Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4431

Search results for: reverse flow

4431 Measurement of Reverse Flow Generated at Cold Exit of Vortex Tube

Authors: Mohd Hazwan bin Yusof, Hiroshi Katanoda


In order to clarify the structure of the cold flow discharged from the vortex tube (VT), the pressure of the cold flow was measured, and a simple flow visualization technique using a 0.75 mm-diameter needle and an oily paint is made to study the reverse flow at the cold exit. It is clear that a negative pressure and positive pressure region exist at a certain pressure and cold fraction area, and that a reverse flow is observed in the negative pressure region.

Keywords: flow visualization, pressure measurement, reverse flow, vortex tube

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4430 Competitive Advantages of Efficient Reverse Logistics: A Case Study Integrating Firms and Customers Perspectives

Authors: Adèle Oliva, Samuel Fosso Wamba


This study looks at how firms can create competitive advantages through effective reserve logistics strategies. Upon using data collected from reverse supply chain managers of electronic commerce companies, the study found that improved reverse logistics management can have a positive impact on companies’ business benefits. These include playing a role in the implementation of many factors that highly influence the decision to purchase, customers’ loyalty, as well as increasing companies’ turnover. As a result, through an efficient design and management of their reverse flow, companies can decrease the costs associated to returned products.

Keywords: reverse logistics, competitive advantage, case study, business value

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
4429 A Model for Reverse-Mentoring in Education

Authors: Sabine A. Zauchner-Studnicka


As the term indicates, reverse-mentoring flips the classical roles of mentoring: In school, students take over the role of mentors for adults, i.e. teachers or parents. Originally reverse-mentoring stems from US enterprises, which implemented this innovative method in order to benefit from the resources of skilled younger employees for the enhancement of IT competences of senior colleagues. However, reverse-mentoring in schools worldwide is rare. Based on empirical studies and theoretical approaches, in this article an implementation model for reverse-mentoring is developed in order to bring the significant potential reverse-mentoring has for education into practice.

Keywords: reverse-mentoring, innovation in education, implementation model, school education

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4428 Exergy Analysis of Reverse Osmosis for Potable Water and Land Irrigation

Authors: M. Sarai Atab, A. Smallbone, A. P. Roskilly


A thermodynamic study is performed on the Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination process for brackish water. The detailed RO model of thermodynamics properties with and without an energy recovery device was built in Simulink/MATLAB and validated against reported measurement data. The efficiency of desalination plants can be estimated by both the first and second laws of thermodynamics. While the first law focuses on the quantity of energy, the second law analysis (i.e. exergy analysis) introduces quality. This paper used the Main Outfall Drain in Iraq as a case study to conduct energy and exergy analysis of RO process. The result shows that it is feasible to use energy recovery method for reverse osmosis with salinity less than 15000 ppm as the exergy efficiency increases twice. Moreover, this analysis shows that the highest exergy destruction occurs in the rejected water and lowest occurs in the permeate flow rate accounting 37% for 4.3% respectively.

Keywords: brackish water, exergy, irrigation, reverse osmosis (RO)

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4427 Analysis of Backward Supply Chain in Beverages Industry of Pakistan

Authors: Faisal Mehmood


In this globalization era, the supply chain management has acquired strategic importance in diverse business environments. In the current highly competitive business environment, the success of any business considerably depends on the efficiency of the supply chain. Management has now realized that due to the inefficiency of any member of supply chain, the profitability of the business will be affected. This paper proposes an analysis of backward supply chain in the beverages industry of Pakistan. Although reuse of products and materials is a common phenomenon, companies have long ignored this important part of the supply chain, known as backward supply chain or reverse logistics. The beverage industry is among the pioneers of backward supply chain or reverse logistics in Pakistan. The empty glass bottles are returned back from the point of consumption to the warehouse for refilling and reusability purposes. Due to the lack of information on reverse flow of logistics and more attention on the forward distribution, beverages industry in Pakistan is facing high rate of inefficiencies and ineffectiveness. Analysis of backward or reverse logistics practiced in beverages industry is the subject of this study in which framework dictating the current needs of market will be developed.

