Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 699

Search results for: clayey sand

699 Collapse Surface Definition of Clayey Sands

Authors: Omid Naeemifar, Ibrahim Naeimifar, Roza Rahbari


It has been shown that a certain collapse surface may be defined for loose sands in the three dimensional space in which the sample sand experiences collapse and instability leading to an unsteady and strain-softening behaviour. The unsteady state due to collapse surface may lead to such phenomena in the sand as liquefaction and flow behaviour during undrained loading. Investigating the existence of the collapse surface in Firoozkooh 161 sand and its different clay mixtures with various plasticities, the present study aims to carry out an in-depth investigation of the effects of clay percent and its plasticity on the clayey sand behaviours. The results obtained indicate that collapse surface characteristics largely depend on fine percent and its plasticity. Interesting findings are also reported in this paper on the effects of fine sand percent and its plasticity on the behavioural characteristics and liquefaction potential of clayey sands.

Keywords: critical state, collapse surface, liquefaction, clayey sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
698 An Experimental Investigation in Effect of Confining Stress and Matric Suction on the Mechanical Behavior of Sand with Different Fine Content

Authors: S. Asreazad


This paper presents the results that the soil volumetric strain and shear strength are closely related to the confining stress and initial matric suction under constant water content testing on the specimens of unsaturated sand with clay and silt fines contents. The silty sand specimens reached their peak strength after a very small axial strain followed by a post-peak softening towards an ultimate value. The post-peak drop in stress increased by an increment of the suction, while there is no peak strength for clayey sand specimens. The clayey sand shows compressibility and possesses ductile stress-strain behaviour. Shear strength increased nonlinearly with respect to matric suction for both soil types. When suction exceeds a certain range, the effect of suction on shear strength increment weakens gradually. Under the same confining stress, the dilatant tendencies in the silty sand increased under lower values of suction and decreased for higher suction values under the same confining stress. However, the amount of contraction increased with increasing initial suction for clayey sand specimens.

Keywords: unsaturated soils, silty sand, clayey sand, triaxial test

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
697 Integrated Geotechnical and Geophysical Investigation of a Proposed Construction Site at Mowe, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Kayode Festus Oyedele, Sunday Oladele, Adaora Chibundu Nduka


The subsurface of a proposed site for building development in Mowe, Nigeria, using Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Cone Penetrometer Test (CPT) supplemented with Horizontal Electrical Profiling (HEP) was investigated with the aim of evaluating the suitability of the strata for foundation materials. Four SPT and CPT were implemented using 10 tonnes hammer. HEP utilizing Wenner array were performed with inter-electrode spacing of 10 – 60 m along four traverses coincident with each of the SPT and CPT. The HEP data were processed using DIPRO software and textural filtering of the resulting resistivity sections was implemented to enable delineation of hidden layers. Sandy lateritic clay, silty lateritic clay, clay, clayey sand and sand horizons were delineated. The SPT “N” value defined very soft to soft sandy lateritic (<4), stiff silty lateritic clay (7 – 12), very stiff silty clay (12 - 15), clayey sand (15- 20) and sand (27 – 37). Sandy lateritic clay (5-40 kg/cm2) and silty lateritic clay (25 - 65 kg/cm2) were defined from the CPT response. Sandy lateritic clay (220-750 Ωm), clay (< 50 Ωm) and sand (415-5359 Ωm) were delineated from the resistivity sections with two thin layers of silty lateritic clay and clayey sand defined in the texturally filtered resistivity sections. This study concluded that the presence of incompetent thick clayey materials (18 m) beneath the study area makes it unsuitable for shallow foundation. Deep foundation involving piling through the clayey layers to the competent sand at 20 m depth was recommended.

Keywords: cone penetrometer, foundation, lithologic texture, resistivity section, standard penetration test

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
696 Effect of Low Plastic Clay Quantity on Behavioral Characteristics of Loose Sand

Authors: Roza Rahbari


After the Nigatta earthquake in Japan, in 1960, the liquefaction and its related hazards, moved to the thick of matter. Most of the research have been carried out on clean sands and silty sands so far, in order to study the effect of fine particles, confinement pressures, density and so on. However, because of this delusion that adhesiveness of clay prevents the liquefaction in sand, studies on clayey sands have not been taken seriously. However, several liquefactions happened in clayey sands in recent years, and lead to the necessity of more studies in this field. The studies which were carried out so far focused on high plastic clays. In this paper, the effect of low plasticity clays on the behavioral characteristics of sands is discussed. Thus, some triaxial tests were carried out on clean sands and clayey sands with different percentages of added clay. Specimens were compacted in various densities to study the effect of quantity of clay on various densities, too. Based on the findings, the amount of clay affects the behavior of sand greatly and leads to substantial changes in peak bearing capacity and steady state values.

