Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2458

Search results for: image entropy

2458 A Modified Shannon Entropy Measure for Improved Image Segmentation

Authors: Mohammad A. U. Khan, Omar A. Kittaneh, M. Akbar, Tariq M. Khan, Husam A. Bayoud

Abstract:

The Shannon Entropy measure has been widely used for measuring uncertainty. However, in partial settings, the histogram is used to estimate the underlying distribution. The histogram is dependent on the number of bins used. In this paper, a modification is proposed that makes the Shannon entropy based on histogram consistent. For providing the benefits, two application are picked in medical image processing applications. The simulations are carried out to show the superiority of this modified measure for image segmentation problem. The improvement may be contributed to robustness shown to uneven background in images.

Keywords: Shannon entropy, medical image processing, image segmentation, modification

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
2457 Maximum Entropy Based Image Segmentation of Human Skin Lesion

Authors: Sheema Shuja Khattak, Gule Saman, Imran Khan, Abdus Salam

Abstract:

Image segmentation plays an important role in medical imaging applications. Therefore, accurate methods are needed for the successful segmentation of medical images for diagnosis and detection of various diseases. In this paper, we have used maximum entropy to achieve image segmentation. Maximum entropy has been calculated using Shannon, Renyi, and Tsallis entropies. This work has novelty based on the detection of skin lesion caused by the bite of a parasite called Sand Fly causing the disease is called Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

Keywords: shannon, maximum entropy, Renyi, Tsallis entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
2456 Noise Detection Algorithm for Skin Disease Image Identification

Authors: Minakshi Mainaji Sonawane, Bharti W. Gawali, Sudhir Mendhekar, Ramesh R. Manza

Abstract:

People's lives and health are severely impacted by skin diseases. A new study proposes an effective method for identifying the different forms of skin diseases. Image denoising is a technique for improving image quality after it has been harmed by noise. The proposed technique is based on the usage of the wavelet transform. Wavelet transform is the best method for analyzing the image due to the ability to split the image into the sub-band, which has been used to estimate the noise ratio at the noisy image. According to experimental results, the proposed method presents the best values for MSE, PSNR, and Entropy for denoised images. we can found in Also, by using different types of wavelet transform filters is make the proposed approach can obtain the best results 23.13, 20.08, 50.7 for the image denoising process

Keywords: MSE, PSNR, entropy, Gaussian filter, DWT

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
2455 An Improved C-Means Model for MRI Segmentation

Authors: Ying Shen, Weihua Zhu

Abstract:

Medical images are important to help identifying different diseases, for example, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to investigate the brain, spinal cord, bones, joints, breasts, blood vessels, and heart. Image segmentation, in medical image analysis, is usually the first step to find out some characteristics with similar color, intensity or texture so that the diagnosis could be further carried out based on these features. This paper introduces an improved C-means model to segment the MRI images. The model is based on information entropy to evaluate the segmentation results by achieving global optimization. Several contributions are significant. Firstly, Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used for achieving global optimization in this model where fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm (FCMA) is not capable of doing that. Secondly, the information entropy after segmentation is used for measuring the effectiveness of MRI image processing. Experimental results show the outperformance of the proposed model by comparing with traditional approaches.

Keywords: magnetic resonance image (MRI), c-means model, image segmentation, information entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
2454 Optimized and Secured Digital Watermarking Using Entropy, Chaotic Grid Map and Its Performance Analysis

Authors: R. Rama Kishore, Sunesh

Abstract:

This paper presents an optimized, robust, and secured watermarking technique. The methodology used in this work is the combination of entropy and chaotic grid map. The proposed methodology incorporates Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) on the host image. To improve the imperceptibility of the method, the host image DCT blocks, where the watermark is to be embedded, are further optimized by considering the entropy of the blocks. Chaotic grid is used as a key to reorder the DCT blocks so that it will further increase security while selecting the watermark embedding locations and its sequence. Without a key, one cannot reveal the exact watermark from the watermarked image. The proposed method is implemented on four different images. It is concluded that the proposed method is giving better results in terms of imperceptibility measured through PSNR and found to be above 50. In order to prove the effectiveness of the method, the performance analysis is done after implementing different attacks on the watermarked images. It is found that the methodology is very strong against JPEG compression attack even with the quality parameter up to 15. The experimental results are confirming that the combination of entropy and chaotic grid map method is strong and secured to different image processing attacks.

