Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6550

Search results for: pressure loss coefficients

6550 Estimation of Pressure Loss Coefficients in Combining Flows Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Shahzad Yousaf, Imran Shafi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method for calculation of pressure loss coefficients by use of the artificial neural network (ANN) in tee junctions. Geometry and flow parameters are feed into ANN as the inputs for purpose of training the network. Efficacy of the network is demonstrated by comparison of the experimental and ANN based calculated data of pressure loss coefficients for combining flows in a tee junction. Reynolds numbers ranging from 200 to 14000 and discharge ratios varying from minimum to maximum flow for calculation of pressure loss coefficients have been used. Pressure loss coefficients calculated using ANN are compared to the models from literature used in junction flows. The results achieved after the application of ANN agrees reasonably to the experimental values.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, combining flow, pressure loss coefficients, solar collector tee junctions

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
6549 Predictive Simulations to Estimate Tire Pressure Loss and Air Mass Leakage Rate

Authors: Mahmoud C. Assaad

Abstract:

Inflated tires experience a loss of pressure with time. This phenomenon is due to the movement of gas through the boundary surrounding the cavity, namely the inner liner. Tire gauges and materials permeability are two essential parameters needed to provide an engineering estimate of the tire pressure loss with time. This predictive methodology was developed jointly with Sandia National Laboratories (National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia), it provides the analysts with a numerical tool to predict the air net mass leakage rate \dot{m}.

Keywords: tire, pressure loss, porous media, fea

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
6548 CFD Prediction of the Round Elbow Fitting Loss Coefficient

Authors: Ana Paula P. dos Santos, Claudia R. Andrade, Edson L. Zaparoli

Abstract:

Pressure loss in ductworks is an important factor to be considered in design of engineering systems such as power-plants, refineries, HVAC systems to reduce energy costs. Ductwork can be composed by straight ducts and different types of fittings (elbows, transitions, converging and diverging tees and wyes). Duct fittings are significant sources of pressure loss in fluid distribution systems. Fitting losses can be even more significant than equipment components such as coils, filters, and dampers. At the present work, a conventional 90o round elbow under turbulent incompressible airflow is studied. Mass, momentum, and k-e turbulence model equations are solved employing the finite volume method. The SIMPLE algorithm is used for the pressure-velocity coupling. In order to validate the numerical tool, the elbow pressure loss coefficient is determined using the same conditions to compare with ASHRAE database. Furthermore, the effect of Reynolds number variation on the elbow pressure loss coefficient is investigated. These results can be useful to perform better preliminary design of air distribution ductworks in air conditioning systems.

Keywords: duct fitting, pressure loss, elbow, thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
6547 Investigation of External Pressure Coefficients on Large Antenna Parabolic Reflector Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Varun K, Pramod B. Balareddy

Abstract:

Estimation of wind forces plays a significant role in the in the design of large antenna parabolic reflectors. Reflector surface accuracies are very sensitive to the gain of the antenna system at higher frequencies. Hence accurate estimation of wind forces becomes important, which is primary input for design and analysis of the reflector system. In the present work, numerical simulation of wind flow using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software is used to investigate the external pressure coefficients. An extensive comparative study has been made between the CFD results and the published wind tunnel data for different wind angle of attacks (α) acting over concave to convex surfaces respectively. Flow simulations using CFD are carried out to estimate the coefficients of Drag, Lift and Moment for the parabolic reflector. Coefficients of pressures (Cp) over the front and the rear face of the reflector are extracted over surface of the reflector to study the net pressure variations. These resultant pressure variations are compared with the published wind tunnel data for different angle of attacks. It was observed from the CFD simulations, both convex and concave face of reflector system experience a band of pressure variations for the positive and negative angle of attacks respectively. In the published wind tunnel data, Pressure variations over convex surfaces are assumed to be uniform and vice versa. Chordwise and spanwise pressure variations were calculated and compared with the published experimental data. In the present work, it was observed that the maximum pressure coefficients for α ranging from +30° to -90° and α=+90° was lower. For α ranging from +45° to +75°, maximum pressure coefficients were higher as compared to wind tunnel data. This variation is due to non-uniform pressure distribution observed over front and back faces of reflector. Variations in Cd, Cl and Cm over α=+90° to α=-90° was in close resemblance with the experimental data.

