Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3933

Search results for: damping ratio

3933 Estimation of Dynamic Characteristics of a Middle Rise Steel Reinforced Concrete Building Using Long-Term

Authors: Fumiya Sugino, Naohiro Nakamura, Yuji Miyazu

Abstract:

In earthquake resistant design of buildings, evaluation of vibration characteristics is important. In recent years, due to the increment of super high-rise buildings, the evaluation of response is important for not only the first mode but also higher modes. The knowledge of vibration characteristics in buildings is mostly limited to the first mode and the knowledge of higher modes is still insufficient. In this paper, using earthquake observation records of a SRC building by applying frequency filter to ARX model, characteristics of first and second modes were studied. First, we studied the change of the eigen frequency and the damping ratio during the 3.11 earthquake. The eigen frequency gradually decreases from the time of earthquake occurrence, and it is almost stable after about 150 seconds have passed. At this time, the decreasing rates of the 1st and 2nd eigen frequencies are both about 0.7. Although the damping ratio has more large error than the eigen frequency, both the 1st and 2nd damping ratio are 3 to 5%. Also, there is a strong correlation between the 1st and 2nd eigen frequency, and the regression line is y=3.17x. In the damping ratio, the regression line is y=0.90x. Therefore 1st and 2nd damping ratios are approximately the same degree. Next, we study the eigen frequency and damping ratio from 1998 after 3.11 earthquakes, the final year is 2014. In all the considered earthquakes, they are connected in order of occurrence respectively. The eigen frequency slowly declined from immediately after completion, and tend to stabilize after several years. Although it has declined greatly after the 3.11 earthquake. Both the decresing rate of the 1st and 2nd eigen frequencies until about 7 years later are about 0.8. For the damping ratio, both the 1st and 2nd are about 1 to 6%. After the 3.11 earthquake, the 1st increases by about 1% and the 2nd increases by less than 1%. For the eigen frequency, there is a strong correlation between the 1st and 2nd, and the regression line is y=3.17x. For the damping ratio, the regression line is y=1.01x. Therefore, it can be said that the 1st and 2nd damping ratio is approximately the same degree. Based on the above results, changes in eigen frequency and damping ratio are summarized as follows. In the long-term study of the eigen frequency, both the 1st and 2nd gradually declined from immediately after completion, and tended to stabilize after a few years. Further it declined after the 3.11 earthquake. In addition, there is a strong correlation between the 1st and 2nd, and the declining time and the decreasing rate are the same degree. In the long-term study of the damping ratio, both the 1st and 2nd are about 1 to 6%. After the 3.11 earthquake, the 1st increases by about 1%, the 2nd increases by less than 1%. Also, the 1st and 2nd are approximately the same degree.

Keywords: eigenfrequency, damping ratio, ARX model, earthquake observation records

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3932 Characteristics Influencing Response of a Base Isolated Building

Authors: Ounis Hadj Mohamed, Ounis Abdelhafid

Abstract:

In order to illustrate the effect of damping on the response of a base-isolated building, a parametric study is led, taking into account the progressive variation of the damping ratio (10% to 30%) under different types of seismic excitations (near and far field). A time history analysis is used to determine the response of the structure in terms of relative displacement and understory drift at various levels of the building. Thus, the results show that the efficiency of the isolator increases with the assumed damping ratio, provided that this latter is less or equal to 20%. Beyond this value, the isolator becomes less convenient. Furthermore, a strong deviation of energy capacity by the LRB (Lead Rubber Bearing) system is recorded.

Keywords: damping, base isolation, LRB, seismic excitation, hysteresis

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3931 Clarifications on the Damping Mechanism Related to the Hunting Motion of the Wheel Axle of a High-Speed Railway Vehicle

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

In order to explain the damping mechanism, related to the hunting motion of the wheel axle of a high-speed railway vehicle, a generalized dynamic model is proposed. Based on such model, analytic expressions for the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency are derived, without imposing restrictions on the ratio between the lateral and vertical creep coefficients. Influence of the travelling speed, wheel conicity, dimensionless mass of the wheel axle, ratio of the creep coefficients, ratio of the track span to the yawing diameter, etc. on the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency, is clarified.

Keywords: high-speed railway vehicle, hunting motion, wheel axle, damping, creep, vibration model, analysis.