Keywords: digital watermarking, discreate cosine transform, chaotic grid map, entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
2453 Gray Level Image Encryption

Authors: Roza Afarin, Saeed Mozaffari

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is image encryption using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The proposed encryption method consists of two phases. In modification phase, pixels locations are altered to reduce correlation among adjacent pixels. Then, pixels values are changed in the diffusion phase to encrypt the input image. Both phases are performed by GA with binary chromosomes. For modification phase, these binary patterns are generated by Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator while for diffusion phase binary chromosomes are obtained by Bit Plane Slicing (BPS). Initial population in GA includes rows and columns of the input image. Instead of subjective selection of parents from this initial population, a random generator with predefined key is utilized. It is necessary to decrypt the coded image and reconstruct the initial input image. Fitness function is defined as average of transition from 0 to 1 in LBP image and histogram uniformity in modification and diffusion phases, respectively. Randomness of the encrypted image is measured by entropy, correlation coefficients and histogram analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed method is fast enough and can be used effectively for image encryption.

Keywords: correlation coefficients, genetic algorithm, image encryption, image entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
2452 A Novel Combination Method for Computing the Importance Map of Image

Authors: Ahmad Absetan, Mahdi Nooshyar

Abstract:

The importance map is an image-based measure and is a core part of the resizing algorithm. Importance measures include image gradients, saliency and entropy, as well as high level cues such as face detectors, motion detectors and more. In this work we proposed a new method to calculate the importance map, the importance map is generated automatically using a novel combination of image edge density and Harel saliency measurement. Experiments of different type images demonstrate that our method effectively detects prominent areas can be used in image resizing applications to aware important areas while preserving image quality.

Keywords: content-aware image resizing, visual saliency, edge density, image warping

Procedia PDF Downloads 463
2451 On q-Non-extensive Statistics with Non-Tsallisian Entropy

Authors: Petr Jizba, Jan Korbel

Abstract:

We combine an axiomatics of Rényi with the q-deformed version of Khinchin axioms to obtain a measure of information (i.e., entropy) which accounts both for systems with embedded self-similarity and non-extensivity. We show that the entropy thus obtained is uniquely solved in terms of a one-parameter family of information measures. The ensuing maximal-entropy distribution is phrased in terms of a special function known as the Lambert W-function. We analyze the corresponding ‘high’ and ‘low-temperature’ asymptotics and reveal a non-trivial structure of the parameter space.

Keywords: multifractals, Rényi information entropy, THC entropy, MaxEnt, heavy-tailed distributions

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
2450 Content-Based Image Retrieval Using HSV Color Space Features

Authors: Hamed Qazanfari, Hamid Hassanpour, Kazem Qazanfari

Abstract:

In this paper, a method is provided for content-based image retrieval. Content-based image retrieval system searches query an image based on its visual content in an image database to retrieve similar images. In this paper, with the aim of simulating the human visual system sensitivity to image's edges and color features, the concept of color difference histogram (CDH) is used. CDH includes the perceptually color difference between two neighboring pixels with regard to colors and edge orientations. Since the HSV color space is close to the human visual system, the CDH is calculated in this color space. In addition, to improve the color features, the color histogram in HSV color space is also used as a feature. Among the extracted features, efficient features are selected using entropy and correlation criteria. The final features extract the content of images most efficiently. The proposed method has been evaluated on three standard databases Corel 5k, Corel 10k and UKBench. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the proposed image retrieval method is significantly improved compared to the recently developed methods.

