Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 57

Search results for: granite

57 Influence of Pulverized Granite on the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Concrete

Authors: Kwabena A. Boakye, Eugene Atiemo, Trinity A. Tagbor, Delali Adjei


The use of mineral admixtures such as metakaolin, GGBS, fly ash, etc., in concrete is a common practice in the world. However, the only admixture available for use in the Ghanaian construction industry is calcined clay pozzolan. This research, therefore, studies the alternate use of granite dust, a by-product from stone quarrying, as a mineral admixture in concrete. Granite dust, which is usually damped as waste or as an erosion control material, was collected and pulverized to about 75µm. Some physical, chemical, and mineralogical tests were conducted on the granite dust. 5%-25% ordinary Portland cement of Class 42.5N was replaced with granite dust which was used as the main binder in the preparation of 150mm×150mm×150mm concrete cubes according to methods prescribed by BS EN 12390-2:2000. Properties such as workability, compressive strength, flexural strength, water absorption, and durability were determined. Compressive and flexural strength results indicate that granite dust could be used to replace ordinary Portland cement up to an optimum of 15% to achieve C25. Water permeability increased as the granite dust admixture content increased from 5% - 25%. Durability studies after 90 days proved that even though strength decreased as granite dust content increased, the concrete containing granite dust had better resistance to sulphate attack comparable to the reference cement. Pulverized granite can be used to partially replace ordinary Portland cement in concrete.

Keywords: admixture, granite dust, permeability, pozzolans

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56 Geology and Geochemistry of the Paleozoic Basement, Western Algeria

Authors: Hadj Mohamed Nacera, Boutaleb Abdelhak


The Hercynian granite in Western Algeria, has a typical high-K calc-alkaline evolution, with peraluminous trend U-Pb zircon geochronology yielded the minimum emplacement age of 297 ± 1 Ma. It shows dark microgranular enclaves, veins of pegmatite, aplite, tourmaline and quartz. The granite plutons selected for this study are formed during the late Variscian phase and intrudes the Lower Silurian metasediments which were affected by the major Hercynian folding phases. An important Quartz vein field cross-cutting metasedimentary and granitic rocks. Invisible gold occurs in a very small arsenopyrite minerals. The purpose of this study is to highlight the relationship between the gold mineralisation and the intrusion by combining petrographic and geochemic studies.

Keywords: Algeria, basement, geochemestry, granite

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55 Engineering Properties of Different Lithological Varieties of a Singapore Granite

Authors: Louis Ngai Yuen Wong, Varun Maruvanchery


The Bukit Timah Granite, which is a major rock formation in Singapore, encompasses different rock types such as granite, adamellite, and granodiorite with various hybrid rocks. The present study focuses on the Central Singapore Granite found in the Mandai area. Even within this small aerial extent, lithological variations with respect to the composition, texture as well as the grain size have been recognized in this igneous body. Over the years, the research effort on the Bukit Timah Granite has been focused on achieving a better understanding of its engineering properties in association with civil engineering projects. To our best understanding, a few types of research attempted to systematically investigate the influence of grain size, mineral composition, texture etc. on the strength of Bukit Timah Granite rocks in a comprehensive manner. In typical local industry practices, the different lithological varieties are not differentiated, but all are grouped under Bukit Timah Granite during core logging and the subsequent determination of engineering properties. To address such a major gap in the local engineering geological practice, a preliminary study is conducted on the variations of uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) in seven distinctly different lithological varieties found in the Bukit Timah Granite. Other physical properties including Young’s modulus, P-wave velocity and dry density determined from laboratory testing will also be discussed. The study is supplemented by a petrographical thin section examination. In addition, the specimen failure mode is classified and further correlated with the lithological varieties by carefully observing the details of crack initiation, propagation and coalescence processes in the specimens undergoing loading tests using a high-speed camera. The outcome of this research, which is the first of its type in Singapore, will have a direct implication on the sampling and design practices in the field of civil engineering and particularly underground space development in Singapore.

Keywords: Bukit Timah Granite, lithological variety, thin section study, high speed video, failure mode

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54 Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Assessing Land Cover Changes within Granite Quarries around Brits Area, South Africa

Authors: Refilwe Moeletsi


Dimension stone quarrying around Brits and Belfast areas started in the early 1930s and has been growing rapidly since then. Environmental impacts associated with these quarries have not been documented, and hence this study aims at detecting any change in the environment that might have been caused by these activities. Landsat images that were used to assess land use/land cover changes in Brits quarries from 1998 - 2015. A supervised classification using maximum likelihood classifier was applied to classify each image into different land use/land cover types. Classification accuracy was assessed using Google Earth™ as a source of reference data. Post-classification change detection method was used to determine changes. The results revealed significant increase in granite quarries and corresponding decrease in vegetation cover within the study region.

Keywords: remote sensing, GIS, change detection, granite quarries

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53 Reconstructing the Trace of Mesozoic Subduction and Its Implication on Stratigraphy Correlation between Deep Marine Sediment and Granite: Case Study of Garba Complex, South Sumatera

Authors: Fadlan Atmaja Nursiwan, Ugi Kurnia Gusti


Garba Hill, located in Tekana Village, South Sumatera Province is comprised to South Sumatra Basin and classified as back arc basin. This area is entered as an active margin of Sundaland which experiences subduction several times since Mesozoic to recent time. The traces of Mesozoic subduction in the southern part of Sumatra island are exposed in Garba Hill area. The aim of this investigation is to study the tectonic changes in the first phase in Mesozoic era at the active margin of Sundaland which causes the rocks assemblage in Garba hill consist of continental and oceanic plate rocks which the correlation between those rocks show indistinct relation. This investigation is conducted by field observation in Tekana village and Lubar Village, Muara Dua, South Sumatra along with laboratory analysis included fossil and geochemistry analysis of radiolarian chert, petrography analysis of granite and basalt, and structural modelling. Fossil and geochemistry analysis of radiolarian chert and geochemistry of granite rocks shown the relation between the two rocks and Mesozoic subduction of Woyla terrane on western margin of Sundaland. Petrography analysis from granite and basalt depict the tectonic affinity of rocks. Moreover, structural analysis showed the changes of lineation direction from N-S to WNW-ESE.