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
3930 Simulation of Particle Damping in Boring Tool Using Combined Particles

Authors: S. Chockalingam, U. Natarajan, D. M. Santhoshsarang

Abstract:

Particle damping is a promising vibration attenuating technique in boring tool than other type of damping with minimal effect on the strength, rigidity and stiffness ratio of the machine tool structure. Due to the cantilever nature of boring tool holder in operations, it suffers chatter when the slenderness ratio of the tool gets increased. In this study, Copper-Stainless steel (SS) particles were packed inside the boring tool which acts as a damper. Damper suppresses chatter generated during machining and also improves the machining efficiency of the tool with better slenderness ratio. In the first approach of particle damping, combined Cu-SS particles were packed inside the vibrating tool, whereas Copper and Stainless steel particles were selected separately and packed inside another tool and their effectiveness was analysed in this simulation. This study reveals that the efficiency of finite element simulation of the boring tools when equipped with particles such as copper, stainless steel and a combination of both. In this study, the newly modified boring tool holder with particle damping was simulated using ANSYS12.0 with and without particles. The aim of this study is to enhance the structural rigidity through particle damping thus avoiding the occurrence of resonance in the boring tool during machining.

Keywords: boring bar, copper-stainless steel, chatter, particle damping

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
3929 Effect of Density on the Shear Modulus and Damping Ratio of Saturated Sand in Small Strain

Authors: M. Kakavand, S. A. Naeini

Abstract:

Dynamic properties of soil in small strains, especially for geotechnical engineers, are important for describing the behavior of soil and estimation of the earth structure deformations and structures, especially significant structures. This paper presents the effect of density on the shear modulus and damping ratio of saturated clean sand at various isotropic confining pressures. For this purpose, the specimens were compared with two different relative densities, loose Dr = 30% and dense Dr = 70%. Dynamic parameters were attained from a series of consolidated undrained fixed – free type torsional resonant column tests in small strain. Sand No. 161 is selected for this paper. The experiments show that by increasing sand density and confining pressure, the shear modulus increases and the damping ratio decreases.

Keywords: dynamic properties, shear modulus, damping ratio, clean sand, density, confining pressure, resonant column/torsional simple shear, TSS

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3928 Estimation of the Effect of Initial Damping Model and Hysteretic Model on Dynamic Characteristics of Structure

Authors: Shinji Ukita, Naohiro Nakamura, Yuji Miyazu

Abstract:

In considering the dynamic characteristics of structure, natural frequency and damping ratio are useful indicator. When performing dynamic design, it's necessary to select an appropriate initial damping model and hysteretic model. In the linear region, the setting of initial damping model influences the response, and in the nonlinear region, the combination of initial damping model and hysteretic model influences the response. However, the dynamic characteristics of structure in the nonlinear region remain unclear. In this paper, we studied the effect of setting of initial damping model and hysteretic model on the dynamic characteristics of structure. On initial damping model setting, Initial stiffness proportional, Tangent stiffness proportional, and Rayleigh-type were used. On hysteretic model setting, TAKEDA model and Normal-trilinear model were used. As a study method, dynamic analysis was performed using a lumped mass model of base-fixed. During analysis, the maximum acceleration of input earthquake motion was gradually increased from 1 to 600 gal. The dynamic characteristics were calculated using the ARX model. Then, the characteristics of 1st and 2nd natural frequency and 1st damping ratio were evaluated. Input earthquake motion was simulated wave that the Building Center of Japan has published. On the building model, an RC building with 30×30m planes on each floor was assumed. The story height was 3m and the maximum height was 18m. Unit weight for each floor was 1.0t/m2. The building natural period was set to 0.36sec, and the initial stiffness of each floor was calculated by assuming the 1st mode to be an inverted triangle. First, we investigated the difference of the dynamic characteristics depending on the difference of initial damping model setting. With the increase in the maximum acceleration of the input earthquake motions, the 1st and 2nd natural frequency decreased, and the 1st damping ratio increased. Then, in the natural frequency, the difference due to initial damping model setting was small, but in the damping ratio, a significant difference was observed (Initial stiffness proportional≒Rayleigh type>Tangent stiffness proportional). The acceleration and the displacement of the earthquake response were largest in the tangent stiffness proportional. In the range where the acceleration response increased, the damping ratio was constant. In the range where the acceleration response was constant, the damping ratio increased. Next, we investigated the difference of the dynamic characteristics depending on the difference of hysteretic model setting. With the increase in the maximum acceleration of the input earthquake motions, the natural frequency decreased in TAKEDA model, but in Normal-trilinear model, the natural frequency didn’t change. The damping ratio in TAKEDA model was higher than that in Normal-trilinear model, although, both in TAKEDA model and Normal-trilinear model, the damping ratio increased. In conclusion, in initial damping model setting, the tangent stiffness proportional was evaluated the most. In the hysteretic model setting, TAKEDA model was more appreciated than the Normal-trilinear model in the nonlinear region. Our results would provide useful indicator on dynamic design.

