Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Hulya Kayihan

13 Stigma and Discrimination toward Mental Illness: Translation and Validation of the Attribution Questionnaire-27 (AQ-27)

Authors: Gokcen Akyurek, Hulya Kayihan, Deniz Yuce, Selen Yilmaz


The stigma towards mental illness is still very rooted in our society, despite the number of studies, campaigns, and anti-stigma programs developed in recent years. Stigma represents a serious obstacle to recovery and social integration for people who experience a mental illness, affecting directly their well-being and quality of life. It implies that these persons have to deal with many other barriers apart from the disease symptoms (1-5). Convergent, recent literature suggests that less positive attitudes by mental health professionals interfere with the self-determination and recovery process (4-10).The aim of this study was to translate the Attribution Questionnaire-27 (AQ-27) to the Turkish language (AQ-27-T), and to examine the reliability and validity of this new Turkish version. Cultural adaptation was implemented according to the internationally suggested method. To determine the understandability and appropriateness of this measure for the Turkish culture, a pretest was administered and the final form was generated. Then, 424 randomly chosen people took part in the study. Participant’s mean age was 36.9±12.7 years and %52 of them female. Cronbach's alpha and intra-class coefficients were used to estimate instrument reliability. The AQ-27-T was assessed again 14 days later for test retest reliability. The AQ-27-T demonstrated acceptable internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.88 for the total scale and ranging between 0.86 and 0.89 for the items. The test-retest reliability was good, with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.79 for the total scale and ranging between 0.35 and 0.77 for the items (p<0.05). Correlation between subscales was moderate-good, with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.18-0.88 (p<0.05). Fit indices of the model supported the factor structure and paths. The AQ-27-T is a reliable measure to assess stigmatizing attitudes in Turkish.

Keywords: attribution questionnaire, validity, reliability, stigma

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12 Health Transformation Program and Effects on Health Expenditures

Authors: Zeynep Karacor, Rahime Hulya Ozturk


In recent years, the rise of population density and the problem of aging population took attention to the health expenditures. In Turkey, some regulations and infrastructure changes in health sector have occurred. These changes are called Health Transformation Program. The productivity of health services, patient satisfaction, quality of services are tried to be improved with this program. Some radical changes are applied in Turkish economy in this context. The aim of this paper is to present the effects of Health Transformation Program on health expenditures. In the first part of the paper, some information’s about health system and applications in Turkey are discussed. In the second part, the aims of Health Transformation Program are explained. And in the third part the effects of Health Transformation Program on health expenditures are examined.

Keywords: health transformation program, Turkey, health services, health expenditures

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11 Corruption and Income: Case of Independent Turkish Republic

Authors: Rahime Hülya Öztürk


Along with the development of globalization, the relationship between economic, politic and commercial behaviors became unlimited. The liberalization of capital has many advantages for countries, but it also has some disadvantages. In these disadvantages the most important one is corruption. Especially in Developing Countries and Underdeveloped countries, corruption is very extensive. Corruption causes inefficient use of resources and promotes income inequality. Especially in the transition period of economies corruption increases and sometimes governments don’t interfere. To fight against corruption domestic and international measures are taken. Corruption is an economic problem, but it also has social and moral effects. The aim of this study is to define the relationship between corruption and income in Independent Turkish State. In the first part of the study, the concept of corruption is examined. In the second part of the study, information about The Independent Turkish Republic is given. In the third part of the study, country’s relationship between corruption and income is analyzed with panel data analysis.

Keywords: corruption, income, independent Turkish Republic, distribution of income

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10 GaAs Based Solar Cells: Growth, Fabrication, and Characterization

Authors: Hülya Kuru Mutlu, Mustafa Kulakcı, Uğur Serincan


The sun is one of the latest developments in renewable energy sources, which has a variety of application. Solar energy is the most preferred renewable energy sources because it can be used directly, it protects the environment and it is economic. In this work, we investigated that important parameter of GaAs-based solar cells with respect to the growth temperature. The samples were grown on (100) oriented p-GaAs substrates by solid source Veeco GEN20MC MBE system equipped with Ga, In, Al, Si, Be effusion cells and an Arsenic cracker cell. The structures of the grown samples are presented. After initial oxide desorption, Sample 1 and Sample 2 were grown at about 585°C and 535°C, respectively. From the grown structures, devices were fabricated by using the standard photolithography procedure. Current-voltage measurements were performed at room temperature (RT). It is observed that Sample 1 which was grown at 585°C has higher efficiency and fill factor compared to Sample 2. Hence, it is concluded that the growth temperature of 585°C is more suitable to grow GaAs-based solar cells considering our samples used in this study.

