Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3217

Search results for: confining pressure

3217 Analysis of Gas Transport and Sorption Processes in Coal under Confining Pressure Conditions

Authors: Anna Pajdak, Mateusz Kudasik, Norbert Skoczylas, Leticia Teixeira Palla Braga


A substantial majority of gas transport and sorption researches into coal are carried out on samples that are free of stress. In natural conditions, coal occurs at considerable depths, which often exceed 1000 meters. In such conditions, coal is subjected to geostatic pressure. Thus, in natural conditions, the sorption capacity of coal subjected to geostatic pressure can differ considerably from the sorption capacity of coal, determined in laboratory conditions, which is free of stress. The work presents the results of filtration and sorption tests of gases in coal under confining pressure conditions. The tests were carried out on the author's device, which ensures: confining pressure regulation in the range of 0-30 MPa, isobaric gas pressure conditions, and registration of changes in sample volume during its gas saturation. Based on the conducted research it was found, among others, that the sorption capacity of coal relative to CO₂ was reduced by about 15% as a result of the change in the confining pressure from 1.5 MPa to 30 MPa exerted on the sample. The same change in sample load caused a significant, more than tenfold reduction in carbon permeability to CO₂. The results confirmed that a load of coal corresponding to a hydrostatic pressure of 1000 meters underground reduces its permeability and sorption properties. These results are so important that the effect of load on the sorption properties of coal should be taken into account in laboratory studies on the applicability of CO₂ Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery (CO₂-ECBM) technology.

Keywords: coal, confining pressure, gas transport, sorption

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3216 Effect of Density on the Shear Modulus and Damping Ratio of Saturated Sand in Small Strain

Authors: M. Kakavand, S. A. Naeini


Dynamic properties of soil in small strains, especially for geotechnical engineers, are important for describing the behavior of soil and estimation of the earth structure deformations and structures, especially significant structures. This paper presents the effect of density on the shear modulus and damping ratio of saturated clean sand at various isotropic confining pressures. For this purpose, the specimens were compared with two different relative densities, loose Dr = 30% and dense Dr = 70%. Dynamic parameters were attained from a series of consolidated undrained fixed – free type torsional resonant column tests in small strain. Sand No. 161 is selected for this paper. The experiments show that by increasing sand density and confining pressure, the shear modulus increases and the damping ratio decreases.

Keywords: dynamic properties, shear modulus, damping ratio, clean sand, density, confining pressure, resonant column/torsional simple shear, TSS

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3215 Soil Reinforcement by Fibers Using Triaxial Compression Test

Authors: Negadi Kheira, Arab Ahmed, Kamal Elbokl Mohamed, Setti Fatima


In order to evaluate influences of roots on soil shear strength, monotonic drained and undrained triaxial laboratory tests were carried out on reconstituted specimens at various confining pressure (σc’=50, 100, 200, 300, 400 kPa) and a constant relative density (Dr = 50%). Reinforcement of soil by fibrous roots is crucial for preventing soil erosion and degradation. Therefore, we investigated soil reinforcement by roots of acacia planted in the area of Chlef where shallow landslides and slope instability are frequent. These roots were distributed in soil in two forms: vertically and horizontally. The monotonic test results showed that roots have more impacts on the soil shear strength than the friction angle, and the presence of roots in soil substantially increased the soil shear strength. Also, the results showed that the contribution of roots on the shear strength mobilized increases with increase in the confining pressure.

Keywords: soil, monotonic, triaxial test, root fiber, undrained

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
3214 Effect of Fines on Liquefaction Susceptibility of Sandy Soil