Keywords: initial damping model, damping ratio, dynamic analysis, hysteretic model, natural frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
3927 Theoretical Investigation on the Dynamic Characteristics of One Degree of Freedom Vibration System Equipped with Inerter of Variable Inertance

Authors: Barenten Suciu, Yoshiki Tsuji

Abstract:

In this paper, a theoretical investigation on the dynamic characteristics of one degree of freedom vibration system equipped with inerter of variable inertance, is presented. Differential equation of movement was solved under proper initial conditions in the case of free undamped/damped vibration, considered in the absence/presence of the inerter in the mechanical system. Influence of inertance on the amplitude of vibration, phase angle, natural frequency, damping ratio, and logarithmic decrement was clarified. It was mainly found that the inerter decreases the natural frequency of the undamped system and also of the damped system if the damping ratio is below 0.707. On the other hand, the inerter increases the natural frequency of the damped system if the damping ratio exceeds 0.707. Results obtained in this work are useful for the adequate design of inerters.

Keywords: damping, frequency control, inerter, one degree of freedom vibration system, parallel connection, variable inertance

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3926 About the Number of Fundamental Physical Interactions

Authors: Andrey Angorsky

Abstract:

In the article an issue about the possible number of fundamental physical interactions is studied. The theory of similarity on the dimensionless quantity as the damping ratio serves as the instrument of analysis. The structure with the features of Higgs field comes out from non-commutative expression for this ratio. The experimentally checked up supposition about the nature of dark energy is spoken out.

Keywords: damping ratio, dark energy, dimensionless quantity, fundamental physical interactions, Higgs field, non-commutative expression

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3925 Dynamic Properties of Recycled Concrete Aggregate from Resonant Column Tests

Authors: Wojciech Sas, Emil Soból, Katarzyna Gabryś, Andrzej Głuchowski, Alojzy Szymański

Abstract:

Depleting of natural resources is forcing the man to look for alternative construction materials. One of them is recycled concrete aggregates (RCA). RCA from the demolition of buildings and crushed to proper gradation can be a very good replacement for natural unbound granular aggregates, gravels or sands. Physical and the mechanical properties of RCA are well known in the field of basic civil engineering applications, but to proper roads and railways design dynamic characteristic is need as well. To know maximum shear modulus (GMAX) and the minimum damping ratio (DMIN) of the RCA dynamic loads in resonant column apparatus need to be performed. The paper will contain literature revive about alternative construction materials and dynamic laboratory research technique. The article will focus on dynamic properties of RCA, but early studies conducted by the authors on physical and mechanical properties of this material also will be presented. The authors will show maximum shear modulus and minimum damping ratio. Shear modulus and damping ratio degradation curves will be shown as well. From exhibited results conclusion will be drawn at the end of the article.

Keywords: recycled concrete aggregate, shear modulus, damping ratio, resonant column

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
3924 The Effect of Mathematical Modeling of Damping on the Seismic Energy Demands

Authors: Selamawit Dires, Solomon Tesfamariam, Thomas Tannert

Abstract:

Modern earthquake engineering and design encompass performance-based design philosophy. The main objective in performance-based design is to achieve a system performing precisely to meet the design objectives so to reduce unintended seismic risks and associated losses. Energy-based earthquake-resistant design is one of the design methodologies that can be implemented in performance-based earthquake engineering. In energy-based design, the seismic demand is usually described as the ratio of the hysteretic to input energy. Once the hysteretic energy is known as a percentage of the input energy, it is distributed among energy-dissipating components of a structure. The hysteretic to input energy ratio is highly dependent on the inherent damping of a structural system. In numerical analysis, damping can be modeled as stiffness-proportional, mass-proportional, or a linear combination of stiffness and mass. In this study, the effect of mathematical modeling of damping on the estimation of seismic energy demands is investigated by considering elastic-perfectly-plastic single-degree-of-freedom systems representing short to long period structures. Furthermore, the seismicity of Vancouver, Canada, is used in the nonlinear time history analysis. According to the preliminary results, the input energy demand is not sensitive to the type of damping models deployed. Hence, consistent results are achieved regardless of the damping models utilized in the numerical analyses. On the other hand, the hysteretic to input energy ratios vary significantly for the different damping models.

