Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: Malika Boudraa

35 Automatic Vowel and Consonant's Target Formant Frequency Detection

Authors: Othmane Bouferroum, Malika Boudraa

Abstract:

In this study, a dual exponential model for CV formant transition is derived from locus theory of speech perception. Then, an algorithm for automatic vowel and consonant’s target formant frequency detection is developed and tested on real speech. The results show that vowels and consonants are detected through transitions rather than their small stable portions. Also, vowel reduction is clearly observed in our data. These results are confirmed by the observations made in perceptual experiments in the literature.

Keywords: acoustic invariance, coarticulation, formant transition, locus equation

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34 The Combination of the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC), Perceptual Linear Prediction (PLP), JITTER and SHIMMER Coefficients for the Improvement of Automatic Recognition System for Dysarthric Speech

Authors: Brahim-Fares Zaidi, Malika Boudraa, Sid-Ahmed Selouani

Abstract:

Our work aims to improve our Automatic Recognition System for Dysarthria Speech (ARSDS) based on the Hidden Models of Markov (HMM) and the Hidden Markov Model Toolkit (HTK) to help people who are sick. With pronunciation problems, we applied two techniques of speech parameterization based on Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC's) and Perceptual Linear Prediction (PLP's) and concatenated them with JITTER and SHIMMER coefficients in order to increase the recognition rate of a dysarthria speech. For our tests, we used the NEMOURS database that represents speakers with dysarthria and normal speakers.

Keywords: hidden Markov model toolkit (HTK), hidden models of Markov (HMM), Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), perceptual linear prediction (PLP’s)

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33 Features Dimensionality Reduction and Multi-Dimensional Voice-Processing Program to Parkinson Disease Discrimination

Authors: Djamila Meghraoui, Bachir Boudraa, Thouraya Meksen, M.Boudraa

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Parkinson's disease is a pathology that involves characteristic perturbations in patients’ voices. This paper describes a proposed method that aims to diagnose persons with Parkinson (PWP) by analyzing on line their voices signals. First, Thresholds signals alterations are determined by the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP). Principal Analysis (PCA) is exploited to select the main voice principal componentsthat are significantly affected in a patient. The decision phase is realized by a Mul-tinomial Bayes (MNB) Classifier that categorizes an analyzed voice in one of the two resulting classes: healthy or PWP. The prediction accuracy achieved reaching 98.8% is very promising.

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease recognition, PCA, MDVP, multinomial Naive Bayes

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32 Parallel Multisplitting Methods for Differential Systems

Authors: Malika El Kyal, Ahmed Machmoum

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We prove the superlinear convergence of asynchronous multi-splitting methods applied to differential equations. This study is based on the technique of nested sets. It permits to specify kind of the convergence in the asynchronous mode.The main characteristic of an asynchronous mode is that the local algorithm not have to wait at predetermined messages to become available. We allow some processors to communicate more frequently than others, and we allow the communication delays to be substantial and unpredictable. Note that synchronous algorithms in the computer science sense are particular cases of our formulation of asynchronous one.

Keywords: parallel methods, asynchronous mode, multisplitting, ODE

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31 Study on the Heat Transfer Performance of the Annular Fin under Condensing Conditions

Authors: Abdenour Bourabaa, Malika Fekih, Mohamed Saighi

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A numerical investigation of the fin efficiency and temperature distribution of an annular fin under dehumidification has been presented in this paper. The non-homogeneous second order differential equation that describes the temperature distribution from the fin base to the fin tip has been solved using the central finite difference method. The effects of variations in parameters including relative humidity, air temperature, air face velocity on temperature distribution and fin efficiency are investigated and compared with those under fully dry fin conditions. Also, the effect of fin pitch on the dimensionless temperature has been studied.