Keywords: backward supply chain, reverse logistics, refilling, re-usability

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4426 Multi-Scale Modelling of the Cerebral Lymphatic System and Its Failure

Authors: Alexandra K. Diem, Giles Richardson, Roxana O. Carare, Neil W. Bressloff


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and although it has been researched for over 100 years, there is still no cure or preventive medication. Its onset and progression is closely related to the accumulation of the neuronal metabolite Aβ. This raises the question of how metabolites and waste products are eliminated from the brain as the brain does not have a traditional lymphatic system. In recent years the rapid uptake of Aβ into cerebral artery walls and its clearance along those arteries towards the lymph nodes in the neck has been suggested and confirmed in mice studies, which has led to the hypothesis that interstitial fluid (ISF), in the basement membranes in the walls of cerebral arteries, provides the pathways for the lymphatic drainage of Aβ. This mechanism, however, requires a net reverse flow of ISF inside the blood vessel wall compared to the blood flow and the driving forces for such a mechanism remain unknown. While possible driving mechanisms have been studied using mathematical models in the past, a mechanism for net reverse flow has not been discovered yet. Here, we aim to address the question of the driving force of this reverse lymphatic drainage of Aβ (also called perivascular drainage) by using multi-scale numerical and analytical modelling. The numerical simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4 is used to develop a fluid-structure interaction model of a cerebral artery, which models blood flow and displacements in the artery wall due to blood pressure changes. An analytical model of a layer of basement membrane inside the wall governs the flow of ISF and, therefore, solute drainage based on the pressure changes and wall displacements obtained from the cerebral artery model. The findings suggest that an active role in facilitating a reverse flow is played by the components of the basement membrane and that stiffening of the artery wall during age is a major risk factor for the impairment of brain lymphatics. Additionally, our model supports the hypothesis of a close association between cerebrovascular diseases and the failure of perivascular drainage.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, artery wall mechanics, cerebral blood flow, cerebral lymphatics

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
4425 The Relationship between Investment and Dividend in a Condition of Cash Flow Uncertainly: Evidence from Iran

Authors: Moridi Fatemeh, Dasineh Mehdi, Jafari Narges


The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dividends and investment in a condition of cash flow uncertainty. Previous studies have also found some evidence that there is N-shaped relationship between dividends and investment given different levels of cash uncertainly. Thus, this study examines this relationship over the period 2009-2014 in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE). Based on our sample and new variables, we found reverse N-shaped relationship in different levels of cash flow uncertainly. This shape was descending in cash flow certainly and uncertainly but it is ascending in medial position.

Keywords: dividends, investment, nonlinear relationship, uncertainty of cash flow

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4424 Reverse Innovation in Subsistence and Developed Markets

Authors: Hailu Getnet


This study focus on reverse innovation on performance outcomes across developed and subsistence markets context. The subsistence market consists two third of the world population and the largest international market. To date, it has been neglected because of its issues of perceived challenges and seeming unattractiveness compared to the established markets in the west. However, subsistence markets are becoming source of reverse innovation; an innovation that is likely to be adopted first in developing world and successfully traded globally. In response, there is a growing interest on reverse innovation to power the future. Based on the theories of innovation and growing subsistence market literatures, the study propose drivers and outcomes of reverse innovation, a potential similarities and difference in benefiting and challenging firms and consumers in subsistence and developed markets.

Keywords: reverse innovation, subsistence market, developing world, developed market

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
4423 Towards the Reverse Engineering of UML Sequence Diagrams Using Petri Nets

Authors: C. Baidada, M. H. Abidi, A. Jakimi, E. H. El Kinani


Reverse engineering has become a viable method to measure an existing system and reconstruct the necessary model from tis original. The reverse engineering of behavioral models consists in extracting high-level models that help understand the behavior of existing software systems. In this paper, we propose an approach for the reverse engineering of sequence diagrams from the analysis of execution traces produced dynamically by an object-oriented application using petri nets. Our methods show that this approach can produce state diagrams in reasonable time and suggest that these diagrams are helpful in understanding the behavior of the underlying application. Finally we will discuss approachs and tools that are needed in the process of reverse engineering UML behavior. This work is a substantial step towards providing high-quality methodology for effectiveand efficient reverse engineering of sequence diagram.

Keywords: reverse engineering, UML behavior, sequence diagram, execution traces, petri nets

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4422 Reverse Logistics Information Management Using Ontological Approach

Authors: F. Lhafiane, A. Elbyed, M. Bouchoum


Reverse Logistics (RL) Process is considered as complex and dynamic network that involves many stakeholders such as: suppliers, manufactures, warehouse, retails, and costumers, this complexity is inherent in such process due to lack of perfect knowledge or conflicting information. Ontologies, on the other hand, can be considered as an approach to overcome the problem of sharing knowledge and communication among the various reverse logistics partners. In this paper, we propose a semantic representation based on hybrid architecture for building the Ontologies in an ascendant way, this method facilitates the semantic reconciliation between the heterogeneous information systems (ICT) that support reverse logistics Processes and product data.