Authors: Ayad Salih Sabbar, Amin Chegenizadeh, Hamid Nikraz


Investigation of liquefaction susceptibility of materials that have been used in embankments, slopes, dams, and foundations is very essential. Many catastrophic geo-hazards such as flow slides, declination of foundations, and damage to earth structure are associated with static liquefaction that may occur during abrupt shearing of these materials. Many artificial backfill materials are mixtures of sand with fines and other composition. In order to provide some clarifications and evaluations on the role of fines in static liquefaction behaviour of sand sandy soils, the effect of fines on the liquefaction susceptibility of sand was experimentally examined in the present work over a range of fines content, relative density, and initial confining pressure. The results of an experimental study on various sand-fines mixtures are presented. Undrained static triaxial compression tests were conducted on saturated Perth sand containing 5% bentonite at three different relative densities (10, 50, and 90%), and saturated Perth sand containing both 5% bentonite and slag (2%, 4%, and 6%) at single relative density 10%. Undrained static triaxial tests were performed at three different initial confining pressures (100, 150, and 200 kPa). The brittleness index was used to quantify the liquefaction potential of sand-bentonite-slag mixtures. The results demonstrated that the liquefaction susceptibility of sand-5% bentonite mixture was more than liquefaction susceptibility of clean sandy soil. However, liquefaction potential decreased when both of two fines (bentonite and slag) were used. Liquefaction susceptibility of all mixtures decreased with increasing relative density and initial confining pressure.  

Keywords: liquefaction, bentonite, slag, brittleness index

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
3213 Effect of Confinement on the Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Spread Foundations

Authors: Tahsin Toma Sabbagh, Ihsan Al-Abboodi, Ali Al-Jazaairry


Allowable-bearing capacity is the competency of soil to safely carries the pressure from the superstructure without experiencing a shear failure with accompanying excessive settlements. Ensuring a safe bearing pressure with respect to failure does not tolerate settlement of the foundation will be within acceptable limits. Therefore, settlement analysis should always be performed since most structures are settlement sensitive. When visualising the movement of a soil wedge in the bearing capacity criterion, both vertically and horizontally, it becomes clear that by confining the soil surrounding the foundation, both the bearing capacity and settlement values improve. In this study, two sizes of spread foundation were considered; (2×4) m and (3×5) m. These represent two real problem case studies of an existing building. The foundations were analysed in terms of dimension as well as position with respect to a confining wall (i.e., sheet piles on both sides). Assuming B is the least foundation dimension, the study comprised the analyses of three distances; (0.1 B), (0.5 B), and (0.75 B) between the sheet piles and foundations alongside three depths of confinement (0.5 B), (1 B), and (1.5 B). Nonlinear three-dimensional finite element analysis (ANSYS) was adopted to perform an analytical investigation on the behaviour of the two foundations contained by the case study. Results showed that confinement of foundations reduced the overall stresses near the foundation by 65% and reduced the vertical displacement by 90%. Moreover, the most effective distance between the confinement wall and the foundation was found to be 0.5 B.

Keywords: bearing capacity, cohesionless soils, soil confinement, soil modelling, spread footings

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
3212 Effect of Dynamic Loading by Cyclic Triaxial Tests on Sand Stabilized with Cement

Authors: Priyanka Devi, Mohammad Muzzaffar Khan, G. Kalyan Kumar


Liquefaction of saturated soils due to dynamic loading is an important and interesting area in the field of geotechnical earthquake engineering. When the soil liquefies, the structures built on it develops uneven settlements thereby producing cracks in the structure and weakening the foundation. The 1964 Alaskan Good Friday earthquake, the 1989 San Francisco earthquake and 2011 Tōhoku earthquake are some of the examples of liquefaction occurred due to an earthquake. To mitigate the effect of liquefaction, several methods such use of stone columns, increasing the vertical stress, compaction and removal of liquefiable soil are practiced. Grouting is one of those methods used to increase the strength of the foundation and develop resistance to liquefaction of soil without affecting the superstructure. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the undrained cyclic behavior of locally available soil, stabilized by cement to mitigate the seismically induced soil liquefaction. The specimens of 75mm diameter and 150mm height were reconstituted in the laboratory using water sedimentation technique. A series of strain-controlled cyclic triaxial tests were performed on saturated soil samples followed by consolidation. The effects of amplitude, confining pressure and relative density on the dynamic behavior of sand was studied for soil samples with varying cement content. The results obtained from the present study on loose specimens and medium dense specimens indicate that (i) the higher the relative density, the more will be the liquefaction resistance, (ii) with increase of effective confining pressure, a decrease in developing of excess pore water pressure during cyclic loading was observed and (iii) sand specimens treated with cement showed reduced excess pore pressures and increased liquefaction resistance suggesting it as one of the mitigation methods.