Keywords: annular fin, dehumidification, fin efficiency, heat and mass transfer, wet fin

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30 Empirical Model for the Estimation of Global Solar Radiation on Horizontal Surface in Algeria

Authors: Malika Fekih, Abdenour Bourabaa, Rafika Hariti, Mohamed Saighi

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In Algeria the global solar radiation and its components is not available for all locations due to which there is a requirement of using different models for the estimation of global solar radiation that use climatological parameters of the locations. Empirical constants for these models have been estimated and the results obtained have been tested statistically. The results show encouraging agreement between estimated and measured values.

Keywords: global solar radiation, empirical model, semi arid areas, climatological parameters

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29 Parallel Multisplitting Methods for DAE’s

Authors: Ahmed Machmoum, Malika El Kyal

Abstract:

We consider iterative parallel multi-splitting method for differential algebraic equations. The main feature of the proposed idea is to use the asynchronous form. We prove that the multi-splitting technique can effectively accelerate the convergent performance of the iterative process. The main characteristic of an asynchronous mode is that the local algorithm not have to wait at predetermined messages to become available. We allow some processors to communicate more frequently than others, and we allow the communication delays tobe substantial and unpredictable. Note that synchronous algorithms in the computer science sense are particular cases of our formulation of asynchronous one.

Keywords: computer, multi-splitting methods, asynchronous mode, differential algebraic systems

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28 Parallel Asynchronous Multi-Splitting Methods for Differential Algebraic Systems

Authors: Malika Elkyal

Abstract:

We consider an iterative parallel multi-splitting method for differential algebraic equations. The main feature of the proposed idea is to use the asynchronous form. We prove that the multi-splitting technique can effectively accelerate the convergent performance of the iterative process. The main characteristic of an asynchronous mode is that the local algorithm does not have to wait at predetermined messages to become available. We allow some processors to communicate more frequently than others, and we allow the communication delays to be substantial and unpredictable. Accordingly, we note that synchronous algorithms in the computer science sense are particular cases of our formulation of asynchronous one.

Keywords: parallel methods, asynchronous mode, multisplitting, differential algebraic equations

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27 A Comparative Study of Multi-SOM Algorithms for Determining the Optimal Number of Clusters

Authors: Imèn Khanchouch, Malika Charrad, Mohamed Limam

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The interpretation of the quality of clusters and the determination of the optimal number of clusters is still a crucial problem in clustering. We focus in this paper on multi-SOM clustering method which overcomes the problem of extracting the number of clusters from the SOM map through the use of a clustering validity index. We then tested multi-SOM using real and artificial data sets with different evaluation criteria not used previously such as Davies Bouldin index, Dunn index and silhouette index. The developed multi-SOM algorithm is compared to k-means and Birch methods. Results show that it is more efficient than classical clustering methods.

Keywords: clustering, SOM, multi-SOM, DB index, Dunn index, silhouette index

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26 Efficient Modeling Technique for Microstrip Discontinuities

Authors: Nassim Ourabia, Malika Ourabia

Abstract:

A new and efficient method is presented for the analysis of arbitrarily shaped discontinuities. The technique obtains closed form expressions for the equivalent circuits which are used to model these discontinuities. Then it would be easy to handle and to characterize complicated structures like T and Y junctions, truncated junctions, arbitrarily shaped junctions, cascading junctions, and more generally planar multiport junctions. Another advantage of this method is that the edge line concept for arbitrary shape junctions operates with real parameters circuits. The validity of the method was further confirmed by comparing our results for various discontinuities (bend, filters) with those from HFSS as well as from other published sources.

Keywords: CAD analysis, contour integral approach, microwave circuits, s-parameters

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25 Bioinsecticidal Activity and Phytochemical Study of the Crude Extract from the Plant Artemisia judaica

Authors: Fatma Acheuk, Idir Bitam, Leila Bendifallah, Malika Ramdani, Fethia Barika

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Phytochemical study of the plant Artemisia judaica showed the presence of various groups of natural products: saponins, tannins, coumarins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and reducer compounds. However, alkaloids are present as traces. The crude ethanol extract of the test plant presented significant insecticidal activity on mosquito larvae in stage I, II and III. The LD50 highlighted the excellent insecticidal effect of the tested extract. Similarly, the LT50 are achieved early with high doses. The results obtained are encouraging and suggest the possibility of using the secondary metabolites of this plant such as bio-insecticide.