Keywords: angle of attack, drag coefficient, lift coefficient, pressure coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
6546 Investigating Convective Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics of R-1234ze and R-134a Refrigerants in a Microfin and Smooth Tube

Authors: Kaggwa Abdul, Chi-Chuan Wang

Abstract:

This research is based on R-1234ze that is considered to substitute R-134a due to its low global warming potential in a microfin tube with outer diameter 9.52 mm, number of fins 70, and fin height 0.17 mm. In comparison, a smooth tube with similar geometries was used to study pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients related to the two fluids. The microfin tube was brazed inside a stainless steel tube and heated electrically. T-type thermocouples used to measure the temperature distribution during the phase change process. The experimental saturation temperatures and refrigerant mass velocities varied from 10 – 20°C and 50 – 300 kg/m2s respectively. The vapor quality from 0.1 to 0.9, and heat flux ranged from 5 – 11kW/m2. The results showed that heat transfer performance of R-134a in both microfin and smooth tube was better than R-1234ze especially at mass velocities above G = 50 kg/m2s. However, at low mass velocities below G = 100 kg/m2s R-1234ze yield better heat transfer coefficients than R-134a. The pressure gradient of R-1234ze was markedly higher than that of R-134a at all mass flow rates.

Keywords: R-1234ze and R-134a, horizontal flow boiling, pressure drop, heat transfer coefficients, micro-fin and smooth tubes

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6545 Generalized Correlation for the Condensation and Evaporation Heat Transfer Coefficients of Propane (R290), Butane (R600), R134a, and R407c in Porous Horizontal Tubes: Experimental Investigation

Authors: M. Tarawneh

Abstract:

This work is an experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of different refrigerants during the condensation and evaporation processes in porous media. Four different refrigerants (R134a, R407C, 600a, R290), with different porosities were used to reach a real understanding of the actual heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop when using porous material inside the condenser and evaporator. Steel balls were used as porous media with different porosities (38%, 43%, 48%). The main goal of this project is to enhance the heat transfer coefficient during the condensation and evaporation processes when using different refrigerants and different porosities. Different correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop of the different refrigerants were developed. Also a generalized empirical correlation was developed for the different refrigerants. The experimental and predicted heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops were compared. It was found that, the Absolute standard deviation for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop not exceeded values of 15% and 20%, respectively.

Keywords: condensation, evaporation, porous media, horizontal tubes, heat transfer coefficient, propane, butane

Procedia PDF Downloads 459
6544 The Study of Heat and Mass Transfer for Ferrous Materials' Filtration Drying

Authors: Dmytro Symak

Abstract:

Drying is a complex technologic, thermal and energy process. Energy cost of drying processes in many cases is the most costly stage of production, and can be over 50% of total costs. As we know, in Ukraine over 85% of Portland cement is produced moist, and the finished product energy costs make up to almost 60%. During the wet cement production, energy costs make up over 5500 kJ / kg of clinker, while during the dry only 3100 kJ / kg, that is, switching to a dry Portland cement will allow result into double cutting energy costs. Therefore, to study raw materials drying process in the manufacture of Portland cement is very actual task. The fine ferrous materials drying (small pyrites, red mud, clay Kyoko) is recommended to do by filtration method, that is one of the most intense. The essence of filtration method drying lies in heat agent filtering through a stationary layer of wet material, which is located on the perforated partition, in the "layer-dispersed material - perforated partition." For the optimum drying purposes, it is necessary to establish the dependence of pressure loss in the layer of dispersed material, and the values of heat and mass transfer, depending on the speed of the gas flow filtering. In our research, the experimentally determined pressure loss in the layer of dispersed material was generalized based on dimensionless complexes in the form and coefficients of heat exchange. We also determined the relation between the coefficients of mass and heat transfer. As a result of theoretic and experimental investigations, it was possible to develop a methodology for calculating the optimal parameters for the thermal agent and the main parameters for the filtration drying installation. The comparison of calculated by known operating expenses methods for the process of small pyrites drying in a rotating drum and filtration method shows to save up to 618 kWh per 1,000 kg of dry material and 700 kWh during filtration drying clay.

Keywords: drying, cement, heat and mass transfer, filtration method

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
6543 Kinetic Study of Physical Quality Changes on Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus gigas) Slices during Application High-Pressure Impregnation

Authors: Mario Perez-Won, Roberto Lemus-Mondaca, Fernanda Marin, Constanza Olivares

Abstract:

This study presents the simultaneous application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and osmotic dehydration of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) slice. Diffusion coefficients for both components water and solids were improved by the process pressure, being influenced by pressure level. The working conditions were different pressures such as 100, 250, 400 MPa and pressure atmospheric (0.1 MPa) for time intervals from 30 to 300 seconds and a 15% NaCl concentration. The mathematical expressions used for mass transfer simulations both water and salt were those corresponding to Newton, Henderson and Pabis, Page and Weibull models, where the Weibull and Henderson-Pabis models presented the best fitted to the water and salt experimental data, respectively. The values for water diffusivity coefficients varied from 1.62 to 8.10x10⁻⁹ m²/s whereas that for salt varied among 14.18 to 36.07x10⁻⁹ m²/s for selected conditions. Finally, as to quality parameters studied under the range of experimental conditions studied, the treatment at 250 MPa yielded on the samples a minimum hardness, whereas springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness at 100, 250 and 400 MPa treatments presented statistical differences regarding to unpressurized samples. The colour parameters L* (lightness) increased, however, but b* (yellowish) and a* (reddish) parameters decreased when increasing pressure level. This way, samples presented a brighter aspect and a mildly cooked appearance. The results presented in this study can support the enormous potential of hydrostatic pressure application as a technique important for compounds impregnation under high pressure.