Keywords: granite, mesozoic, radiolarian, subduction traces

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52 Slope Stability Study at Jalan Tun Sardon and Sungai Batu, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia by Using 2-D Resistivity Method

Authors: Muhamad Iqbal Mubarak Faharul Azman, Azim Hilmy Mohd Yusof, Nur Azwin Ismail, Noer El Hidayah Ismail


Landslides and rock falls are the examples of environmental and engineering problems in Malaysia. There are various methods that can be applied for the environmental and engineering problems but geophysical methods are seldom applied as the main investigation technique. This paper aims to study the slope stability by using 2-D resistivity method at Jalan Tun Sardon and Sungai Batu, Pulau Pinang. These areas are considered as highly potential for unstable slope in Penang Island based on recent cases of rockfall and landslide reported especially during raining season. At both study areas, resistivity values greater than 5000 ohm-m are detected and considered as the fresh granite. The weathered granite is indicated by resistivity value of 750-1500 ohm-m with depth of < 14 meters at Sungai Batu area while at Jalan Tun Sardon area, the weathered granite with resistivity values of 750-2000 ohm-m is found at depth < 14 meter at distance 0-90 meter but at distance of 95-150 meter, the weathered granite is found at depth < 26 meter. Saturated zone is detected only at Sungai Batu with resistivity value <250 ohm-m at distance 100-120 meter. A fracture is detected at distance about 70 meter at Jalan Tun Sardon area. Unstable slope is expected to be affected by the weathered granite that dominates the subsurface of the study areas along with triggering factor such as heavy rainfall.

Keywords: 2-D resistivity, environmental issue, landslide, slope stability

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51 Estimation of Tensile Strength for Granitic Rocks by Using Discrete Element Approach

Authors: Aliakbar Golshani, Armin Ramezanzad


Tensile strength which is an important parameter of the rock for engineering applications is difficult to measure directly through physical experiment (i.e. uniaxial tensile test). Therefore, indirect experimental methods such as Brazilian test have been taken into consideration and some relations have been proposed in order to obtain the tensile strength for rocks indirectly. In this research, to calculate numerically the tensile strength for granitic rocks, Particle Flow Code in three-dimension (PFC3D) software were used. First, uniaxial compression tests were simulated and the tensile strength was determined for Inada granite (from a quarry in Kasama, Ibaraki, Japan). Then, by simulating Brazilian test condition for Inada granite, the tensile strength was indirectly calculated again. Results show that the tensile strength calculated numerically agrees well with the experimental results obtained from uniaxial tensile tests on Inada granite samples.

Keywords: numerical simulation, particle flow code, PFC, tensile strength, Brazilian Test

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50 Petrography and Mineral Chemical Study of Younger Quartzofeldspathic Bodies in Chakdara Granite Gneiss, Northwest Pakistan

Authors: Natasha Khan, Muhammad Arif


The Chakdara granite gneiss is an extension of Swat granite gneisses. It is characterized by biotite bands and the occurrence of fluorite and blue beryl. Younger phases (quartzofeldspathic veins) occur within gneisses are characterized by various mineral phases that include beryl, biotite, phlogopite, annite, muscovite, ilmenite-pyrophanite, monazite, zircon, apatite, magnetite and minor amounts of sphene, rutile, and ulvöspinel. The present paper is an attempt to address the detailed mineral chemistry and genesis of minerals occurring in these younger phases. These quartzofeldspathic veins are assumed to be of hydrothermal origin on the basis of Th2O content in monazite, Zr/Hf ratio in zircon, REE enrichment, and Ce/Y ratio of allanite. Biotite in the present study is characterized by high F content. Muscovite is phengitic and contains very high amounts of Fe as compared to the normal muscovites. The Th2O content for monazite is low (0.81-1.56 wt. %) like those of hydrothermal origin. The Zr/Hf ratio in zircon is variable for different analyses but mostly falls in the range of ~ 41 and above. Allanite is generally unaltered and characterized by LREE enrichment. The properties of beryl and columbite in the present study show pegmatitic features.

Keywords: Beryl, Chakdarra granite gneiss, micas, quartzofeldspathic veins

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49 Liquid Nitrogen as Fracturing Method for Hot Dry Rocks in Kazakhstan

Authors: Sotirios Longinos, Anna Loskutova, Assel Tolegenova, Assem Imanzhussip, Lei Wang


Hot, dry rock (HDR) has substantial potential as a thermal energy source. It has been exploited by hydraulic fracturing to extract heat and generate electricity, which is a well-developed technique known for creating the enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). These days, LN2 is being tested as an environmental friendly fracturing fluid to generate densely interconnected crevices to augment heat exchange efficiency and production. This study examines experimentally the efficacy of LN2 cryogenic fracturing for granite samples in Kazakhstan with immersion method. A comparison of two different experimental models is carried out. The first mode is rock heating along with liquid nitrogen treatment (heating with freezing time), and the second mode is multiple times of heating along with liquid nitrogen treatment (heating with LN2 freezing-thawing cycles). The experimental results indicated that with multiple heating and LN2-treatment cycles, the permeability of granite first ameliorates with increasing number of cycles and later reaches a plateau after a certain number of cycles. On the other hand, density, P-wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, elastic modulus, and tensile strength indicate a downward trend with increasing heating and treatment cycles. The thermal treatment cycles do not seem to have an obvious effect on the Poisson’s ratio. The changing rate of granite rock properties decreases as the number of cycles increases. The deterioration of granite primarily happens within the early few cycles. The heating temperature during the cycles shows an important influence on the deterioration of granite. More specifically, mechanical deterioration and permeability amelioration become more remarkable as the heating temperature increases.LN2 fracturing generates many positives compared to conventional fracturing methods such as little water consumption, requirement of zero chemical additives, lessening of reservoir damage, and so forth. Based on the experimental observations, LN2 can work as a promising waterless fracturing fluid to stimulate hot, dry rock reservoirs.