Keywords: damping, energy-based seismic design, hysteretic energy, input energy

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3923 Vibration Analysis of Pendulum in a Viscous Fluid by Analytical Methods

Authors: Arash Jafari, Mehdi Taghaddosi, Azin Parvin

Abstract:

In this study, a vibrational differential equation governing on swinging single-degree-of-freedom pendulum in a viscous fluid has been investigated. The damping process is characterized according to two different regimes: at first, damping in stationary viscous fluid, in the second, damping in flowing viscous fluid with constant velocity. Our purpose is to enhance the ability of solving the mentioned nonlinear differential equation with a simple and innovative approach. Comparisons are made between new method and Numerical Method (rkf45). The results show that this method is very effective and simple and can be applied for other nonlinear problems.

Keywords: oscillating systems, angular frequency and damping ratio, pendulum at fluid, locus of maximum

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
3922 Finite Element Analysis of Raft Foundation on Various Soil Types under Earthquake Loading

Authors: Qassun S. Mohammed Shafiqu, Murtadha A. Abdulrasool

Abstract:

The design of shallow foundations to withstand different dynamic loads has given considerable attention in recent years. Dynamic loads may be due to the earthquakes, pile driving, blasting, water waves, and machine vibrations. But, predicting the behavior of shallow foundations during earthquakes remains a difficult task for geotechnical engineers. A database for dynamic and static parameters for different soils in seismic active zones in Iraq is prepared which has been collected from geophysical and geotechnical investigation works. Then, analysis of a typical 3-D soil-raft foundation system under earthquake loading is carried out using the database. And a parametric study has been carried out taking into consideration the influence of some parameters on the dynamic behavior of the raft foundation, such as raft stiffness, damping ratio as well as the influence of the earthquake acceleration-time records. The results of the parametric study show that the settlement caused by the earthquake can be decreased by about 72% with increasing the thickness from 0.5 m to 1.5 m. But, it has been noticed that reduction in the maximum bending moment by about 82% was predicted by decreasing the raft thickness from 1.5 m to 0.5 m in all sites model. Also, it has been observed that the maximum lateral displacement, the maximum vertical settlement and the maximum bending moment for damping ratio 0% is about 14%, 20%, and 18% higher than that for damping ratio 7.5%, respectively for all sites model.

Keywords: shallow foundation, seismic behavior, raft thickness, damping ratio

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3921 Selection of Rayleigh Damping Coefficients for Seismic Response Analysis of Soil Layers

Authors: Huai-Feng Wang, Meng-Lin Lou, Ru-Lin Zhang

Abstract:

One good analysis method in seismic response analysis is direct time integration, which widely adopts Rayleigh damping. An approach is presented for selection of Rayleigh damping coefficients to be used in seismic analyses to produce a response that is consistent with Modal damping response. In the presented approach, the expression of the error of peak response, acquired through complete quadratic combination method, and Rayleigh damping coefficients was set up and then the coefficients were produced by minimizing the error. Two finite element modes of soil layers, excited by 28 seismic waves, were used to demonstrate the feasibility and validity.

Keywords: Rayleigh damping, modal damping, damping coefficients, seismic response analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
3920 Drastic Increase of Wave Dissipation within Metastructures Having Negative Stiffness Inclusions

Authors: D. Chronopoulos, I. Antoniadis, V. Spitas, D. Koulocheris, V. Polenta

Abstract:

A concept of a simple linear oscillator, incorporating a negative stiffness element is demonstrated to exhibit extraordinary damping properties. This oscillator shares the same overall (static) stiffness, the same mass and the same damping element with a reference classical linear SDOF oscillator. However, it differs from the original SDOF oscillator by appropriately redistributing the component spring stiffness elements and by re-allocating the damping element. Despite the fact that the proposed oscillator incorporates a negative stiffness element, it is designed to be both statically and dynamically stable. Once such an oscillator is optimally designed, it is shown to exhibit an extraordinary apparent damping ratio, which is even several orders of magnitude higher than that of the original SDOF system, especially in cases where the original damping of the SDOF system is low. This damping behavior is not a result of a novel additional extraordinary energy dissipation mechanism, but a result of the phase difference between the positive and the negative stiffness elastic forces, which is in turn a consequence of the proper re-distribution of the stiffness and the damper elements. This fact ensures that an adequate level of elastic forces exists throughout the entire frequency range, able to counteract the inertial and the excitation forces. Next, Acoustic or Phononic Meta-materials are considered, in which one atom is replaced by the concept of the above simple linear oscillator. The results indicate that not only the damping of the meta-material verifies and exceeds the one expected from the so-called "meta-damping" behavior, but also that the band gap of the meta-material can be significantly increased.