Keywords: colour, diffusivity, high pressure, jumbo squid, modelling, texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
6542 Water Distribution Uniformity of Solid-Set Sprinkler Irrigation under Low Operating Pressure

Authors: Manal Osman

Abstract:

Sprinkler irrigation system became more popular to reduce water consumption and increase irrigation efficiency. The water distribution uniformity plays an important role in the performance of the sprinkler irrigation system. The use of low operating pressure instead of high operating pressure can be achieved many benefits including energy and water saving. An experimental study was performed to investigate the water distribution uniformity of the solid-set sprinkler irrigation system under low operating pressure. Different low operating pressures (62, 82, 102 and 122 kPa) were selected. The range of operating pressure was lower than the recommended in the previous studies to investigate the effect of low pressure on the water distribution uniformity. Different nozzle diameters (4, 5, 6 and 7 mm) were used. The outdoor single sprinkler test was performed. The water distribution of single sprinkler, the coefficients of uniformity such as coefficient of uniformity (CU), distribution uniformity of low quarter (DUlq), distribution uniformity of low half (DUlh), coefficient of variation (CV) and the distribution characteristics like rotation speed, throw radius and overlapping distance are presented in this paper.

Keywords: low operating pressure, sprinkler irrigation system, water distribution uniformity

Procedia PDF Downloads 485
6541 Performance Analysis of a Planar Membrane Humidifier for PEM Fuel Cell

Authors: Yu-Hsuan Chang, Jian-Hao Su, Chen-Yu Chen, Wei-Mon Yan

Abstract:

In this work, the experimental measurement was applied to examine the membrane type and flow field design on the performance of a planar membrane humidifier. The performance indexes were used to evaluate the planar membrane humidifier. The performance indexes of the membrane humidifier include the dew point approach temperature (DPAT), water recovery ratio (WRR), water flux (J) and pressure loss (P). The experiments contain mainly three parts. In the first part, a single membrane humidifier was tested using different flow field under different dry-inlet temperatures. The measured results show that the dew point approach temperature decreases with increasing the depth of flow channel at the same width of flow channel. However, the WRR and J reduce with an increase in the dry air-inlet temperature. The pressure loss tests indicate that pressure loss decreases with increasing the hydraulic diameter of flow channel, resulting from an increase in Darcy friction. Owing to the comparison of humidifier performances and pressure losses, the flow channel of width W=1 and height H=1.5 was selected as the channel design of the multi-membrane humidifier in the second part of experiment. In the second part, the multi-membrane humidifier was used to evaluate the humidification performance under different relative humidity and flow rates. The measurement results indicate that the humidifier at both lower temperature and relative humidity of inlet dry air have higher DPAT but lower J and WRR. In addition, the counter flow approach has better mass and heat transfer performance than the parallel flow approach. Moreover, the effects of dry air temperature, relative humidity and humidification approach are not significant to the pressure loss in the planar membrane humidifier. For the third part, different membranes were tested in this work in order to find out which kind membrane is appropriate for humidifier.

Keywords: water management, planar membrane humidifier, heat and mass transfer, pressure loss, PEM fuel cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
6540 Laboratory Calibration of Soil Pressure Transducer for a Specified Field Application

Authors: Mohammad Zahidul Islam Bhuiyan, Shanyong Wang, Scott William Sloan, Daichao Sheng

Abstract:

Nowadays soil pressure transducers are widely used to measure the soil stress states in laboratory and field experiments. The soil pressure transducers, investigated here, are traditional diaphragm-type earth pressure cells (DEPC) based on strain gauge principle. It is found that the output of these sensors varies with the soil conditions as well as the position of a sensor. Therefore, it is highly recommended to calibrate the pressure sensors based on the similar conditions of their intended applications. The factory calibration coefficients of the EPCs are not reliable to use since they are normally calibrated by applying fluid (a special type of oil) pressure only over load sensing zone, which does not represent the actual field conditions. Thus, the calibration of these sensors is utmost important, and they play a pivotal role for assessing earth pressures precisely. In the present study, TML soil pressure sensor is used to compare its sensitivity under different calibration systems, for example, fluid calibration, and static load calibration with or without soil. The results report that the sensor provides higher sensitivity (more accurate results) under soil calibration system.