Keywords: Reverse Logistics, information management, heterogeneity, ontologies, semantic web

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4421 Multi Agent System Architecture Oriented Prometheus Methodology Design for Reverse Logistics

Authors: F. Lhafiane, A. Elbyed, M. Bouchoum


The design of Reverse logistics Network has attracted growing attention with the stringent pressures from both environmental awareness and business sustainability. Reverse logistical activities include return, remanufacture, disassemble and dispose of products can be quite complex to manage. In addition, demand can be difficult to predict, and decision making is one of the challenges tasks. This complexity has amplified the need to develop an integrated architecture for product return as an enterprise system. The main purpose of this paper is to design Multi agent system (MAS) architecture using the Prometheus methodology to efficiently manage reverse logistics processes. The proposed MAS architecture includes five types of agents: Gate keeping Agent, Collection Agent, Sorting Agent, Processing Agent and Disposal Agent which act respectively during the five steps of reverse logistics Network.

Keywords: reverse logistics, multi agent system, prometheus methodology

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4420 Reverse Logistics, Green Supply Chain, and Carbon Trading

Authors: Neha Asthana, Vishal Krishna Prasad


Reverse logistics and green supply chain form an interconnected and interwoven network of parameters that contribute to enhancement and incremental exchange in the triple bottom line in the consistently changing and fragmenting markets of the globalizing markets of today. Reverse logistics not only contributes to completing the supply chain in a comprehensive and synchronized manner but also contributes to a significant degree in optimizing green supply chains through procedures such as recycling, refurbishing etc. contributing to waste reduction. Carbon trading, owing to its limitations in the global context and being in a nascent stage seeks plethora of research to determine its full application in synergy with reverse logistics and green supply chain.

Keywords: reverse logistics, carbon trading, carbon emissions, green supply chain

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4419 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Authors: Ail Akbar Emamverdian, Neriman Özada, Atabak Rahimzadeh Ilkhchi, Zahra Emamverdian


The reverse shoulder prosthesis is an innovative procedure design to treat of (GH) joint problems with severe rotator cuff deficiency. The original reverse shoulder prosthesis was invented by France surgery in1985 and has been in clinical use in the United States in 2004. These prostheses consist of baseplate that attached to the glenoid, in order to hold a spherical component, and humeral part consist of polyethylene insert which is flat. This prosthesis is the ‘reverse’ configuration. The indications for the reverse prosthesis are: (1) treating failed hemi arthroplasty with irrecoverable rotator cuff tears, (2) relief of painful arthritis associated with cuff tear arthropathy, (3) instauration after tumor resection, (4) pseudo paralysis because of irrecoverable rotator cuff tears (5) some fractures of the shoulder which reverse shoulder prostheses is only the option for treatment. This prosthesis resulting in relief of pain and decreasing the range of motion in above indications. However, this prosthesis and its applications such as notching of the scapula, dislocation of the prosthesis parts and acromial stress fractures. In this article the reverse shoulder prostheses, indication has been reviewed. This study can make clear aspect of reverse shoulder prosthesis that can help to find some solution in future.

Keywords: prostheses, complications, reverse shoulder prosthesis, indications

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4418 The Perspective of Waste Frying Oil in São Paulo and Its Dimensions in the Reverse Logistics of the Production of Biodiesel

Authors: Max Filipe Goncalves, Alessandra Concilio, Rodrigo Shimada


The waste frying oil is highly pollutant when disposed incorrectly in the environment. Is necessary search of the Reverse Logistics to identify how can be structure to return the waste like this to productive chain and to be used in the new process. In this context, the objective of this paper is to analyze the perspective of the waste frying oil in São Paulo, and its dimensions in the production of biodiesel. Subjacent factors such as the agents, motivators and legal aspects were analyzed to demonstrate it. Then, the SWOT matrix was built with the aspects observed and the forces, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the reverse logistic chain in São Paulo.

