Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9134

Search results for: enhanced geothermal systems

9134 Investigation of Enhanced Geothermal System with CO2 as Working Fluid

Authors: Ruina Xu, Peixue Jiang, Feng Luo


The novel concept of enhanced geothermal system with CO2 instead of water as working fluid (CO2-EGS) has attracted wide attention due to additional benefit of CO2 geological storage during the power generation process. In this research, numerical investigation on a doublet CO2-EGS system is performed, focusing on the influence of the injection/production well perforation location in the targeted geothermal reservoir. Three different reservoir inlet and outlet boundary conditions are used in simulations since the well constrains are different in reality. The results show that CO2-EGS system performance of power generation and power cost vary greatly among cases of different wells perforation locations, and the optimum options under different boundary conditions are also different.

Keywords: Enhanced Geothermal System, supercritical CO2, heat transfer, CO2-EGS

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9133 Optimization of Hydraulic Fracturing for Horizontal Wells in Enhanced Geothermal Reservoirs

Authors: Qudratullah Muradi


Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that can be found in abundance on our planet. Only a small fraction of it is currently converted to electrical power, though in recent years installed geothermal capacity has increased considerably all over the world. In this paper, we assumed a model for designing of Enhanced Geothermal System, EGS. We used computer modeling group, CMG reservoir simulation software to create the typical Hot Dry Rock, HDR reservoir. In this research two wells, one injection of cold water and one production of hot water are included in the model. There are some hydraulic fractures created by the mentioned software. And cold water is injected in order to produce energy from the reservoir. The result of injecting cold water to the reservoir and extracting geothermal energy is defined by some graphs at the end of this research. The production of energy is quantified in a period of 10 years.

Keywords: geothermal energy, EGS, HDR, hydraulic fracturing

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9132 Using Reservoir Models for Monitoring Geothermal Surface Features

Authors: John P. O’Sullivan, Thomas M. P. Ratouis, Michael J. O’Sullivan


As the use of geothermal energy grows internationally more effort is required to monitor and protect areas with rare and important geothermal surface features. A number of approaches are presented for developing and calibrating numerical geothermal reservoir models that are capable of accurately representing geothermal surface features. The approaches are discussed in the context of cases studies of the Rotorua geothermal system and the Orakei-korako geothermal system, both of which contain important surface features. The results show that models are able to match the available field data accurately and hence can be used as valuable tools for predicting the future response of the systems to changes in use.

Keywords: geothermal reservoir models, surface features, monitoring, TOUGH2

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9131 Magnetotelluric Method Approach for the 3-D Inversion of Geothermal System’s Dissemination in Indonesia

Authors: Pelangi Wiyantika


Sustainable energy is the main concern in According to solve any problems on energy sectors. One of the sustainable energy that has lack of presentation is Geothermal energy which has developed lately as the new promising sustainable energy. Indonesia as country that has been passed by the ring of fire zone has many geothermal sources. This is the good opportunity to elaborate and learn more about geothermal as sustainable and renewable energy. Geothermal systems have special characteristic whom the zone of sources can be detected by measuring the resistivity of the subsurface. There are many methods to measuring the anomaly of the systems. One of the best method is Magnetotelluric approchment. Magnetotelluric is the passive method which the resistivity is obtained by injecting the eddy current of rocks in the subsurface with the sources. The sources of Magnetotelluric method can be obtained from lightning or solar wind which has the frequencies each below 1 Hz and above 1 Hz.

Keywords: geothermal, magnetotelluric, renewable energy, resistivity, sustainable energy

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9130 Interdisciplinary Approach for Economic Production of Oil and Gas Reserves: Application of Geothermal Energy for Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: Dharmit Viroja, Prerakkumar Shah, Rajanikant Gajera, Ruchit Shah


With present scenario of aging oil and gas fields with high water cuts, volatile oil prices and increasing greenhouse gas emission, the need for alleviating such issues has necessitated for oil and gas industry to make the maximum out of available assets, infrastructure and reserves in mother Earth. Study undertaken emphasizes on utilizing Geothermal Energy under specific reservoir conditions for Enhanced oil Recovery (EOR) to boost up production. Allied benefits of this process include mitigation of electricity problem in remote fields and controlled CO-emission. Utilization of this energy for EOR and increasing economic life of field could surely be rewarding. A new way to value oil lands would be considered if geothermal co-production is integrated in the field development program. Temperature profile of co-produced fluid across its journey is a pivotal issue which has been studied. Geo pressured reservoirs resulting from trapped brine under an impermeable bed is also a frontier for exploitation. Hot geothermal fluid is a by-product of large number of oil and gas wells, historically this hot water has been seen as an inconvenience; however, it can be looked at as a useful resource. The production of hot fluids from abandoned and co-production of hot fluids from producing wells has potential to prolong life of oil and gas fields. The study encompasses various factors which are required for use of this technology and application of this process across various phases of oil and gas value chain. Interdisciplinary approach in oil and gas value chain has shown potential for economic production of estimated oil and gas reserves.