Keywords: calibration, soil pressure, earth pressure cell, sensitivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
6539 Estimation of Pressure Profile and Boundary Layer Characteristics over NACA 4412 Airfoil

Authors: Anwar Ul Haque, Waqar Asrar, Erwin Sulaeman, Jaffar S. M. Ali

Abstract:

Pressure distribution data of the standard airfoils is usually used for the calibration purposes in subsonic wind tunnels. Results of such experiments are quite old and obtained by using the model in the spanwise direction. In this manuscript, pressure distribution over NACA 4412 airfoil model was presented by placing the 3D model in the lateral direction. The model is made of metal with pressure ports distributed longitudinally as well as in the lateral direction. The pressure model was attached to the floor of the tunnel with the help of the base plate to give the specified angle of attack to the model. Before the start of the experiments, the pressure tubes of the respective ports of the 128 ports pressure scanner are checked for leakage, and the losses due to the length of the pipes were also incorporated in the results for the specified pressure range. Growth rate maps of the boundary layer thickness were also plotted. It was found that with the increase in the velocity, the dynamic pressure distribution was also increased for the alpha seep. Plots of pressure distribution so obtained were overlapped with those obtained by using XFLR software, a low fidelity tool. It was found that at moderate and high angles of attack, the distribution of the pressure coefficients obtained from the experiments is high when compared with the XFLR ® results obtained along with the span of the wing. This under-prediction by XFLR ® is more obvious on the windward than on the leeward side.

Keywords: subsonic flow, boundary layer, wind tunnel, pressure testing

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6538 Supersonic Combustion (Scramjet) Containing Flame-Holder with Slot Injection

Authors: Anupriya, Bikramjit Sinfh, Radhay Shyam

Abstract:

In order to improve mixing phenomena and combustion processes in supersonic flow, the current work has concentrated on identifying the ideal cavity parameters using CFD ANSYS Fluent. Offset ratios (OR) and aft ramp angles () have been manipulated in simulations of several models, but the length-to-depth ratio has remained the same. The length-to-depth ratio of all cavity flows is less than 10, making them all open. Hydrogen fuel was injected into a supersonic air flow with a Mach number of 3.75 using a chamber with a 1 mm diameter and a transverse slot nozzle. The free stream had conditions of a pressure of 1.2 MPa, a temperature of 299K, and a Reynolds number of 2.07x107. This method has the ability to retain a flame since the cavity facilitates rapid mixing of fuel and oxidizer and decreases total pressure losses. The impact of the cavity on combustion efficiency and total pressure loss is discussed, and the results are compared to those of a model without a cavity. Both the mixing qualities and the combustion processes were enhanced in the model with the cavity. The overall pressure loss as well as the effectiveness of the combustion process both increase with the increase in the ramp angle to the rear. When OR is increased, however, resistance to the supersonic flow field is reduced, which has a detrimental effect on both parameters. For a given ramp height, larger pressure losses were observed at steeper ramp angles due to increased eddy-viscous turbulent flow and increased wall drag.

Keywords: total pressure loss, flame holder, supersonic combustion, combustion efficiency, cavity, nozzle

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6537 Numerical Study of Pressure Losses of Turbulence Drilling Fluid Flow in the Oil Wellbore

Authors: Alireza Mehdizadeh, Ghanbarali Sheikhzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper the pressure loss of drilling fluid flow in the annulus is investigated. On this purpose the domains between two concentric and two eccentric cylinders are considered as computational domains. In this research foam is used as drilling fluid. Firstly simulation results for laminar flow and non Newtonian fluid and different density like 100, 200, 300 kg/m3 and different inner cylinder rotational velocity like 100, 200, 300 RPM is presented. These results are compared and matched with references results. The power law and Herschel Bulkly methods are used for non Newtonian fluid modeling. After that computations are repeated with turbulence flow considering. K- Model is used for turbulence modeling. Results show that in laminar flow Herschel bulkly model has best result in comparison with power law model. And pressure loss in turbulence flow is higher than laminar flow.