Keywords: cyclic triaxial test, liquefaction, soil-cement stabilization, pore pressure ratio

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3211 An Experimental Investigation in Effect of Confining Stress and Matric Suction on the Mechanical Behavior of Sand with Different Fine Content

Authors: S. Asreazad


This paper presents the results that the soil volumetric strain and shear strength are closely related to the confining stress and initial matric suction under constant water content testing on the specimens of unsaturated sand with clay and silt fines contents. The silty sand specimens reached their peak strength after a very small axial strain followed by a post-peak softening towards an ultimate value. The post-peak drop in stress increased by an increment of the suction, while there is no peak strength for clayey sand specimens. The clayey sand shows compressibility and possesses ductile stress-strain behaviour. Shear strength increased nonlinearly with respect to matric suction for both soil types. When suction exceeds a certain range, the effect of suction on shear strength increment weakens gradually. Under the same confining stress, the dilatant tendencies in the silty sand increased under lower values of suction and decreased for higher suction values under the same confining stress. However, the amount of contraction increased with increasing initial suction for clayey sand specimens.

Keywords: unsaturated soils, silty sand, clayey sand, triaxial test

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3210 Anchorage Effect on Axial Strength of Fiber Reinforced Polymers Confined Rectangular Columns

Authors: Yavuz Yardim


FRP systems have been largely used to improve the performance of structural members, due to their high strength to weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Application of this strengthening procedure in circular columns has resulted quite beneficial in increasing their seismic and axial capacity. Whereas in the rectangular ones, strength enhancement was considerably less due to stress concentration in the corner. In this work three anchorage configurations are tested for their efficiency in increasing the uniformity of confinement pressure in the CFRP strengthened non-circular sections. There is a slight increase in the axial strength of specimens as a general trend. More specifically fan anchorage reached an increase of 17.5% compared to the unanchored specimens. The study shows that uniformity of confining pressure has increased by adding anchorage.

Keywords: rectangular columns, FRP, confinement, anchorage

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
3209 The Effect of Shredded Polyurethane Foams on Shear Modulus and Damping Ratio of Sand

Authors: Javad Saeidaskari, Nader Khalafian


The undesirable impact of vibrations induced by road and railway traffic is an important concern in modern world. These vibrations are transmitted through soil and cause disturbances to the residence area and high-tech production facilities alongside the train/traffic lines. In this paper for the first time a new method of soil improvement with vibration absorber material, is used to increase the damping factor, in other word, to reduce the ability of wave transitions in sand. In this study standard Firoozkooh No. 161 sand is used as the host sand. The semi rigid polyurethane (PU) foam which used in this research is one of the common materials for vibration absorbing purposes. Series of cyclic triaxial tests were conducted on remolded samples with identical relative density of 70% of maximum dry density for different volume percentage of shredded PU foam. The frequency of tests was 0.1 Htz with shear strain of 0.37% and 0.75% and also the effective confining pressures during the tests were 100 kPa and 350 kPa. In order to find out the best soil-PU foam mixture, different volume percent of PU foam varying from 10% to 30% were examined. The results show that adding PU foam up to 20%, as its optimum content, causes notable enhancement in damping ratio for both shear strains of 0.37% (52.19% and 69% increase for effective confining pressures of 100 kPa and 350 kPa, respectively) and 0.75% (59.56% and 59.11% increase for effective confining pressures of 100 kPa and 350 kPa, respectively). The results related to shear modulus present significant reduction for both shear strains of 0.37% (82.22% and 56.03% decrease for effective confining pressures of 100 kPa and 350 kPa, respectively) and 0.75% (89.32% and 39.9% decrease for effective confining pressures of 100 kPa and 350 kPa, respectively). In conclusion, shredded PU foams effectively affect the dynamic properties of sand and act as vibration absorber in soil.