Keywords: biodiesel, perspective, reverse logistic, WFO

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4417 A Performance Model for Designing Network in Reverse Logistic

Authors: S. Dhib, S. A. Addouche, T. Loukil, A. Elmhamedi


In this paper, a reverse supply chain network is investigated for a decision making. This decision is surrounded by complex flows of returned products, due to the increasing quantity, the type of returned products and the variety of recovery option products (reuse, recycling, and refurbishment). The most important problem in the reverse logistic network (RLN) is to orient returned products to the suitable type of recovery option. However, returned products orientations from collect sources to the recovery disposition have not well considered in performance model. In this study, we propose a performance model for designing a network configuration on reverse logistics. Conceptual and analytical models are developed with taking into account operational, economic and environmental factors on designing network.

Keywords: reverse logistics, network design, performance model, open loop configuration

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4416 Excellent Combination of Tensile Strength and Elongation of Novel Reverse Rolled TaNbHfZrTi Refractory High Entropy Alloy

Authors: Mokali Veeresham


In this work, the high-entropy alloy TaNbHfZrTi was processed at room temperature by each step novel reverse rolling up to a 90% reduction in thickness. The reverse rolled 90% samples subsequently used for annealing at 800°C and 1000°C temperatures for 1h to understand phase stability, microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties. The reverse rolled 90% condition contains BCC single-phase; upon annealing at 800°C temperature, the formation of secondary phase BCC-2 prevailed. The partial recrystallization and complete recrystallization microstructures were developed for annealed at 800°C and 1000°C temperatures, respectively. The reverse rolled condition, and 1000°C annealed temperature exhibit extraordinary room temperature tensile properties with high tensile strength (UTS) 1430MPa and 1556 MPa without compromising loss of ductility consists of an appreciable amount of 21% and 20% elongation, respectively.

Keywords: refractory high entropy alloys, reverse rolling, recrystallization, microstructure, tensile properties

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4415 The Effect of Development of Two-Phase Flow Regimes on the Stability of Gas Lift Systems

Authors: Khalid. M. O. Elmabrok, M. L. Burby, G. G. Nasr


Flow instability during gas lift operation is caused by three major phenomena – the density wave oscillation, the casing heading pressure and the flow perturbation within the two-phase flow region. This paper focuses on the causes and the effect of flow instability during gas lift operation and suggests ways to control it in order to maximise productivity during gas lift operations. A laboratory-scale two-phase flow system to study the effects of flow perturbation was designed and built. The apparatus is comprised of a 2 m long by 66 mm ID transparent PVC pipe with air injection point situated at 0.1 m above the base of the pipe. This is the point where stabilised bubbles were visibly clear after injection. Air is injected into the water filled transparent pipe at different flow rates and pressures. The behavior of the different sizes of the bubbles generated within the two-phase region was captured using a digital camera and the images were analysed using the advanced image processing package. It was observed that the average maximum bubbles sizes increased with the increase in the length of the vertical pipe column from 29.72 to 47 mm. The increase in air injection pressure from 0.5 to 3 bars increased the bubble sizes from 29.72 mm to 44.17 mm and then decreasing when the pressure reaches 4 bars. It was observed that at higher bubble velocity of 6.7 m/s, larger diameter bubbles coalesce and burst due to high agitation and collision with each other. This collapse of the bubbles causes pressure drop and reverse flow within two phase flow and is the main cause of the flow instability phenomena.

Keywords: gas lift instability, bubbles forming, bubbles collapsing, image processing

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4414 Photophysics of a Coumarin Molecule in Graphene Oxide Containing Reverse Micelle