Keywords: simulation, concentric cylinders, drilling, non Newtonian

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6536 Surface Pressure Distributions for a Forebody Using Pressure Sensitive Paint

Authors: Yi-Xuan Huang, Kung-Ming Chung, Ping-Han Chung

Abstract:

Pressure sensitive paint (PSP), which relies on the oxygen quenching of a luminescent molecule, is an optical technique used in wind-tunnel models. A full-field pressure pattern with low aerodynamic interference can be obtained, and it is becoming an alternative to pressure measurements using pressure taps. In this study, a polymer-ceramic PSP was used, using toluene as a solvent. The porous particle and polymer were silica gel (SiO₂) and RTV-118 (3g:7g), respectively. The compound was sprayed onto the model surface using a spray gun. The absorption and emission spectra for Ru(dpp) as a luminophore were respectively 441-467 nm and 597 nm. A Revox SLG-55 light source with a short-pass filter (550 nm) and a 14-bit CCD camera with a long-pass (600 nm) filter were used to illuminate PSP and to capture images. This study determines surface pressure patterns for a forebody of an AGARD B model in a compressible flow. Since there is no experimental data for surface pressure distributions available, numerical simulation is conducted using ANSYS Fluent. The lift and drag coefficients are calculated and in comparison with the data in the open literature. The experiments were conducted using a transonic wind tunnel at the Aerospace Science and Research Center, National Cheng Kung University. The freestream Mach numbers were 0.83, and the angle of attack ranged from -4 to 8 degree. Deviation between PSP and numerical simulation is within 5%. However, the effect of the setup of the light source should be taken into account to address the relative error.

Keywords: pressure sensitive paint, forebody, surface pressure, compressible flow

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6535 Yaw Angle Effect on the Aerodynamic Performance of Rear-Roof Spoiler of Hatchback Vehicle

Authors: See-Yuan Cheng, Kwang-Yhee Chin, Shuhaimi Mansor

Abstract:

Rear-roof spoiler is commonly used for improving the aerodynamic performance of road vehicles. This study aims to investigate the effect of yaw angle on the effectiveness of strip-type rear-roof spoiler in providing lower drag and lift coefficients of a hatchback model. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method was used. The numerically obtained results were compared to the experimental data for validation of the CFD method. At increasing yaw angle, both the drag and lift coefficients of the model were to increase. In addition, the effectiveness of spoiler was deteriorated. These unfavorable effects were due to the formation of longitudinal vortices around the side edges of the model that had caused the surface pressure of the model to drop. Furthermore, there were significant crossflow structures developed behind the model at larger yaw angle, which were associated with the drop in the surface pressure of the rear section of the model and cause the drag coefficient to rise.

Keywords: Ahmed model, aerodynamics, spoiler, yaw angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
6534 Pressure Losses on Realistic Geometry of Tracheobronchial Tree

Authors: Michaela Chovancova, Jakub Elcner

Abstract:

Real bronchial tree is very complicated piping system. Analysis of flow and pressure losses in this system is very difficult. Due to the complex geometry and the very small size in the lower generations is examination by CFD possible only in the central part of bronchial tree. For specify the pressure losses of lower generations is necessary to provide a mathematical equation. Determination of mathematical formulas for calculating the pressure losses in the real lungs is due to its complexity and diversity lengthy and inefficient process. For these calculations is necessary the lungs to slightly simplify (same cross-section over the length of individual generation) or use one of the models of lungs. The simplification could cause deviations from real values. The article compares the values of pressure losses obtained from CFD simulation of air flow in the central part of the real bronchial tree with the values calculated in a slightly simplified real lungs by using a mathematical relationship derived from the Bernoulli equation and continuity equation. Then, evaluate the desirability of using this formula to determine the pressure loss across the bronchial tree.

Keywords: pressure gradient, airways resistance, real geometry of bronchial tree, breathing

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6533 Modelling of Moisture Loss and Oil Uptake during Deep-Fat Frying of Plantain

Authors: James A. Adeyanju, John O. Olajide, Akinbode A. Adedeji

Abstract:

A predictive mathematical model based on the fundamental principles of mass transfer was developed to simulate the moisture content and oil content during Deep-Fat Frying (DFF) process of dodo. The resulting governing equation, that is, partial differential equation that describes rate of moisture loss and oil uptake was solved numerically using explicit Finite Difference Technique (FDT). Computer codes were written in MATLAB environment for the implementation of FDT at different frying conditions and moisture loss as well as oil uptake simulation during DFF of dodo. Plantain samples were sliced into 5 mm thickness and fried at different frying oil temperatures (150, 160 and 170 ⁰C) for periods varying from 2 to 4 min. The comparison between the predicted results and experimental data for the validation of the model showed reasonable agreement. The correlation coefficients between the predicted and experimental values of moisture and oil transfer models ranging from 0.912 to 0.947 and 0.895 to 0.957, respectively. The predicted results could be further used for the design, control and optimization of deep-fat frying process.