Keywords: granite, hydraulic fracturing, liquid nitrogen, Kazakhstan

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48 Rare Earth Elements and Radioactivity of Granitoid Rocks at Abu Marw Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

Authors: Adel H.El-Afandy, Abd Alrahman Embaby, Mona A. El Harairey


Abu Marw area is located in the southeastern part of the Eastern Desert, about 150km south east of Aswan. Abu Marw area is mainly covered by late Proterozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks. These basement rocks are nonconformably overlain by late Cretaceous Nubian sandstones in the western and northern parts of the areas. Abu Marw granitoid batholiths comprises a co-magmatic calc alkaline I type peraluminous suite of rocks ranging in composition from tonalite, granodiorite, monzogranite, syenogranite to alkali feldspar granite. The studied tonalite and granodiorite samples have ΣREE lower than the average REE values (250ppm) of granitic rocks, while the monzogranite, syenogranite and alkali feldspar granite samples have ΣREE above the average REE values of granitic rocks. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the considered granites display a gull-wing shape, characterized by large to moderately fractionated patterns and high LREE relative to the MREE and HREE contents. Furthermore, the studied rocks have a steadily decreasing Eu/Eu* values from the tonalite to the alkali feldspar granite with simultaneous increase in the ΣREE contents. The average U contents in different granitic rocks.

Keywords: granite, rare earth element, radioactivity, Abu Marw, south eastern desert

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47 Effect of Composite Material on Damping Capacity Improvement of Cutting Tool in Machining Operation Using Taguchi Approach

Authors: Siamak Ghorbani, Nikolay Ivanovich Polushin


Chatter vibrations, occurring during cutting process, cause vibration between the cutting tool and workpiece, which deteriorates surface roughness and reduces tool life. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of cutting parameters and tool construction on surface roughness and vibration in turning of aluminum alloy AA2024. A new design of cutting tool is proposed, which is filled up with epoxy granite in order to improve damping capacity of the tool. Experiments were performed at the lathe using carbide cutting insert coated with TiC and two different cutting tools made of AISI 5140 steel. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was applied to design of experiment and to optimize cutting conditions. By the help of signal-to-noise ratio and analysis of variance the optimal cutting condition and the effect of the cutting parameters on surface roughness and vibration were determined. Effectiveness of Taguchi method was verified by confirmation test. It was revealed that new cutting tool with epoxy granite has reduced vibration and surface roughness due to high damping properties of epoxy granite in toolholder.

Keywords: ANOVA, damping capacity, surface roughness, Taguchi method, vibration

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46 An Analysis on Gravel of Sand-Gravel Bar at Gneiss or Granite Area of the Upper Hongcheon River in South Korea

Authors: Man Kyu Kim, Hansu Shin


This study is an analysis on gravel of sand-gravel bar that stretches variously in the Duchon and Naechon stream basins, which are situated on Hong-Cheon River (a well-developed sand-gravel bar in upstream river) basins in Korea. Naechon stream mostly flows through granite zone but Duchon stream mostly flows through gneiss zone. The characteristics of gravel in the sand-gravel bar of these two branches in the upper Hongcheon River were analyzed in this study in order to understand the geomorphic development of streams depending on the differences of bedrock. Through the analysis on the roundness and flatness of gravel, we figured out an irregular trend following the increase in supply of granite gravel and gneiss gravel as we traveled downstream. The result shows that the two basins have uppermost small basin condition reflecting the mountain valley environment although it may be difficult to do an equivalent comparison to other roundness researches in Korea or in Europe. This study conducted an analysis on gravels found in small scale streams unlike the previous studies trend which mostly studies large rivers. The research provides an opportunity to offer basic data for continuous comparison research on various small basins.

Keywords: flatness, geology, roundness, sand-gravel bar

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45 Numerical Simulation of Fracturing Behaviour of Pre-Cracked Crystalline Rock Using a Cohesive Grain-Based Distinct Element Model

Authors: Mahdi Saadat, Abbas Taheri


Understanding the cracking response of crystalline rocks at mineralogical scale is of great importance during the design procedure of mining structures. A grain-based distinct element model (GBM) is employed to numerically study the cracking response of Barre granite at micro- and macro-scales. The GBM framework is augmented with a proposed distinct element-based cohesive model to reproduce the micro-cracking response of the inter- and intra-grain contacts. The cohesive GBM framework is implemented in PFC2D distinct element codes. The microstructural properties of Barre granite are imported in PFC2D to generate synthetic specimens. The microproperties of the model is calibrated against the laboratory uniaxial compressive and Brazilian split tensile tests. The calibrated model is then used to simulate the fracturing behaviour of pre-cracked Barre granite with different flaw configurations. The numerical results of the proposed model demonstrate a good agreement with the experimental counterparts. The GBM framework proposed thus appears promising for further investigation of the influence of grain microstructure and mineralogical properties on the cracking behaviour of crystalline rocks.