Keywords: Atamisia judaica, crud extract, mosquito, insecticidal activity

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24 Phytochemical Study and Bioinsecticidal Effect of the Crude Extract from the Plant Artemisia Judaica

Authors: Fatma Acheuk, Idir Bitam, Leila Bendifallah, Malika Ramdani, Fethia Barika

Abstract:

Phytochemical study of the plant Artemisia judaica showed the presence of various groups of natural products: saponins, tannins, coumarins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and reducer compounds. However alkaloids are present as traces. The crude ethanol extract of the test plant presented significant insecticidal activity on mosquito larvae in stage I, II, and III. The LD50 highlighted the excellent insecticidal effect of the tested extract. Similarly, the LT50 are achieved early with high doses. The results obtained are encouraging and suggest the possibility of using the secondary metabolites of this plant such as bio-insecticide.

Keywords: Atamisia judaica, crud extract, mosquito, insecticidal activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
23 Effect of the Addition of Additives on the Improvement of the Performances of Lead–Acid Batteries

Authors: Malika Foudia, Larbi Zerroual

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The objective of this work is to improve the electrical proprieties of lead-acid battery with the addition of additives in electrolyte and in the cured plates before oxidation. The results showed that the addition of surfactant in sulfuric acid and 3% mineral additive in the cured plates change the morphology and the crystallite size of PAM after oxidation. The discharge capacity increases with the decrease of the crystallite size and the resistance of the active mass. This shows that the addition of mineral additive and the surfactant additive to the PAM, the electrical performance and the cycle life of lead- acid battery are significantly increases.

Keywords: lead-acid battery, additives, positive plate, impedance (EIS).

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22 Magnetohydrodynamic 3D Maxwell Fluid Flow Towards a Horizontal Stretched Surface with Convective Boundary Conditions

Authors: M. Y. Malika, Farzana, Abdul Rehman

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The study deals with the steady, 3D MHD boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian Maxwell fluid flow due to a horizontal surface stretched exponentially in two lateral directions. The temperature at the boundary is assumed to be distributed exponentially and possesses convective boundary conditions. The governing nonlinear system of partial differential equations along with associated boundary conditions is simplified using a suitable transformation and the obtained set of ordinary differential equations is solved through numerical techniques. The effects of important involved parameters associated with fluid flow and heat flux are shown through graphs.

Keywords: boundary layer flow, exponentially stretched surface, Maxwell fluid, numerical solution

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21 Study of Natural Convection in Storage Tank of LNG

Authors: Hariti Rafika, Fekih Malika, Saighi Mohamed

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Heat transfer by natural convection in storage tanks for LNG is extremely related to heat gains through the walls with thermal insulation is not perfectly efficient. In this paper, we present the study of natural convection in the unsteady regime for natural gas in aware phase using the fluent software. The gas is just on the surface of the liquid phase. The CFD numerical method used to solve the system of equations is based on the finite volume method. This numerical simulation allowed us to determine the temperature profiles, the stream function, the velocity vectors and the variation of the heat flux density in the vapor phase in the LNG storage tank volume. The results obtained for a general configuration, by numerical simulation were compared to those found in the literature.