Keywords: frying, moisture loss, modelling, oil uptake

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
6532 Effects of Inlet Filtration Pressure Loss on Single and Two-Spool Gas Turbine

Authors: Enyia James Diwa, Dodeye Ina Igbong, Archibong Archibong Eso

Abstract:

Gas turbine operators have been faced with the dramatic financial setback resulting from compressor fouling. In a highly deregulated power industry where there is stiffness in the market competition, has made it imperative to improvise means of reducing maintenance cost in other to yield maximum profit. Compressor fouling results from the deposition of contaminants in the presence of oil and moisture on the compressor blade or annulus surfaces, which leads to a loss in flow capacity and compressor efficiency. These combined effects reduce power output, increase heat rate and cause creep life reduction. This paper also contains a model of two gas turbine engines via Cranfield University software known as TURBOMATCH, which is simulation software for detecting engine fouling rate. The model engines are of different configurations and capacities, and are operating in two different modes of constant output power and turbine inlet temperature for a two and three stage filter system. The idea is to investigate the more economically viable filtration systems by gas turbine users based on performance only. It has been demonstrated in the results that the two spool engine is a little more beneficial compared to the single spool. This is as a result of a higher pressure ratio of the two spools as well as the deceleration of the high-pressure compressor and high-pressure turbine speed in a constant TET. Meanwhile, the inlet filtration system was properly designed and balanced with a well-timed and economical compressor washing regime/scheme to control compressor fouling. The different technologies of inlet air filtration and compressor washing are considered and an attempt at optimization with respect to the cost of a combination of both control measures are made.

Keywords: inlet filtration, pressure loss, single spool, two spool

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
6531 Distribution of Maximum Loss of Fractional Brownian Motion with Drift

Authors: Ceren Vardar Acar, Mine Caglar

Abstract:

In finance, the price of a volatile asset can be modeled using fractional Brownian motion (fBm) with Hurst parameter H>1/2. The Black-Scholes model for the values of returns of an asset using fBm is given as, 〖Y_t=Y_0 e^((r+μ)t+σB)〗_t^H, 0≤t≤T where Y_0 is the initial value, r is constant interest rate, μ is constant drift and σ is constant diffusion coefficient of fBm, which is denoted by B_t^H where t≥0. Black-Scholes model can be constructed with some Markov processes such as Brownian motion. The advantage of modeling with fBm to Markov processes is its capability of exposing the dependence between returns. The real life data for a volatile asset display long-range dependence property. For this reason, using fBm is a more realistic model compared to Markov processes. Investors would be interested in any kind of information on the risk in order to manage it or hedge it. The maximum possible loss is one way to measure highest possible risk. Therefore, it is an important variable for investors. In our study, we give some theoretical bounds on the distribution of maximum possible loss of fBm. We provide both asymptotical and strong estimates for the tail probability of maximum loss of standard fBm and fBm with drift and diffusion coefficients. In the investment point of view, these results explain, how large values of possible loss behave and its bounds.

Keywords: maximum drawdown, maximum loss, fractional brownian motion, large deviation, Gaussian process

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6530 Wind Interference Effects on Various Plan Shape Buildings Under Wind Load

Authors: Ritu Raj, Hrishikesh Dubey

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of the experimental investigations carried out on two intricate plan shaped buildings to evaluate aerodynamic performance of the building. The purpose is to study the associated environment arising due to wind forces in isolated and interference conditions on a model of scale 1:300 with a prototype having 180m height. Experimental tests were carried out at the boundary layer wind tunnel considering isolated conditions with 0° to 180° isolated wind directions and four interference conditions of twin building (separately for both the models). The research has been undertaken in Terrain Category-II, which is the most widely available terrain in India. A comparative assessment of the two models is performed out in an attempt to comprehend the various consequences of diverse conditions that may emerge in real-life situations, as well as the discrepancies amongst them. Experimental results of wind pressure coefficients of Model-1 and Model-2 shows good agreement with various wind incidence conditions with minute difference in the magnitudes of mean Cp. On the basis of wind tunnel studies, it is distinguished that the performance of Model-2 is better than Model-1in both isolated as well as interference conditions for all wind incidences and orientations respectively.

Keywords: interference factor, tall buildings, wind direction, mean pressure-coefficients

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6529 Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Ong Kai Sheng

Abstract:

The MEMS pressure sensor has been introduced and presented in this paper. The types of pressure sensor and its theory of operation are also included. The latest MEMS technology, the fabrication processes of pressure sensor are explored and discussed. Besides, various device applications of pressure sensor such as tire pressure monitoring system, diesel particulate filter and others are explained. Due to further miniaturization of the device nowadays, the pressure sensor with nanotechnology (NEMS) is also reviewed. The NEMS pressure sensor is expected to have better performance as well as lower in its cost. It has gained an excellent popularity in many applications.