Keywords: molecular beam epitaxy, solar cell, current-voltage measurement, Sun

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9 Relationship between Joint Hypermobility and Balance in Patients with Down’s Syndrome

Authors: Meltem Ramoglu, Ertugrul Safran, Hikmet Ucgun, Busra Kepenek Varol, Hulya Nilgun Gurses


Down’s syndrome (DS) is a human genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra chromosome 21. Many patients with DS have musculoskeletal problems that affect weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and ligament laxity. This leads to excessive joint hypermobility and decreased position sense (proprioception). Lack of proprioception may cause balance problems. The aim of our study was to investigate how does joint hypermobility affect balance in patients with DS. Our study conducted with 13 DS patients age between 18 to 40 years. Demographic data were recorded. Beighton Hypermobility Score (BHS) was used to evaluate joint hypermobility. Balance score of participants was evaluated with Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Mean age of our participants was 29,8±3,57 year. Average score of body mass index and BHS were; 33,23 ±3,78 kg/m2 and 7,61±1,04, respectively. Out of a maximum possible score of 56 on the Berg Balance Scale, scores of participants with DS ranged from 36–51, with a mean of 43±4,45. Significant correlation was found between BHS and BBS (r: -,966, p=0.00). All of our participants have 6/9 or higher grade from BHS. As a conclusion of our study; joint hypermobility may affect balance score in patients with DS. The results suggest that people with DS have worse balance scores which affected by hypermobility. Further studies need larger population for more reliable results.

Keywords: adults, balance, Down's syndrome, joint hypermobility

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8 Biological Activities of Gentiana brachyphylla Vill. Herba from Turkey

Authors: Hulya Tuba Kiyan, Nilgun Ozturk


Gentiana, a member of Gentianaceae, is represented by approximately 400 species in the world and 12 species in Turkey. Flavonoids, iridoids, triterpenoids and also xanthones are the major compounds of this genus, have been previously reported to have antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, hypotensive, hypoglycaemic, DNA repair and immunomodulatory properties. The methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gentiana brachyphylla Vill. from Turkey was evaluated for its biological activities and its total phenolic content in the present study. According to the antioxidant activity results, G. brachyphylla methanolic extract showed very strong anti-DNA damage antioxidant activity with an inhibition of 81.82%. It showed weak ferric-reducing power with a EC50 value of 0.65 when compared to BHT (EC50 = 0.2). Also, at 0.5 mg/ml concentration, the methanolic extract inhibited ABTS radical cation activity with an inhibition of 20.13% when compared to Trolox (79.01%). Chelating ability of G. brachyphylla was 44.71% whereas EDTA showed 78.87% chelating activity at 0.2 mg/ml. Also G. brachyphylla showed weak 27.21% AChE, 20.23% BChE, strong 67.86% MAO-A and moderate 50.06% MAO-B, weak 19.14% COX-1, 29.11% COX-2 inhibitory activities at 0.25 mg/ml. The total phenolic content of G. brachyphylla was 156.23 ± 2.73 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g extract.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, cholinesterase inhibitory activity, Gentiana brachyphylla Vill., total phenolic content

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7 Changes in Inorganic Element Contents in Potamogeton Natans Exposed to Cement Factory Pollution

