Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5585

Search results for: non-destructive technique

5585 Nondestructive Testing for Reinforced Concrete Buildings with Active Infrared Thermography

Authors: Huy Q. Tran, Jungwon Huh, Kiseok Kwak, Choonghyun Kang


Infrared thermography (IRT) technique has been proven to be a good method for nondestructive evaluation of concrete material. In the building, a broad range of applications has been used such as subsurface defect inspection, energy loss, and moisture detection. The purpose of this research is to consider the qualitative and quantitative performance of reinforced concrete deteriorations using active infrared thermography technique. An experiment of three different heating regimes was conducted on a concrete slab in the laboratory. The thermal characteristics of the IRT method, i.e., absolute contrast and observation time, are investigated. A linear relationship between the observation time and the real depth was established with a well linear regression R-squared of 0.931. The results showed that the absolute contrast above defective area increases with the rise of the size of delamination and the heating time. In addition, the depth of delamination can be predicted by using the proposal relationship of this study.

Keywords: concrete building, infrared thermography, nondestructive evaluation, subsurface delamination

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5584 Graphic Procession Unit-Based Parallel Processing for Inverse Computation of Full-Field Material Properties Based on Quantitative Laser Ultrasound Visualization

Authors: Sheng-Po Tseng, Che-Hua Yang


Motivation and Objective: Ultrasonic guided waves become an important tool for nondestructive evaluation of structures and components. Guided waves are used for the purpose of identifying defects or evaluating material properties in a nondestructive way. While guided waves are applied for evaluating material properties, instead of knowing the properties directly, preliminary signals such as time domain signals or frequency domain spectra are first revealed. With the measured ultrasound data, inversion calculation can be further employed to obtain the desired mechanical properties. Methods: This research is development of high speed inversion calculation technique for obtaining full-field mechanical properties from the quantitative laser ultrasound visualization system (QLUVS). The quantitative laser ultrasound visualization system (QLUVS) employs a mirror-controlled scanning pulsed laser to generate guided acoustic waves traveling in a two-dimensional target. Guided waves are detected with a piezoelectric transducer located at a fixed location. With a gyro-scanning of the generation source, the QLUVS has the advantage of fast, full-field, and quantitative inspection. Results and Discussions: This research introduces two important tools to improve the computation efficiency. Firstly, graphic procession unit (GPU) with large amount of cores are introduced. Furthermore, combining the CPU and GPU cores, parallel procession scheme is developed for the inversion of full-field mechanical properties based on the QLUVS data. The newly developed inversion scheme is applied to investigate the computation efficiency for single-layered and double-layered plate-like samples. The computation efficiency is shown to be 80 times faster than unparalleled computation scheme. Conclusions: This research demonstrates a high-speed inversion technique for the characterization of full-field material properties based on quantitative laser ultrasound visualization system. Significant computation efficiency is shown, however not reaching the limit yet. Further improvement can be reached by improving the parallel computation. Utilizing the development of the full-field mechanical property inspection technology, full-field mechanical property measured by non-destructive, high-speed and high-precision measurements can be obtained in qualitative and quantitative results. The developed high speed computation scheme is ready for applications where full-field mechanical properties are needed in a nondestructive and nearly real-time way.

Keywords: guided waves, material characterization, nondestructive evaluation, parallel processing

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5583 Nondestructive Electrochemical Testing Method for Prestressed Concrete Structures