Keywords: numerical simulation, natural convection, heat gains, storage tank, liquefied natural gas

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20 Study of Heat Transfer by Natural Convection in Overhead Storage Tank of LNG

Authors: Hariti Rafika, Fekih Malika, Saighi Mohamed

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During the period storage of liquefied natural gas, stability is necessarily affected by natural convection along the walls of the tank with thermal insulation is not perfectly efficient. In this paper, we present the numerical simulation of heat transfert by natural convection double diffusion,in unsteady laminar regime in a storage tank. The storage tank contains a liquefied natural gas (LNG) in its gaseous phase. Fluent, a commercial CFD package, based on the numerical finite volume method, is used to simulate the flow. The gas is just on the surface of the liquid phase. This numerical simulation allowed us to determine the temperature profiles, the stream function, the velocity vectors and the variation of the heat flux density in the vapor phase in the LNG storage tank volume. The results obtained for a general configuration, by numerical simulation were compared to those found in the literature.

Keywords: numerical simulation, natural convection, heat gains, storage tank, liquefied natural gas

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19 Trust Management for an Authentication System in Ubiquitous Computing

Authors: Malika Yaici, Anis Oussayah, Mohamed Ahmed Takerrabet

Abstract:

Security of context-aware ubiquitous systems is paramount, and authentication plays an important aspect in cloud computing and ubiquitous computing. Trust management has been identified as vital component for establishing and maintaining successful relational exchanges between trading partners in cloud and ubiquitous systems. Establishing trust is the way to build good relationship with both client and provider which positive activates will increase trust level, otherwise destroy trust immediately. We propose a new context-aware authentication system using a trust management system between client and server, and between servers, a trust which induces partnership, thus to a close cooperation between these servers. We defined the rules (algorithms), as well as the formulas to manage and calculate the trusting degrees depending on context, in order to uniquely authenticate a user, thus a single sign-on, and to provide him better services.

Keywords: ubiquitous computing, authentication, context-awareness, trust management

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18 A Contribution to the Polynomial Eigen Problem

Authors: Malika Yaici, Kamel Hariche, Tim Clarke

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The relationship between eigenstructure (eigenvalues and eigenvectors) and latent structure (latent roots and latent vectors) is established. In control theory eigenstructure is associated with the state space description of a dynamic multi-variable system and a latent structure is associated with its matrix fraction description. Beginning with block controller and block observer state space forms and moving on to any general state space form, we develop the identities that relate eigenvectors and latent vectors in either direction. Numerical examples illustrate this result. A brief discussion of the potential of these identities in linear control system design follows. Additionally, we present a consequent result: a quick and easy method to solve the polynomial eigenvalue problem for regular matrix polynomials.

Keywords: eigenvalues/eigenvectors, latent values/vectors, matrix fraction description, state space description

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17 Optimization Techniques for Microwave Structures

Authors: Malika Ourabia

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A new and efficient method is presented for the analysis of arbitrarily shaped discontinuities. The discontinuities is characterized using a hybrid spectral/numerical technique. This structure presents an arbitrary number of ports, each one with different orientation and dimensions. This article presents a hybrid method based on multimode contour integral and mode matching techniques. The process is based on segmentation and dividing the structure into key building blocks. We use the multimode contour integral method to analyze the blocks including irregular shape discontinuities. Finally, the multimode scattering matrix of the whole structure can be found by cascading the blocks. Therefore, the new method is suitable for analysis of a wide range of waveguide problems. Therefore, the present approach can be applied easily to the analysis of any multiport junctions and cascade blocks. The accuracy of the method is validated comparing with results for several complex problems found in the literature. CPU times are also included to show the efficiency of the new method proposed.

Keywords: segmentation, s parameters, simulation, optimization

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16 On Block Vandermonde Matrix Constructed from Matrix Polynomial Solvents

Authors: Malika Yaici, Kamel Hariche

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In control engineering, systems described by matrix fractions are studied through properties of block roots, also called solvents. These solvents are usually dealt with in a block Vandermonde matrix form. Inverses and determinants of Vandermonde matrices and block Vandermonde matrices are used in solving problems of numerical analysis in many domains but require costly computations. Even though Vandermonde matrices are well known and method to compute inverse and determinants are many and, generally, based on interpolation techniques, methods to compute the inverse and determinant of a block Vandermonde matrix have not been well studied. In this paper, some properties of these matrices and iterative algorithms to compute the determinant and the inverse of a block Vandermonde matrix are given. These methods are deducted from the partitioned matrix inversion and determinant computing methods. Due to their great size, parallelization may be a solution to reduce the computations cost, so a parallelization of these algorithms is proposed and validated by a comparison using algorithmic complexity.