Keywords: polyurethane foam, sand, damping ratio, shear modulus

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3208 Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Ong Kai Sheng


The MEMS pressure sensor has been introduced and presented in this paper. The types of pressure sensor and its theory of operation are also included. The latest MEMS technology, the fabrication processes of pressure sensor are explored and discussed. Besides, various device applications of pressure sensor such as tire pressure monitoring system, diesel particulate filter and others are explained. Due to further miniaturization of the device nowadays, the pressure sensor with nanotechnology (NEMS) is also reviewed. The NEMS pressure sensor is expected to have better performance as well as lower in its cost. It has gained an excellent popularity in many applications.

Keywords: pressure sensor, diaphragm, MEMS, automotive application, biomedical application, NEMS

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3207 Flow Behavior of a ScCO₂-Stimulated Geothermal Reservoir under in-situ Stress and Temperature Conditions

Authors: B. L. Avanthi Isaka, P. G. Ranjith


The development of technically-sound enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) is identified as a viable solution for world growing energy demand with immense potential, low carbon dioxide emission and importantly, as an environmentally friendly option for renewable energy production. The use of supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO₂) as the working fluid in EGSs by replacing traditional water-based method is promising due to multiple advantages prevail in ScCO₂-injection for underground reservoir stimulation. The evolution of reservoir stimulation using ScCO₂ and the understanding of the flow behavior of a ScCO₂-stimulated geothermal reservoir is vital in applying ScCO₂-EGSs as a replacement for water-based EGSs. The study is therefore aimed to investigate the flow behavior of a ScCO₂-fractured rock medium at in-situ stress and temperature conditions. A series of permeability tests were conducted for ScCO₂ fractured Harcourt granite rock specimens at 90ºC, under varying confining pressures from 5–60 MPa using the high-pressure and high-temperature tri-axial set up which can simulate deep geological conditions. The permeability of the ScCO₂-fractured rock specimens was compared with that of water-fractured rock specimens. The results show that the permeability of the ScCO₂-fractured rock specimens is one order higher than that of water-fractured rock specimens and the permeability exhibits a non-linear reduction with increasing confining pressure due to the stress-induced fracture closure. Further, the enhanced permeability of the ScCO₂-induced fracture with multiple secondary branches was explained by exploring the CT images of the rock specimens. However, a single plain fracture was induced under water-based fracturing.

Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide, fracture permeability, granite, enhanced geothermal systems

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3206 Effect of Type of Pile and Its Installation Method on Pile Bearing Capacity by Physical Modelling in Frustum Confining Vessel

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, M. Mortezaee


Various factors such as the method of installation, the pile type, the pile material and the pile shape, can affect the final bearing capacity of a pile executed in the soil; among them, the method of installation is of special importance. The physical modeling is among the best options in the laboratory study of the piles behavior. Therefore, the current paper first presents and reviews the frustum confining vesel (FCV) as a suitable tool for physical modeling of deep foundations. Then, by describing the loading tests of two open-ended and closed-end steel piles, each of which has been performed in two methods, “with displacement" and "without displacement", the effect of end conditions and installation method on the final bearing capacity of the pile is investigated. The soil used in the current paper is silty sand of Firoozkooh. The results of the experiments show that in general the without displacement installation method has a larger bearing capacity in both piles, and in a specific method of installation the closed ended pile shows a slightly higher bearing capacity.

Keywords: physical modeling, frustum confining vessel, pile, bearing capacity, installation method

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
3205 Sand Production Modelled with Darcy Fluid Flow Using Discrete Element Method