Keywords: liquefaction, clay, sand, triaxial, monotonic, failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
695 Effect of Plastic Fines on Undrained Behavior of Clayey Sands

Authors: Saeed Talamkhani, Seyed Abolhassan Naeini


In recent years, the occurrence of several liquefactions in sandy soils containing various values of clay content has shown that in addition to silty sands, clayey sands are also susceptible to liquefaction. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the properties of these soil compositions and their behavioral characteristics. This paper presents the effect of clay fines on the undrained shear strength of sands at various confining pressures. For this purpose, a series of unconsolidated undrained triaxial shear tests were carried out on clean sand and sand mixed with 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 percent of clay fines. It was found that the presence of clay particle in sandy specimens change the dilative behavior to contraction. The result also showed that increasing the clay fines up to 10 percent causes to increase the potential for liquefaction, and decreases it at higher values fine content. These results reveal the important role of clay particles in changing the undrained strength of the sandy soil.

Keywords: clayey sand, liquefaction, triaxial test, undrained shear strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
694 Performance Analysis of Encased Sand Columns in Different Clayey Soils Using 3D Numerical Method

Authors: Enayatallah Najari, Ali Noorzad, Mehdi Siavoshnia


One of the most decent and low-cost options in soft clayey soil improvement is using stone columns to reduce the settlement and increase the bearing capacity which is used for different ways to do this in various projects with diverse conditions. In the current study, it is tried to evaluate this improvement method in 4 different weak soils with diverse properties like specific gravity, permeability coefficient, over consolidation ratio (OCR), poison’s ratio, internal friction angle and bulk modulus by using ABAQUS 3D finite element software. Increment and decrement impacts of each mentioned factor on settlement and lateral displacement of weak soil beds are analyzed. In analyzed models, the properties related to sand columns and geosynthetic cover are assumed to be constant with their optimum values, and just soft clayey soil parameters are considered to be variable. It’s also demonstrated that OCR value can play a determinant role in soil resistance.

Keywords: stone columns, geosynthetic, finite element, 3D analysis, soft soils

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693 The Effect of Nanoclay on the Hydraulic Conductivity of Clayey Sand Soils

Authors: Javad Saeidaskari, Mohammad Hassan Baziar


Soil structures have been frequently damaged during piping, earthquake and other types of failures. As far as adverse circumstances were developed subsequent to piping or other similar failure types, hydraulic parameters of soil such as hydraulic conductivity should be considered. As a result, acquiring an approach to diminish soil permeability is inevitable. There are many ground improvement methods to reduce seepage, which are classified under soil treatment and stabilization methods. Recently, one of the soil improvement methods is known as nanogeotechnology. This study aims to investigate the influence of Cloisite 30B nanoclay on permeability of compacted clayey sand soils. The samples are prepared by mixing two soil types, including Kaolin clay and Firouzkooh sand, in 1:9 and 1:5 clay:sand (by mass) proportions. In experimental procedure, initially, the optimum water content and maximum dry unit weight of each samples were obtained for compaction. Then, series of permeability tests were conducted by triaxial apparatus on prepared specimens with identical relative density of 95% of maximum dry density and water content of 1% wet of optimum for different weight percentages of nanoclay (1% to 4%). Therefore, in this paper, the effect of time on treated specimen was appraised, as well as two approaches of manual mixing and ball milling were compared to reveal the importance of dispersion issue. The results show that adding nanoclay up to 3%, as its optimum content, causes notable reduction in permeability (1.60e-03 to 5.51e-05 cm/s and 3.32e-04 to 8.44e-07 cm/s in samples with 1:9 and 1:5 mixture proportions, respectively). The hydraulic conductivity of treated clayey sand (1:5 mixture proportion with 3% nanoclay) decreases gradually from 8.44e-07 to 3.00e-07 cm/s within 90 days and then tends to be consistent. The influence of mixing method on permeability results shows that the utilization of ball mill mixing effectively leads to lower values than those of manual mixing, in other words, by adding 3% nanoclay, hydraulic conductivity of specimen declines from 8.44e-07 to 2.00e-07 cm/s. In order to evaluate the interaction between soil particles and, to ensure proper dispersion of nanoparticles through clayey sand mixture, they were magnified by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM). In conclusion, the nanoclay particles in vicinity of moisture can cause soil stabilization to prevent water penetration, which eventually result in lower usage of clay and operation costs.