Authors: Aloke Bapli, Debabrata Seth


Graphene oxide (GO) is the two-dimensional (2D) nanoscale allotrope of carbon having several physiochemical properties such as high mechanical strength, high surface area, strong thermal and electrical conductivity makes it an important candidate in various modern applications such as drug delivery, supercapacitors, sensors etc. GO has been used in the photothermal treatment of cancers and Alzheimer’s disease etc. The main idea to choose GO in our work is that it is a surface active molecule, it has a large number of hydrophilic functional groups such as carboxylic acid, hydroxyl, epoxide on its surface and in basal plane. So it can easily interact with organic fluorophores through hydrogen bonding or any other kind of interaction and easily modulate the photophysics of the probe molecules. We have used different spectroscopic techniques for our work. The Ground-state absorption spectra and steady-state fluorescence emission spectra were measured by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer from Shimadzu (model-UV-2550) and spectrofluorometer from Horiba Jobin Yvon (model-Fluoromax 4P) respectively. All the fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy decays were collected by using time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) setup from Edinburgh instrument (model: LifeSpec-II, U.K.). Herein, we described the photophysics of a hydrophilic molecule 7-(n,n׀-diethylamino) coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (7-DCCA) in the reverse micelles containing GO. It was observed that photophysics of dye is modulated in the presence of GO compared to photophysics of dye in the absence of GO inside the reverse micelles. Here we have reported the solvent relaxation and rotational relaxation time in GO containing reverse micelle and compare our work with normal reverse micelle system by using 7-DCCA molecule. Normal reverse micelle means reverse micelle in the absence of GO. The absorption maxima of 7-DCCA were blue shifted and emission maxima were red shifted in GO containing reverse micelle compared to normal reverse micelle. The rotational relaxation time in GO containing reverse micelle is always faster compare to normal reverse micelle. Solvent relaxation time, at lower w₀ values, is always slower in GO containing reverse micelle compare to normal reverse micelle and at higher w₀ solvent relaxation time of GO containing reverse micelle becomes almost equal to normal reverse micelle. Here emission maximum of 7-DCCA exhibit bathochromic shift in GO containing reverse micelles compared to that in normal reverse micelles because in presence of GO the polarity of the system increases, as polarity increases the emission maxima was red shifted an average decay time of GO containing reverse micelle is less than that of the normal reverse micelle. In GO containing reverse micelle quantum yield, decay time, rotational relaxation time, solvent relaxation time at λₑₓ=375 nm is always higher than λₑₓ=405 nm, shows the excitation wavelength dependent photophysics of 7-DCCA in GO containing reverse micelles.

Keywords: photophysics, reverse micelle, rotational relaxation, solvent relaxation

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4413 An Investigation into Enablers and Barriers of Reverse Technology Transfer

Authors: Nirmal Kundu, Chandan Bhar, Visveswaran Pandurangan


Technology is the most valued possession for a country or an organization. The economic development depends not on stock of technology but on the capabilities how the technology is being exploited. The technology transfer is the best way how the developing countries have an access to state-of- the-art technology. Traditional technology transfer is a unidirectional phenomenon where technology is transferred from developed to developing countries. But now there is a change of wind. There is a general agreement that global shift of economic power is under way from west to east. As China and India are making the transition from users to producers, and producers to innovators, this has increasing important implications on economy, technology and policy of global trade. As a result, Reverse technology transfer has become a phenomenon and field of study in technology management. The term “Reverse Technology Transfer” is not well defined. Initially the concept of Reverse technology transfer was associated with the phenomenon of “Brain drain” from developing to developed countries. In the second phase, Reverse Technology Transfer was associated with the transfer of knowledge and technology from subsidiaries to multinationals. Finally, time has come now to extend the concept of reverse technology transfer to two different organizations or countries related or unrelated by traditional technology transfer but the transfer or has essentially received the technology through traditional mode of technology transfer. The objective of this paper is to study; 1) the present status of Reverse technology transfer, 2) the factors which are the enablers and barriers of Reverse technology transfer and 3) how the reverse technology transfer strategy can be integrated in the technology policy of a country which will give the countries an economic boost. The research methodology used in this study is a combination of literature review, case studies and key informant interviews. The literature review includes both published as well as unpublished sources of literature. In case study, attempt has been made to study the records of reverse technology transfer that have been occurred in developing countries. In case of key informant interviews, informal telephonic discussions have been carried out with the key executives of the organizations (industry, university and research institutions) who are actively engaged in the process of technology transfer- traditional as well as reverse. Reverse technology transfer is possible only by creating technological capabilities. Following four important enablers coupled with government active and aggressive action can help to build technology base to reach to the goal of Reverse technology transfer 1) Imitation to innovation, 2) Reverse engineering, 3) Collaborative R & D approach, and 4) Preventing reverse brain drain. The barriers that come in the way are the mindset of over dependence, over subordination and parent–child attitude (not adult attitude). Exploitation of these enablers and overcoming the barriers of reverse technology transfer, the developing countries like India and China can prove that going “reverse” is the best way to move forward and again establish themselves as leader of the future world.