Authors: M. N. Nwodo, Y. P. Cheng, N. H. Minh


In the process of recovering oil in weak sandstone formations, the strength of sandstones around the wellbore is weakened due to the increase of effective stress/load from the completion activities around the cavity. The weakened and de-bonded sandstone may be eroded away by the produced fluid, which is termed sand production. It is one of the major trending subjects in the petroleum industry because of its significant negative impacts, as well as some observed positive impacts. For efficient sand management therefore, there has been need for a reliable study tool to understand the mechanism of sanding. One method of studying sand production is the use of the widely recognized Discrete Element Method (DEM), Particle Flow Code (PFC3D) which represents sands as granular individual elements bonded together at contact points. However, there is limited knowledge of the particle-scale behavior of the weak sandstone, and the parameters that affect sanding. This paper aims to investigate the reliability of using PFC3D and a simple Darcy flow in understanding the sand production behavior of a weak sandstone. An isotropic tri-axial test on a weak oil sandstone sample was first simulated at a confining stress of 1MPa to calibrate and validate the parallel bond models of PFC3D using a 10m height and 10m diameter solid cylindrical model. The effect of the confining stress on the number of bonds failure was studied using this cylindrical model. With the calibrated data and sample material properties obtained from the tri-axial test, simulations without and with fluid flow were carried out to check on the effect of Darcy flow on bonds failure using the same model geometry. The fluid flow network comprised of every four particles connected with tetrahedral flow pipes with a central pore or flow domain. Parametric studies included the effects of confining stress, and fluid pressure; as well as validating flow rate – permeability relationship to verify Darcy’s fluid flow law. The effect of model size scaling on sanding was also investigated using 4m height, 2m diameter model. The parallel bond model successfully calibrated the sample’s strength of 4.4MPa, showing a sharp peak strength before strain-softening, similar to the behavior of real cemented sandstones. There seems to be an exponential increasing relationship for the bigger model, but a curvilinear shape for the smaller model. The presence of the Darcy flow induced tensile forces and increased the number of broken bonds. For the parametric studies, flow rate has a linear relationship with permeability at constant pressure head. The higher the fluid flow pressure, the higher the number of broken bonds/sanding. The DEM PFC3D is a promising tool to studying the micromechanical behavior of cemented sandstones.

Keywords: discrete element method, fluid flow, parametric study, sand production/bonds failure

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3204 Improving the Design of Blood Pressure and Blood Saturation Monitors

Authors: L. Parisi


A blood pressure monitor or sphygmomanometer can be either manual or automatic, employing respectively either the auscultatory method or the oscillometric method. The manual version of the sphygmomanometer involves an inflatable cuff with a stethoscope adopted to detect the sounds generated by the arterial walls to measure blood pressure in an artery. An automatic sphygmomanometer can be effectively used to monitor blood pressure through a pressure sensor, which detects vibrations provoked by oscillations of the arterial walls. The pressure sensor implemented in this device improves the accuracy of the measurements taken.

Keywords: blood pressure, blood saturation, sensors, actuators, design improvement

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3203 Signal Processing of the Blood Pressure and Characterization

Authors: Hadj Abd El Kader Benghenia, Fethi Bereksi Reguig


In clinical medicine, blood pressure, raised blood hemodynamic monitoring is rich pathophysiological information of cardiovascular system, of course described through factors such as: blood volume, arterial compliance and peripheral resistance. In this work, we are interested in analyzing these signals to propose a detection algorithm to delineate the different sequences and especially systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the wave and dicrotic to do their analysis in order to extract the cardiovascular parameters.

Keywords: blood pressure, SBP, DBP, detection algorithm

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3202 Calibration Methods of Direct and Indirect Reading Pressure Sensor and Uncertainty Determination

Authors: Sinem O. Aktan, Musa Y. Akkurt


Experimental pressure calibration methods can be classified into three areas: (1) measurements in liquid or gas systems, (2) measurements in static-solid media systems, and (3) measurements in dynamic shock systems. Fluid (liquid and gas) systems high accuracies can be obtainable and commonly used for the calibration method of a pressure sensor. Pressure calibrations can be performed for metrological traceability in two ways, which are on-site (field) and in the laboratory. Laboratory and on-site calibration procedures and the requirements of the DKD-R-6-1 and Euramet cg-17 guidelines will also be addressed. In this study, calibration methods of direct and indirect reading pressure sensor and measurement uncertainty contributions will be explained.