Keywords: nanoclay, cloisite 30b, clayey sand, hydraulic conductivity

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692 Determination of Small Shear Modulus of Clayey Sand Using Bender Element Test

Authors: R. Sadeghzadegan, S. A. Naeini, A. Mirzaii


In this article, the results of a series of carefully conducted laboratory test program were represented to determine the small strain shear modulus of sand mixed with a range of kaolinite including zero to 30%. This was experimentally achieved using a triaxial cell equipped with bender element. Results indicate that small shear modulus tends to increase, while clay content decreases and effective confining pressure increases. The exponent of stress in the power model regression analysis was not sensitive to the amount of clay content for all sand clay mixtures, while coefficient A was directly affected by change in clay content.

Keywords: small shear modulus, bender element test, plastic fines, sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
691 Characteristics of Clayey Subgrade Soil Mixed with Cement Stabilizer

Authors: Manju, Praveen Aggarwal


Clayey soil is considered weakest subgrade soil from civil engineering point of view under moist condition. These swelling soils attract and absorb water and losses their strength. Certain inherent properties of these clayey soils need modification for their bulk use in the construction of highways/runways pavements and embankments, etc. In this paper, results of clayey subgrade modified with cement stabilizer is presented. Investigation includes evaluation of specific gravity, Atterberg’s limits, grain size distribution, maximum dry density, optimum moisture content and CBR value of the clayey soil and cement treated clayey soil. A series of proctor compaction and CBR tests (un-soaked and soaked) are carried out on clayey soil and clayey soil mixed with cement stabilizer in 2%, 4% & 6% percentages to the dry weight of soil. In CBR test, under soaked condition best results are obtained with 6% of cement. However, the difference between the CBR value by addition of 4% and 6% cement is not much. Therefore from economical consideration addition of 4% cement gives the best result after soaking period of 90 days.

Keywords: clayey soil, cement, maximum dry density, optimum moisture content, California bearing ratio

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690 Evaluation of Eco Cement as a Stabilizer of Clayey Sand

Authors: Jeeja Menon, M. S. Ravikumar


With the advent of green technology and the concept of zero energy buildings, there is an emerging trend in the utilization of indigenous materials like soil as a construction material. However, fine soils like clays and sand have undesirable properties and stabilization of these soils is essential before it is used to develop a building unit. Eco cement or Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS), a waste byproduct formed during the manufacture of iron has cementitious properties and has the potential of replacing cement which is the most common stabilizer used for improving the geotechnical properties of soil. This paper highlights the salient observations obtained by the investigations into the effect of GGBS as a stabilizer for clayey sand. The index and engineering properties of the soil on the addition of different percentages (0%, 2%, 4%, 5% & 6% of the dry weight of the soil) of GGBS are tested to arrive at the optimum binder content. The criteria chosen for evaluation are the unconfined compressive strength values of different soil- binder composition. The test results indicate that there are significant strength improvements by the addition of GGBS in the soil, and the optimum GGBS content was determined as 5%. Moreover, utilizing waste binders for developing an ecofriendly, less energy induced building units as well as for stabilizing soil will also contribute to the solid waste management, which is the current environmental crisis of the world.

Keywords: eco cement, GGBS, index properties, stabilization, unconfined compressive strength

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689 Contribution of Algerians Local Materials on the Compressive Strengths of Concrete: Experimental and Numerical Study

Authors: Mohamed Lyes Kamel Khouadjia, Bouzidi Mezghiche


The evolution in the civil engineering and carried out more consumption of aggregates and particularly the sand. Due to the depletion of natural reserves of sand, it is necessary to focus on the use of local materials such as crushed sand, river sand and dune sand, mineral additions. The aim of this work is to improve the state of knowledge on the compressive strengths of crushed sands with several mixtures (dune sand, river sand, pozzolan, and slag). The obtained results were compared with numerical results obtained with the software Béton Lab Pro 3.