Keywords: enhanced oil recovery, geo-pressured reservoirs, geothermal energy, oil and gas value chain

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9129 Flow Behavior of a ScCO₂-Stimulated Geothermal Reservoir under in-situ Stress and Temperature Conditions

Authors: B. L. Avanthi Isaka, P. G. Ranjith


The development of technically-sound enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) is identified as a viable solution for world growing energy demand with immense potential, low carbon dioxide emission and importantly, as an environmentally friendly option for renewable energy production. The use of supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO₂) as the working fluid in EGSs by replacing traditional water-based method is promising due to multiple advantages prevail in ScCO₂-injection for underground reservoir stimulation. The evolution of reservoir stimulation using ScCO₂ and the understanding of the flow behavior of a ScCO₂-stimulated geothermal reservoir is vital in applying ScCO₂-EGSs as a replacement for water-based EGSs. The study is therefore aimed to investigate the flow behavior of a ScCO₂-fractured rock medium at in-situ stress and temperature conditions. A series of permeability tests were conducted for ScCO₂ fractured Harcourt granite rock specimens at 90ºC, under varying confining pressures from 5–60 MPa using the high-pressure and high-temperature tri-axial set up which can simulate deep geological conditions. The permeability of the ScCO₂-fractured rock specimens was compared with that of water-fractured rock specimens. The results show that the permeability of the ScCO₂-fractured rock specimens is one order higher than that of water-fractured rock specimens and the permeability exhibits a non-linear reduction with increasing confining pressure due to the stress-induced fracture closure. Further, the enhanced permeability of the ScCO₂-induced fracture with multiple secondary branches was explained by exploring the CT images of the rock specimens. However, a single plain fracture was induced under water-based fracturing.

Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide, fracture permeability, granite, enhanced geothermal systems

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9128 Multi-Dimensional Inversions of Magneto Telluric Resistivity Data to Image Geothermal Systems: Case Study, Korosi Geothermal Prospect, Kenya

Authors: Arthur Mathew, Maitima Nelson, Wanja Euridise


In real situation, the physical Earth is in three dimensions (3-D); a 2-D and 1-D Earth models may not explicitly explain or represent the 3-D Earth in all situations. 2-D MT interpretation is commonly applied in geothermal exploration and in many cases, has successfully provided accurate information of geothermal reservoirs. However, due to complex geological environments, 2-D interpretation sometimes fails to produce realistic models, especially for deeper parts of reservoir. In this regard, 3-D interpretation techniques are now highly demanded for higher interpretation for understanding of electrical resistivity structures in various geological applications. This paper describes 3-D Magneto Telluric (MT) inversion for 147 MT data sets obtained from Korosi geothermal prospect, Kenya. The results infer two geothermal reservoirs below Korosi - Chepchuk massif. A close correlation between major surface structures, fumaroles, and the 3D model is observed. Consequently, the extents of geothermal resource at Korosi - Chepchok prospect, the depth of the inferred geothermal reservoirs and possible recharge zones for the system have been inferred.

Keywords: 1D, 3D, 2D, geothermal, magnetotelluric

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9127 Structured Tariff Calculation to Promote Geothermal for Energy Security

Authors: Siti Mariani, Arwin DW Sumari, Retno Gumilang Dewi


This paper analyzes the necessity of a structured tariff calculation for geothermal electricity in Indonesia. Indonesia is blessed with abundant natural resources and a choices of energy resources to generate electricity among other are coal, gas, biomass, hydro to geothermal, creating a fierce competition in electricity tariffs. While geothermal is inline with energy security principle and green growth initiative, it requires a huge capital funding. Geothermal electricity development consists of phases of project with each having its own financial characteristics. The Indonesian government has set a support in the form of ceiling price of geothermal electricity tariff by 11 U.S cents / kWh. However, the government did not set a levelized cost of geothermal, as an indication of lower limit capacity class, to which support is given. The government should establish a levelized cost of geothermal energy to reflect its financial capability in supporting geothermal development. Aside of that, the government is also need to establish a structured tariff calculation to reflect a fair and transparent business cooperation.

Keywords: load fator, levelized cost of geothermal, geothermal power plant, structured tariff calculation

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
9126 Integrating Circular Economy Framework into Life Cycle Analysis: An Exploratory Study Applied to Geothermal Power Generation Technologies

Authors: Jingyi Li, Laurence Stamford, Alejandro Gallego-Schmid


Renewable electricity has become an indispensable contributor to achieving net-zero by the mid-century to tackle climate change. Unlike solar, wind, or hydro, geothermal was stagnant in its electricity production development for decades. However, with the significant breakthrough made in recent years, especially the implementation of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) in various regions globally, geothermal electricity could play a pivotal role in alleviating greenhouse gas emissions. Life cycle assessment has been applied to analyze specific geothermal power generation technologies, which proposed suggestions to optimize its environmental performance. For instance, selecting a high heat gradient region enables a higher flow rate from the production well and extends the technical lifespan. Although such process-level improvements have been made, the significance of geothermal power generation technologies so far has not explicitly displayed its competitiveness on a broader horizon. Therefore, this review-based study integrates a circular economy framework into life cycle assessment, clarifying the underlying added values for geothermal power plants to complete the sustainability profile. The derived results have provided an enlarged platform to discuss geothermal power generation technologies: (i) recover the heat and electricity from the process to reduce the fossil fuel requirements; (ii) recycle the construction materials, such as copper, steel, and aluminum for future projects; (iii) extract the lithium ions from geothermal brine and make geothermal reservoir become a potential supplier of the lithium battery industry; (iv) repurpose the abandoned oil and gas wells to build geothermal power plants; (v) integrate geothermal energy with other available renewable energies (e.g., solar and wind) to provide heat and electricity as a hybrid system at different weather; (vi) rethink the fluids used in stimulation process (EGS only), replace water with CO2 to achieve negative emissions from the system. These results provided a new perspective to the researchers, investors, and policymakers to rethink the role of geothermal in the energy supply network.

