Pγ = Eγ/3 = αT⁴/3, where Eγ is the energy density of the photon gas and α is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. The observed CMB dipole, therefore, implies a pressure difference between the two sides of the earth and results in a CMB drag on the earth. By plugging in suitable estimates of quantities involved, such as the cross section of the earth and the temperatures on the two sides, this drag can be estimated to be tiny. But for a photon traveling at the speed of light, 300,000 km/s, the drag can be significant. In the present model, for the dissipation part, it is assumed that a photon traveling from a distant object toward an observer has an effective interaction cross section pushing against the pressure of the CMB photon gas. For the attenuation part, the coefficient of the typical attenuation equation is used as a parameter. The values of these two parameters are determined by fitting the 748 µ vs. z data points compiled from 643 supernova and 105 γ-ray burst observations with z values up to 8.1. The fit is as good as that obtained from the lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model using online cosmological calculators and Planck 2015 results. The model can be used to interpret Hubble's constant, Olbers' paradox, the origin and blackbody nature of the CMB radiation, the broadening of supernova light curves, and the size of the observable universe.

Keywords: CMB as the lowest energy state, model of the universe, origin of CMB in a static universe, photon-CMB photon gas interaction

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1220 Spectral Broadening in an InGaAsP Optical Waveguide with χ(3) Nonlinearity Including Two Photon Absorption

Authors: Keigo Matsuura, Isao Tomita


We have studied a method to widen the spectrum of optical pulses that pass through an InGaAsP waveguide for application to broadband optical communication. In particular, we have investigated the competitive effect between spectral broadening arising from nonlinear refraction (optical Kerr effect) and shrinking due to two photon absorption in the InGaAsP waveguide with chi^(3) nonlinearity. The shrunk spectrum recovers broadening by the enhancement effect of the nonlinear refractive index near the bandgap of InGaAsP with a bandgap wavelength of 1490 nm. The broadened spectral width at around 1525 nm (196.7 THz) becomes 10.7 times wider than that at around 1560 nm (192.3 THz) without the enhancement effect, where amplified optical pulses with a pulse width of 2 ps and a peak power of 10 W propagate through a 1-cm-long InGaAsP waveguide with a cross-section of 4 um^2.

Keywords: InGaAsP waveguide, Chi^(3) nonlinearity, spectral broadening, photon absorption

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1219 Noninvasive Continuous Glucose Monitoring Device Using a Photon-Assisted Tunneling Photodetector Based on a Quantum Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor

Authors: Wannakorn Sangthongngam, Melissa Huerta, Jaewoo Kim, Doyeon Kim


Continuous glucose monitoring systems are essential for diabetics to avoid health complications but come at a costly price, especially when insurance does not fully cover the diabetic testing kits needed. This paper proposes a noninvasive continuous glucose monitoring system to provide an accessible, low-cost, and painless alternative method of accurate glucose measurements to help improve quality of life. Using a light source with a wavelength of 850nm illuminates the fingertip for the photodetector to detect the transmitted light. Utilizing SeeDevice’s photon-assisted tunneling photodetector (PAT-PD)-based QMOS™ sensor, fluctuations of voltage based on photon absorption in blood cells are comparable to traditional glucose measurements. The performance of the proposed method was validated using 4 test participants’ transmitted voltage readings compared with measurements obtained from the Accu-Chek glucometer. The proposed method was able to successfully measure concentrations from linear regression calculations.

Keywords: continuous glucose monitoring, non-invasive continuous glucose monitoring, NIR, photon-assisted tunneling photodetector, QMOS™, wearable device

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1218 Secondary Radiation in Laser-Accelerated Proton Beamline (LAP)