Keywords: crushed sand, river sand, dune sand, pouzzolan, slag, compressive strengths, Béton Lab Pro 3

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688 Comparing the Durability of Saudi Silica Sands for Use in Foundry Processing

Authors: Mahdi Alsagour, Sam Ramrattan


This paper was developed to investigate two types of sands from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) for potential use in the global metal casting industry. Four types of sands were selected for study, two of the sand systems investigated are natural sands from the KSA. The third sand sample is a heat processed synthetic sand and the last sample is commercially available US silica sand that is used as a control in the study. The purpose of this study is to define the durability of the four sand systems selected for foundry usage. Additionally, chemical analysis of the sand systems is presented before and after elevated temperature exposure. Results show that Saudi silica sands are durable and can be used in foundry processing.

Keywords: alternative molding media, foundry sand, reclamation, silica sand, specialty sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
687 Modified Evaluation of the Hydro-Mechanical Dependency of the Water Coefficient of Permeability of a Clayey Sand with a Novel Permeameter for Unsaturated Soils

Authors: G. Adelian, A. Mirzaii, S. S. Yasrobi


This paper represents data of an extensive experimental laboratory testing program for the measurement of the water coefficient of permeability of clayey sand in different hydraulic and mechanical boundary conditions. A novel permeameter was designed and constructed for the experimental testing program, suitable for the study of flow in unsaturated soils in different hydraulic and mechanical loading conditions. In this work, the effect of hydraulic hysteresis, net isotropic confining stress, water flow condition, and sample dimensions are evaluated on the water coefficient of permeability of understudying soil. The experimental results showed a hysteretic variation for the water coefficient of permeability versus matrix suction and degree of saturation, with higher values in drying portions of the SWCC. The measurement of the water permeability in different applied net isotropic stress also signified that the water coefficient of permeability increased within the increment of net isotropic consolidation stress. The water coefficient of permeability also appeared to be independent of different applied flow heads, water flow condition, and sample dimensions.

Keywords: water permeability, unsaturated soils, hydraulic hysteresis, void ratio, matrix suction, degree of saturation

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
686 Velocity Distribution in Open Channels with Sand: An Experimental Study

Authors: E. Keramaris


In this study, laboratory experiments in open channel flows over a sand bed were conducted. A porous bed (sand bed) with porosity of ε=0.70 and porous thickness of s΄=3 cm was tested. Vertical distributions of velocity were evaluated by using a two-dimensional (2D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Velocity profiles are measured above the impermeable bed and above the sand bed for the same different total water heights (h= 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm) and for the same slope S=1.5. Measurements of mean velocity indicate the effects of the bed material used (sand bed) on the flow characteristics (Velocity distribution and Reynolds number) in comparison with those above the impermeable bed.

Keywords: particle image velocimetry, sand bed, velocity distribution, Reynolds number

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
685 Adhesion Study of Repair Mortar Based in Dune and Crushed Limestone Sand

Authors: Krobba Benharzallah, Kenai Said, Bouhicha Mohamed, Lakhdari Mohammed Fatah, Merah Ahmed


In recent years, great interest has been directed towards the use of local materials and natural resources in building and public works. This is to satisfy the enormous need for these materials and contribute to sustainable development. Among these resources, dune sand and limestone crushed sand, which can be an interesting alternative to the replacement of siliceous alluvial sands for the formulation of a repair mortar. The results found show that the particle size correction of dune sand by limestone sand and the addition of a superplasticizer are very beneficial in terms of adhesion and mechanical strength.

Keywords: repair mortar, dune sand, crushed limestone sand, adhesion, mechanical strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
684 Effect of Baking Temperature on the Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Clayey Soil

Authors: Gul Muhammad, Amanullah Marri, Asif Abbas


Thermal treatment changes the physical and mechanical properties of clayey soils. Thermally treated soils have been used since ancient times for making trails for access and bricks for residence. In this study, it has been focused to observe and analyze the effect of baking (burning) temperature on the mechanical properties of clayey soils usually used for the construction of adobe houses in the rural areas of many of the developing countries. In the first stage of experimental work, a series of tests on clayey soil moulds (100 mm height and 50 mm diameter in size) added different percentages of lime and wheat straw (typically 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%) were conducted. In the second stage; samples were made of clayey soils and were subjected to six level of temperatures i.e., 25, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500⁰C. In the third stage, the moulds of clayey soil were submerged in water prior to testing in order to investigate the flood resilience of the moulds prepared with and without the addition of lime and wheat straw. The experimental results suggest that samples with 6% of lime content and on 2% of wheat straw contents have shown the maximum value of compressive strength. The effect of baking temperature on the clayey soils has shown that maximum UCS is obtained at 200⁰C. The results also suggest reinforcement with 2% wheat straw, give 70.8% increase in the compressive strength compared to soil only, whereas the flooding resilience can be better resist by adding 6% lime and 2% wheat straw.