Keywords: wave propagation, periodic structures, wave damping, mechanical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
3919 Mean Square Responses of a Cantilever Beam with Various Damping Mechanisms

Authors: Yaping Zhao, Yimin Zhang

Abstract:

In the present paper, the stationary random vibration of a uniform cantilever beam is investigated. Two types of damping mechanism, i.e. the external and internal viscous dampings, are taken into account simultaneously. The excitation form is the support motion, and it is ideal white. Because two type of damping mechanism are considered concurrently, the product of the modal damping ratio and the natural frequency is not a constant anymore. As a result, the infinite definite integral encountered in the process of computing the mean square response is more complex than that in the existing literature. One signal progress of this work is to have calculated these definite integrals accurately. The precise solution of the mean square response is thus obtained in the infinite series form finally. Numerical examples are supplied and the numerical outcomes acquired confirm the validity of the theoretical analyses.

Keywords: random vibration, cantilever beam, mean square response, white noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
3918 Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composites-Molecular Dynamics Approach

Authors: Sumit Sharma, Rakesh Chandra, Pramod Kumar, Navin Kumar

Abstract:

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been used to study the effect of carbon nanofiber (CNF) volume fraction (Vf) and aspect ratio (l/d) on mechanical properties of CNF reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. Materials Studio 5.5 has been used as a tool for finding the modulus and damping in composites. CNF composition in PP was varied by volume from 0 to 16%. Aspect ratio of CNF was varied from l/d=5 to l/d=100. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, till date there is no study, either experimental or analytical, which predict damping for CNF-PP composites at the nanoscale. Hence, this will be a valuable addition in the area of nanocomposites. Results show that with only 2% addition by volume of CNF in PP, E11 increases 748%. Increase in E22 is very less in comparison to the increase in E11. With increase in CNF aspect ratio (l/d) till l/d=60, the longitudinal loss factor (η11) decreases rapidly. Results of this study have been compared with those available in literature.

Keywords: carbon nanofiber, elasticity, mechanical properties, molecular dynamics

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3917 Variations of the Modal Characteristics of the Feeding Stage with Different Preloaded Linear Guide

Authors: Jui-Pui Hung, Yong-Run Chen, Wei-Cheng Shih, Chun-Wei Lin

Abstract:

This study was aimed to assess the variations of the modal characteristics of the feeding stage with different linear guide modulus. The dynamic characteristics of the feeding stage were characterized in terms of the modal stiffness, modal frequency and modal damping, which are assessed from the vibration tests. According to the experimental measurements, the actual preload of the linear guide modulus was found to deviate from the rated values as setting in factory. This may be due to the assemblage errors of guide modules. For the stage with linear guides, the dynamic stiffness was affected to change by the preload set on the rolling balls. The variation of the dynamic stiffness at first and second modes is 20.8 and 10.5%, respectively when the linear guide preload is adjusted from medium and high amount. But the modal damping ratio is reduced by 8.97 and 9.65%, respectively. For high-frequency mode, the modal stiffness increases by 171.2% and the damping ratio reduced by 34.4%. Current results demonstrate the importance in the determining the preloaded amount of linear guide modulus in practical application.

Keywords: contact stiffness, feeding stage, linear guides, modal characteristics, pre-load

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
3916 The Effect of Shredded Polyurethane Foams on Shear Modulus and Damping Ratio of Sand

Authors: Javad Saeidaskari, Nader Khalafian

Abstract:

The undesirable impact of vibrations induced by road and railway traffic is an important concern in modern world. These vibrations are transmitted through soil and cause disturbances to the residence area and high-tech production facilities alongside the train/traffic lines. In this paper for the first time a new method of soil improvement with vibration absorber material, is used to increase the damping factor, in other word, to reduce the ability of wave transitions in sand. In this study standard Firoozkooh No. 161 sand is used as the host sand. The semi rigid polyurethane (PU) foam which used in this research is one of the common materials for vibration absorbing purposes. Series of cyclic triaxial tests were conducted on remolded samples with identical relative density of 70% of maximum dry density for different volume percentage of shredded PU foam. The frequency of tests was 0.1 Htz with shear strain of 0.37% and 0.75% and also the effective confining pressures during the tests were 100 kPa and 350 kPa. In order to find out the best soil-PU foam mixture, different volume percent of PU foam varying from 10% to 30% were examined. The results show that adding PU foam up to 20%, as its optimum content, causes notable enhancement in damping ratio for both shear strains of 0.37% (52.19% and 69% increase for effective confining pressures of 100 kPa and 350 kPa, respectively) and 0.75% (59.56% and 59.11% increase for effective confining pressures of 100 kPa and 350 kPa, respectively). The results related to shear modulus present significant reduction for both shear strains of 0.37% (82.22% and 56.03% decrease for effective confining pressures of 100 kPa and 350 kPa, respectively) and 0.75% (89.32% and 39.9% decrease for effective confining pressures of 100 kPa and 350 kPa, respectively). In conclusion, shredded PU foams effectively affect the dynamic properties of sand and act as vibration absorber in soil.