Keywords: content-based image retrieval, color difference histogram, efficient features selection, entropy, correlation

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2449 Hyperspectral Image Classification Using Tree Search Algorithm

Authors: Shreya Pare, Parvin Akhter

Abstract:

Remotely sensing image classification becomes a very challenging task owing to the high dimensionality of hyperspectral images. The pixel-wise classification methods fail to take the spatial structure information of an image. Therefore, to improve the performance of classification, spatial information can be integrated into the classification process. In this paper, the multilevel thresholding algorithm based on a modified fuzzy entropy function is used to perform the segmentation of hyperspectral images. The fuzzy parameters of the MFE function have been optimized by using a new meta-heuristic algorithm based on the Tree-Search algorithm. The segmented image is classified by a large distribution machine (LDM) classifier. Experimental results are shown on a hyperspectral image dataset. The experimental outputs indicate that the proposed technique (MFE-TSA-LDM) achieves much higher classification accuracy for hyperspectral images when compared to state-of-art classification techniques. The proposed algorithm provides accurate segmentation and classification maps, thus becoming more suitable for image classification with large spatial structures.

Keywords: classification, hyperspectral images, large distribution margin, modified fuzzy entropy function, multilevel thresholding, tree search algorithm, hyperspectral image classification using tree search algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
2448 Entropy Measures on Neutrosophic Soft Sets and Its Application in Multi Attribute Decision Making

Authors: I. Arockiarani

Abstract:

The focus of the paper is to furnish the entropy measure for a neutrosophic set and neutrosophic soft set which is a measure of uncertainty and it permeates discourse and system. Various characterization of entropy measures are derived. Further we exemplify this concept by applying entropy in various real time decision making problems.

Keywords: entropy measure, Hausdorff distance, neutrosophic set, soft set

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
2447 On the Topological Entropy of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems

Authors: Graziano Chesi

Abstract:

The topological entropy plays a key role in linear dynamical systems, allowing one to establish the existence of stabilizing feedback controllers for linear systems in the presence of communications constraints. This paper addresses the determination of a robust value of the topological entropy in nonlinear dynamical systems, specifically the largest value of the topological entropy over all linearized models in a region of interest of the state space. It is shown that a sufficient condition for establishing upper bounds of the sought robust value of the topological entropy can be given in terms of a semidefinite program (SDP), which belongs to the class of convex optimization problems.

Keywords: non-linear system, communication constraint, topological entropy

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2446 Image Encryption Using Eureqa to Generate an Automated Mathematical Key

Authors: Halima Adel Halim Shnishah, David Mulvaney

Abstract:

Applying traditional symmetric cryptography algorithms while computing encryption and decryption provides immunity to secret keys against different attacks. One of the popular techniques generating automated secret keys is evolutionary computing by using Eureqa API tool, which got attention in 2013. In this paper, we are generating automated secret keys for image encryption and decryption using Eureqa API (tool which is used in evolutionary computing technique). Eureqa API models pseudo-random input data obtained from a suitable source to generate secret keys. The validation of generated secret keys is investigated by performing various statistical tests (histogram, chi-square, correlation of two adjacent pixels, correlation between original and encrypted images, entropy and key sensitivity). Experimental results obtained from methods including histogram analysis, correlation coefficient, entropy and key sensitivity, show that the proposed image encryption algorithms are secure and reliable, with the potential to be adapted for secure image communication applications.

Keywords: image encryption algorithms, Eureqa, statistical measurements, automated key generation

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2445 Linear Study of Electrostatic Ion Temperature Gradient Mode with Entropy Gradient Drift and Sheared Ion Flows

Authors: M. Yaqub Khan, Usman Shabbir

Abstract:

History of plasma reveals that continuous struggle of experimentalists and theorists are not fruitful for confinement up to now. It needs a change to bring the research through entropy. Approximately, all the quantities like number density, temperature, electrostatic potential, etc. are connected to entropy. Therefore, it is better to change the way of research. In ion temperature gradient mode with the help of Braginskii model, Boltzmannian electrons, effect of velocity shear is studied inculcating entropy in the magnetoplasma. New dispersion relation is derived for ion temperature gradient mode, and dependence on entropy gradient drift is seen. It is also seen velocity shear enhances the instability but in anomalous transport, its role is not seen significantly but entropy. This work will be helpful to the next step of tokamak and space plasmas.