Keywords: baked temperature, submersion, lime, uniaxial, wheat straw

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
683 Use of Fine Marble in Concrete Based On Sand Dune

Authors: M. Belachia, R. Djebien


In the development that our country has in all areas and especially in the field of Building and Construction, the development of new building materials is a current problem where researchers are trying to find the right materials for each region and returning cheapest countries. Enhancement of crushed sand and sand dunes and reuse of waste as additions in concrete can help to overcome the deficit in aggregates. This work focuses on the development of concrete made from sand, knowing that our country has huge potential in sand dune. This study is complemented by a review of the possibility of using certain recycled wastes in concrete sand, including the effect of fines (marble powders) on the rheological and mechanical properties of concrete and sand to the outcome optimal formulation. After the characterization phase of basic materials, we proceeded to carry out the experimental program was to search the optimum characteristics by adding different percentages of fines. The aim is to show that the possibility of using local materials (sand dune) for the manufacture of concrete and reuse of waste (marble powders) in the implementation of concrete.

Keywords: sand dune, mechanical properties, rheological properties, fine marble

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
682 Effect of Sand Wall Stabilized with Different Percentages of Lime on Bearing Capacity of Foundation

Authors: Ahmed S. Abdulrasool


Recently sand wall started to gain more attention as the sand is easy to compact by using vibroflotation technique. An advantage of sand wall is the availability of different additives that can be mixed with sand to increase the stiffness of the sand wall and hence to increase its performance. In this paper, the bearing capacity of circular foundation surrounded by sand wall stabilized with lime is evaluated through laboratory testing. The studied parameters include different sand-lime walls depth (H/D) ratio (wall depth to foundation diameter) ranged between (0.0-3.0). Effect of lime percentages on the bearing capacity of skirted foundation models is investigated too. From the results, significant change is occurred in the behavior of shallow foundations due to confinement of the soil. It has been found that (H/D) ratio of 2 gives substantial improvement in bearing capacity, and beyond (H/D) ratio of 2, there is no significant improvement in bearing capacity. The results show that the optimum lime content is 11%, and the maximum increase in bearing capacity reaches approximately 52% at (H/D) ratio of 2.

Keywords: bearing capacity, circular foundation, clay soil, lime-sand wall

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681 Experimental Evaluation of Compressive Strength of Concrete with Several Local Sand Exposed to Freeze-Thaw Cycles

Authors: Mlk. Khouadjia, B. Mezghiche


The environment protection has led to a growing interest in the use of crushed sand, which is not correctly exploited due to the high rate of fine particles that it contains and which affect concrete properties. This study will examine the variation of the compressive strength of concrete with several local areas of sand exposed to freeze-thaw cycles and chemical solutions. The experiments have been realized on crushed, river, and dune sands. We use software (MATLAB) to find the coefficient of particle shape. Finally, we have found a relationship between the reference concrete without modification and concrete modified with river and dune sands to predict the variations of resistance after curing in different environments. The results showed that the behavior of concrete is different according to the types of sand and the environment of exposition.

Keywords: crushed sand, compressive strength, freeze-thaw, MATLAB, dune sand, river sand

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680 Detection of Leishmania Mixed Infection from Phlebotomus papatasi in Central Iran

Authors: Nassibeh Hosseini-Vasoukolaei, Amir Ahmad Akhavan, Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani, Ali Khamesipour, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi Ershadi, Kamhawi Shaden, Valenzuela Jesus, Hossein Mirhendi, Mohammad Hossein Arandian


Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is an endemic disease in many rural areas of Iran. Sand flies were collected from rural areas of Esfahan province and were identified using valid identification keys. DNA was extracted from sand flies and Nested PCRs were done using specific primers. In this study, 44 out of 152 (28.9 %) sand flies were infected with L. majoralone. Eight sand flies showed mixed infection: four sand flies (2.6 %) were infected with L. major, L. turanicaand L. gerbili, one sand fly (0.7 %) was infected with L. major and L. turanica and three sand flies (2 %) were infected with L. turanicaand L. gerbili. Our results demonstrate the natural infection of P. papatasi sand fly with three species of L. major, L. turanica and L. gerbili which are circulating among R. opimusreservoir host and P. papatasi sand fly vector in central Iran.