Keywords: polyurethane foam, sand, damping ratio, shear modulus

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3915 Effect of Fiber Orientation on Dynamic Properties of Carbon-Epoxy Composite Laminate under Flexural Vibration

Authors: Bahlouli Ahmed, Bentalab Nourdin, Nigrou Mourad

Abstract:

This study was aimed at investigating the effect of orientation fiber reinforced on dynamic properties of laminate composite FRP. An experimental investigation is implemented using an impulse technique. The various specimens are excited in free vibration by the use of bi-channel Analyzer. The experimental results are compared by model of finite element analysis using ANSYS. The results studies (natural frequencies measurements, vibration mode, dynamic modulus and damping ratio) show that the effects of significant parameters such as lay-up and stacking sequence, boundary conditions and excitation place of accelerometer. These results are critically examined and discussed. The accuracy of these results is demonstrated by comparing results with those available in the literature.

Keywords: natural frequency, damping ratio, laminate composite, dynamic modulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
3914 A Case Study on Performance of Isolated Bridges under Near-Fault Ground Motion

Authors: Daniele Losanno, H. A. Hadad, Giorgio Serino

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical investigation on the seismic performance of a benchmark bridge with different optimal isolation systems under near fault ground motion. Usually, very large displacements make seismic isolation an unfeasible solution due to boundary conditions, especially in case of existing bridges or high risk seismic regions. Hence, near-fault ground motions are most likely to affect either structures with long natural period range like isolated structures or structures sensitive to velocity content such as viscously damped structures. The work is aimed at analyzing the seismic performance of a three-span continuous bridge designed with different isolation systems having different levels of damping. The case study was analyzed in different configurations including: (a) simply supported, (b) isolated with lead rubber bearings (LRBs), (c) isolated with rubber isolators and 10% classical damping (HDLRBs), and (d) isolated with rubber isolators and 70% supplemental damping ratio. Case (d) represents an alternative control strategy that combines the effect of seismic isolation with additional supplemental damping trying to take advantages from both solutions. The bridge is modeled in SAP2000 and solved by time history direct-integration analyses under a set of six recorded near-fault ground motions. In addition to this, a set of analysis under Italian code provided seismic action is also conducted, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the suggested optimal control strategies under far field seismic action. Results of the analysis demonstrated that an isolated bridge equipped with HDLRBs and a total equivalent damping ratio of 70% represents a very effective design solution for both mitigation of displacement demand at the isolation level and base shear reduction in the piers also in case of near fault ground motion.

Keywords: isolated bridges, near-fault motion, seismic response, supplemental damping, optimal design

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3913 Evaluation of High Damping Rubber Considering Initial History through Dynamic Loading Test and Program Analysis

Authors: Kyeong Hoon Park, Taiji Mazuda

Abstract:

High damping rubber (HDR) bearings are dissipating devices mainly used in seismic isolation systems and have a great damping performance. Although many studies have been conducted on the dynamic model of HDR bearings, few models can reflect phenomena such as dependency of experienced shear strain on initial history. In order to develop a model that can represent the dependency of experienced shear strain of HDR by Mullins effect, dynamic loading test was conducted using HDR specimen. The reaction of HDR was measured by applying a horizontal vibration using a hybrid actuator under a constant vertical load. Dynamic program analysis was also performed after dynamic loading test. The dynamic model applied in program analysis is a bilinear type double-target model. This model is modified from typical bilinear model. This model can express the nonlinear characteristics related to the initial history of HDR bearings. Based on the dynamic loading test and program analysis results, equivalent stiffness and equivalent damping ratio were calculated to evaluate the mechanical properties of HDR and the feasibility of the bilinear type double-target model was examined.