Keywords: discrete element modelling, cohesive grain-based model, crystalline rock, fracturing behavior

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44 Heat and Radiation Influence on Granite-Galena Concrete for Nuclear Shielding Applications

Authors: Mohamed A. Safan, Walid Khalil, Amro Fathalla


Advances in concrete technology and implementation of new materials made it possible to produce special types of concrete for different structural applications. In this research, granite and galena were incorporated in different concrete mixes to obtain high performance concrete for shielding against gamma radiations in nuclear facilities. Chemically prepared industrial galena was used to replace different volume fractions of the fine aggregate. The test specimens were exposed to different conditions of heating cycles and irradiation. The exposed specimens and counterpart unexposed specimens were tested to evaluate the density, the compressive strength and the attenuation coefficient. The proposed mixes incorporating galena showed better performance in terms of compressive strength and gamma attenuation capacity, especially after the exposure to different heating cycles.

Keywords: concrete, galena, shielding, attenuation, radiation

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43 Assessment of Environmental Impacts and Determination of Sustainability Level of BOOG Granite Mine Using a Mathematical Model

Authors: Gholamhassan Kakha, Mohsen Jami, Daniel Alex Merino Natorce


Sustainable development refers to the creation of a balance between the development and the environment too; it consists of three key principles namely environment, society and economy. These three parameters are related to each other and the imbalance occurs in each will lead to the disparity of the other parts. Mining is one of the most important tools of the economic growth and social welfare in many countries. Meanwhile, assessment of the environmental impacts has directed to the attention of planners toward the natural environment of the areas surrounded by mines and allowing for monitoring and controlling of the current situation by the designers. In this look upon, a semi-quantitative model using a matrix method is presented for assessing the environmental impacts in the BOOG Granite Mine located in Sistan and Balouchestan, one of the provinces of Iran for determining the effective factors and environmental components. For accomplishing this purpose, the initial data are collected by the experts at the next stage; the effect of the factors affects each environmental component is determined by specifying the qualitative viewpoints. Based on the results, factors including air quality, ecology, human health and safety along with the environmental damages resulted from mining activities in that area. Finally, the results gained from the assessment of the environmental impact are used to evaluate the sustainability by using Philips mathematical model. The results show that the sustainability of this area is weak, so environmental preventive measures are recommended to reduce the environmental damages to its components.

Keywords: sustainable development, environmental impacts' assessment, BOOG granite, Philips mathematical model

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42 Determining Water Infiltration Zone Using 2-D Resistivity Imaging Technique

Authors: Azim Hilmy Mohamad Yusof, Muhamad Iqbal Mubarak Faharul Azman, Nur Azwin Ismail, Noer El Hidayah Ismail


Infiltration is the process by which precipitation or water soaks into subsurface soils and moves into rocks through cracks and pore spaces. This paper explains how the water infiltration will be identified using 2-D resistivity imaging. Padang Minden, in Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang has been chosen as the survey area during this study. The study area consists of microcline granite with grain size of medium to coarse. 2-D Resistivity Imaging survey is used to detect subsurface layer for many years by making measurements on the ground surface. The result shows that resistivity value of 0.015 Ωm - 10 Ωm represent the salt water intrusion zone while the resistivity value of 11 Ωm - 100 Ωm is suggested as the boundary zone between the salt water intrusion zone and low saturated zone.

Keywords: 2-D resistivity imaging, microcline granite, salt water intrusion, water infiltration

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41 Petrograpgy and Major Elements Chemistry of Granitic rocks of the Nagar Parkar Igneous Complex, Tharparkar, Sindh

Authors: Amanullah Lagharil, Majid Ali Laghari, M. Qasim, Jan. M., Asif Khan, M. Hassan Agheem


The Nagar Parkar area in southeastern Sindh is a part of the Thar Desert adjacent to the Runn of Kutchh, and covers 480 km2. It contains exposures of a variety of igneous rocks referred to as the Nagar Parkar Igneous Complex. The complex comprises rocks belonging to at least six phases of magmatism, from oldest to youngest: 1) amphibolitic basement rocks, 2) riebeckite-aegirine grey granite, 3) biotite-hornblende pink granite, 4) acid dykes, 5) rhyolite “plugs”, and basic dykes (Jan et al., 1997). The last three of these are not significant in volume. Radiometric dates are lacking but the grey and pink granites are petrographically comparable to the Siwana and Jalore plutons, respectively, emplaced in the Malani volcanic series. Based on these similarities and proximity, the phase 2 to 6 bodies in the Nagar Parkar may belong to the Late Proterozoic (720–745 Ma) Malani magmatism that covers large areas in western Rajasthan. Khan et al. (2007) have reported a 745 ±30 – 755 ±22 Ma U-Th-Pb age on monazite from the pink granite. The grey granite is essentially composed of perthitic feldspar (microperthite, mesoperthite), quartz, small amount of plagioclase and, characteristically, sodic minerals such as riebeckite and aegirine. A few samples lack aegirine. Fe-Ti oxide and minute, well-developed crystals of zircon occur in almost all the studied samples. Tourmaline, fluorite, apatite and rutile occur in only some samples and astrophyllite is rare. Allanite, sphene and leucoxene occur as minor accessories along with local epidote. The pink granite is mostly leucocratic, but locally rich in biotite (up to 7 %). It is essentially made up of microperthite and quartz, with local microcline, and minor plagioclase (albite-oligoclase). Some rocks contain sufficient oligoclase and can be called adamellite or quartz mozonite. Biotite and hornblende are main accessory minerals along with iron oxide, but in a few samples are without hornblende. Fayalitic olivine, zircon, sphene, apatite, tourmaline, fluorite, allanite and cassiterite occur as sporadic accessory minerals. Epidote, carbonate, sericite and muscovite are produced due to the alteration of feldspar. This work concerns the major element geochemistry and comparison of the principal granitic rocks of Nagar Parkar. According to the scheme of De La Roche et al. (1980), majority of the grey and pink granites classify as alkali granite, 20 % as granite and 10 % as granodiorite. When evaluated on the basis of Shand's indices (after Maniar and Piccoli, 1989), the grey and pink granites span all three fields (peralkaline, metaluminous and peraluminous). Of the analysed grey granites, 67 % classify as peralkaline, 20 % as peraluminous and 10 % as metaluminous, while 50 % of pink granites classify as peralkaline, 30 % metaluminous and 20 % peraluminous.