Authors: Yavuz Demir, Mucip Genisel, Hulya Turk, Turgay Sisman, Serkan Erdal


In this study, the changes in contents of inorganic elements in the aquatic plant (Potamogeton natans) as a reflection of the impact of chemical nature pollution in a cement factory region (CFR) was evaluated. For this purpose, P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cl, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ni, Si, Al, and Cd concentrations were measured in the aquatic plant (Potamogeton natans) taken from a CFR. As a control, aquatic plant was collected at a distance of 2000 m from the outer zone of the cement factory. Inorganic element compositions were measured by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF). Three aquatic plant exhibited similar changes in contents of microelements and macroelements in their leaves. P, S, K, Cl, Ca, and Mo contents in plant grown in the CFR were reduced significantly compared to control plant, whereas their contents of Al, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd were very high. According to these findings, it is possible that aquatic plant (Potamogeton natans) inhabiting in the vicinity of cement factory sustains the deficiency of important essential elements like P, S, K, Ca, and Mo and greatly accumulate heavy metals like Al, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd. In addition, results of water analysis showed that heavy metal content such as Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, and Al of water taken from CFR was remarkably high than that of outer zone of CFR. These findings with relation to changes in inorganic composition can contribute to be elucidated of effect mechanism on growth and development of aquatic plant (Potamogeton natans) of pollution resulted from cement factories.

Keywords: aquatic plant, cement factory, heavy metal pollution, inorganic element, Potamogeton natans

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6 Improving Lutein Bioavailability by Nanotechnology Applications

Authors: Hulya Ilyasoglu Buyukkestelli, Sedef Nehir El


Lutein is a member of xanthophyll group of carotenoids found in fruits and vegetables. Lutein accumulates in the macula region of the retina and known as macular pigment which absorbs damaging light in the blue wavelengths. The presence of lutein in retina has been related to decreased risk of two common eye diseases, age-related macular degeneration, and cataract. Being a strong antioxidant, it may also have effects on prevention some types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction. Humans are not capable of synthesizing lutein de novo; therefore it must be provided naturally by the diet, fortified foods, and beverages or nutritional supplement. However, poor bioavailability and physicochemical stability limit its usage in the food industry. Poor solubility in digestive fluids and sensitivity to heat, light, and oxygen are both affect the stability and bioavailability of lutein. In this context, new technologies, delivery systems and formulations have been applied to improve stability and solubility of lutein. Nanotechnology, including nanoemulsion, nanocrystal, nanoencapsulation technology and microencapsulation by complex coacervation, spray drying are promising ways of increasing solubilization of lutein and stability of it in different conditions. Bioavailability of lutein is also dependent on formulations used, starch formulations and milk proteins, especially sodium caseinate are found effective in improving the bioavailability of lutein. Designing foods with highly bioavailable and stabile lutein needs knowledge about current technologies, formulations, and further needs. This review provides an overview of the new technologies and formulations used to improve bioavailability of lutein and also gives a future outlook to food researches.

Keywords: bioavailability, formulation, lutein, nanotechnology

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5 The Determinants of Female Participation to the Labour Force in Turkey

Authors: Zeynep Karacor, Rahime Hulya Ozturk


Located in developing countries but with the successful performance in recent years have shown in emerging economies , the labor factor has undoubtedly an important place in Turkish economy. The theorists have emphasized the importance of labor and human capital factors for many years. The importance of human capital is emerging in the process of determining the labor force participation rate. It is relatively easy to employ qualified labor force but employment of unskilled labor is particularly difficult. Another factor affecting the gender differences are employment opportunities in the labor force. In our country, the employment conditions of men and women differ. Factors causing these differentials are inherent job requirements, the social structure of society, women's point of view, working hours, working conditions. Crisis in our country in recent years have significantly affect the labor force participation rates. In particular, women's labor force participation rates have shown a decrease in crisis.In crisis female laborforce leave their job and go their home. It is the sole provider of social perception of men so in crisis period it is considered that woman lost their job. In the first part of this study the current situation in the world of female participation in the labor force in Turkey will examine. In the second part of the study literature will be examined. In the third and last part of the study factors of determinants of female labor force participation rate analysis will done by Granger Causality Analysis.

Keywords: female labour force, employment, labor force, Turkey

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4 The Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Live Yeast Culture on Microbial Nitrogen Supply to Small Intestine in Male Kivircik Yearlings Fed with Different Ratio of Forage and Concentrate