Authors: Tomoko Fukuyama, Osamu Senbu


Prestressed concrete is used a lot in infrastructures such as roads or bridges. However, poor grout filling and PC steel corrosion are currently major issues of prestressed concrete structures. One of the problems with nondestructive corrosion detection of PC steel is a plastic pipe which covers PC steel. The insulative property of pipe makes a nondestructive diagnosis difficult; therefore a practical technology to detect these defects is necessary for the maintenance of infrastructures. The goal of the research is a development of an electrochemical technique which enables to detect internal defects from the surface of prestressed concrete nondestructively. Ideally, the measurements should be conducted from the surface of structural members to diagnose non-destructively. In the present experiment, a prestressed concrete member is simplified as a layered specimen to simulate a current path between an input and an output electrode on a member surface. The specimens which are layered by mortar and the prestressed concrete constitution materials (steel, polyethylene, stainless steel, or galvanized steel plates) were provided to the alternating current impedance measurement. The magnitude of an applied electric field was 0.01-volt or 1-volt, and the frequency range was from 106 Hz to 10-2 Hz. The frequency spectrums of impedance, which relate to charge reactions activated by an electric field, were measured to clarify the effects of the material configurations or the properties. In the civil engineering field, the Nyquist diagram is popular to analyze impedance and it is a good way to grasp electric relaxation using a shape of the plot. However, it is slightly not suitable to figure out an influence of a measurement frequency which is reciprocal of reaction time. Hence, Bode diagram is also applied to describe charge reactions in the present paper. From the experiment results, the alternating current impedance method looks to be applicable to the insulative material measurement and eventually prestressed concrete diagnosis. At the same time, the frequency spectrums of impedance show the difference of the material configuration. This is because the charge mobility reflects the variety of substances and also the measuring frequency of the electric field determines migration length of charges which are under the influence of the electric field. However, it could not distinguish the differences of the material thickness and is inferred the difficulties of prestressed concrete diagnosis to identify the amount of an air void or a layer of corrosion product by the technique.

Keywords: capacitance, conductance, prestressed concrete, susceptance

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
5582 Application of XRF and Other Principal Component Analysis for Counterfeited Gold Coin Characterization in Forensic Science

Authors: Somayeh Khanjani, Hamideh Abolghasemi, Hadi Shirzad, Samaneh Nabavi


At world market can be currently encountered a wide range of gemological objects that are incorrectly declared, treated, or it concerns completely different materials that try to copy precious objects more or less successfully. Counterfeiting of precious commodities is a problem faced by governments in most countries. Police have seized many counterfeit coins that looked like the real coins and because the feeling to the touch and the weight were very similar to those of real coins. Most people were fooled and believed that the counterfeit coins were real ones. These counterfeit coins may have been made by big criminal organizations. To elucidate the manufacturing process, not only the quantitative analysis of the coins but also the comparison of their morphological characteristics was necessary. Several modern techniques have been applied to prevent counterfeiting of coins. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential of X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique and the other analytical techniques for example SEM/EDX/WDX, FT-IR/ATR and Raman Spectroscopy. Using four elements (Cu, Ag, Au and Zn) and obtaining XRF for several samples, they could be discriminated. XRF technique and SEM/EDX/WDX are used for study of chemical composition. XRF analyzers provide a fast, accurate, nondestructive method to test the purity and chemistry of all precious metals. XRF is a very promising technique for rapid and non destructive counterfeit coins identification in forensic science.

Keywords: counterfeit coins, X-ray fluorescence, forensic, FT-IR

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
5581 Nondestructive Evaluation of Hidden Delamination in Glass Fiber Composite Using Terahertz Spectroscopy

Authors: Chung-Hyeon Ryu, Do-Hyoung Kim, Hak-Sung Kim


As the use of the composites was increased, the detecting method of hidden damages which have an effect on performance of the composite was important. Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy was assessed as one of the new powerful nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for fiber reinforced composite structures because it has many advantages which can overcome the limitations of conventional NDE techniques such as x-rays or ultrasound. The THz wave offers noninvasive, noncontact and nonionizing methods evaluating composite damages, also it gives a broad range of information about the material properties. In additions, it enables to detect the multiple-delaminations of various nonmetallic materials. In this study, the pulse type THz spectroscopy imaging system was devised and used for detecting and evaluating the hidden delamination in the glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite laminates. The interaction between THz and the GFRP composite was analyzed respect to the type of delamination, including their thickness, size and numbers of overlaps among multiple-delaminations in through-thickness direction. Both of transmission and reflection configurations were used for evaluation of hidden delaminations and THz wave propagations through the delaminations were also discussed. From these results, various hidden delaminations inside of the GFRP composite were successfully detected using time-domain THz spectroscopy imaging system and also compared to the results of C-scan inspection. It is expected that THz NDE technique will be widely used to evaluate the reliability of composite structures.