Keywords: petrography, nagar parker, granites, geological sciences

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40 Petrogenesis of the Neoproterozoic Rocks of Megele Area, Asosa, Western Ethiopia

Authors: Temesgen Oljira, Olugbenga Akindeji Okunlola, Akinade Shadrach Olatunji, Dereje Ayalew, Bekele Ayele Bedada


The Western Ethiopian Shield (WES) is underlain by volcano-sedimentary terranes, gneissic terranes, and ophiolitic rocks intruded by different granitoid bodies. For the past few years, Neoproterozoic rocks of the Megele area in the western part of the WES have been explored. Understanding the geology of the area and assessing the mineralized area's economic potential requires petrological, geochemical, and geological characterization of the Neoproterozoic granitoids and associated metavolcanic rocks. Thus, the geological, geochemical, and petrogenetic features of Neoproterozoic granitoids and associated metavolcanic rocks were elucidated using a combination of field mapping, petrological, and geochemical study. The Megele area is part of a low-grade volcano-sedimentary zone that has been intruded by mafic (dolerite dyke) and granitoid intrusions (granodiorite, diorite, granite gneiss). The granodiorite, associated diorite, and granite gneiss are calc-alkaline, peraluminous to slightly metaluminous, S-type granitoids formed in volcanic arc subduction (VAG) to syn-collisional (syn-COLD) tectonic setting by fractionation of LREE-enriched, HREE-depleted basaltic magma with considerable crustal input. While the metabasalt is sub-alkaline (tholeiitic), metaluminous bodies are generated at the mid-oceanic ridge tectonic setting by partially melting HREE-depleted and LREE-enriched basaltic magma. The reworking of sediment-loaded crustal blocks at depth in a subduction zone resulted in the production of S-type granitoids. This basaltic magma was supplied from an LREE-enriched, HREE-depleted mantle.

Keywords: fractional crystallization, geochemistry, Megele, petrogenesis, s-type granite

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39 Chromite Exploration Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography in Ingessana Hill, Blue Nile State, Sudan

Authors: Mohamed A. Mohamed-Ali, Jannis Simos, Khalid M. Kheiralla


The Ingessana hills in the southern Blue Nile of Sudan are part of the southern sector of the NE-SW trending ophiolithic belt of the Arab-Nubian Shield with mid-neoproterozoic age. The rocks are mainly serpentinized and in parts highly silicified dunites especially towards the contact with the intruding Bau granite. A promising chromite mineralization zones in the area tend to be generally associated with NE-SW trending shear-zones. A detailed geophysical survey employing electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) at 34 lines were carried out over a zone of a known chromite mineralization to test feasibility of detecting and delineating the ore (if exist) and accordingly facilitate the positioning of exploratory drill holes. ERT sections were inverted with smooth constraints inversion code where the contacts between the granite and the ultramafics are showing up clearly. The continuity of mineralization along the contact is not well confirmed. However, the low-resistivity anomalies are probably recognized as potential chromite mineralization zones. These anomalies represent prime targets for further exploration by drilling, trenching or shallow pits. If the results of the drilling or excavations are positive, small open pit exploitations may produce important tonnages of chromite.

Keywords: chromite exploration, ERT, Ingessana Hills, inversion

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38 Geotechnical Design of Bridge Foundations and Approaches in Hilly Granite Formation

Authors: Q. J. Yang


This paper presents a case study of geotechnical design of bridge foundations and approaches in hilly granite formation in northern New South Wales of Australia. Firstly, the geological formation and existing cut slope conditions which have high risks of rock fall will be described. The bridge has three spans to be constructed using balanced cantilever method with a middle span of 150 m. After concept design option engineering, it was decided to change from pile foundation to pad footing with ground anchor system to optimize the bridge foundation design. The geotechnical design parameters were derived after two staged site investigations. The foundation design was carried out to satisfy both serviceability limit state and ultimate limit state during construction and in operation. It was found that the pad footing design was governed by serviceability limit state design loading cases. The design of bridge foundation also considered presence of weak rock layer intrusion and a layer of “no core” to ensure foundation stability. The precast mass concrete block system was considered for the retaining walls for the bridge approaches to resolve the constructability issue over hilly terrain. The design considered the retaining wall block sliding stability, while the overturning and internal stabilities are satisfied.

Keywords: pad footing, Hilly formation, stability, block works

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37 Analysis of High Resolution Seismic Reflection Data to Identify Different Regional Lithologies of the Zaria Batholith Located in the Basement Complex of North Central Nigeria

Authors: Collins C. Chiemeke, A. Onugba, P. Sule


High resolution seismic reflection has recently been carried out on Zaria batholith, with the aim of characterizing the granitic Zaria batholiths in terms of its lithology. The geology of the area has revealed that the older granite outcrops in the vicinity of Zaria are exposures of a syntectonics to late-tectonic granite batholiths which intruded a crystalline gneissic basement during the Pan-African Orogeny. During the data acquisition the geophone were placed at interval of 1 m, variable offset of 1 and 10 m was used. The common midpoint (CMP) method with 12 fold coverage was employed for the survey. Analysis of the generated 3D surface of the p wave velocities from different profiles for densities and bulk modulus revealed that the rock material is more consolidated in South East part of the batholith and less consolidated in the North Western part. This was in conformity with earlier identified geology of the area, with the South Eastern part majorly of granitic outcrop, while the North Western part is characterized with the exposure of gneisses and thick overburden cover. The difference in lithology was also confirmed by the difference in seismic sections and Arial satellite photograph. Hence two major lithologies were identified, the granitic and gneisses complex which are characterized by gradational boundaries.