Keywords: block vandermonde matrix, solvents, matrix polynomial, matrix inverse, matrix determinant, parallelization

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15 Problem of Services Selection in Ubiquitous Systems

Authors: Malika Yaici, Assia Arab, Betitra Yakouben, Samia Zermani

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Ubiquitous computing is nowadays a reality through the networking of a growing number of computing devices. It allows providing users with context aware information and services in a heterogeneous environment, anywhere and anytime. Selection of the best context-aware service, between many available services and providers, is a tedious problem. In this paper, a service selection method based on Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) formalism is proposed. The services are considered as variables and domains; and the user context, preferences and providers characteristics are considered as constraints. The Backtrack algorithm is used to solve the problem to find the best service and provider which matches the user requirements. Even though this algorithm has an exponential complexity, but its use guarantees that the service, that best matches the user requirements, will be found. A comparison of the proposed method with the existing solutions finishes the paper.

Keywords: ubiquitous computing, services selection, constraint satisfaction problem, backtrack algorithm

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14 Study of Toxic Effect and Anti-Oxidative Activity of a β- Amidophosphonates

Authors: Houria Djebar, Amina Saib, Malika Berredjem, Khaoula Bechlem, Mohammed-Reda Djebar

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have a high potential to damage almost all types of cellular components of the body, which explains their involvement in the induction and/or amplification of several pathologies. Supplementation of the body by exogenous antioxidants is very useful against these harmful species. In this context, we attempted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of three newly synthesized amidophosphonates (AP1, AP2, and AP3). The results relating to the in vitro tests for DPPH radical scavenging activity shows that these amidophosphonates have a modest antiradical power (ARP) less effectively pronounced compared with an analogue marketed in Algeria: (Dursban) Clorpiryphos ethyl. However, in vivo effects were evaluated on some antioxidant systems (LP intensity, CAT activity and GSH content), or in combination with 2, 2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyle (DPPH) radical in paramecium tetraurelia used as a complementary system to rapidly elucidate the cytotoxicity. On the basis of the results obtained it can be concluded that amidophosphonates studied exhibited a mild protective effect. The mechanism for how they influenced the antioxidant activities was discussed.

Keywords: Paramecium tetraurelia, amidophosphonates, antioxidant activity, DPPH free radical, in vitro experiments, biochemical parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
13 Removal of Oxytetracycline Using Sonophotocatalysis: Parametric Study

Authors: Bouafia-Chergui Souâd, Chabani Malika, Bensmaili Aicha

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Water treatment and especially, medicament pollutants are nowadays important problems. Degradation of oxytetracycline was carried out using combined process of low-frequency ultrasound (US), ultraviolet irradiation and a catalyst. The effectiveness of the coupled processes has been evaluated by studying the effects of various operating parameters including initial OTC concentration, solution pH and catalyst mass. For the photolysis process, the monochromatic ultraviolet light wavelength utilized was 365 nm. The sonolysis experiments were performed with ultrasound at a frequency of 40 kHz. The heterogeneous photocatalysis was studied in the presence of TiO2. The processes were employed individually, and simultaneously to examine the details of the processes and to investigate the contribution of each process. Low UV intensity (12W), low pH and high mass of TiO2 conditions enhanced the sono-photocatalytic degradation of OTC. The results showed that the individual contribution sonochemical and photochemical reactions are very low, however, their coupling increases the degradation rate of 8 times compared to photolysis and 2 times compared to sonolysis. There is a synergistic effect between the two modes of radiation, UV and U.S. leading to 82.04% degradation yield. An application of these combined processes on the treatment of a real pharmaceutical wastewater was examined.