Keywords: pressure metrology, pressure calibration, dead-weight tester, pressure uncertainty

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3201 Investigation and Analysis on Pore Pressure Variation by Sonic Impedance under Influence of Compressional, Shear, and Stonely Waves in High Pressure Zones

Authors: Nouri, K., Ghassem Alaskari, M., K., Amiri Hazaveh, A., Nabi Bidhendi, M.


Pore pressure is one on the key Petrophysical parameter in exploration discussion and survey on hydrocarbon reservoir. Determination of pore pressure in various levels of drilling and integrity of drilling mud and high pressure zones in order to restrict blow-out and following damages are significant. The pore pressure is obtained by seismic and well logging data. In this study the pore pressure and over burden pressure through the matrix stress and Tarzaqi equation and other related formulas are calculated. By making a comparison on variation of density log in over normal pressure zones with change of sonic impedance under influence of compressional, shear, and Stonely waves, the correlation level of sonic impedance with density log is studied. The level of correlation and variation trend is recorded in sonic impedance under influence Stonely wave with density log that key factor in recording of over burden pressure and pore pressure in Tarzaqi equation is high. The transition time is in divert relation with porosity and fluid type in the formation and as a consequence to the pore pressure. The density log is a key factor in determination of pore pressure therefore sonic impedance under Stonley wave is denotes well the identification of high pressure besides other used factors.

Keywords: pore pressure, stonely wave, density log, sonic impedance, high pressure zone

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
3200 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Pressure through Radial Velocity Difference in Arterial Blood Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes


In this paper, we are interested to determine the carbon dioxide pressure in the arterial blood through radial velocity difference. The blood was modeled as a two phase mixture (an aqueous carbon dioxide solution with carbon dioxide gas) by Drift flux model and the Young-Laplace equation. The distributions of mixture velocities determined from the considered model permitted the calculation of the radial velocity distributions with different values of mean mixture pressure and the calculation of the mean carbon dioxide pressure knowing the mean mixture pressure. The radial velocity distributions are used to deduce a calculation method of the mean mixture pressure through the radial velocity difference between two positions which is measured by ultrasound. The mean carbon dioxide pressure is then deduced from the mean mixture pressure.

Keywords: mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity difference

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3199 Design of Saddle Support for Horizontal Pressure Vessel

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Navin Kumar, Surjit Angra, Prince Sharma


This paper presents the design analysis of saddle support of a horizontal pressure vessel. Since saddle have the vital role to support the pressure vessel and to maintain its stability, it should be designed in such a way that it can afford the vessel load and internal pressure of the vessel due to liquid contained in the vessel. A model of horizontal pressure vessel and saddle support is created in Ansys. Stresses are calculated using mathematical approach and Ansys software. The analysis reveals the zone of high localized stress at the junction part of the pressure vessel and saddle support due to operating conditions. The results obtained by both the methods are compared with allowable stress value for safe designing.

Keywords: ANSYS, pressure vessel, saddle, support

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
3198 Metal Berthelot Tubes with Windows for Observing Cavitation under Static Negative Pressure

Authors: K. Hiro, Y. Imai, T. Sasayama


Cavitation under static negative pressure is not revealed well. The Berthelot method to generate such negative pressure can be a means to study cavitation inception. In this study, metal Berthelot tubes built in observation windows are newly developed and are checked whether high static negative pressure is generated or not. Negative pressure in the tube with a pair of a corundum plate and an aluminum gasket increased with temperature cycles. The trend was similar to that as reported before.

Keywords: Berthelot method, cavitation, negative pressure, observation

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3197 Effect of Aggregate Size on Mechanical Behavior of Passively Confined Concrete Subjected to 3D Loading

Authors: Ibrahim Ajani Tijani, C. W. Lim


Limited studies have examined the effect of size on the mechanical behavior of confined concrete subjected to 3-dimensional (3D) test. With the novel 3D testing system to produce passive confinement, concrete cubes were tested to examine the effect of size on stress-strain behavior of the specimens. The effect of size on 3D stress-strain relationship was scrutinized and compared to the stress-strain relationship available in the literature. It was observed that the ultimate stress and the corresponding strain was related to the confining rigidity and size. The size shows a significant effect on the intersection stress and a new model was proposed for the intersection stress based on the conceptual design of the confining plates.