Keywords: basement complex, batholith, high resolution, lithologies, seismic reflection

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36 Development of a Double Coating Technique for Recycled Concrete Aggregates Used in Hot-mix Asphalt

Authors: Abbaas I. Kareem, H. Nikraz


The use of recycled concrete aggregates (RCAs) in hot-mix asphalt (HMA) production could ease natural aggregate shortage and maintain sustainability in modern societies. However, it was the attached cement mortar and other impurities that make the RCAs behave differently than high-quality aggregates. Therefore, different upgrading treatments were suggested to enhance its properties before being used in HMA production. Disappointedly, some of these treatments had caused degradation to some RCA properties. In order to avoid degradation, a coating technique is developed. This technique is based on combining of two main treatments, so it is named as double coating technique (DCT). Dosages of 0%, 20%, 40% and 60% uncoated RCA, RCA coated with Cement Slag Paste (CSP), and Double Coated Recycled Concrete Aggregates (DCRCAs) in place of granite aggregates were evaluated. The results indicated that the DCT improves strength and reduces water absorption of the DCRCAs compared with uncoated RCAs and RCA coated with CSP. In addition, the DCRCA asphalt mixtures exhibit stability values higher than those obtained for mixes made with granite aggregates, uncoated RCAs and RCAs coated with CSP. Also, the DCRCA asphalt mixtures require less bitumen to achieve the optimum bitumen content (OBC) than those manufactured with uncoated RCA and RCA-coated with CSP. Although the results obtained were encouraging, more testing is required in order to examine the effect of the DCT on performance properties of DCRCA- asphalt mixtures such as rutting and fatigue.

Keywords: aggregate crashed value, double coating technique, hot mix asphalt, Marshall parameters, recycled concrete aggregates

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35 Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of Anorogenic Acid Plutonic Rocks of Khanak and Devsar of Southwestern Haryana

Authors: Naresh Kumar, Radhika Sharma, A. K. Singh


Acid plutonic rocks from the Khanak and Devsar areas of southwestern Haryana were investigated to understand their geochemical and petrogenetic characteristics and tectonic environments. Three dominant rock types (grey, grayish green and pink granites) are the principal geochemical features of Khanak and Devsar areas which reflect the dependencies of their composition on varied geological environment during the anorogenic magmatism. These rocks are enriched in SiO₂, Na₂O+K₂O, Fe/Mg, Rb, Zr, Y, Th, U, REE (Rare Earth Elements) enriched and depleted in MgO, CaO, Sr, P, Ti, Ni, Cr, V and Eu and exhibit a clear affinity to the within-plate granites that were emplaced in an extensional tectonic environment. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns show enriched LREE (Light Rare Earth Elements), moderate to strong negative Eu anomalies and flat heavy REE and grey and grayish green is different from pink granite which is enriched by Rb, Ga, Nb, Th, U, Y and HREE (Heavy Rare Earth Elements) concentrations. The composition of parental magma of both areas corresponds to mafic source contaminated with crustal materials. Petrogenetic modelling suggest that the acid plutonic rocks might have been generated from a basaltic source by partial melting (15-25%) leaving a residue with 35% plagioclase, 25% alkali feldspar, 25% quartz, 7% orthopyroxene, 5% biotite and 3% hornblende. Granites from both areas might be formed from different sources with different degree of melting for grey, grayish green and pink granites.

Keywords: A-type granite, anorogenic, Malani igneous suite, Khanak and Devsar

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34 Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of High-K Calc-Alkaline Granitic Rocks of Song, Hawal Massif, N. E. Nigeria

Authors: Ismaila Haruna


The global downfall in fossil energy prices and dwindling oil reserves in Nigeria has ignited interest in the search for alternative sources of foreign income for the country. Solid minerals, particularly Uranium and other base metals like Lead and Zinc have been considered as potentially good options. Several occurrences of this mineral have been discovered in both the sedimentary and granitic rocks of the Hawal and Adamawa Massifs as well as in the adjoining Benue Trough in northeastern Nigeria. However, the paucity of geochemical data and consequent poor petrogenetic knowledge of the granitoids in this region has made exploration works difficult. Song, a small area within the Hawal Massif, was mapped and the collected samples chemically determined in Activation Laboratory, Canada through fusion dissolution technique of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Field mapping results show that the area is underlain by Granites, diorites with pockets of gneisses and pegmatites and that these rocks consists of microcline, quartz, plagioclase, biotite, hornblende, pyroxene and accessory apatite, zircon, sphene, magnetite and opaques in various proportions. Geochemical data show continous compositional variation from diorite to granites within silica range of 52.69 to 76.04 wt %. Plot of the data on various Harker variation diagrams show distinct evolutionary trends from diorites to granites indicated by decreasing CaO, Fe2O3, MnO, MgO, Ti2O, and increasing K2O with increasing silica. This pattern is reflected in trace elements data which, in general, decrease from diorite to the granites with rising Rb and K. Tectonic, triangular and other diagrams, indicate high-K calc-alkaline trends, syn-collisional granite signatures, I-type characteristics, with CNK/A of less than 1.1 (minimum of 0.58 and maximum of 0.94) and strong potassic character (K2O/Na2O˃1). However, only the granites are slightly peraluminous containing high silica percentage (68.46 to 76.04), K2O (2.71 to 6.16 wt %) with low CaO (1.88 on the average). Chondrite normalised rare earth elements trends indicate strongly fractionated REEs and enriched LREEs with slightly increasing negative Eu anomaly from the diorite to the granite. On the basis of field and geochemical data, the granitoids are interpreted to be high-K calc-alkaline, I-type, formed as a result of hybridization between mantle-derived magma and continental source materials (probably older meta-sediments) in a syn-collisional tectonic setting.