Keywords: entropy, velocity shear, ion temperature gradient mode, drift

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2444 Reasons for Non-Applicability of Software Entropy Metrics for Bug Prediction in Android

Authors: Arvinder Kaur, Deepti Chopra

Abstract:

Software Entropy Metrics for bug prediction have been validated on various software systems by different researchers. In our previous research, we have validated that Software Entropy Metrics calculated for Mozilla subsystem’s predict the future bugs reasonably well. In this study, the Software Entropy metrics are calculated for a subsystem of Android and it is noticed that these metrics are not suitable for bug prediction. The results are compared with a subsystem of Mozilla and a comparison is made between the two software systems to determine the reasons why Software Entropy metrics are not applicable for Android.

Keywords: android, bug prediction, mining software repositories, software entropy

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2443 Analysis of EEG Signals Using Wavelet Entropy and Approximate Entropy: A Case Study on Depression Patients

Authors: Subha D. Puthankattil, Paul K. Joseph

Abstract:

Analyzing brain signals of the patients suffering from the state of depression may lead to interesting observations in the signal parameters that is quite different from a normal control. The present study adopts two different methods: Time frequency domain and nonlinear method for the analysis of EEG signals acquired from depression patients and age and sex matched normal controls. The time frequency domain analysis is realized using wavelet entropy and approximate entropy is employed for the nonlinear method of analysis. The ability of the signal processing technique and the nonlinear method in differentiating the physiological aspects of the brain state are revealed using Wavelet entropy and Approximate entropy.

Keywords: EEG, depression, wavelet entropy, approximate entropy, relative wavelet energy, multiresolution decomposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
2442 Entropy Analysis of a Thermo-Acoustic Stack

Authors: Ahmadali Shirazytabar, Hamidreza Namazi

Abstract:

The inherent irreversibility of thermo-acoustics primarily in the stack region causes poor efficiency of thermo-acoustic engines which is the major weakness of these devices. In view of the above, this study examines entropy generation in the stack of a thermo-acoustic system. For this purpose two parallel plates representative of the stack is considered. A general equation for entropy generation is derived based on the Second Law of thermodynamics. Assumptions such as Rott’s linear thermo-acoustic approximation, boundary layer type flow, etc. are made to simplify the governing continuity, momentum and energy equations to achieve analytical solutions for velocity and temperature. The entropy generation equation is also simplified based on the same assumptions and then is converted to dimensionless form by using characteristic entropy generation. A time averaged entropy generation rate followed by a global entropy generation rate are calculated and graphically represented for further analysis and inspecting the effect of different parameters on the entropy generation.

Keywords: thermo-acoustics, entropy, second law of thermodynamics, Rott’s linear thermo-acoustic approximation

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2441 Econophysics: The Use of Entropy Measures in Finance

Authors: Muhammad Sheraz, Vasile Preda, Silvia Dedu

Abstract:

Concepts of econophysics are usually used to solve problems related to uncertainty and nonlinear dynamics. In the theory of option pricing the risk neutral probabilities play very important role. The application of entropy in finance can be regarded as the extension of both information entropy and the probability entropy. It can be an important tool in various financial methods such as measure of risk, portfolio selection, option pricing and asset pricing. Gulko applied Entropy Pricing Theory (EPT) for pricing stock options and introduced an alternative framework of Black-Scholes model for pricing European stock option. In this article, we present solutions to maximum entropy problems based on Tsallis, Weighted-Tsallis, Kaniadakis, Weighted-Kaniadakies entropies, to obtain risk-neutral densities. We have also obtained the value of European call and put in this framework.