Authors: Seyed Ali Mahdipour, Maryam Shafeei Sarvestani


Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) and target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) are the most important methods of Laser-accelerated proton beams (LAP) planning systems.LAP has inspired novel applications that can benefit from proton bunch properties different from conventionally accelerated proton beams. The secondary neutron and photon produced in the collision of protons with beamline components are of the important concern in proton therapy. Various published Monte Carlo researches evaluated the beamline and shielding considerations for TNSA method, but there is no studies directly address secondary neutron and photon production from RPA method in LAP. The purpose of this study is to calculate the flux distribution of neutron and photon secondary radiations on the first area ofLAP and to determine the optimize thickness and radius of the energyselector in a LAP planning system based on RPA method. Also, we present the Monte Carlo calculations to determine the appropriate beam pipe for shielding a LAP planning system. The GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit has been used to simulate a secondary radiation production in LAP. A section of new multifunctional LAP beamlinehas been proposed, based on the pulsed power solenoid scheme as a GEANT4 toolkit. The results show that the energy selector is the most important source of neutron and photon secondary particles in LAP beamline. According to the calculations, the pure Tungsten energy selector not be the proper case, and using of Tungsten+Polyethylene or Tungsten+Graphitecomposite selectors will reduce the production of neutron and photon intensities by approximately ~10% and ~25%, respectively. Also the optimal radiuses of energy selectors were found to be ~4 cm and ~6 cm for a 3 degree and 5 degree proton deviation angles, respectively.

Keywords: neutron, photon, flux distribution, energy selector, GEANT4 toolkit

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1217 Loss Analysis by Loading Conditions of Distribution Transformers

Authors: A. Bozkurt, C. Kocatepe, R. Yumurtaci, İ. C. Tastan, G. Tulun


Efficient use of energy, with the increase in demand of energy and also with the reduction of natural energy sources, has improved its importance in recent years. Most of the losses in the system from electricity produced until the point of consumption is mostly composed by the energy distribution system. In this study, analysis of the resulting loss in power distribution transformer and distribution power cable is realized which are most of the losses in the distribution system. Transformer losses in the real distribution system were analyzed by CYME Power Engineering Software program. These losses are disclosed for different voltage levels and different loading conditions.

Keywords: distribution system, distribution transformer, power cable, technical losses

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1216 Recent Advances of Photo-Detectors in Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Imaging System

Authors: Qasem A. Alyazji


One of the main techniques for Positron emission tomography (PET), Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is the development of radiation detectors. The NaI(Tl) scintillator crystal coupled to an array of photomultiplier tubes known as the Anger camera, is the most dominant detectors system in PET and SPECT devices. Technological advances in many materials, in addition to the emerging importance of specialized applications such as preclinical imaging and cardiac imaging, have encouraged innovation so that alternatives to the anger camera are now part in alternative imaging systems. In this paper we will discuss the main performance characteristics of detectors devices and scanning developments in both scintillation detectors, semiconductor (solid state) detectors, and Photon Transducers such as photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs), Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and Silicon photomultiplier (SiPMT). This paper discussed the detectors that showed promising results. This study is a review of recent developments in the detectors used in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging system.

Keywords: SPECT, scintillation, PMTs, SiPMT, PSPMTs, APDs, semiconductor (solid state)

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1215 Application of Strong Optical Feedback to Enhance the Modulation Bandwidth of Semiconductor Lasers to the Millimeter-Wave Band

Authors: Moustafa Ahmed, Ahmed Bakry, Fumio Koyama


We report on the use of strong external optical feedback to enhance the modulation response of semiconductor lasers over a frequency passband around modulation frequencies higher than 60 GHz. We show that this modulation enhancement is a type of photon-photon resonance (PPR) of oscillating modes in the external cavity formed between the laser and the external reflector. The study is based on a time-delay rate equation model that takes into account both the strong feedback and multiple reflections in the external cavity. We examine the harmonic and intermodulation distortions associated with single and two-tone modulations in the mm-wave band of the resonant modulation. We show that compared with solitary lasers modulated around the carrier-photon resonance frequency, the present mm-wave modulated signal has lower distortions.