Keywords: Phlebotomus papatasi, Leishmania major, Leishmania turanica, Leishmania gerbili, mixed infection, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
679 Comparison Study between Deep Mixed Columns and Encased Sand Column for Soft Clay Soil in Egypt

Authors: Walid El Kamash


Sand columns (or granular piles) can be employed as soil strengthening for flexible constructions such as road embankments, oil storage tanks in addition to multistory structures. The challenge of embedding the sand columns in soft soil is that the surrounding soft soil cannot avail the enough confinement stress in order to keep the form of the sand column. Therefore, the sand columns which were installed in such soil will lose their ability to perform needed load-bearing capacity. The encasement, besides increasing the strength and stiffness of the sand column, prevents the lateral squeezing of sands when the column is installed even in extremely soft soils, thus enabling quicker and more economical installation. This paper investigates the improvement in load capacity of the sand column by encasement through a comprehensive parametric study using the 3-D finite difference analysis for the soft clay of soil in Egypt. Moreover, the study was extended to include a comparison study between encased sand column and Deep Mixed columns (DM). The study showed that confining the sand by geosynthetic resulted in an increment of shear strength. That result paid the attention to use encased sand stone rather than deep mixed columns due to relative high permeability of the first material.

Keywords: encased sand column, Deep mixed column, numerical analysis, improving soft soil

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678 Reclamation of Molding Sand: A Chemical Approach to Recycle Waste Foundry Sand

Authors: Mohd Moiz Khan, S. M. Mahajani, G. N. Jadhav


Waste foundry sand (total clay content 15%) contains toxic heavy metals and particulate matter which make dumping of waste sand an environmental and health hazard. Disposal of waste foundry sand (WFS) remains one of the substantial challenges faced by Indian foundries nowadays. To cope up with this issue, the chemical method was used to reclaim WFS. A stirrer tank reactor was used for chemical reclamation. Experiments were performed to reduce the total clay content from 15% to as low as 0.9% in chemical reclamation. This method, although found to be effective for WFS reclamation, it may face a challenge due to the possibly high operating cost. Reclaimed sand was found to be satisfactory in terms of sand qualities such as total clay (0.9%), active clay (0.3%), acid demand value (ADV) (2.6%), loss on igniting (LOI) (3 %), grain fineness number (GFN) (56), and compressive strength (60 kPa). The experimental data generated on chemical reactor under different conditions is further used to optimize the design and operating parameters (rotation speed, sand to acidic solution ratio, acid concentration, temperature and time) for the best performance. The use of reclaimed sand within the foundry would improve the economics and efficiency of the process and reduce environmental concerns.

Keywords: chemical reclamation, clay content, environmental concerns, recycle, waste foundry sand

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677 A Review on New Additives in Deep Soil Mixing Method

Authors: Meysam Mousakhani, Reza Ziaie Moayed


Considering the population growth and the needs of society, the improvement of problematic soils and the study of the application of different improvement methods have been considered. One of these methods is deep soil mixing, which has been developed in the past decade, especially in soft soils due to economic efficiency, simple implementation, and other benefits. The use of cement is criticized for its cost and the damaging environmental effects, so these factors lead us to use other additives along with cement in the deep soil mixing. Additives that are used today include fly ash, blast-furnace slag, glass powder, and potassium hydroxide. The present study provides a literature review on the application of different additives in deep soil mixing so that the best additives can be introduced from strength, economic, environmental and other perspectives. The results show that by replacing fly ash and slag with about 40 to 50% of cement, not only economic and environmental benefits but also a long-term strength comparable to cement would be achieved. The use of glass powder, especially in 3% mixing, results in desirable strength. In addition to the other benefits of these additives, potassium hydroxide can also be transported over longer distances, leading to wider soil improvement. Finally, this paper suggests further studies in terms of using other additives such as nanomaterials and zeolite, with different ratios, in different conditions and soils (silty sand, clayey sand, carbonate sand, sandy clay and etc.) in the deep mixing method.