Keywords: barriers of reverse technology transfer, enablers of reverse technology transfer, knowledge transfer, reverse technology transfer, technology transfer

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4412 Buoyancy Effects in Pressure Retarded Osmosis with Extremely High Draw Solution Concentration

Authors: Ivonne Tshuma, Ralf Cord-Ruwisch, Wendell Ela


Water crisis is a world-wide problem because of population growth and climate change. Hence, desalination is a solution to water scarcity, which threatens the world. Reverse osmosis (RO) is the most used technique for desalination; unfortunately, this process, usually requires high-pressure requirement hence requires a lot of energy about 3 – 5.5 KWhr/m³ of electrical energy. The pressure requirements of RO can be alleviated by the use of PRO (pressure retarded osmosis) to drive the RO process. This paper proposes a process of utilizing the energy directly from PRO to drive an RO process. The paper mostly analyses the PRO process parameters such as cross-flow velocity, density, and buoyancy and how these have an effect on PRO hence ultimately the RO process. The experimental study of the PRO with various feed solution concentrations and cross-flow velocities at fixed applied pressure with different orientations of the PRO cell was performed. The study revealed that without cross-flow velocity, buoyancy effects were observed but not with cross-flow velocity.

Keywords: cross-flow velocity, pressure retarded osmosis, density, buoyancy

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4411 Study on Effect of Reverse Cyclic Loading on Fracture Resistance Curve of Equivalent Stress Gradient (ESG) Specimen

Authors: Jaegu Choi, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok, Byungwoo Moon


Since massive earthquakes in the world have been reported recently, the safety of nuclear power plants for seismic loading has become a significant issue. Seismic loading is the reverse cyclic loading, consisting of repeated tensile and compression by longitudinal and transverse wave. Up to this time, the study on characteristics of fracture toughness under reverse cyclic loading has been unsatisfactory. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the fracture toughness under reverse cyclic load for the integrity estimation of nuclear power plants under seismic load. Fracture resistance (J-R) curves, which are used for determination of fracture toughness or integrity estimation in terms of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, can be derived by the fracture resistance test using single specimen technique. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of reverse cyclic loading on a fracture resistance curve of ESG specimen, having a similar stress gradient compared to the crack surface of the real pipe. For this, we carried out the fracture toughness test under the reverse cyclic loading, while changing incremental plastic displacement. Test results showed that the J-R curves were decreased with a decrease of the incremental plastic displacement.

Keywords: reverse cyclic loading, j-r curve, ESG specimen, incremental plastic displacement

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4410 Single Layer Carbon Nanotubes Array as an Efficient Membrane for Desalination: A Molecular Dynamics Study

Authors: Elisa Y. M. Ang, Teng Yong Ng, Jingjie Yeo, Rongming Lin, Zishun Liu, K. R. Geethalakshmi


By stacking carbon nanotubes (CNT) one on top of another, single layer CNT arrays can perform water-salt separation with ultra-high permeability and selectivity. Such outer-wall CNT slit membrane is named as the transverse flow CNT membrane. By adjusting the slit size between neighboring CNTs, the membrane can be configured to sieve out different solutes, right down to the separation of monovalent salt ions from water. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results show that the permeability of transverse flow CNT membrane is more than two times that of conventional axial-flow CNT membranes, and orders of magnitude higher than current reverse osmosis membrane. In addition, by carrying out MD simulations with different CNT size, it was observed that the variance in desalination performance with CNT size is small. This insensitivity of the transverse flow CNT membrane’s performance to CNT size is a distinct advantage over axial flow CNT membrane designs. Not only does the membrane operate well under constant pressure desalination operation, but MD simulations further indicate that oscillatory operation can further enhance the membrane’s desalination performance, making it suitable for operation such as electrodialysis reversal. While there are still challenges that need to be overcome, particularly on the physical fabrication of such membrane, it is hope that this versatile membrane design can bring the idea of using low dimensional structures for desalination closer to reality.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, membrane desalination, transverse flow carbon nanotube membrane, molecular dynamics

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4409 Flow Duration Curve Method to Evaluate Environmental Flow: Case Study of Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran

Authors: Mehdi Fuladipanah, Mehdi Jorabloo


Water flow management is one of the most important parts of river engineering. Non-uniformity distribution of rainfall and various flow demand with unreasonable flow management will be caused destroyed of river ecosystem. Then, it is very serious to determine ecosystem flow requirement. In this paper, flow duration curve indices method which has hydrological based was used to evaluate environmental flow in Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran. Using flow duration curve, Q90 and Q95 for different return periods were calculated. Their magnitude were determined as 1-day, 3-day, 7-day, and 30 day. According the second method, hydraulic alteration indices often had low and medium range. In order to maintain river at an acceptable ecological condition, minimum daily discharge of index Q95 is 0.7 m3.s-1.