Keywords: semiconductor laser, optical feedback, modulation, harmonic distortion

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1214 Water Equivalent from the Point of View of Fast Neutron Removal Cross-Section

Authors: Mohammed Alrajhi


Radiological properties of gel dosimeters and phantom materials are often evaluated in terms of effective atomic number, electron density, photon mass attenuation coefficient, photon mass energy absorption coefficient and total stopping power of electrons. To evaluate the water equivalence of such materials for fast neutron attenuation 19 different types of gel dosimeters and phantom materials were considered. Macroscopic removal cross-sections for fast neutrons (ΣR cm-1) have been calculated for a range of ferrous-sulphate and polymeric gel dosimeters using Nxcom Program. The study showed that the value of ΣR/ρ (cm2.g-1) for all polymer gels were in close agreement (1.5- 2.8%) with that of water. As such, the slight differences in ΣR/ρ between water and gels are small and may be considered negligible. Also, the removal cross-section of the studied phantom materials were very close (~ ±1.5%) to that of water except bone (cortical) which had about 38% variation. Finally, the variation of removal cross-section with hydrogen content was studied.

Keywords: cross-section, neutron, photon, coefficient, mathematics

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1213 Monte Carlo Simulations of LSO/YSO for Dose Evaluation in Photon Beam Radiotherapy

Authors: H. Donya


Monte Carlo (MC) techniques play a fundamental role in radiotherapy. A two non-water-equivalent of different media were used to evaluate the dose in water. For such purpose, Lu2SiO5 (LSO) and Y2SiO5 (YSO) orthosilicates scintillators are chosen for MC simulation using Penelope code. To get higher efficiency in dose calculation, variance reduction techniques are discussed. Overall results of this investigation ensured that the LSO/YSO bi-media a good combination to tackle over-response issue in dynamic photon radiotherapy.

Keywords: Lu2SiO5 (LSO) and Y2SiO5 (YSO) orthosilicates, Monte Carlo, correlated sampling, radiotherapy

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1212 Irradion: Portable Small Animal Imaging and Irradiation Unit

Authors: Josef Uher, Jana Boháčová, Richard Kadeřábek


In this paper, we present a multi-robot imaging and irradiation research platform referred to as Irradion, with full capabilities of portable arbitrary path computed tomography (CT). Irradion is an imaging and irradiation unit entirely based on robotic arms for research on cancer treatment with ion beams on small animals (mice or rats). The platform comprises two subsystems that combine several imaging modalities, such as 2D X-ray imaging, CT, and particle tracking, with precise positioning of a small animal for imaging and irradiation. Computed Tomography: The CT subsystem of the Irradion platform is equipped with two 6-joint robotic arms that position a photon counting detector and an X-ray tube independently and freely around the scanned specimen and allow image acquisition utilizing computed tomography. Irradiation measures nearly all conventional 2D and 3D trajectories of X-ray imaging with precisely calibrated and repeatable geometrical accuracy leading to a spatial resolution of up to 50 µm. In addition, the photon counting detectors allow X-ray photon energy discrimination, which can suppress scattered radiation, thus improving image contrast. It can also measure absorption spectra and recognize different materials (tissue) types. X-ray video recording and real-time imaging options can be applied for studies of dynamic processes, including in vivo specimens. Moreover, Irradion opens the door to exploring new 2D and 3D X-ray imaging approaches. We demonstrate in this publication various novel scan trajectories and their benefits. Proton Imaging and Particle Tracking: The Irradion platform allows combining several imaging modules with any required number of robots. The proton tracking module comprises another two robots, each holding particle tracking detectors with position, energy, and time-sensitive sensors Timepix3. Timepix3 detectors can track particles entering and exiting the specimen and allow accurate guiding of photon/ion beams for irradiation. In addition, quantifying the energy losses before and after the specimen brings essential information for precise irradiation planning and verification. Work on the small animal research platform Irradion involved advanced software and hardware development that will offer researchers a novel way to investigate new approaches in (i) radiotherapy, (ii) spectral CT, (iii) arbitrary path CT, (iv) particle tracking. The robotic platform for imaging and radiation research developed for the project is an entirely new product on the market. Preclinical research systems with precision robotic irradiation with photon/ion beams combined with multimodality high-resolution imaging do not exist currently. The researched technology can potentially cause a significant leap forward compared to the current, first-generation primary devices.