Keywords: climate, renewable energy, R strategies, sustainability

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9125 The Influence of Bentonite on the Rheology of Geothermal Grouts

Authors: A. N. Ghafar, O. A. Chaudhari, W. Oettel, P. Fontana


This study is a part of the EU project GEOCOND-Advanced materials and processes to improve performance and cost-efficiency of shallow geothermal systems and underground thermal storage. In heat exchange boreholes, to improve the heat transfer between the pipes and the surrounding ground, the space between the pipes and the borehole wall is normally filled with geothermal grout. Traditionally, bentonite has been a crucial component in most commercially available geothermal grouts to assure the required stability and impermeability. The investigations conducted in the early stage of this project during the benchmarking tests on some commercial grouts showed considerable sensitivity of the rheological properties of the tested grouts to the mixing parameters, i.e., mixing time and velocity. Further studies on this matter showed that bentonite, which has been one of the important constituents in most grout mixes, was probably responsible for such behavior. Apparently, proper amount of shear should be applied during the mixing process to sufficiently activate the bentonite. The higher the amount of applied shear the more the activation of bentonite, resulting in change in the grout rheology. This explains why, occasionally in the field applications, the flow properties of the commercially available geothermal grouts using different mixing conditions (mixer type, mixing time, mixing velocity) are completely different than expected. A series of tests were conducted on the grout mixes, with and without bentonite, using different mixing protocols. The aim was to eliminate/reduce the sensitivity of the rheological properties of the geothermal grouts to the mixing parameters by replacing bentonite with polymeric (non-clay) stabilizers. The results showed that by replacing bentonite with a proper polymeric stabilizer, the sensitivity of the grout mix on mixing time and velocity was to a great extent diminished. This can be considered as an alternative for the developers/producers of geothermal grouts to provide enhanced materials with less uncertainty in obtained results in the field applications.

Keywords: flow properties, geothermal grout, mixing time, mixing velocity, rheological properties

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9124 A Worldwide Assessment of Geothermal Energy Policy: Systematic, Qualitative and Critical Literature Review

Authors: Diego Moya, Juan Paredes, Clay Aldas, Ramiro Tite, Prasad Kaparaju


Globally, energy policy for geothermal development is addressed in different forms, depending on the economy, resources, country-development, environment aspects and technology access. Although some countries have established strong regulations and standards for geothermal exploration, exploitation and sustainable use at the policy level (government departments and institutions), others have discussed geothermal laws at legal levels (congress – a national legislative body of a country). Appropriate regulations are needed not only to meet local and international funding requirements but also to avoid speculation in the use of the geothermal resource. In this regards, this paper presents the results of a systematic, qualitative and critical literature review of geothermal energy policy worldwide addressing two scenarios: policy and legal levels. At first, literature is collected and classified from scientific and government sources regarding geothermal energy policy of the most advanced geothermal producing countries, including Iceland, New Zealand, Mexico, the USA, Central America, Italy, Japan, Philippines, Indonesia, Kenia, and Australia. This is followed by a systematic review of the literature aiming to know the best geothermal practices and what remains uncertain regarding geothermal policy implementation. This analysis is made considering the stages of geothermal production. Furthermore, a qualitative analysis is conducted comparing the findings across geothermal policies in the countries mentioned above. Then, a critical review aims to identify significant items in the field to be applied in countries with geothermal potential but with no or weak geothermal policies. Finally, patterns and relationships are detected, and conclusions are drawn.

Keywords: assessment, geothermal, energy policy, worldwide

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9123 Geothermal Prospect Prediction at Mt. Ciremai Using Fault and Fracture Density Method

Authors: Rifqi Alfadhillah Sentosa, Hasbi Fikru Syabi, Stephen


West Java is a province in Indonesia which has a number of volcanoes. One of those volcanoes is Mt. Ciremai, located administratively at Kuningan and Majalengka District, and is known for its significant geothermal potential in Java Island. This research aims to assume geothermal prospects at Mt. Ciremai using Fault and Fracture Density (FFD) Method, which is correlated to the geochemistry of geothermal manifestations around the mountain. This FFD method is using SRTM data to draw lineaments, which are assumed associated with fractures and faults in the research area. These faults and fractures were assumed as the paths for reservoir fluids to reached surface as geothermal manifestations. The goal of this method is to analyze the density of those lineaments found in the research area. Based on this FFD Method, it is known that area with high density of lineaments located on Mt. Kromong at the northern side of Mt. Ciremai. This prospect area is proven by its higher geothermometer values compared to geothermometer values calculated at the south area of Mt. Ciremai.

Keywords: geothermal prospect, fault and fracture density, Mt. Ciremai, surface manifestation

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9122 Comparative Analysis of Costs and Well Drilling Techniques for Water, Geothermal Energy, Oil and Gas Production

Authors: Thales Maluf, Nazem Nascimento


The development of society relies heavily on the total amount of energy obtained and its consumption. Over the years, there has been an advancement on energy attainment, which is directly related to some natural resources and developing systems. Some of these resources should be highlighted for its remarkable presence in world´s energy grid, such as water, petroleum, and gas, while others deserve attention for representing an alternative to diversify the energy grid, like geothermal sources. Therefore, because all these resources can be extracted from the underground, drilling wells is a mandatory activity in terms of exploration, and it involves a previous geological study and an adequate preparation. It also involves a cleaning process and an extraction process that can be executed by different procedures. For that reason, this research aims the enhancement of exploration processes through a comparative analysis of drilling costs and techniques used to produce them. The analysis itself is based on a bibliographical review based on books, scientific papers, schoolwork and mainly explore drilling methods and technologies, equipment used, well measurements, extraction methods, and production costs. Besides techniques and costs regarding the drilling processes, some properties and general characteristics of these sources are also compared. Preliminary studies show that there are some major differences regarding the exploration processes, mostly because these resources are naturally distinct. Water wells, for instance, have hundreds of meters of length because water is stored close to the surface, while oil, gas, and geothermal production wells can reach thousands of meters, which make them more expensive to be drilled. The drilling methods present some general similarities especially regarding the main mechanism of perforation, but since water is a resource stored closer to the surface than the other ones, there is a wider variety of methods. Water wells can be drilled by rotary mechanisms, percussion mechanisms, rotary-percussion mechanisms, and some other simpler methods. Oil and gas production wells, on the other hand, require rotary or rotary-percussion drilling with a proper structure called drill rig and resistant materials for the drill bits and the other components, mostly because they´re stored in sedimentary basins that can be located thousands of meters under the ground. Geothermal production wells also require rotary or rotary-percussion drilling and require the existence of an injection well and an extraction well. The exploration efficiency also depends on the permeability of the soil, and that is why it has been developed the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). Throughout this review study, it can be verified that the analysis of the extraction processes of energy resources is essential since these resources are responsible for society development. Furthermore, the comparative analysis of costs and well drilling techniques for water, geothermal energy, oil, and gas production, which is the main goal of this research, can enable the growth of energy generation field through the emergence of ideas that improve the efficiency of energy generation processes.