Keywords: option pricing, Black-Scholes model, Tsallis entropy, Kaniadakis entropy, weighted entropy, risk-neutral density

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2440 Closed-Form Sharma-Mittal Entropy Rate for Gaussian Processes

Authors: Septimia Sarbu

Abstract:

The entropy rate of a stochastic process is a fundamental concept in information theory. It provides a limit to the amount of information that can be transmitted reliably over a communication channel, as stated by Shannon's coding theorems. Recently, researchers have focused on developing new measures of information that generalize Shannon's classical theory. The aim is to design more efficient information encoding and transmission schemes. This paper continues the study of generalized entropy rates, by deriving a closed-form solution to the Sharma-Mittal entropy rate for Gaussian processes. Using the squeeze theorem, we solve the limit in the definition of the entropy rate, for different values of alpha and beta, which are the parameters of the Sharma-Mittal entropy. In the end, we compare it with Shannon and Rényi's entropy rates for Gaussian processes.

Keywords: generalized entropies, Sharma-Mittal entropy rate, Gaussian processes, eigenvalues of the covariance matrix, squeeze theorem

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
2439 Digital Image Steganography with Multilayer Security

Authors: Amar Partap Singh Pharwaha, Balkrishan Jindal

Abstract:

In this paper, a new method is developed for hiding image in a digital image with multilayer security. In the proposed method, the secret image is encrypted in the first instance using a flexible matrix based symmetric key to add first layer of security. Then another layer of security is added to the secret data by encrypting the ciphered data using Pythagorean Theorem method. The ciphered data bits (4 bits) produced after double encryption are then embedded within digital image in the spatial domain using Least Significant Bits (LSBs) substitution. To improve the image quality of the stego-image, an improved form of pixel adjustment process is proposed. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, image quality metrics including Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error (MSE), entropy, correlation, mean value and Universal Image Quality Index (UIQI) are measured. It has been found experimentally that the proposed method provides higher security as well as robustness. In fact, the results of this study are quite promising.

Keywords: Pythagorean theorem, pixel adjustment, ciphered data, image hiding, least significant bit, flexible matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
2438 Entropy Risk Factor Model of Exchange Rate Prediction

Authors: Darrol Stanley, Levan Efremidze, Jannie Rossouw

Abstract:

We investigate the predictability of the USD/ZAR (South African Rand) exchange rate with sample entropy analytics for the period of 2004-2015. We calculate sample entropy based on the daily data of the exchange rate and conduct empirical implementation of several market timing rules based on these entropy signals. The dynamic investment portfolio based on entropy signals produces better risk adjusted performance than a buy and hold strategy. The returns are estimated on the portfolio values in U.S. dollars. These results are preliminary and do not yet account for reasonable transactions costs, although these are very small in currency markets.

Keywords: currency trading, entropy, market timing, risk factor model

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
2437 Decision Making Approach through Generalized Fuzzy Entropy Measure

Authors: H. D. Arora, Anjali Dhiman

Abstract:

Uncertainty is found everywhere and its understanding is central to decision making. Uncertainty emerges as one has less information than the total information required describing a system and its environment. Uncertainty and information are so closely associated that the information provided by an experiment for example, is equal to the amount of uncertainty removed. It may be pertinent to point out that uncertainty manifests itself in several forms and various kinds of uncertainties may arise from random fluctuations, incomplete information, imprecise perception, vagueness etc. For instance, one encounters uncertainty due to vagueness in communication through natural language. Uncertainty in this sense is represented by fuzziness resulting from imprecision of meaning of a concept expressed by linguistic terms. Fuzzy set concept provides an appropriate mathematical framework for dealing with the vagueness. Both information theory, proposed by Shannon (1948) and fuzzy set theory given by Zadeh (1965) plays an important role in human intelligence and various practical problems such as image segmentation, medical diagnosis etc. Numerous approaches and theories dealing with inaccuracy and uncertainty have been proposed by different researcher. In the present communication, we generalize fuzzy entropy proposed by De Luca and Termini (1972) corresponding to Shannon entropy(1948). Further, some of the basic properties of the proposed measure were examined. We also applied the proposed measure to the real life decision making problem.