Keywords: concrete, aggregate size, size effect, 3D compression, passive confinement

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3196 An Experimental Investigation on the Amount of Drag Force of Sand on a Cone Moving at Low Uniform Speed

Authors: M. Jahanandish, Gh. Sadeghian, M. H. Daneshvar, M. H. Jahanandish


The amount of resistance of a particular medium like soil to the moving objects is the interest of many areas in science. These include soil mechanics, geotechnical engineering, powder mechanics etc. Knowledge of drag force is also used for estimating the amount of momentum of fired objects like bullets. This paper focuses on measurement of drag force of sand on a cone when it moves at a low constant speed. A 30-degree apex angle cone has been used for this purpose. The study consisted of both loose and dense conditions of the soil. The applied speed has been in the range of 0.1 to 10 mm/min. The results indicate that the required force is basically independent of the cone speed; but, it is very dependent on the material densification and confining stress.

Keywords: drag force, sand, moving speed, friction angle, densification, confining stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
3195 Measurement of Reverse Flow Generated at Cold Exit of Vortex Tube

Authors: Mohd Hazwan bin Yusof, Hiroshi Katanoda


In order to clarify the structure of the cold flow discharged from the vortex tube (VT), the pressure of the cold flow was measured, and a simple flow visualization technique using a 0.75 mm-diameter needle and an oily paint is made to study the reverse flow at the cold exit. It is clear that a negative pressure and positive pressure region exist at a certain pressure and cold fraction area, and that a reverse flow is observed in the negative pressure region.

Keywords: flow visualization, pressure measurement, reverse flow, vortex tube

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3194 Design and Simulation of MEMS-Based Capacitive Pressure Sensors

Authors: Kirankumar B. Balavalad, Bhagyashree Mudhol, B. G. Sheeparamatti


MEMS sensor have gained popularity in automotive, biomedical, and industrial applications. In this paper, the design and simulation of conventional, slotted, and perforated MEMS capacitive pressure sensor is proposed. Polysilicon material is used as diaphragm material that deflects due to applied pressure. Better sensitivity is the main advantage of conventional pressure sensor as compared with other two sensors and perforated pressure sensor achieves large operating pressure range. The proposed MEMS sensor demonstrated with diaphragm length 50um, gap depth 3um is being modelled. The simulation is carried out for different types of MEMS capacitive pressure sensor using COMSOL Multiphysics and Coventor ware.

Keywords: MEMS, conventional pressure sensor, slotted and perforated diaphragm, COMSOL multiphysics, coventor ware

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
3193 Evaluation of Longitudinal and Hoop Stresses and a Critical Study of Factor of Safety (FoS) in Design of a Glass-Fiber Pressure Vessel

Authors: Zainul Huda, Mohammed Hani Ajani


The design, manufacture, and operation of thin-walled pressure vessels must be based on maximum safe operating pressure and an adequate factor of safety (FoS). This research paper first reports experimental evaluation of longitudinal and hoops stresses based on working pressure as well as maximum pressure; and then includes a critical study of factor of safety (FoS) in the design of a glass fiber pressure vessel. Experimental work involved the use of measuring instruments and the readings from pressure gauges. Design calculations involved the computations of design stress and FoS; the latter was based on breaking strength of 55 MPa for the glass fiber (pressure-vessel material). The experimentally determined FoS value has been critically compared with the general FoS allowed in the design of glass fiber pressure vessels.