Keywords: geochemistry, granite, Hawal Massif, Nigeria, petrogenesis, song

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33 Flow Behavior of a ScCO₂-Stimulated Geothermal Reservoir under in-situ Stress and Temperature Conditions

Authors: B. L. Avanthi Isaka, P. G. Ranjith


The development of technically-sound enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) is identified as a viable solution for world growing energy demand with immense potential, low carbon dioxide emission and importantly, as an environmentally friendly option for renewable energy production. The use of supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO₂) as the working fluid in EGSs by replacing traditional water-based method is promising due to multiple advantages prevail in ScCO₂-injection for underground reservoir stimulation. The evolution of reservoir stimulation using ScCO₂ and the understanding of the flow behavior of a ScCO₂-stimulated geothermal reservoir is vital in applying ScCO₂-EGSs as a replacement for water-based EGSs. The study is therefore aimed to investigate the flow behavior of a ScCO₂-fractured rock medium at in-situ stress and temperature conditions. A series of permeability tests were conducted for ScCO₂ fractured Harcourt granite rock specimens at 90ºC, under varying confining pressures from 5–60 MPa using the high-pressure and high-temperature tri-axial set up which can simulate deep geological conditions. The permeability of the ScCO₂-fractured rock specimens was compared with that of water-fractured rock specimens. The results show that the permeability of the ScCO₂-fractured rock specimens is one order higher than that of water-fractured rock specimens and the permeability exhibits a non-linear reduction with increasing confining pressure due to the stress-induced fracture closure. Further, the enhanced permeability of the ScCO₂-induced fracture with multiple secondary branches was explained by exploring the CT images of the rock specimens. However, a single plain fracture was induced under water-based fracturing.

Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide, fracture permeability, granite, enhanced geothermal systems

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32 Land Degradation Assessment through Spatial Data Integration in Eastern Chotanagpur Plateau, India

Authors: Avijit Mahala


Present study is primarily concerned with the physical processes and status of land degradation in a tropical plateau fringe. Chotanagpur plateau is one of the most water erosion related degraded areas of India. The granite gneiss geological formation, low to medium developed soil cover, undulating lateritic uplands, high drainage density, low to medium rainfall (100-140cm), dry tropical deciduous forest cover makes the Silabati River basin a truly representative of the tropical environment. The different physical factors have been taken for land degradation study includes- physiographic formations, hydrologic characteristics, and vegetation cover. Water erosion, vegetal degradation, soil quality decline are the major processes of land degradation in study area. Granite-gneiss geological formation is responsible for developing undulating landforms. Less developed soil profile, low organic matter, poor structure of soil causes high soil erosion. High relief and sloppy areas cause unstable environment. The dissected highland causes topographic hindrance in productivity. High drainage density and frequency in rugged upland and intense erosion in sloppy areas causes high soil erosion of the basin. Decreasing rainfall and increasing aridity (low P/PET) threats water stress condition. Green biomass cover area is also continuously declining. Through overlaying the different physical factors (geological formation, soil characteristics, geomorphological characteristics, etc.) of considerable importance in GIS environment the varying intensities of land degradation areas has been identified. Middle reaches of Silabati basin with highly eroded laterite soil cover areas are more prone to land degradation.

Keywords: land degradation, tropical environment, lateritic upland, undulating landform, aridity, GIS environment

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31 An Experimental Study on the Thermal Properties of Concrete Aggregates in Relation to Their Mineral Composition

Authors: Kyung Suk Cho, Heung Youl Kim


The analysis of the petrologic characteristics and thermal properties of crushed aggregates for concrete such as granite, gneiss, dolomite, shale and andesite found that rock-forming minerals decided the thermal properties of the aggregates. The thermal expansion coefficients of aggregates containing lots of quartz increased rapidly at 573 degrees due to quartz transition. The mass of aggregate containing carbonate minerals decreased rapidly at 750 degrees due to decarboxylation, while its specific heat capacity increased relatively. The mass of aggregates containing hydrated silicate minerals decreased more significantly, and their specific heat capacities were greater when compared with aggregates containing feldspar or quartz. It is deduced that the hydroxyl group (OH) in hydrated silicate dissolved as its bond became loose at high temperatures. Aggregates containing mafic minerals turned red at high temperatures due to oxidation response. Moreover, the comparison of cooling methods showed that rapid cooling using water resulted in more reduction in aggregate mass than slow cooling at room temperatures. In order to observe the fire resistance performance of concrete composed of the identical but coarse aggregate, mass loss and compressive strength reduction factor at 200, 400, 600 and 800 degrees were measured. It was found from the analysis of granite and gneiss that the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between cement paste and aggregates caused by quartz transit at 573 degrees resulted in thermal stress inside the concrete and thus triggered concrete cracking. The ferromagnesian hydrated silicate in andesite and shale caused greater reduction in both initial stiffness and mass compared with other aggregates. However, the thermal expansion coefficient of andesite and shale was similar to that of cement paste. Since they were low in thermal conductivity and high in specific heat capacity, concrete cracking was relatively less severe. Being slow in heat transfer, they were judged to be materials of high heat capacity.