Keywords: base-isolation, bilinear model, high damping rubber, loading test

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3912 Prediction of Pounding between Two SDOF Systems by Using Link Element Based On Mathematic Relations and Suggestion of New Equation for Impact Damping Ratio

Authors: Seyed M. Khatami, H. Naderpour, R. Vahdani, R. C. Barros

Abstract:

Many previous studies have been carried out to calculate the impact force and the dissipated energy between two neighboring buildings during seismic excitation, when they collide with each other. Numerical studies are an important part of impact, which several researchers have tried to simulate the impact by using different formulas. Estimation of the impact force and the dissipated energy depends significantly on some parameters of impact. Mass of bodies, stiffness of spring, coefficient of restitution, damping ratio of dashpot and impact velocity are some known and unknown parameters to simulate the impact and measure dissipated energy during collision. Collision is usually shown by force-displacement hysteresis curve. The enclosed area of the hysteresis loop explains the dissipated energy during impact. In this paper, the effect of using different types of impact models is investigated in order to calculate the impact force. To increase the accuracy of impact model and to optimize the results of simulations, a new damping equation is assumed and is validated to get the best results of impact force and dissipated energy, which can show the accuracy of suggested equation of motion in comparison with other formulas. This relation is called "n-m". Based on mathematical relation, an initial value is selected for the mentioned coefficients and kinetic energy loss is calculated. After each simulation, kinetic energy loss and energy dissipation are compared with each other. If they are equal, selected parameters are true and, if not, the constant of parameters are modified and a new analysis is performed. Finally, two unknown parameters are suggested to estimate the impact force and calculate the dissipated energy.

Keywords: impact force, dissipated energy, kinetic energy loss, damping relation

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3911 Variation of the Dynamic Characteristics of a Spindle with the Change of Bearing Preload

Authors: Shinji Oouchi, Hajime Nomura, Kung-Da Wu, Jui-Pin Hung

Abstract:

This paper presents the variation of the dynamic characteristics of a spindle with the change of bearing preload. The correlations between the variation of bearing preload and fundamental modal parameters were first examined by conducting vibration tests on physical spindle units. Experimental measurements show that the dynamic compliance and damping ratio associated with the dominating modes were affected to vary with variation of the bearing preload. When the bearing preload was slightly deviated from a standard value, the modal frequency and damping ability also vary to different extent, which further enable the spindle to perform with different compliance. For the spindle used in this study, a standard preload value set on bearings would enable the spindle to behave a higher stiffness as compared with others with a preload variation. This characteristic can be served as a reference to examine the variation of bearing preload of spindle in assemblage or operation.

Keywords: dynamic compliance, bearing preload, modal damping, standard preload

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
3910 Effect of Composite Material on Damping Capacity Improvement of Cutting Tool in Machining Operation Using Taguchi Approach

Authors: Siamak Ghorbani, Nikolay Ivanovich Polushin

Abstract:

Chatter vibrations, occurring during cutting process, cause vibration between the cutting tool and workpiece, which deteriorates surface roughness and reduces tool life. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of cutting parameters and tool construction on surface roughness and vibration in turning of aluminum alloy AA2024. A new design of cutting tool is proposed, which is filled up with epoxy granite in order to improve damping capacity of the tool. Experiments were performed at the lathe using carbide cutting insert coated with TiC and two different cutting tools made of AISI 5140 steel. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was applied to design of experiment and to optimize cutting conditions. By the help of signal-to-noise ratio and analysis of variance the optimal cutting condition and the effect of the cutting parameters on surface roughness and vibration were determined. Effectiveness of Taguchi method was verified by confirmation test. It was revealed that new cutting tool with epoxy granite has reduced vibration and surface roughness due to high damping properties of epoxy granite in toolholder.

Keywords: ANOVA, damping capacity, surface roughness, Taguchi method, vibration

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3909 Experimental Damping Performance of Composite Materials with Different Fibre Orientations

Authors: Ferhat Kadioglu

Abstract:

A clamped-free vibrating beam technique was used to evaluate dynamic properties of glass fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite. In the experiment, an electromagnetic shaker and a non-contact laser head were used to vibrate and to take the response of the specimens, respectively. Test results showed that damping and elastic modulus of the material, as dynamic properties, could be obtained successfully using this technique. It was found that the balanced and symmetric specimens with 45 degrees are the best for damping performance. It is believed that such results could be used for the modal design of aerospace structures.

Keywords: composite materials, damping values, dynamic properties, non-contact measurements

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3908 Second Order Statistics of Dynamic Response of Structures Using Gamma Distributed Damping Parameters

Authors: Badreddine Chemali, Boualem Tiliouine

Abstract:

This article presents the main results of a numerical investigation on the uncertainty of dynamic response of structures with statistically correlated random damping Gamma distributed. A computational method based on a Linear Statistical Model (LSM) is implemented to predict second order statistics for the response of a typical industrial building structure. The significance of random damping with correlated parameters and its implications on the sensitivity of structural peak response in the neighborhood of a resonant frequency are discussed in light of considerable ranges of damping uncertainties and correlation coefficients. The results are compared to those generated using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. The numerical results obtained show the importance of damping uncertainty and statistical correlation of damping coefficients when obtaining accurate probabilistic estimates of dynamic response of structures. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the LSM model to efficiently predict uncertainty propagation for structural dynamic problems with correlated damping parameters is demonstrated.