Keywords: entropy, fuzzy sets, fuzzy entropy, generalized fuzzy entropy, decision making

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2436 An Alternative Proof for the Topological Entropy of the Motzkin Shift

Authors: Fahad Alsharari, Mohd Salmi Md. Noorani

Abstract:

A Motzkin shift is a mathematical model for constraints on genetic sequences. In terms of the theory of symbolic dynamics, the Motzkin shift is nonsofic, and therefore, we cannot use the Perron-Frobenius theory to calculate its topological entropy. The Motzkin shift M(M,N) which comes from language theory, is defined to be the shift system over an alphabet A that consists of N negative symbols, N positive symbols and M neutral symbols. For an x in the full shift AZ, x is in M(M,N) if and only if every finite block appearing in x has a non-zero reduced form. Therefore, the constraint for x cannot be bounded in length. K. Inoue has shown that the entropy of the Motzkin shift M(M,N) is log(M + N + 1). In this paper, we find a new method of calculating the topological entropy of the Motzkin shift M(M,N) without any measure theoretical discussion.

Keywords: entropy, Motzkin shift, mathematical model, theory

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2435 Entropy Generation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer in a Square Cavity Using Al2O3-Water Nanofluid

Authors: M. Alipanah, A. Ranjbar, E. Farnad, F. Alipanah

Abstract:

Entropy generation of an Al2O3-water nanofluid due to heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibility has been investigated in a square cavity subject to different side wall temperatures using a nanofluid for natural convection flow. This study has been carried out for the pertinent parameters in the following ranges: Rayleigh number between 104 to 107 and volume fraction between 0 to 0.05. Based on the obtained dimensionless velocity and temperature values, the distributions of local entropy generation, average entropy generation and average Bejan number are determined. The results are compared for a pure fluid and a nanofluid. It is totally found that the heat transfer and entropy generation of the nanofluid is more than the pure fluid and minimum entropy generation and Nusselt number occur in the pure fluid at any Rayleigh number. Results depict that the addition of nanoparticles to the pure fluid has more effect on the entropy generation as the Rayleigh number goes up.

Keywords: entropy generation, natural convection, bejan number, nuselt number, nanofluid

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2434 Digital Watermarking Based on Visual Cryptography and Histogram

Authors: R. Rama Kishore, Sunesh

Abstract:

Nowadays, robust and secure watermarking algorithm and its optimization have been need of the hour. A watermarking algorithm is presented to achieve the copy right protection of the owner based on visual cryptography, histogram shape property and entropy. In this, both host image and watermark are preprocessed. Host image is preprocessed by using Butterworth filter, and watermark is with visual cryptography. Applying visual cryptography on water mark generates two shares. One share is used for embedding the watermark, and the other one is used for solving any dispute with the aid of trusted authority. Usage of histogram shape makes the process more robust against geometric and signal processing attacks. The combination of visual cryptography, Butterworth filter, histogram, and entropy can make the algorithm more robust, imperceptible, and copy right protection of the owner.

Keywords: digital watermarking, visual cryptography, histogram, butter worth filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
2433 Religion: The Human Entropy

Authors: Abul Kayum Zarzis Alam

Abstract:

Death is not a terminal; it is just a junction. From Agamas to Vedas, from Buddhism to Judaism, all the major scriptures and religions of the world always do converge to this hypothesis of death. Death is the ultimate catastrophe of life and it is the genesis of every religion on this Earth. Several hundred thousand years ago, the Homo Sapiens in Paleolithic age introduced the notion of religion on this Earth in its most primitive form just to escape from death and natural catastrophes through their belief in supernatural things which created the sense of superstition among the Homo Sapiens which has only increased over time. This sense of superstition and belief in supernatural things are building blocks of religion. Religion is like entropy, a degree of disorder. Entropy for an irreversible system like our own Universe always increases. Same is happening to our human civilization where the disorder had been increasing over time. The degree of this disorder of human civilization is religion divides and conquers over the human civilization of Earth. Religion is the human entropy which had been governing and will govern us. Just like entropy, religion is also an essential intrinsic property of the system which makes the system evolved. We have to optimize this ambivalence of the human entropy to make our civilization an inclusive and sustainable one.