Keywords: pressure sensor, diaphragm, MEMS, automotive application, biomedical application, NEMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
6528 Effect of Porous Multi-Layer Envelope System on Effective Wind Pressure of Building Ventilation

Authors: Ying-Chang Yu, Yuan-Lung Lo

Abstract:

Building ventilation performance is an important indicator of indoor comfort. However, in addition to the geometry of the building or the proportion of the opening, the ventilation performance is also very much related to the actual wind pressure of the building. There are more and more contemporary building designs built with multi-layer exterior envelope. Due to ventilation and view observatory requirement, the porous outer layer of the building is commonly adopted and has a significant wind damping effect, causing the phenomenon of actual wind pressure loss. However, the relationship between the wind damping effect and the actual wind pressure is not linear. This effect can make the indoor ventilation of the building rationalized to reasonable range under the condition of high wind pressure, and also maintain a good amount of ventilation performance under the condition of low wind pressure. In this study, wind tunnel experiments were carried out to simulate the different wind pressures flow through the porous outer layer, and observe the actual wind pressure strength engage with the window layer to find the decreasing relationship between the damping effect of the porous shell and the wind pressure. Experiment specimen scale was designed to be 1:50 for testing real-world building conditions; the study found that the porous enclosure has protective shielding without affecting low-pressure ventilation. Current study observed the porous skin may damp more wind energy to ease the wind pressure under high-speed wind. Differential wind speed may drop the pressure into similar pressure level by using porous skin. The actual mechanism and value of this phenomenon will need further study in the future.

Keywords: multi-layer facade, porous media, wind damping, wind tunnel test, building ventilation

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
6527 Performance Analysis of Compression Socks Strips

Authors: Hafiz Faisal Siddique, Adnan Ahmed Mazari, Antonin Havelka

Abstract:

Compression socks are highly recommended textile garment for pressure exertion on the lower part of leg. The extent of compression that a patient can easily manage depends on stage (limb size and shape) of venous disease and his activities (mobility, age). Due to dynamic mechanical influence, the socks destroy their extent of pressure exertion around the leg. The main aim of this research is to investigate how the performance of compression socks is deteriorated due to expected induced wearing mechanical impacts. Wearing mechanical impacts influence the durability parameter i.e. tensile energy loss. For tensile energy loss, cut-strip samples were interacted to constant rate of loading and un-loading, cyclic-loading upto 15th cycles for ±5mm extension (considering muscles expansion and relaxation) and were dwelled (stayed) for 3 minutes at 25%, 50% and 75% extension levels, simultaneously. Statistical validation of tensile energy loss was performed by introducing measures of correlation, p-value (≤ 0.05), R-square values using MINITAB 17 software.

Keywords: compression socks, loading and unloading, 15th cyclic loading, Dwell time effect

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6526 Modeling of the Friction Behavior of Carbon/Epoxy Prepreg Composite

Authors: David Aveiga, Carlos Gonzalez

Abstract:

Thermoforming of pre-impregnated composites (prepreg) is the most employed process to build high-performance composite structures due to their visible advantage over alternative manufacturing techniques. This method allows easy shape moulding with a simple manufacturing system and a more refined outcome. The achievement of complex geometries can be exposed to undesired defects such as wrinkles. It is known that interply and ply-mould sliding behavior governs this defect generation. This work analyses interply and ply-mould friction coefficients for UD AS4/8552 Carbon/Epoxy prepreg. Friction coefficients are determined by a pull-out test method considering actual velocity, pressure and temperature conditions employed in a thermoforming process of an aeronautical composite component. A Stribeck curve is then constructed to find a mathematical expression that relates all the friction coefficients with the test variables through the Hersey number parameter. Two expressions are proposed to model ply-ply and ply-tool friction behaviors.

Keywords: friction, prepreg composite, stribeck curve, thermoforming.

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
6525 Selection of Rayleigh Damping Coefficients for Seismic Response Analysis of Soil Layers

Authors: Huai-Feng Wang, Meng-Lin Lou, Ru-Lin Zhang

Abstract:

One good analysis method in seismic response analysis is direct time integration, which widely adopts Rayleigh damping. An approach is presented for selection of Rayleigh damping coefficients to be used in seismic analyses to produce a response that is consistent with Modal damping response. In the presented approach, the expression of the error of peak response, acquired through complete quadratic combination method, and Rayleigh damping coefficients was set up and then the coefficients were produced by minimizing the error. Two finite element modes of soil layers, excited by 28 seismic waves, were used to demonstrate the feasibility and validity.