Authors: Nurcan Cetinkaya, Nadide Hulya Ozdemir


The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) live yeast culture on microbial protein supply to the small intestine in Kivircik male yearlings when fed with different ratio of forage and concentrate diets. Four Kivircik male yearlings with permanent rumen canula were used in the experiment. . The treatments were allocated to a 4x4 Latin square design. Diet I consisted of 70% alfalfa hay and 30% concentrate, Diet II consisted of 30% alfalfa hay and 70% concentrate, Diet I and II were supplemented with a SC. Daily urine was collected and stored at -20°C until analysis. Calorimetric methods were used for the determination of urinary allantoin and creatinin levels. The estimated microbial N supply to small intestine for Diets I, I+SC, II and II+SC were 2.51, 2.64, 2.95 and 3.43 g N/d respectively. Supplementation of Diets I and II with SC significantly affected the allantoin levels in µmol/W0. 75 (p<0.05). Mean creatinine values in µmol/W0. 75 and allantoin:creatinin ratios were not significantly different among diets. In conclusion, supplementation with SC live yeast culture had a significant effect on urinary allantoin excretion and microbial protein supply to small intestine in Kivircik yearlings fed with high concentrate Diet II (P<0.05). Hence urinary allantoin excretion may be used as a tool for estimating microbial protein supply in Kivircık yearlings. However, further studies are necessary to understand the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae live yeast culture with different forage: concentrate ratio in Kıvırcık Yearlings.

Keywords: allantoin, creatinin, Kivircik yearling, microbial nitrogen, Saccharomyces cerevisia

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3 Determination of Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Seed Extracts

Authors: Nilgün Öztürk, Hakan Sabahtin Ali, Hülya Tuba Kıyan


The genus Chenopodium belongs to Amaranthaceae, is represented by approximately 250 species in the world and 15 species and three subspecies in Turkey. Chenopodium species are traditionally used to treat chest and abdominal pain, shortness of breath, cough and neurological disorders. Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Quinoa) is native to Andes region of South America (especially Peru and Bolivia) and cultivated in many countries include also Turkey in the world nowadays. The seeds of quinoa are rich in protein, and the phytochemical composition consists of antioxidant substances such as polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, vitamins, and minerals; anticancer and neuroprotective compounds such as tocotrienols; anti-inflammatory compounds such as carotenoids and anthocyanins and also saponins and starch. Food products of quinoa such as quinoa cereal bar, pasta and cornflakes are used in the diet made during many disorders like obesity, cardiovascular disorder, hypertension and Celiac disease. Also quinoa seems to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cholesterol-lowering properties because of its bioactive compounds. In this present study, the aqueous ethanolic extracts of the seeds of three different coloured genotypes of quinoa were investigated for their antioxidant activities using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferrous ion-chelating effect, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, ABTS radical cation decolorization assays and total phenolic contents using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Among the three genotypes of quinoa; the aqueous ethanolic extract of the red genotype had the highest total phenolic content (83.54 ± 2.12 mg gallic acid/100 g extract) whereas the extract of the white genotype had the lowest total phenolic content (70.66 ± 0.25 mg gallic acid/100 g). According to the antioxidant activity results; the extracts showed moderate reducing power effect whereas weak ABTS radical cation decolorization and ferrous ion-chelating effect and also too weak DPPH radical scavenging activity when compared to the positive standards.

Keywords: amaranthaceae, antioxidant activity, Chenopodium quinoa willd., total phenolic content

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2 Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Cystic Fibrosis: Do They Achieve Guidelines ?

Authors: Hatice Akbıyık, Hülya Gökmen Özel, Nagehan Emiralioğlu, Elmas Ebru Güneş Yalçın, Deniz Doğru Ersöz, Hayriye Uğur Özçelik, Nural Kiper