Keywords: sonolysis, photocatalysis, combined process, antibiotic

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12 Contribution to the Study of Reproduction of Water Birds (Case of Marsh Bouessdra, North East Algeria)

Authors: Wahiba Boudraa, Khalil Draidi, Badis Bakhouch, Farah Chettibi, Meriem Aberkane, Zihad Bouslama, Moussa Houhamdi

Abstract:

The Gulf of Annaba, located at the extreme north eastern Algerian; our site of study is a marsh administratively it is part of the wilaya of Annaba, municipality of El-Bouni; extends on a surface from 55 hectare, the maximum depth is of less 2m. A scheme of work was adopted for an evaluation and characterization of the reproduction of the water nicheurs birds in the marsh of Boussedra. Some important parameters described by the scientific literature; According to standardized methods, variables were the object of a regular follow-up during the period of reproduction. These parameters were taken into account: the installation date of the nests, the vegetable support; blossoming of eggs, causes of the failure of the blossomings (predation or abandonment), characteristics of the nests (composition, internal diameter, external diameter, depth and heightening), measurements of the distances nest-nest nearest, Depth of water, the measurement of eggs, size of laying, size of laying. The follow-up in the marsh was carried out between March 2013 until the month of July 2014 at a rate of two outputs per weeks, one located and noted the nests to control them each week. The study on the reproduction of the water birds enables us to note that this site plays a very important part in the wintering and the reproduction of certain species important. This study opens broad prospects for study of several phenomena related to the ecology of the water birds, and the conservation of the wetlands.

Keywords: Algeria, Boussedra, nests, reproduction, water birds

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11 Focalization Used as a Narrative Strategy Mirroring Fadia Faqir’s Ideology in Pillars of Salt 1996

Authors: Malika Hammouche

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The novel Pillars of Salt, written by Fadia Faqir in 1996, is a good example where storytelling is utilized as a traditional material to underline the author’s womanist ideology. A study of narrative could be fruitfully combined with that of ideology in this case. This combination could be demonstrated through the narrative technique used by Fadia Faqir in Pillars of Salt (1996), reflecting her anti-colonial ideology. The first step of this work will highlight the storyteller’s narrative in the novel representing, on the one hand, the imperial voice, and on the other exoticism and orientalism. The second step will demonstrate how Faqir’s narrative technique uses focalization as a narratological tool to negotiate her space. Faqir gives a voice to the female protagonist of the novel within the androcentric bias of Arab narrative theory to point to and amend the orientalist discourse typical to colonial literature. The orientalist discourse is represented through the voice of the storyteller in the novel. The juxtaposition of the storyteller’s and the female protagonist narratives is borrowed from the Arab literary background. It is a postcolonial counter-discursive strategy used by the author as a traditional material to underline her Arabo Islamic Womanist ideology in this novel.

Keywords: Arabo Islamic womanism, focalization, ideology, narrative technique, orientalist

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10 First Breeding Populations of The Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) in a Peri-Urban Wetland Areas (Marsh of Boussedra; North-East of Algeria)

Authors: Boudraa Wahiba, Chettibi Farah, Lahlah Naouel, Bouslama Zihad, Houhamdi Moussa

Abstract:

The marsh of Boussedra (55 ha) is a peri-urban wetland, located in the city of El - Bouni, wilaya of Annaba (North-east of the Algeria). This city hosts every year, 53 species of waterfowl, belonging to 15 different families, of which the most represented family is the Anatidae with almost 12 species. The Glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) is the only representative of the family of the threskiornithidae. After a total absence for almost a decade, this species has established in North Africa and started breeding since 2000. The Glossy ibis (plegadis falcinellus), breeds with low numbers in distant areas. At the wetland of Boussedra, the population of this species was observed with numbers approaching 160 individuals. During the breeding season of 2014 (between march and july), this species bred in mixed heronries (Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis , Little egret Egretta garzetta, The black-crowned night heron Nycticorax nycticorax , Squacco heron Ardeola ralloides and Little bittern Ixobrychus minutus), where a total of 120 nests were counted. This represents the largest colony observed in North Africa. The reproduction of the studied species took place on a Tamaricaceae (Tamarix gallica), where more than 2000 nest were constructed. During this breeding season, we have monitored the colony's installation and evolution and tried to characterize the reproduction, at the urban water plan of Boussedra (measurements of nests, measurements of eggs and monitoring the growing rate and weight gaining of the chicks, since their birth until their flight).