Keywords: Rayleigh damping, modal damping, damping coefficients, seismic response analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
6524 Parameter and Lose Effect Analysis of Beta Stirling Cycle Refrigerating Machine

Authors: Muluken Z. Getie, Francois Lanzetta, Sylvie Begot, Bimrew T. Admassu

Abstract:

This study is aimed at the numerical analysis of the effects of phase angle and losses (shuttle heat loss and gas leakage to the crankcase) that could have an impact on the pressure and temperature of working fluid for a β-type Stirling cycle refrigerating machine. First, the developed numerical model incorporates into the ideal adiabatic analysis, the shuttle heat transfer (heat loss from compression space to expansion space), and gas leakage from the working space to the buffer space into the crankcase. The other losses that may not have a direct effect on the temperature and pressure of working fluid are simply incorporated in a simple analysis. The model is then validated by reversing the model to the engine model and compared with other literature results using (GPU-3) engine. After validating the model with other engine model and experiment results, analysis of the effect of phase angle, shuttle heat lose and gas leakage on temperature, pressure, and performance (power requirement, cooling capacity and coefficient of performance) of refrigerating machine considering the FEMTO 60 Stirling engine as a case study have been conducted. Shuttle heat loss has a greater effect on the temperature of working gas; gas leakage to the crankcase has more effect on the pressure of working spaces and hence both have a considerable impact on the performance of the Stirling cycle refrigerating machine. The optimum coefficient of performance exists between phase angles of 900-950, and optimum cooling capacity could be found between phase angles of 950-980.

Keywords: beta configuration, engine model, moderate cooling, stirling refrigerator, and validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
6523 Reservoir Properties Effect on Estimating Initial Gas in Place Using Flowing Material Balance Method

Authors: Yousef S. Kh. S. Hashem

Abstract:

Accurate estimation of initial gas in place (IGIP) plays an important factor in the decision to develop a gas field. One of the methods that are available in the industry to estimate the IGIP is material balance. This method required that the well has to be shut-in while pressure is measured as it builds to average reservoir pressure. Since gas demand is high and shut-in well surveys are very expensive, flowing gas material balance (FGMB) is sometimes used instead of material balance. This work investigated the effect of reservoir properties (pressure, permeability, and reservoir size) on the estimation of IGIP when using FGMB. A gas reservoir simulator that accounts for friction loss, wellbore storage, and the non-Darcy effect was used to simulate 165 different possible causes (3 pressures, 5 reservoir sizes, and 11 permeabilities). Both tubing pressure and bottom-hole pressure were analyzed using FGMB. The results showed that the FGMB method is very sensitive for tied reservoirs (k < 10). Also, it showed which method is best to be used for different reservoir properties. This study can be used as a guideline for the application of the FGMB method.

Keywords: flowing material balance, gas reservoir, reserves, gas simulator

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
6522 Simulation and Analysis of Different Parameters in Hydraulic Circuit Due to Leakage

Authors: J.Das, Gyan Wrat

Abstract:

Leakage is the main gradual failure in the fluid power system, which is usually caused by the impurity in the oil and wear of matching surfaces between parts and lead to the change of the gap value. When leakage occurs in the system, the oil will flow from the high pressure chamber into the low pressure chamber through the gap, causing the reduction of system flow as well as the loss of system pressure, resulting in the decreasing of system efficiency. In the fluid power system, internal leakage may occur in various components such as gear pump, reversing valve and hydraulic cylinder, and affect the system work performance. Therefore, component leakage in the fluid power system is selected as the study to characterize the leakage and the effect of leakage on the system. Effect of leakage on system pressure and cylinder displacement can be obtained using pressure sensors and the displacement sensor. The leakage can be varied by changing the orifice using a flow control valve. Hydraulic circuit for leakage will be developed in Matlab/Simulink environment and simulations will be done by changing different parameters.

Keywords: leakage causes, effect, analysis, MATLAB simulation, hydraulic circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
6521 Calculation Analysis of an Axial Compressor Supersonic Stage Impeller

Authors: Y. Galerkin, E. Popova, K. Soldatova

Abstract:

There is an evident trend to elevate pressure ratio of a single stage of a turbo compressors - axial compressors in particular. Whilst there was an opinion recently that a pressure ratio 1,9 was a reasonable limit, later appeared information on successful modeling tested of stages with pressure ratio up to 2,8. The Authors recon that lack of information on high pressure stages makes actual a study of rational choice of design parameters before high supersonic flow problems solving. The computer program of an engineering type was developed. Below is presented a sample of its application to study possible parameters of the impeller of the stage with pressure ratio π*=3,0. Influence of two main design parameters on expected efficiency, periphery blade speed and flow structure is demonstrated. The results had lead to choose a variant for further analysis and improvement by CFD methods.

Keywords: supersonic stage, impeller, efficiency, flow rate coefficient, work coefficient, loss coefficient, oblique shock, direct shock

Procedia PDF Downloads 400