Keywords: drilling, water, oil, Gas, geothermal energy

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9121 Geothermal Energy Potential Estimates of Niger Delta Basin from Recent Studies

Authors: Olumide J. Adedapo


In this work, geothermal energy resource maps of the Niger Delta Basin were constructed using borehole thermal log data from over 300 deep wells. Three major geothermal anomalies were delineated and quantitatively interpreted in both onshore and offshore parts of the Niger Delta. The geothermal maps present the distribution of geothermal energy stored in the sedimentary rock mass in two ways: the accessible resources in depth interval 0-4000 m and static geothermal energy resources stored in the complete sedimentary infill of the basin (from the ground surface to the basement). The first map shows two major onshore anomalies, one in the north (with maximum energy values, 800 GJ/m2), another in the east to northeastern part (maximum energy values of 1250–1500 GJ/m2). Another two major anomalies occur offshore, one in the south with values of 750-1000 GJ/m2, occurring at about 100 km seawards and the other, in the southwest offshore with values 750-1250 GJ/m2, still at about 100 km from the shore. A second map of the Niger Delta shows a small anomaly in the northern part with the maximum value of 1500 GJ/m2 and a major anomaly occurring in the eastern part of the basin, onshore, with values of 2000-3500 GJ/m2. Offshore in the south and southwest anomalies in the total sedimentary rock mass occur with highest values up to 4000GJ/m2, with the southwestern anomaly extending west to the shore. It is much of interest to note the seaward–westward extension of these anomalies both in size, configuration, and magnitude for the geothermal energy in the total sedimentary thickness to the underlying basement. These anomalous fields show the most favourable locations and areas for further work on geothermal energy resources.

Keywords: geothermal energy, offshore, Niger delta, basin

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9120 Development and Analysis of Multigeneration System by Using Combined Solar and Geothermal Energy Resources

Authors: Muhammad Umar Khan, Mahesh Kumar, Faraz Neakakhtar


Although industrialization marks to the economy of a country yet it increases the pollution and temperature of the environment. The world is now shifting towards green energy because the utilization of fossil fuels is resulting in global warming. So we need to develop systems that can operate on renewable energy resources and have low heat losses. The combined solar and geothermal multigeneration system can solve this issue. Rather than making rankine cycle purely a solar-driven, heat from solar is used to drive vapour absorption cycle and reheated to generate power using geothermal reservoir. The results are displayed by using Engineering Equation Solver software, where inputs are varied to optimize the energy and exergy efficiencies of the system. The cooling effect is 348.2 KW, while the network output is 23.8 MW and reducing resultant emission of 105553 tons of CO₂ per year. This eco-friendly multigeneration system is capable of eliminating the use of fossil fuels and increasing the geothermal energy efficiency.

Keywords: cooling effect, eco-friendly, green energy, heat loses, multigeneration system, renewable energy, work output

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9119 Enhanced Efficiency of Thermoelectric Generator by Optimizing Mechanical and Electrical Structures

Authors: Kewen Li


Much attention has been paid to the application of low temperature thermal resources, especially for power generation in recent years. Most of the current commercialized thermal, including geothermal, power-generation technologies convert thermal energy to electric energy indirectly, that is, making mechanical work before producing electricity. Technology using thermoelectric generator (TEG), however, can directly transform thermal energy into electricity by using Seebeck effect. TEG technology has many advantages such as compactness, quietness, and reliability because there are no moving parts. One of the big disadvantages of TEGs is the low efficiency from thermal to electric energy. For this reason, we redesigned and modified our previous 1 KW (at a temperature difference of around 120 °C) TEG system. The efficiency of the system was improved significantly, about 20% greater. Laboratory experiments have been conducted to measure the output power, including both open and net power, at different conditions: different modes of connections between TEG modules, different mechanical structures, different temperature differences between hot and cold sides. The cost of the TEG power generator has been reduced further because of the increased efficiency and is lower than that of photovoltaics (PV) in terms of equivalent energy generated. The TEG apparatus has been pilot tested and the data will be presented. This kind of TEG power system can be applied in many thermal and geothermal sites with low temperature resources, including oil fields where fossil and geothermal energies are co-produced.

Keywords: TEG, direct power generation, efficiency, thermoelectric effect

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9118 Adsorption Cooling Using Hybrid Energy Resources

Authors: R. Benelmir, M. El Kadri, A. Donnot, D. Descieux


HVAC represents a significant part of energy needs in buildings. Integrating renewable energy in cooling processes contributes to reducing primary energy consumption. Sorption refrigeration allows cold production through the use of solar/biomass/geothermal energy or even valuation of waste heat. This work presents an analysis of an experimental bench incorporating an adsorption chiller driven by hybrid energy resources associating solar thermal collectors with a cogeneration gas engine and a geothermal heat pump.

Keywords: solar cooling, cogeneration, geothermal heat pump, hybrid energy resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
9117 Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL)

Authors: Hailah Alballaa, Azeddine Chikh


Several challenges impede the adoption of Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL): to collect and identify possible datasets; to select between different recommender approaches; to evaluate their performances. The aim is of this paper is twofold: First, it aims to introduce a survey on the most significant work in this area. Second, it aims at identifying possible research directions.