Keywords: correlated random damping, linear statistical model, Monte Carlo simulation, uncertainty of dynamic response

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
3907 Chaotic Motion of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Subject to Damping Effect

Authors: Tai-Ping Chang

Abstract:

In the present study, the effects on chaotic motion of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) due to the linear and nonlinear damping are investigated. By using the Hamilton’s principle, the nonlinear governing equation of the single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in a matrix is derived. The Galerkin’s method is adopted to simplify the integro-partial differential equation into a nonlinear dimensionless governing equation for the SWCNT, which turns out to be a forced Duffing equation. The variations of the Lyapunov exponents of the SWCNT with damping and harmonic forcing amplitudes are investigated. Based on the computations of the top Lyapunov exponent, it is concluded that the chaotic motion of the SWCNT occurs when the amplitude of the periodic excitation exceeds certain value, besides, the chaotic motion of the SWCNT occurs with small linear damping and tiny nonlinear damping.

Keywords: chaotic motion, damping, Lyapunov exponents, single-walled carbon nanotube

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3906 Simplified Analysis on Steel Frame Infill with FRP Composite Panel

Authors: HyunSu Seo, HoYoung Son, Sungjin Kim, WooYoung Jung

Abstract:

In order to understand the seismic behavior of steel frame structure with infill FRP composite panel, simple models for simulation on the steel frame with the panel systems were developed in this study. To achieve the simple design method of the steel framed structure with the damping panel system, 2-D finite element analysis with the springs and dashpots models was conducted in ABAQUS. Under various applied spring stiffness and dashpot coefficient, the expected hysteretic energy responses of the steel frame with damping panel systems we re investigated. Using the proposed simple design method which decides the stiffness and the damping, it is possible to decide the FRP and damping materials on a steel frame system.

Keywords: numerical analysis, FEM, infill, GFRP, damping

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
3905 A Study of Soft Soil Improvement by Using Lime Grit

Authors: Ashim Kanti Dey, Briti Sundar Bhowmik

Abstract:

This paper presents an idea to improve the soft soil by using lime grits which are normally produced as waste product in the paper manufacturing industries. This waste material cannot be used as a construction material because of its light weight, uniform size and poor compaction control. With scarcity in land, effective disposal of lime grit is a major concern of all paper manufacturing industries. Considering its non-plasticity and high permeability characteristics the lime grit may suitably be used as a drainage material for speedy consolidation of cohesive soil. It can also be used to improve the bearing capacity of soft clay. An attempt has been made in this paper to show the usefulness of lime grit in improving the bearing capacity of shallow foundation resting on soft clayey soil. A series of undrained unconsolidated cyclic triaxial tests performed at different area ratios and at three different water contents shows that dynamic shear modulus and damping ratio can be substantially improved with lime grit. Improvement is observed to be more in case of higher area ratio and higher water content. Static triaxial tests were also conducted on lime grit reinforced clayey soil after application of 50 load cycles to determine the effect of lime grit columns on cyclically loaded clayey soils. It is observed that the degradation is less for lime grit stabilized soil. A study of model test with different area ratio of lime column installation is also included to see the field behaviour of lime grit reinforced soil.

Keywords: lime grit column, area ratio, shear modulus, damping ratio, strength ratio, improvement factor, degradation factor

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3904 Vibration Control of Two Adjacent Structures Using a Non-Linear Damping System

Authors: Soltani Amir, Wang Xuan

Abstract:

The advantage of using non-linear passive damping system in vibration control of two adjacent structures is investigated under their base excitation. The base excitation is El Centro earthquake record acceleration. The damping system is considered as an optimum and effective non-linear viscous damper that is connected between two adjacent structures. A Matlab program is developed to produce the stiffness and damping matrices and to determine a time history analysis of the dynamic motion of the system. One structure is assumed to be flexible while the other has a rule as laterally supporting structure with rigid frames. The response of the structure has been calculated and the non-linear damping coefficient is determined using optimum LQR algorithm in an optimum vibration control system. The non-linear parameter of damping system is estimated and it has shown a significant advantage of application of this system device for vibration control of two adjacent tall building.

Keywords: active control, passive control, viscous dampers, structural control, vibration control, tall building

Procedia PDF Downloads 377