Keywords: ardabil, environmental flow, flow duration curve, Gharasou river

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4408 Reverse Twin Block with Expansion Screw for Treatment of Skeletal Class III Malocclusion in Growing Patient: Case Report

Authors: Alfrina Marwan, Erna Sulistyawati


Class III malocclusion shows both skeletal and dentoalveolar component. Sketal Class III malocclusion can have variants in different region, maxilla or mandibular. Skeletal Class III malocclusion during growth period is considered to treat to prevent its severity in adulthood. Orthopedics treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion in growing patient can be treated by using reverse twin block with expansion screw to modify the growth pattern. The objective of this case report was to describe the functional correction of skeletal Class III maloclussion using reverse twin block with expansion screw in growing patient. A patient with concave profile came with a chief complaint of aesthetic problems. The cephalometric analysis showed that patient had skeletal Class III malocclusion (ANB -50, SNA 75º, Wits appraisal -3 mm) with anterior cross bite and deep bite (overjet -3 mm, overbite 6 mm). In this case report, the patient was treated with reverse twin block appliance with expansion screw. After three months of treatment, the skeletal problems have been corrected (ANB -1°), overjet, overbite and aesthetic were improved. Reverse twin block appliance with expansion screw can be used as orthopedics treatment for skeletal Class III malocclusion in growing patient and can improve the aesthetic with great satisfaction which was the main complaint in this patient.

Keywords: maxilla retrognatism, reverse twin block, skeletal class III malocclusion, growing patient

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4407 Computer Aided Shoulder Prosthesis Design and Manufacturing

Authors: Didem Venus Yildiz, Murat Hocaoglu, Murat Dursun, Taner Akkan


The shoulder joint is a more complex structure than the hip or knee joints. In addition to the overall complexity of the shoulder joint, two different factors influence the insufficient outcome of shoulder replacement: the shoulder prosthesis design is far from fully developed and it is difficult to place these shoulder prosthesis due to shoulder anatomy. The glenohumeral joint is the most complex joint of the human shoulder. There are various treatments for shoulder failures such as total shoulder arthroplasty, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Due to its reverse design than normal shoulder anatomy, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has different physiological and biomechanical properties. Post-operative achievement of this arthroplasty is depend on improved design of reverse total shoulder prosthesis. Designation achievement can be increased by several biomechanical and computational analysis. In this study, data of human both shoulders with right side fracture was collected by 3D Computer Tomography (CT) machine in dicom format. This data transferred to 3D medical image processing software (Mimics Materilise, Leuven, Belgium) to reconstruct patient’s left and right shoulders’ bones geometry. Provided 3D geometry model of the fractured shoulder was used to constitute of reverse total shoulder prosthesis by 3-matic software. Finite element (FE) analysis was conducted for comparison of intact shoulder and prosthetic shoulder in terms of stress distribution and displacements. Body weight physiological reaction force of 800 N loads was applied. Resultant values of FE analysis was compared for both shoulders. The analysis of the performance of the reverse shoulder prosthesis could enhance the knowledge of the prosthetic design.

Keywords: reverse shoulder prosthesis, biomechanics, finite element analysis, 3D printing

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4406 Investigation Effect of External Flow to Exhaust Gas Flow at Heavy Commercial Vehicle with CFD

Authors: F. Kantaş, D. Boyacı, C. Dinç


Exhaust systems plays an important role in thermal heat management. Exhaust manifold picks burned gas from engine and exhaust pipes transmit exhaust gas to muffler, exhaust gas is reacted chemically to avoid noxious gas and sound is reduced in muffler then gas is threw out with tail pipe from muffler. Exhaust gas flows out from tail pipe and this hot gas flows to many parts that available around tail pipe and muffler, like spare tire, transmission, pipes etc. These parts are heated by hot exhaust gas. Also vehicle on ride, external flow effects exhaust gas flow and exhaust gas behavior is changed. It's impossible to understand which parts are heated by hot exhaust gas in tests. To understand this phenomena, exhaust gas flow is solved in CFD also external flow due to vehicle movement must be solved with exhaust gas flow. Because external flow effects exhaust gas flow behavior with many parameters. This paper investigates external flow effects exhaust gas flow behavior and other critical parameters effect exhaust gas flow behavior, like different tail pipe design, exhaust gas mass flow in critic vehicle driving situations.