Keywords: datasets, content-based filtering, recommender systems, TEL

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9116 Thermal Effects on Wellbore Stability and Fluid Loss in High-Temperature Geothermal Drilling

Authors: Mubarek Alpkiray, Tan Nguyen, Arild Saasen


Geothermal drilling operations contain numerous challenges that are encountered to increase the well cost and nonproductive time. Fluid loss is one of the most undesirable troublesome that can cause well abandonment in geothermal drilling. Lost circulation can be seen due to natural fractures, high mud weight, and extremely high formation temperatures. This challenge may cause wellbore stability problems and lead to expensive drilling operations. Wellbore stability is the main domain that should be considered to mitigate or prevent fluid loss into the formation. This paper describes the causes of fluid loss in the Pamukoren geothermal field in Turkey. A geomechanics approach integration and assessment is applied to help the understanding of fluid loss problems. In geothermal drillings, geomechanics is primarily based on rock properties, in-situ stress characterization, the temperature of the rock, determination of stresses around the wellbore, and rock failure criteria. Since a high-temperature difference between the wellbore wall and drilling fluid is presented, temperature distribution through the wellbore is estimated and implemented to the wellbore stability approach. This study reviewed geothermal drilling data to analyze temperature estimation along the wellbore, the cause of fluid loss and stored electric capacity of the reservoir. Our observation demonstrates the geomechanical approach's significant role in understanding safe drilling operations on high-temperature wells. Fluid loss is encountered due to thermal stress effects around the borehole. This paper provides a wellbore stability analysis for a geothermal drilling operation to discuss the causes of lost circulation resulting in nonproductive time and cost.

Keywords: geothermal wells, drilling, wellbore stresses, drilling fluid loss, thermal stress

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9115 Geothermal Resources to Ensure Energy Security During Climate Change

Authors: Debasmita Misra, Arthur Nash


Energy security and sufficiency enables the economic development and welfare of a nation or a society. Currently, the global energy system is dominated by fossil fuels, which is a non-renewable energy resource, which renders vulnerability to energy security. Hence, many nations have begun augmenting their energy system with renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, biomass and hydro. However, with climate change, how sustainable are some of the renewable energy resources in the future is a matter of concern. Geothermal energy resources have been underexplored or underexploited in global renewable energy production and security, although it is gaining attractiveness as a renewable energy resource. The question is, whether geothermal energy resources are more sustainable than other renewable energy resources. High-temperature reservoirs (> 220 °F) can produce electricity from flash/dry steam plants as well as binary cycle production facilities. Most of the world’s high enthalpy geothermal resources are within the seismo-tectonic belt. However, exploration for geothermal energy is of great importance in conventional geothermal systems in order to improve its economic viability. In recent years, there has been an increase in the use and development of several exploration methods for geo-thermal resources, such as seismic or electromagnetic methods. The thermal infrared band of the Landsat can reflect land surface temperature difference, so the ETM+ data with specific grey stretch enhancement has been used to explore underground heat water. Another way of exploring for potential power is utilizing fairway play analysis for sites without surface expression and in rift zones. Utilizing this type of analysis can improve the success rate of project development by reducing exploration costs. Identifying the basin distribution of geologic factors that control the geothermal environment would help in identifying the control of resource concentration aside from the heat flow, thus improving the probability of success. The first step is compiling existing geophysical data. This leads to constructing conceptual models of potential geothermal concentrations which can then be utilized in creating a geodatabase to analyze risk maps. Geospatial analysis and other GIS tools can be used in such efforts to produce spatial distribution maps. The goal of this paper is to discuss how climate change may impact renewable energy resources and how could a synthesized analysis be developed for geothermal resources to ensure sustainable and cost effective exploitation of the resource.

Keywords: exploration, geothermal, renewable energy, sustainable

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9114 Investigation of Geothermal Gradient of the Niger Delta from Recent Studies

Authors: Adedapo Jepson Olumide, Kurowska Ewa, K. Schoeneich, Ikpokonte A. Enoch


In this paper, subsurface temperature measured from continuous temperature logs were used to determine the geothermal gradient of NigerDelta sedimentary basin. The measured temperatures were corrected to the true subsurface temperatures by applying the American Association of Petroleum Resources (AAPG) correction factor, borehole temperature correction factor with La Max’s correction factor and Zeta Utilities borehole correction factor. Geothermal gradient in this basin ranges from 1.20C to 7.560C/100m. Six geothermal anomalies centres were observed at depth in the southern parts of the Abakaliki anticlinorium around Onitsha, Ihiala, Umuaha area and named A1 to A6 while two more centre appeared at depth of 3500m and 4000m named A7 and A8 respectively. Anomaly A1 describes the southern end of the Abakaliki anticlinorium and extends southwards, anomaly A2 to A5 were found associated with a NW-SE structural alignment of the Calabar hinge line with structures describing the edge of the Niger Delta basin with the basement block of the Oban massif. Anomaly A6 locates in the south-eastern part of the basin offshore while A7 and A8 are located in the south western part of the basin offshore. At the average exploratory depth of 3500m, the geothermal gradient values for these anomalies A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, and A8 are 6.50C/100m, 1.750C/100m, 7.50C/100m, 1.250C/100m, 6.50C/100m, 5.50C/100m, 60C/100m, and 2.250C/100m respectively. Anomaly A8 area may yield higher thermal value at greater depth than 3500m. These results show that anomalies areas of A1, A3, A5, A6 and A7 are potentially prospective and explorable for geothermal energy using abandoned oil wells in the study area. Anomalies A1, A3.A5, A6 occur at areas where drilled boreholes were not exploitable for oil and gas but for the remaining areas where wells are so exploitable there appears no geothermal anomaly. Geothermal energy is environmentally friendly, clean and reversible.