Keywords: arbitrary path CT, robotic CT, modular, multi-robot, small animal imaging

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1211 Tribological Investigation of Piston Ring Liner Assembly

Authors: Bharatkumar Sutaria, Tejaskumar Chaudhari


An engine performance can be increased by minimizing losses. There are various losses observed in the engines. i.e. thermal loss, heat loss and mechanical losses. Mechanical losses are in the tune of 15 to 20 % of the overall losses. Piston ring assembly contributes the highest friction in the mechanical frictional losses. The variation of piston speed in stroke length the friction force development is not uniform. In present work, comparison has been made between theoretical and experimental friction force under different operating conditions. The experiments are performed using variable operating parameters such as load, speed, temperature and lubricants. It is found that reducing trend of friction force and friction coefficient is in good nature with mixed lubrication regime of the Stribeck curve. Overall outcome from the laboratory test performance of segmented piston ring assembly using multi-grade oil offers reasonably good results at room and elevated temperatures.

Keywords: friction force, friction coefficient, piston rings, Stribeck curve

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1210 The Effect of Catastrophic Losses on Insurance Cycle: Case of Croatia

Authors: Drago Jakovčević, Maja Mihelja Žaja


This paper provides an analysis of the insurance cycle in the Republic of Croatia and whether they are affected by catastrophic losses on a global level. In general, it is considered that insurance cycles are particularly pronounced in periods of financial crisis, but are also affected by the growing number of catastrophic losses. They cause the change of insurance cycle and premium growth and intensification and narrowing of the coverage conditions, so these variables move in the same direction and these phenomena point to a new cycle. The main goal of this paper is to determine the existence of insurance cycle in the Republic of Croatia and investigate whether catastrophic losses have an influence on insurance cycles.

Keywords: catastrophic loss, insurance cycle, premium, Republic of Croatia

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1209 Switching Losses in Power Electronic Converter of Switched Reluctance Motor

Authors: Ali Asghar Memon


A cautious and astute selection of switching devices used in power electronic converters of a switched reluctance (SR) motor is required. It is a matter of choice of best switching devices with respect to their switching ability rather than fulfilling the number of switches. This paper highlights the computational determination of switching losses comprising of switch-on, switch-off and conduction losses respectively by using experimental data in simulation model of a SR machine. The finding of this research is helpful for proper selection of electronic switches and suitable converter topology for switched reluctance motor.

Keywords: converter, operating modes, switched reluctance motor, switching losses

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1208 Three Phase PWM Inverter for Low Rating Energy Efficient Systems

Authors: Nelson Lujara


The paper presents a practical three-phase PWM inverter suitable for low voltage, low rating energy efficient systems. The work in the paper is conducted with the view to establishing the significance of the loss contribution from the PWM inverter in the determination of the complete losses of a photovoltaic (PV) array-powered induction motor drive water pumping system. Losses investigated include; conduction and switching loss of the devices and gate drive losses. It is found that the PWM inverter operates at a reasonable variable efficiency that does not fall below 92% depending on the load. The results between the simulated and experimental results for the system with or without a maximum power tracker (MPT) compares very well, within an acceptable range of 2% margin.

Keywords: energy, inverter, losses, photovoltaic

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1207 Experimental Support for the District Metered Areas/Pressure Management Areas Application

Authors: K. Ilicic, D. Smoljan


The purpose of the paper is to present and verify a methodology of decreasing water losses by introducing and managing District Metered Areas (DMA) and Pressure Management Areas (PMA) by analyzing the results of the application of the methodology to the water supply system of the city of Zagreb. Since it is a relatively large system that has been expanding rapidly, approach to addressing water losses was possible only by splitting the system to smaller flow and pressure zones. Besides, the geographical and technical limitations had imposed the necessity of high pressure in the system that needed to be reduced to the technically optimal level. Results of activities were monitored on a general and local level by establishing, monitoring, and controlling indicators that had been established by the International Water Association (IWA), among which the most recognizable were non-revenue water, water losses and real losses as presented in the paper.

Keywords: district metered area, pressure metered area, active leakage control, water losses

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