Keywords: thin-walled pressure vessel, hoop stress, longitudinal stress, factor of safety (FoS), fiberglass

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
3192 Evaluation of Longitudinal and Hoops Stresses and a Critical Study of Factor of Safety (Fos) in the Design of a Glass-Fiber Pressure Vessel

Authors: Zainul Huda, Mohammad Hani Ajani


The design, manufacture, and operation of thin-walled pressure vessels must be based on maximum safe operating pressure and an adequate factor of safety (FoS). This research paper first reports experimental evaluation of longitudinal and hoops stresses based on working pressure as well as maximum pressure; and then includes a critical study of factor of safety (FoS) in the design of a glass fiber pressure vessel. Experimental work involved the use of measuring instruments and the readings from pressure gauges. Design calculations involved the computations of design stress and FoS; the latter was based on breaking strength of 55 MPa for the glass fiber (pressure-vessel material). The experimentally determined FoS value has been critically compared with the general FoS allowed in the design of glass fiber pressure vessels.

Keywords: thin-walled pressure vessel, hoop stress, longitudinal stress, factor of safety (FoS), fiberglass

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
3191 A CFD Analysis of Flow through a High-Pressure Natural Gas Pipeline with an Undeformed and Deformed Orifice Plate

Authors: R. Kiš, M. Malcho, M. Janovcová


This work aims to present a numerical analysis of the natural gas which flows through a high-pressure pipeline and an orifice plate, through the use of CFD methods. The paper contains CFD calculations for the flow of natural gas in a pipe with different geometry used for the orifice plates. One of them has a standard geometry and a shape without any deformation and the other is deformed by the action of the pressure differential. It shows the behaviour of natural gas in a pipeline using the velocity profiles and pressure fields of the gas in both models with their differences. The entire research is based on the elimination of any inaccuracy which should appear in the flow of the natural gas measured in the high-pressure pipelines of the gas industry and which is currently not given in the relevant standard.

Keywords: orifice plate, high-pressure pipeline, natural gas, CFD analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
3190 Determination of Small Shear Modulus of Clayey Sand Using Bender Element Test

Authors: R. Sadeghzadegan, S. A. Naeini, A. Mirzaii


In this article, the results of a series of carefully conducted laboratory test program were represented to determine the small strain shear modulus of sand mixed with a range of kaolinite including zero to 30%. This was experimentally achieved using a triaxial cell equipped with bender element. Results indicate that small shear modulus tends to increase, while clay content decreases and effective confining pressure increases. The exponent of stress in the power model regression analysis was not sensitive to the amount of clay content for all sand clay mixtures, while coefficient A was directly affected by change in clay content.

Keywords: small shear modulus, bender element test, plastic fines, sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
3189 On the Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Internal Pressure in Air Bearings

Authors: Abdurrahim Dal, Tuncay Karaçay


Dynamics of a rotor supported by air bearings is strongly depends on the pressure distribution between the rotor and the bearing. In this study, internal pressure in air bearings is numerical and experimental analyzed for different radial clearances. Firstly the pressure distribution between rotor and bearing is modeled using Reynold's equation and this model is solved numerically. The rotor-bearing system is also modeled in four degree of freedom and it is simulated for different radial clearances. Then, in order to validate numerical results, a test rig is designed and the rotor bearing system is run under the same operational conditions. Pressure signals of left and right bearings are recorded. Internal pressure variations are compared for numerical and experimental results for different radial clearances.

Keywords: air bearing, internal pressure, Reynold’s equation, rotor

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3188 Pressure Regulator Optimization in LPG Fuel Injection Systems

Authors: M. Akif Ceviz, Alirıza Kaleli, Erdoğan Güner


LPG pressure regulator is a device which is used to change the phase of LPG from liquid to gas by decreasing the pressure. During the phase change, it is necessary to supply the latent heat of LPG to prevent excessive low temperature. Engine coolant is circulated in the pressure regulator for this purpose. Therefore, pressure regulator is a type of heat exchanger that should be designed for different engine operating conditions. The design of the regulator should ensure that the flow of LPG is in gaseous phase to the injectors during the engine steady state and transient operating conditions. The pressure regulators in the LPG gaseous injection systems currently used can easily change the phase of LPG, however, there is no any control on the LPG temperature in conventional LPG injection systems. It is possible to increase temperature excessively. In this study, a control unit has been tested to keep the LPG temperature in a band. Result of the study showed that the engine performance characteristics can be increased by using the system.

Keywords: temperature, pressure regulator, LPG, PID

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