Keywords: temperature logs, geothermal gradient anomalies, alternative energy, Niger delta basin

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9113 Spectral Mapping of Hydrothermal Alteration Minerals for Geothermal Exploration Using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Short Wave Infrared Data

Authors: Aliyu J. Abubakar, Mazlan Hashim, Amin B. Pour


Exploiting geothermal resources for either power, home heating, Spa, greenhouses, industrial or tourism requires an initial identification of suitable areas. This can be done cost-effectively using remote sensing satellite imagery which has synoptic capabilities of covering large areas in real time and by identifying possible areas of hydrothermal alteration and minerals related to Geothermal systems. Earth features and minerals are known to have unique diagnostic spectral reflectance characteristics that can be used to discriminate them. The focus of this paper is to investigate the applicability of mapping hydrothermal alteration in relation to geothermal systems (thermal springs) at Yankari Park Northeastern Nigeria, using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data for resource exploration. The ASTER Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands are used to highlight and discriminate alteration areas by employing sophisticated digital image processing techniques including image transformations and spectral mapping methods. Field verifications are conducted at the Yankari Park using hand held Global Positioning System (GPS) monterra to identify locations of hydrothermal alteration and rock samples obtained at the vicinity and surrounding areas of the ‘Mawulgo’ and ‘Wikki’ thermal springs. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results of rock samples obtained from the field validated hydrothermal alteration by the presence of indicator minerals including; Dickite, Kaolinite, Hematite and Quart. The study indicated the applicability of mapping geothermal anomalies for resource exploration in unmapped sparsely vegetated savanna environment characterized by subtle surface manifestations such as thermal springs. The results could have implication for geothermal resource exploration especially at the prefeasibility stages by narrowing targets for comprehensive surveys and in unexplored savanna regions where expensive airborne surveys are unaffordable.

Keywords: geothermal exploration, image enhancement, minerals, spectral mapping

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9112 Case Study: The Analysis of Maturity of West Buru Basin and the Potential Development of Geothermal in West Buru Island

Authors: Kefi Rahmadio, Filipus Armando Ginting, Richard Nainggolan


This research shows the formation of the West Buru Basin and the potential utilization of this West Buru Basin as a geothermal potential. The research area is West Buru Island which is part of the West Buru Basin. The island is located in Maluku Province, with its capital city named Namlea. The island is divided into 10 districts, namely District Kepalamadan, Airbuaya District, Wapelau District, Namlea District, Waeapo District, Batabual District, Namrole District, Waesama District, Leksula District, and Ambalau District. The formation in this basin is Permian-Quarter. They start from the Formation Ghegan, Dalan Formation, Mefa Formation, Kuma Formation, Waeken Formation, Wakatin Formation, Ftau Formation and Leko Formation. These formations are composing this West Buru Basin. Determination of prospect area in the geothermal area with preliminary investigation stage through observation of manifestation, topographic shape and structure are found around prospect area. This is done because there is no data of earth that support the determination of prospect area more accurately. In Waepo area, electric power generated based on field observation and structural analysis, geothermal area of ​Waeapo was approximately 6 km², with reference to the SNI 'Classification of Geothermal Potential' (No.03-5012-1999), an area of ​​1 km² is assumed to be 12.5 MWe. The speculative potential of this area is (Q) = 6 x 12.5 MWe = 75 MWe. In the Bata Bual area, the geothermal prospect projected 4 km², the speculative potential of the Bata Bual area is worth (Q) = 4 x 12.5 MWe = 50 MWe. In Kepala Madan area, based on the estimation of manifestation area, there is a wide area of ​​prospect in Kepala Madan area about 4 km². The geothermal energy potential of the speculative level in Kepala Madan district is (Q) = 4 x 12.5 MWe = 50 MWe. These three areas are the largest geothermal potential on the island of West Buru. From the above research, it can be concluded that there is potential in West Buru Island. Further exploration is needed to find greater potential. Therefore, researchers want to explain the geothermal potential contained in the West Buru Basin, within the scope of West Buru Island. This potential can be utilized for the community of West Buru Island.

Keywords: West Buru basin, West Buru island, potential, Waepo, Bata Bual, Kepala Madan

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9111 Reconnaissance Investigation of Thermal Springs in the Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria by Remote Sensing

Authors: N. Tochukwu, M. Mukhopadhyay, A. Mohamed


It is no new that Nigeria faces a continual power shortage problem due to its vast population power demand and heavy reliance on nonrenewable forms of energy such as thermal power or fossil fuel. Many researchers have recommended using geothermal energy as an alternative; however, Past studies focus on the geophysical & geochemical investigation of this energy in the sedimentary and basement complex; only a few studies incorporated the remote sensing methods. Therefore, in this study, the preliminary examination of geothermal resources in the Middle Benue was carried out using satellite imagery in ArcMap. Landsat 8 scene (TIR, NIR, Red spectral bands) was used to estimate the Land Surface Temperature (LST). The Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC) technique was used to classify sites with very low, low, moderate, and high LST. The intermediate and high classification happens to be possible geothermal zones, and they occupy 49% of the study area (38077km2). Riverline were superimposed on the LST layer, and the identification tool was used to locate high temperate sites. Streams that overlap on the selected sites were regarded as geothermal springs as. Surprisingly, the LST results show lower temperatures (<36°C) at the famous thermal springs (Awe & Wukari) than some unknown rivers/streams found in Kwande (38°C), Ussa, (38°C), Gwer East (37°C), Yola Cross & Ogoja (36°C). Studies have revealed that temperature increases with depth. However, this result shows excellent geothermal resources potential as it is expected to exceed the minimum geothermal gradient of 25.47 with an increase in depth. Therefore, further investigation is required to estimate the depth of the causative body, geothermal gradients, and the sustainability of the reservoirs by geophysical and field exploration. This method has proven to be cost-effective in locating geothermal resources in the study area. Consequently, the same procedure is recommended to be applied in other regions of the Precambrian basement complex and the sedimentary basins in Nigeria to save a preliminary field survey cost.