Keywords: death, earth, entropy, Homo sapiens, religion and human entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
2432 Improvement of Bone Scintography Image Using Image Texture Analysis

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Eltayeb Wagallah

Abstract:

Image enhancement allows the observer to see details in images that may not be immediately observable in the original image. Image enhancement is the transformation or mapping of one image to another. The enhancement of certain features in images is accompanied by undesirable effects. To achieve maximum image quality after denoising, a new, low order, local adaptive Gaussian scale mixture model and median filter were presented, which accomplishes nonlinearities from scattering a new nonlinear approach for contrast enhancement of bones in bone scan images using both gamma correction and negative transform methods. The usual assumption of a distribution of gamma and Poisson statistics only lead to overestimation of the noise variance in regions of low intensity but to underestimation in regions of high intensity and therefore to non-optional results. The contrast enhancement results were obtained and evaluated using MatLab program in nuclear medicine images of the bones. The optimal number of bins, in particular the number of gray-levels, is chosen automatically using entropy and average distance between the histogram of the original gray-level distribution and the contrast enhancement function’s curve.

Keywords: bone scan, nuclear medicine, Matlab, image processing technique

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2431 Implementation and Comparative Analysis of PET and CT Image Fusion Algorithms

Authors: S. Guruprasad, M. Z. Kurian, H. N. Suma

Abstract:

Medical imaging modalities are becoming life saving components. These modalities are very much essential to doctors for proper diagnosis, treatment planning and follow up. Some modalities provide anatomical information such as Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), X-rays and some provides only functional information such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Therefore, single modality image does not give complete information. This paper presents the fusion of structural information in CT and functional information present in PET image. This fused image is very much essential in detecting the stages and location of abnormalities and in particular very much needed in oncology for improved diagnosis and treatment. We have implemented and compared image fusion techniques like pyramid, wavelet, and principal components fusion methods along with hybrid method of DWT and PCA. The performances of the algorithms are evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. The system is implemented and tested by using MATLAB software. Based on the MSE, PSNR and ENTROPY analysis, PCA and DWT-PCA methods showed best results over all experiments.

Keywords: image fusion, pyramid, wavelets, principal component analysis

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2430 Image Steganography Using Predictive Coding for Secure Transmission

Authors: Baljit Singh Khehra, Jagreeti Kaur

Abstract:

In this paper, steganographic strategy is used to hide the text file inside an image. To increase the storage limit, predictive coding is utilized to implant information. In the proposed plan, one can exchange secure information by means of predictive coding methodology. The predictive coding produces high stego-image. The pixels are utilized to insert mystery information in it. The proposed information concealing plan is powerful as contrasted with the existing methodologies. By applying this strategy, a provision helps clients to productively conceal the information. Entropy, standard deviation, mean square error and peak signal noise ratio are the parameters used to evaluate the proposed methodology. The results of proposed approach are quite promising.

Keywords: cryptography, steganography, reversible image, predictive coding

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
2429 A Survey on Lossless Compression of Bayer Color Filter Array Images

Authors: Alina Trifan, António J. R. Neves

Abstract:

Although most digital cameras acquire images in a raw format, based on a Color Filter Array that arranges RGB color filters on a square grid of photosensors, most image compression techniques do not use the raw data; instead, they use the rgb result of an interpolation algorithm of the raw data. This approach is inefficient and by performing a lossless compression of the raw data, followed by pixel interpolation, digital cameras could be more power efficient and provide images with increased resolution given that the interpolation step could be shifted to an external processing unit. In this paper, we conduct a survey on the use of lossless compression algorithms with raw Bayer images. Moreover, in order to reduce the effect of the transition between colors that increase the entropy of the raw Bayer image, we split the image into three new images corresponding to each channel (red, green and blue) and we study the same compression algorithms applied to each one individually. This simple pre-processing stage allows an improvement of more than 15% in predictive based methods.

Keywords: bayer image, CFA, lossless compression, image coding standards

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