Keywords: deep soil mix, soil stabilization, fly ash, ground improvement

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676 Characterization of Petrophysical Properties of Reservoirs in Bima Formation, Northeastern Nigeria: Implication for Hydrocarbon Exploration

Authors: Gabriel Efomeh Omolaiye, Jimoh Ajadi, Olatunji Seminu, Yusuf Ayoola Jimoh, Ubulom Daniel


Identification and characterization of petrophysical properties of reservoirs in the Bima Formation were undertaken to understand their spatial distribution and impacts on hydrocarbon saturation in the highly heterolithic siliciclastic sequence. The study was carried out using nine well logs from Maiduguri and Baga/Lake sub-basins within the Borno Basin. The different log curves were combined to decipher the lithological heterogeneity of the serrated sand facies and to aid the geologic correlation of sand bodies within the sub-basins. Evaluation of the formation reveals largely undifferentiated to highly serrated and lenticular sand bodies from which twelve reservoirs named Bima Sand-1 to Bima Sand-12 were identified. The reservoir sand bodies are bifurcated by shale beds, which reduced their thicknesses variably from 0.61 to 6.1 m. The shale content in the sand bodies ranged from 11.00% (relatively clean) to high shale content of 88.00%. The formation also has variable porosity values, with calculated total porosity ranged as low as 10.00% to as high as 35.00%. Similarly, effective porosity values spanned between 2.00 to 24.00%. The irregular porosity values also accounted for a wide range of field average permeability estimates computed for the formation, which measured between 0.03 to 319.49 mD. Hydrocarbon saturation (Sh) in the thin lenticular sand bodies also varied from 40.00 to 78.00%. Hydrocarbon was encountered in three intervals in Ga-1, four intervals in Da-1, two intervals in Ar-1, and one interval in Ye-1. Ga-1 well encountered 30.78 m thick of hydrocarbon column in 14 thin sand lobes in Bima Sand-1, with thicknesses from 0.60 m to 5.80 m and average saturation of 51.00%, while Bima Sand-2 intercepted 45.11 m thick of hydrocarbon column in 12 thin sand lobes with an average saturation of 61.00% and Bima Sand-9 has 6.30 m column in 4 thin sand lobes. Da-1 has hydrocarbon in Bima Sand-8 (5.30 m, Sh of 58.00% in 5 sand lobes), Bima Sand-10 (13.50 m, Sh of 52.00% in 6 sand lobes), Bima Sand-11 (6.20 m, Sh of 58.00% in 2 sand lobes) and Bima Sand-12 (16.50 m, Sh of 66% in 6 sand lobes). In the Ar-1 well, hydrocarbon occurs in Bima Sand-3 (2.40 m column, Sh of 48% in a sand lobe) and Bima Sand-9 (6.0 m, Sh of 58% in a sand lobe). Ye-1 well only intersected 0.5 m hydrocarbon in Bima Sand-1 with 78% saturation. Although Bima Formation has variable saturation of hydrocarbon, mainly gas in Maiduguri, and Baga/Lake sub-basins of the research area, its highly thin serrated sand beds, coupled with very low effective porosity and permeability in part, would pose a significant exploitation challenge. The sediments were deposited in a fluvio-lacustrine environment, resulting in a very thinly laminated or serrated alternation of sand and shale beds lithofacies.

Keywords: Bima, Chad Basin, fluvio-lacustrine, lithofacies, serrated sand

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675 A Regression Model for Residual-State Creep Failure

Authors: Deepak Raj Bhat, Ryuichi Yatabe


In this study, a residual-state creep failure model was developed based on the residual-state creep test results of clayey soils. To develop the proposed model, the regression analyses were done by using the R. The model results of the failure time (tf) and critical displacement (δc) were compared with experimental results and found in close agreements to each others. It is expected that the proposed regression model for residual-state creep failure will be more useful for the prediction of displacement of different clayey soils in the future.

Keywords: regression model, residual-state creep failure, displacement prediction, clayey soils

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674 The Effect of Sand Content on Behavior of Kaolin Clay