Keywords: ArcMap, geothermal resources, Landsat 8, LST, thermal springs, MLC

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9110 Empowering Indigenous Epistemologies in Geothermal Development

Authors: Te Kīpa Kēpa B. Morgan, Oliver W. Mcmillan, Dylan N. Taute, Tumanako N. Fa'aui


Epistemologies are ways of knowing. Indigenous Peoples are aware that they do not perceive and experience the world in the same way as others. So it is important when empowering Indigenous epistemologies, such as that of the New Zealand Māori, to also be able to represent a scientific understanding within the same analysis. A geothermal development assessment tool has been developed by adapting the Mauri Model Decision Making Framework. Mauri is a metric that is capable of representing the change in the life-supporting capacity of things and collections of things. The Mauri Model is a method of grouping mauri indicators as dimension averages in order to allow holistic assessment and also to conduct sensitivity analyses for the effect of worldview bias. R-shiny is the coding platform used for this Vision Mātauranga research which has created an expert decision support tool (DST) that combines a stakeholder assessment of worldview bias with an impact assessment of mauri-based indicators to determine the sustainability of proposed geothermal development. The initial intention was to develop guidelines for quantifying mātauranga Māori impacts related to geothermal resources. To do this, three typical scenarios were considered: a resource owner wishing to assess the potential for new geothermal development; another party wishing to assess the environmental and cultural impacts of the proposed development; an assessment that focuses on the holistic sustainability of the resource, including its surface features. Indicator sets and measurement thresholds were developed that are considered necessary considerations for each assessment context and these have been grouped to represent four mauri dimensions that mirror the four well-being criteria used for resource management in Aotearoa, New Zealand. Two case studies have been conducted to test the DST suitability for quantifying mātauranga Māori and other biophysical factors related to a geothermal system. This involved estimating mauri0meter values for physical features such as temperature, flow rate, frequency, colour, and developing indicators to also quantify qualitative observations about the geothermal system made by Māori. A retrospective analysis has then been conducted to verify different understandings of the geothermal system. The case studies found that the expert DST is useful for geothermal development assessment, especially where hapū (indigenous sub-tribal grouping) are conflicted regarding the benefits and disadvantages of their’ and others’ geothermal developments. These results have been supplemented with evaluations for the cumulative impacts of geothermal developments experienced by different parties using integration techniques applied to the time history curve of the expert DST worldview bias weighted plotted against the mauri0meter score. Cumulative impacts represent the change in resilience or potential of geothermal systems, which directly assists with the holistic interpretation of change from an Indigenous Peoples’ perspective.

Keywords: decision support tool, holistic geothermal assessment, indigenous knowledge, mauri model decision-making framework

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9109 Design of an Innovative Geothermal Heat Pump with a PCM Thermal Storage

Authors: Emanuele Bonamente, Andrea Aquino


This study presents an innovative design for geothermal heat pumps with the goal of maximizing the system efficiency (COP - Coefficient of Performance), reducing the soil use (e.g. length/depth of geothermal boreholes) and initial investment costs. Based on experimental data obtained from a two-year monitoring of a working prototype implemented for a commercial building in the city of Perugia, Italy, an upgrade of the system is proposed and the performance is evaluated via CFD simulations. The prototype was designed to include a thermal heat storage (i.e. water), positioned between the boreholes and the heat pump, acting as a flywheel. Results from the monitoring campaign show that the system is still capable of providing the required heating and cooling energy with a reduced geothermal installation (approx. 30% of the standard length). In this paper, an optimization of the system is proposed, re-designing the heat storage to include phase change materials (PCMs). Two stacks of PCMs, characterized by melting temperatures equal to those needed to maximize the system COP for heating and cooling, are disposed within the storage. During the working cycle, the latent heat of the PCMs is used to heat (cool) the water used by the heat pump while the boreholes independently cool (heat) the storage. The new storage is approximately 10 times smaller and can be easily placed close to the heat pump in the technical room. First, a validation of the CFD simulation of the storage is performed against experimental data. The simulation is then used to test possible alternatives of the original design and it is finally exploited to evaluate the PCM-storage performance for two different configurations (i.e. single- and double-loop systems).

Keywords: geothermal heat pump, phase change materials (PCM), energy storage, renewable energies

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9108 A Comparative Study on Supercritical C02 and Water as Working Fluids in a Heterogeneous Geothermal Reservoir

Authors: Musa D. Aliyu, Ouahid Harireche, Colin D. Hills


The incapability of supercritical C02 to transport and dissolve mineral species from the geothermal reservoir to the fracture apertures and other important parameters in heat mining makes it an attractive substance for Heat extraction from hot dry rock. In other words, the thermodynamic efficiency of hot dry rock (HDR) reservoirs also increases if supercritical C02 is circulated at excess temperatures of 3740C without the drawbacks connected with silica dissolution. Studies have shown that circulation of supercritical C02 in homogenous geothermal reservoirs is quite encouraging; in comparison to that of the water. This paper aims at investigating the aforementioned processes in the case of the heterogeneous geothermal reservoir located at the Soultz site (France). The MultiPhysics finite element package COMSOL with an interface of coupling different processes encountered in the geothermal reservoir stimulation is used. A fully coupled numerical model is developed to study the thermal and hydraulic processes in order to predict the long-term operation of the basic reservoir parameters that give optimum energy production. The results reveal that the temperature of the SCC02 at the production outlet is higher than that of water in long-term stimulation; as the temperature is an essential ingredient in rating the energy production. It is also observed that the mass flow rate of the SCC02 is far more favourable compared to that of water.