Background: Dietary recommendations in cystic fibrosis (CF) are based on the need to compensate for the increased energy needs of infection, the increased energy cost of breathing and the losses, incurred from malabsorption. Studies in CF indicate that dietary recommendations for CF patients can be difficult to achieve Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the energy and nutrient intakes and to compare in accordance with CF dietary guidelines in CF. Methods: One-hundred sixty patients with CF, aged between 2 to 20 years (mean±SD= 7.4±4.8 years) attending Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Pulmonary Diseases were included. Energy and nutrient intakes from foods and enteral products were calculated using a-24-hour dietary recall method with BEBIS 7.2 programme. Percentages of energy and nutrient intakes were compared in accordance with CF dietary guidelines. Patients or/and parents completed a questionnaire showing mealtime problems, usage of alternative therapies and type of nutrition. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS 16.0 programme. Results: It was obtained that 14.5% and 46.9% of the total energy intake were from proteins and carbohydrates, respectively. The actual contribution of total, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats to the total caloric intake was 37.5%, 14.3%, 14.9%, 9.9%, respectively. It was found that 87.7% of energy, 85% of protein 91.7% of carbohydrate, 81.1% of fat intakes were met, when compared CF recommended intakes of 120% RDA. Additionally 67%, 69.5%, 68.2% and 68.9% of the subjects did not achieve CF recommended intakes of 120% RDA for energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat, respectively. Patients with CF had low intakes for age for almost all vitamins and minerals, although supplementation was given. Especially most patients did not achieve the minimum recommended vitamin K intake of 120% RDA. The percentage meeting 120% RDA was 75.9% for vitamin K. It was shown that 41% of the patients had mealtime problems and they skipped the breakfast. Moreover 25.4% of the patients used alternative products outside the standard treatment (such as omega-3, ginger, turmeric, local honey). It was also showed that 60.8% of patients were using enteral products in addition to normal foods, the remaining patients were on only normal foods. Conclusion: The aims of improving nutritional status in children are to achieve normal weight gain and growth; optimize vitamin and mineral status; and slow the rate of clinical decline. In this study although enteral products were used in patients with CF, it was found that energy and nutrient requirements were unable to meet. Because dietary assessment is essential to identify the need for earlier nutritional intervention, in each visit patients need to be referred to CF specialist dietitian.

Keywords: cystic fibrosis, energy and nutrient intakes, mealtime problems, malabsorbtion

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1 The Role of Time-Dependent Treatment of Exogenous Salicylic Acid on Endogenous Phytohormone Levels under Salinity Stress

Authors: Hülya Torun, Ondřej Novák, Jaromír Mikulík, Miroslav Strnad, Faik A. Ayaz


World climate is changing. Millions of people in the world still face chronic undernourishment for conducting a healthy life and the world’s population is growing steadily. To meet this growing demand, agriculture and food systems must adapt to the adverse effects of climate change and become more resilient, productive and sustainable. From this perspective, to determine tolerant cultivars for undesirable environmental conditions will be necessary food production for sustainable development. Among abiotic stresses, soil salinity is one of the most detrimental global fact restricting plant sources. Development of salt-tolerant lines is required in order to increase the crop productivity and quality in salt-treated lands. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the morphological and physiological responses of barley cultivars accessions to salinity stress by NaCl. For this purpose, it was aimed to determine the crosstalk between some endogenous phytohormones and exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in two different vegetative parts (leaves and roots) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.; Poaceae; 2n=14; Ince-04) which is detected salt-tolerant. The effects of SA on growth parameters, leaf relative water content (RWC), endogenous phytohormones; including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene were investigated in barley cultivars under salinity stress. SA was applied to 17-day-old seedlings of barley in two different ways including before (pre-treated for 24 h) and simultaneously with NaCl stress treatment. NaCl (0, 150, 300 mM) exposure in the hydrophonic system was associated with a rapid decrease in growth parameters and RWC, which is an indicator of plant water status, resulted in a strong up-regulation of ABA as a stress indicator. Roots were more dramatically affected than leaves. Water conservation in 150 mM NaCl treated-barley plants did not change, but decreased in 300 mM NaCl treated plants. Pre- and simultaneously treatment of SA did not significantly alter growth parameters and RWC. ABA, JA and ethylene are known to be related with stress. In the present work, ethylene also increased, similarly to ABA, but not with the same intensity. While ABA and ethylene increased by the increment of salt concentrations, JA levels rapidly decreased especially in roots. Both pre- and simultaneously SA applications alleviated salt-induced decreases in 300 mM NaCl resulted in the increment of ABA levels. CKs and IAA are related to cell growth and development. At high salinity (300 mM NaCl), CKs (cZ+cZR) contents increased in both vegetative organs while IAA levels stayed at the same level with control groups. However, IAA increased and cZ+cZR rapidly decreased in leaves of barley plants with SA treatments before salt applications (in pre- SA treated groups). Simultaneously application of SA decreased CKs levels in both leaves and roots of the cultivar. Due to increasing concentrations of NaCl in association with decreasing ABA, JA and ethylene content and increments in CKs and IAA were recorded with SA treatments. As results of the study, in view of all the phytohormones that we tested, exogenous SA induced greater tolerance to salinity particularly when applied before salinity stress.

Keywords: Barley, Hordeum vulgare, phytohormones, salicylic acid, salinity

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