Authors: Hamed Tohidi, James W. Mahar


One of the unknowns in the design of zoned earth dams is the percentage of sand which can be present in a clay core and still retain the necessary plasticity to prevent cracking in response to deformation. Cracks in the clay core of a dam caused by differential settlement can lead to failure of the dam. In this study, a series of Atterberg Limit tests and unconfined compression strength tests have been conducted in the ISU soil mechanics laboratory on prepared mixes of quartz sand and commercial clays (Kaolin and Smectite) to determine the relationship between sand content, plasticity and squeezing behavior. The prepared mixes have variable percentages of sand ranging between 10 and 90% by weight. Plastic limit test results in which specimens can be rolled into 1/8 in. threads without crumbling and plasticity index values which represent the range of water content over which the specimens can be remolded without cracking were used to evaluate the plasticity of the sand-clay mixtures. The test results show that the design mixes exhibit plastic behavior with sand contents up to 80% by weight. However, the plasticity of the mixes decreases with increasing sand content. For unconfined compression strength tests, the same mixtures of sand and clay (Kaolin) were made in plastic limit. The results which were concluded from the UCC tests represent the relationship between sand-clay content and chance of having squeezing behavior, also according to the results from UCC, strength of different samples and stress-strain curves can be obtained.

Keywords: clay's behaviour, plasticity, sand content, Kaolin clay

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673 On Erosion-Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in Oil Sands Slurry: Electrochemical Studies

Authors: M. Deyab, A. Al-Sabagh, S. Keera


The effects of flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature on erosion-corrosion of carbon steel in oil sands slurry were studied by electrochemical polarization measurements. It was found that the anodic excursion spans of carbon steel in oil sands slurry are characterized by the occurrence of a well-defined anodic peak, followed by a passive region. The data reveal that increasing flow velocity, sand concentration and temperature enhances the anodic peak current density (jAP) and shifts pitting potential (Epit) towards more negative values. The variation of sand particle size does not have apparent effect on polarization behavior of carbon steel. The ratios of the erosion rate to corrosion rate (E/C) were calculated and discussed. The ratio of erosion to corrosion rates E/C increased with increasing the flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature indicating that an increasing slurry flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature resulted in an enhancement of the erosion effect.

Keywords: erosion-corrosion, steel, oil sands slurry, polarization

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672 Synergistic Erosion–Corrosion Behavior of Petroleum Pipelines at Various Conditions

Authors: M. A. Deyab, A. Al-Sabagh, S. Keera


The effects of flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature on erosion-corrosion of petroleum pipelines (carbon steel) in the oil sands slurry were studied by electrochemical polarization measurements. It was found that the anodic excursion spans of carbon steel in the oil sands slurry are characterized by the occurrence of a well-defined anodic peak, followed by a passive region. The data reveal that increasing flow velocity, sand concentration and temperature enhances the anodic peak current density (jAP) and shifts pitting potential (Epit) towards more negative values. The variation of sand particle size does not have apparent effect on polarization behavior of carbon steel. The ratios of the erosion rate to corrosion rate (E/C) were calculated and discussed. The ratio of erosion to corrosion rates E/C increased with increasing the flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size, and temperature indicating that an increasing slurry flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature resulted in an enhancement of the erosion effect.

Keywords: erosion-corrosion, oil sands slurry, polarization, steel

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671 Cyclic Liquefaction Resistance of Reinforced Sand

Authors: S. A. Naeini, Z. Eftekhari


Liquefaction phenomenon in sand is nowadays a classical soil mechanics subject. Using a cyclic triaxial test apparatus, we use non-woven geotextile reinforcement to improve the liquefaction resistance of sand. The layer configurations used are zero, one, two and three horizontal reinforcing layers in a triaxial test sample. The influences of the number of geotextile layers, and cyclic stress ratio (CSR) were studied and described. The results illustrated that the geotextile inclusion increases liquefaction resistance.

Keywords: liquefaction resistance, geotextile, sand, cyclic triaxial test, cyclic stress ratio

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670 Evaluation of Drained Shear Strength of Bentonite-Sand Mixtures

Authors: Navid Khayat


Drained shear strength of saturated soils is fully understood. Shear strength of unsaturated soils is usually expressed in terms of soil suction. Evaluation of shear strength of compacted mixtures of sand-bentonite at optimum water content is main purpose of this research. To prepare the required samples, first, bentonite and sand are mixed in 10, 30, 50 and 70 percent by dry weight and then compacted at the proper optimum water content according to the standard proctor test. The samples were sheared in direct shear machine. Stress-strain relationship of samples indicated a ductile behavior. Most of the samples showed a dilatancy behavior during the shear and the tendency for dilatancy increased with the increase in sand proportion. The results show that with the increase in percentage of sand a decrease in cohesion intercept c' for mixtures and an increase in the angle of internal friction Φ’is observed.

Keywords: bentonite, sand, drained shear strength, cohesion intercept

Procedia PDF Downloads 237