Keywords: FEM, HDR, heterogeneous reservoir, stimulation, supercritical C02

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9107 Hg Anomalies and Soil Temperature Distribution to Delineate Upflow and Outflow Zone in Bittuang Geothermal Prospect Area, south Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors: Adhitya Mangala, Yobel


Bittuang geothermal prospect area located at Tana Toraja district, South Sulawesi. The geothermal system of the area related to Karua Volcano eruption product. This area has surface manifestation such as fumarole, hot springs, sinter silica and mineral alteration. Those prove that there are hydrothermal activities in the subsurface. However, the project and development of the area have not implemented yet. One of the important elements in geothermal exploration is to determine upflow and outflow zone. This information very useful to identify the target for geothermal wells and development which it is a risky task. The methods used in this research were Mercury (Hg) anomalies in soil, soil and manifestation temperature distribution and fault fracture density from 93 km² research area. Hg anomalies performed to determine the distribution of hydrothermal alteration. Soil and manifestation temperature distribution were conducted to estimate heat distribution. Fault fracture density (FFD) useful to determine fracture intensity and trend from surface observation. Those deliver Hg anomaly map, soil and manifestation temperature map that combined overlayed to fault fracture density map and geological map. Then, the conceptual model made from north – south, and east – west cross section to delineate upflow and outflow zone in this area. The result shows that upflow zone located in northern – northeastern of the research area with the increase of elevation and decrease of Hg anomalies and soil temperature. The outflow zone located in southern - southeastern of the research area which characterized by chloride, chloride - bicarbonate geothermal fluid type, higher soil temperature, and Hg anomalies. The range of soil temperature distribution from 16 – 19 °C in upflow and 19 – 26.5 °C in the outflow. The range of Hg from 0 – 200 ppb in upflow and 200 – 520 ppb in the outflow. Structural control of the area show northwest – southeast trend. The boundary between upflow and outflow zone in 1550 – 1650 m elevation. This research delivers the conceptual model with innovative methods that useful to identify a target for geothermal wells, project, and development in Bittuang geothermal prospect area.

Keywords: Bittuang geothermal prospect area, Hg anomalies, soil temperature, upflow and outflow zone

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9106 LWD Acquisition of Caliper and Drilling Mechanics in a Geothermal Well, A Case Study in Sorik Marapi Field – Indonesia

Authors: Vinda B. Manurung, Laila Warkhaida, David Hutabarat, Sentanu Wisnuwardhana, Christovik Simatupang, Dhani Sanjaya, Ashadi, Redha B. Putra, Kiki Yustendi


The geothermal drilling environment presents many obstacles that have limited the use of directional drilling and logging-while-drilling (LWD) technologies, such as borehole washout, mud losses, severe vibration, and high temperature. The case study presented in this paper demonstrates a practice to enhance data logging in geothermal drilling by deploying advanced telemetry and LWD technologies. This operation is aiming continuous improvement in geothermal drilling operations. The case study covers a 12.25-in. hole section of well XX-05 in Pad XX of the Sorik Marapi Geothermal Field. LWD string consists of electromagnetic (EM) telemetry, pressure while drilling (PWD), vibration (DDSr), and acoustic calliper (ACAL). Through this tool configuration, the operator acquired drilling mechanics and caliper logs in real-time and recorded mode, enabling effective monitoring of wellbore stability. Throughout the real-time acquisition, EM-PPM telemetry had provided a three times faster data rate to the surface unit. With the integration of Caliper data and Drilling mechanics data (vibration and ECD -equivalent circulating density), the borehole conditions were more visible to the directional driller, allowing for better control of drilling parameters to minimize vibration and achieve optimum hole cleaning in washed-out or tight formation sequences. After reaching well TD, the recorded data from the caliper sensor indicated an average of 8.6% washout for the entire 12.25-in. interval. Washout intervals were compared with loss occurrence, showing potential for the caliper to be used as an indirect indicator of fractured intervals and validating fault trend prognosis. This LWD case study has given added value in geothermal borehole characterization for both drilling operation and subsurface. Identified challenges while running LWD in this geothermal environment need to be addressed for future improvements, such as the effect of tool eccentricity and the impact of vibration. A perusal of both real-time and recorded drilling mechanics and caliper data has opened various possibilities for maximizing sensor usage in future wells.

Keywords: geothermal drilling, geothermal formation, geothermal technologies, logging-while-drilling, vibration, caliper, case study

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9105 Thermal and Radon-222 Appraisal in Geothermal Aquifer System, Southeastern Tunisia

Authors: Agoubi Belgacem, Adel Kharroubi


Geothermal groundwater is the main water source to supply various sectors in El Hamma city, southeastern Tunisia. This region was long the destination of thousands of people from Tunisia and neighboring countries for care and bathing. The main objective of this study is to understand the groundwater mineralization origins and factors that control. The second goal is the appraisal of radon in geothermal groundwater in the study area. For this aim, geothermal groundwater was sampled and collected from different locations (thermal baths and deep wells). Physical parameters were measured and major ions were analyzed. Results reveal three water types. The water first type has Na-Mg-Ca-SO4-Cl facies and T>55°C. The second water type dominated by Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 facies with a temperature < 45 °C. However the third water type is dominated by Ca-SO4-Na-Cl-Mg. The three water types may be controlled by depth and geology. The first represent groundwater from deep aquifer (lower cretaceous), the second type was the shallow aquifer and the first is mixed water from deep and shallow water with a temperature ranging from 45 to 55°C. Measured Radon shows that shallow aquifer has a higher 222Rn concentration (677 to 2903 Bq.m-3) than deep water (203 to 1100 Bq.m-3). R-222 in El Hamma thermal aquifer was controlled by structures, porosity and permeability of aquifers. Geostatistical analyses of hydrogeological data and radon activities confirm the vertical flow and communication between deep and shallow aquifers through vertical faults system.

Keywords: Radon-222, geothermal, water, environment, Tunisia

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