Keywords: exhaust, gas flow, vehicle, external flow

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4405 Dyeing of Polyester/Cotton Blends with Reverse-Micelle Encapsulated High Energy Disperse/Reactive Dye Mixture

Authors: Chi-Wai Kan, Yanming Wang, Alan Yiu-Lun Tang, Cheng-Hao Lee Lee


Dyeing of polyester/cotton blend fabrics in various polyester/cotton percentages (32/68, 40/60 and 65/35) was investigated using (poly(ethylene glycol), PEG) based reverse-micelle. High energy disperse dyes and warm type reactive dyes were encapsulated and applied on polyester/cotton blend fabrics in a one bath one step dyeing process. Comparison of reverse micellar-based and aqueous-based (water-based) dyeing was conducted in terms of colour reflectance. Experimental findings revealed that the colour shade of the dyed fabrics in reverse micellar non-aqueous dyeing system at a lower dyeing temperature of 98°C is slightly lighter than that of conventional aqueous dyeing system in two-step process (130oC for disperse dyeing and 70°C for reactive dyeing). The exhaustion of dye in polyester-cotton blend fabrics, in terms of colour reflectance, were found to be highly fluctuated at dyeing temperature of 98°C.

Keywords: one-bath dyeing, polyester/cotton blends, disperse/reactive dyes, reverse micelle

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4404 Estimation and Forecasting Debris Flow Phenomena on the Highway of the 'TRACECA' Corridor

Authors: Levan Tsulukidze


The paper considers debris flow phenomena and forecasting of them in the corridor of ‘TRACECA’ on the example of river Naokhrevistkali, as well as the debris flow -type channel passing between the villages of Vale-2 and Naokhrevi. As a result of expeditionary and reconnaissance investigations, as well as using empiric dependencies, the debris flow expenditure has been estimated in case of different debris flow provisions.

Keywords: debris flow, Traceca corridor, forecasting, river Naokhrevistkali

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
4403 Reverse Logistics in Clothing Recycling: A Case Study in Chengdu

Authors: Guo Yan


Clothing recycling bin is a traditional way to collect textile waste in many areas. In the clothing recycling business, the transportation cost normally takes over 50% of total costs. This case gives a good way to reduce transportation cost by reverse logistics system. In this reverse logistics system, there are offline strategic alliance partners, such as transport firms, convenience stores, laundries, and post office which are integrated onto the mobile APP. Offline strategic alliance partners provide the service of textile waste collection, and transportation by their vacant vehicles return journey from convenience stores, laundries and post offices to sorting centers. The results of the case study provide the strategic alliance with a valuable and light - asset business model by using the logistics of offline memberships. The company in this case just focuses on textile waste sorting, reuse, recycling etc. The research method of this paper is a case study of a clothing recycling company in Chengdu by field research and interview; the analysis is based on the theory of the reverse logistics system.

Keywords: closed-loop recycles system, clothing recycling, end-of-life clothing, sharing economy, strategic alliance, reverse logistics.

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
4402 The Effect of Reverse Trendelenburg Position on the Back Pain after Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions

Authors: Pramote Thangkratok


The aims of this experimental study were to investigate the effect of Reverse Trendelenburg Position on the Back Pain after Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. In addition, to compare bleeding and hematoma occurrences at the Access site between experimental and control groups. The randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in 70 patients who underwent Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions via the femoral artery and received post procedural care at the intermediate cardiac care unit, Bangkok Heart Hospital. From December 2015 to February 2016. The control group (35 patients) was to get standard care after the intervention, whereas the experimental group (35 patients) was Reverse Trendelenburg Position 30-45 degrees. The groups were not significantly different in terms of demographic characteristics, Age, Gender, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate. While not significantly different from each other, the intensity of back pain control group had a significantly higher pain score than experimental group. Vascular complications in terms of bleeding and hematoma were not significantly different between the control and experimental groups. The findings show that Reverse Trendelenburg Position after Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions would reduce or prevent the back pain without increasing the chance of bleeding and hematoma.

Keywords: reverse trendelenburg position, back pain, cardiovascular angiography, cardiovascular interventions

Procedia PDF Downloads 182