Keywords: crush-aggregates, fire resistance, thermal expansion, heat transfer

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30 The Geochemical Characteristic and Tectonic Setting of Mezoic-Cenozoic Volcanic and Granitic Rocks in Southern Sumatra, Indonesia

Authors: Syahrir Andi Mangga


During 1989–1993, the Geological Research and Development Center (recent Geological Survey Institute) Geological Agency, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Republic of Indonesia was the collaboration with British Geological Survey, the United Kingdom to do technical assistance in order to collect data of geology in Sumatra Island. The overall corporation of technical programs was larger concern in stratigraphy, geochemical and age-dating studies. Availability of new data has been stimulated to reassessment of tectonic evolution of Sumatra Island. The study area located in Southern Sumatra within at latitudes 0°-6° S and 99°40’-106’00 E longitudes. The study tectonic is situated within along South Western margin of Sunda land, The Southeast Asia Continental extension arc of the Eurasian Plate and formed as part of Sunda Arc. The oceanic crust of Indian-Australian plate recently is being oblique subduction along the Sunda Trench off the West coast Sumatra. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic of the volcanic and granitic rocks can be divided into northern and southern plutons, defining a series subparallel, controlled by fault, northwest-southeast trending belts, some of the plutons are deformed and under-formed. They are widely exposed along the south-eastern side of the Barisan mountain. Based on the characteristic of minerals and crystallography, rocks found in this study area were granite, granitic, monzogranite and andesitic-Basaltic Volcanic Rock. It belongs to calc Alkaline was predominantly metalumina, I-Type Granite, Volcanic arc granites, Syncollisonal Granites (Syn_COLG) and tholeiitic basalt. It was formed since 169±5 to 20±1 Ma. The origin of magmas in interpreted to be derived from partial melting of igneous rock. The occurrence of the gratoid and volcanic rocks supposed to be closely related to the subduction of the Australian-Hindia oceanic crust beneath the Eurasia/Sunda land Continental Crust as Volcanic arc or continental margin granitic and shown youngest to the southwest. The subduction process having probably been different in position between one terrane to others led to the occurrence of segmentation subduction system. The positional discontinuities of the subduction are probably caused by the difference in time of emplacement and mechanism of volcanic and granitic rock between segments.

Keywords: tectonic setting, I-type granitic, subduction, Southern Sumatra

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29 A Geochemical Perspective on A-Type Granites of Khanak and Devsar Areas, Haryana, India: Implications for Petrogenesis

Authors: Naresh Kumar, Radhika Sharma, A. K. Singh


Granites from Khanak and Devsar areas, a part of Malani Igneous Suite (MIS) were investigated for their geochemical characteristics to understand the petrogenetic aspect of the research area. Neoproterozoic rocks of MIS are well exposed in Jhunjhunu, Jodhpur, Pali, Barmer, Jalor, Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan and Bhiwani district of Haryana and also occur at Kirana hills of Pakistan. The MIS predominantly consists of acidic volcanic with acidic plutonic (granite of various types), mafic volcanic, mafic intrusive and minor amount of pyroclasts. Based on the field and petrographical studies, 28 samples were selected and analyzed for geochemical analysis of major, trace and rare earth elements at the Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF) and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma- Mass Spectrometry). Granites from the studied areas are categorized as grey, green and pink. Khanak granites consist of quartz, k-feldspar, plagioclase, and biotite as essential minerals and hematite, zircon, annite, monazite & rutile as accessory minerals. In Devsar granites, plagioclase is replaced by perthite and occurs as dominantly. Geochemically, granites from Khanak and Devsar areas exhibit typical A-type granites characteristics with their enrichment in SiO2, Na2O+K2O, Fe/Mg, Rb, Zr, Y, Th, U, REE (except Eu) and significant depletion in MgO, CaO, Sr, P, Ti, Ni, Cr, V and Eu suggested about A-type affinities in Northwestern Peninsular India. The amount of heat production (HP) in green and grey granites of Devsar area varies upto 9.68 & 11.70 μWm-3 and total heat generation unit (HGU) i.e. 23.04 & 27.86 respectively. Pink granites of Khanak area display a higher enrichment of HP (16.53 μWm-3) and HGU (39.37) than the granites from Devsar area. Overall, they have much higher values of HP and HGU than the average value of continental crust (3.8 HGU), which imply a possible linear relationship among the surface heat flow and crustal heat generation in the rocks of MIS. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns show enriched LREE, moderate to strong negative Eu anomalies and more or less flat heavy REE. In primitive mantle-normalized multi-element variation diagrams, the granites show pronounced depletions in the high-field-strength elements (HFSE) Nb, Zr, Sr, P, and Ti. Geochemical characteristics (major, trace and REE) along with the use of various discrimination schemes revealed their probable correspondence to magma derived from the crustal origin by a different degree of partial melting.

Keywords: A-type granite, neoproterozoic, Malani igneous suite, Khanak, Devsar

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28 Relation between Energy Absorption and Box Dimension of Rock Fragments under Impact Loading

Authors: Li Hung-Hui, Chen Chi-Chieh, Yang Zon-Yee


This study aims to explore the impact energy absorption in the fragmented processes of rock samples during the split-Hopkinson-pressure-bar tests. Three kinds of rock samples including granite, marble and sandstone were tested. The impact energy absorptions were calculated according to the incident, reflected and transmitted strain wave histories measured by a oscilloscope. The degree of fragment rocks after tests was quantified by the box dimension of the fractal theory. The box dimension of rock fragments was obtained from the particle size distribution curve by the sieve analysis. The results can be concluded that: (1) the degree of rock fragments after tests can be well described by the value of box dimension; (2) with the impact energy absorption increasing, the degrees of rock fragments are varied from the very large fragments to very small fragments, and the corresponding box dimension varies from 2.9 to 1.2.

Keywords: SHPB test, energy absorption, rock fragments, impact loading, box dimension

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