Keywords: glossy ibis, reproduction, peri-urban wetland, mixed heronry, Boussedra, Algeria

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9 Bacteriological Quality and Physicochemical Water Beaches of the City of Annaba (Mediterranean Sea)

Authors: Wahiba Boudraa, Farah Chettibbi, Meriem Aberkane, Fatma Djamaa, Moussa Houhamdi

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The intensity of human activities in regions surrounding the Mediterranean Sea always has a strong long-term environmental impact resulting in coastal and marine degradation, as well as an aggravated risk of more serious damage. The available data on water quality show that most water resources in Algeria are polluted by uncontrolled discharges from municipal sewage and untreated industrial effluents. Annaba is a coastal town in Algeria; The Gulf of Annaba, responds to these changes as it receives the continental inputs and urban waste, industrial without prior treatment of a highly industrialized and urbanized city, subject to the same environmental problems that know the rest of the Algerian coast. In later year, the beaches of bacterial enumeration process waters showed relatively high levels of bacterial indicators of fecal contamination (group D streptococci, total and fecal coliforms), which reflect the risks to people attending these beaches. During the twelve months of our study, we isolated from three beaches in the city of Annaba (St. Cloud, El-Kettara, and Djenane El Bey) a number of pathogenic microorganisms considered, namely: Salmonella, Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Yersinia, Enterococcus, and E.coli. The microbial count revealed elevated levels of coliform bacteria, fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci quite high especially in urban beaches (St. Cloud and El-Kettara). They are widely popular during the summer by many vacationers. For the physico-chemical parameters, there exist some weak values which increase during the pluvial period, hivernal and festival saison. These values remain, nevertheless, weak to be able to cause an organic or metallic pollution.

Keywords: quality microbiology, pollution of water, fecal contamination, physico-chemistry, beaches of Annaba city, Algeria.

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8 Impact of Cd and Pb Impregnation on the Health of an Adult Population Neighbouring a Landfill

Authors: M. Cabral, A. Verdin, G. Garçon, A. Touré, C. Diop, M. Fall, S. Bouhsina, D. Dewaele, F.Cazier, A. Tall Dia, P. Shirali, A. Diouf

Abstract:

This case-control study dealt with the health adverse effects within the population neighboring the Mbeubeuss waste dump, which is located near the district of Malika (Diamalaye II) in Dakar (Senegal). All the household and industrial waste arising from Dakar are stored in this open landfill without being covered and are therefore possible sources of Pb and Cd contaminated air emissions and lixiviates. The objective of this study is part of improving the health of the population neighboring Mbeubeuss by determining Pb and Cd concentrations both in environment and humans, and studying possible renal function alterations within the adults. Soil and air samples were collected in the control site (Darou Salam) and the waste dump neighboring site (Diamalaye II). Control and exposed adults were recruited as living in Darou Salam (n = 52) and in Diamalaye II (n = 77). Pb and Cd concentrations in soil, air and biological samples were determined. Moreover, we were interested in analyzing some impregnation (zinc protoporphyrin, d-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase) and oxidative stress biomarkers (malonedialdehyde, gluthatione status), in addition to several nephrotoxicity parameters (creatinuria, proteinuria, lactate dehydrogenase, CC16 protein, glutathione S-transferase-alpha and retinol binding protein) in blood and/or urine. The results showed the significant Pb and Cd contamination of the soil and air samples derived from the landfill, and therefore of the neighboring population of adults. This critical exposure to environmental Pb and Cd had some harmful consequences for their health, as shown by the reported oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity signs.

Keywords: Pb and Cd environmental exposure, impregnation markers, landfill, nephrotoxicity markers

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7 Development of Pre-Mitigation Measures and Its Impact on Life-Cycle Cost of Facilities: Indian Scenario

Authors: Mahima Shrivastava, Soumya Kar, B. Swetha Malika, Lalu Saheb, M. Muthu Kumar, P. V. Ponambala Moorthi

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Natural hazards and manmade destruction causes both economic and societal losses. Generalized pre-mitigation strategies introduced and adopted for prevention of disaster all over the world are capable of augmenting the resiliency and optimizing the life-cycle cost of facilities. In countries like India where varied topographical feature exists requires location specific mitigation measures and strategies to be followed for better enhancement by event-driven and code-driven approaches. Present state of vindication measures followed and adopted, lags dominance in accomplishing the required development. In addition, serious concern and debate over climate change plays a vital role in enhancing the need and requirement for the development of time bound adaptive mitigation measures. For the development of long-term sustainable policies incorporation of future climatic variation is inevitable. This will further assist in assessing the impact brought about by the climate change on life-cycle cost of facilities. This paper develops more definite region specific and time bound pre-mitigation measures, by reviewing the present state of mitigation measures in India and all over the world for improving life-cycle cost of facilities. For the development of region specific adoptive measures, Indian regions were divided based on multiple-calamity prone regions and geo-referencing tools were used to incorporate the effect of climate changes on life-cycle cost assessment. This study puts forward significant effort in establishing sustainable policies and helps decision makers in planning for pre-mitigation measures for different regions. It will further contribute towards evaluating the life cycle cost of facilities by adopting the developed measures.

Keywords: climate change, geo-referencing tools, life-cycle cost, multiple-calamity prone regions, pre-mitigation strategies, sustainable policies

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6 Protective Effect of Wheat Grass (Triticum Durum) against Oxidative Damage Induced by Lead: Study of Some Biomarkers and Histological Few Organs in Males Wistar Rats

Authors: Mansouri Ouarda, Abdennour Cherif, Saidi Malika

Abstract:

Since the industrial revolution, many anthropogenic activities have caused environmental, considerable and overall changes. The lead represents a very dangerous disruptive for the functioning of the body. In this context the current study aims at evaluating a natural therapy by the use of the plant grass in wheat (Triticum durum) against the toxicity of lead in rat wistar male. The rats were divided into three groups: the control group, the group treated with 600 mg /kg food of lead only (Pb) is the group treated with the combination of 600 mg/kg of food and 9g/rat /day of the plant grass in wheat (Pb-bl). The duration of the treatment is 6 weeks. The results of the biometrics of the organs (thyroid, kidney, testis and epididymis) show no significant difference between the three groups. The dosage of a few parameters and hormonal biochemical shows a decrease in the concentration of the hormone T3 and TSH levels among the group pb alone compared to the control and Pb-Bl. These results have been confirmed by the study of histological slices. A morphological changes represented by a shrinking volume of vesicles with the group treated with Pb alone. A return to the normal state of the structure of the follicles was observed. The concentration in serum testosterone, urea and creatinine was significantly increased among the group treated by Pb only in relation to the control and Pb-Bl. whereas the rate of glucose did not show any significant difference. The histology study of the kidney, testis and epididymal weights show no modification at the group Pb-bl comparing to the control. The parenchyma of the kidney shows a dilation of tubes distal and proximal causing a tubular nephropathy for the batch processed by Pb only. The testicles have marked a destruction or absence of germ cells and the light of some seminiferous are almost empty. Conclusion: The supplementation of the plant Triticum durum has caused a considerable improvement which ensures the return of parameters investigated in the normal state.

Keywords: creatinine, glucose, histological sections, T3, TSH, testosterone

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