Keywords: terahertz, delamination, glass fiber reinforced plastic composites, terahertz spectroscopy

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5580 Laser Ultrasonic Imaging Based on Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique Algorithm

Authors: Sundara Subramanian Karuppasamy, Che Hua Yang


In this work, the laser ultrasound technique has been used for analyzing and imaging the inner defects in metal blocks. To detect the defects in blocks, traditionally the researchers used piezoelectric transducers for the generation and reception of ultrasonic signals. These transducers can be configured into the sparse and phased array. But these two configurations have their drawbacks including the requirement of many transducers, time-consuming calculations, limited bandwidth, and provide confined image resolution. Here, we focus on the non-contact method for generating and receiving the ultrasound to examine the inner defects in aluminum blocks. A Q-switched pulsed laser has been used for the generation and the reception is done by using Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV). Based on the Doppler effect, LDV provides a rapid and high spatial resolution way for sensing ultrasonic waves. From the LDV, a series of scanning points are selected which serves as the phased array elements. The side-drilled hole of 10 mm diameter with a depth of 25 mm has been introduced and the defect is interrogated by the linear array of scanning points obtained from the LDV. With the aid of the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) algorithm, based on the time-shifting principle the inspected images are generated from the A-scan data acquired from the 1-D linear phased array elements. Thus the defect can be precisely detected with good resolution.

Keywords: laser ultrasonics, linear phased array, nondestructive testing, synthetic aperture focusing technique, ultrasonic imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
5579 Evaluation of Heterogeneity of Paint Coating on Metal Substrate Using Laser Infrared Thermography and Eddy Current

Authors: S. Mezghani, E. Perrin, J. L. Bodnar, J. Marthe, B. Cauwe, V. Vrabie


Non contact evaluation of the thickness of paint coatings can be attempted by different destructive and nondestructive methods such as cross-section microscopy, gravimetric mass measurement, magnetic gauges, Eddy current, ultrasound or terahertz. Infrared thermography is a nondestructive and non-invasive method that can be envisaged as a useful tool to measure the surface thickness variations by analyzing the temperature response. In this paper, the thermal quadrupole method for two layered samples heated up with a pulsed excitation is firstly used. By analyzing the thermal responses as a function of thermal properties and thicknesses of both layers, optimal parameters for the excitation source can be identified. Simulations show that a pulsed excitation with duration of ten milliseconds allows to obtain a substrate-independent thermal response. Based on this result, an experimental setup consisting of a near-infrared laser diode and an Infrared camera was next used to evaluate the variation of paint coating thickness between 60 µm and 130 µm on two samples. Results show that the parameters extracted for thermal images are correlated with the estimated thicknesses by the Eddy current methods. The laser pulsed thermography is thus an interesting alternative nondestructive method that can be moreover used for non conductive substrates.

Keywords: non destructive, paint coating, thickness, infrared thermography, laser, heterogeneity

Procedia PDF Downloads 567
5578 Characterization of Bacteria by a Nondestructive Sample Preparation Method in a TEM System

Authors: J. Shiue, I. H. Chen, S. W. Y. Chiu, Y. L. Wang


In this work, we present a nondestructive method to characterize bacteria in a TEM system. Unlike the conventional TEM specimen preparation method, which needs to thin the specimen in a destructive way, or spread the samples on a tiny millimeter sized carbon grid, our method is easy to operate without the need of sample pretreatment. With a specially designed transparent chip that allows the electron beam to pass through, and a custom made chip holder to fit into a standard TEM sample holder, the bacteria specimen can be easily prepared on the chip without any pretreatment, and then be observed under TEM. The centimeter-sized chip is covered with Au nanoparticles in the surface as the markers which allow the bacteria to be observed easily on the chip. We demonstrate the success of our method by using E. coli as an example, and show that high-resolution TEM images of E. coli can be obtained with the method presented. Some E. coli morphology characteristics imaged using this method are also presented.

Keywords: bacteria, chip, nanoparticles, TEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
5577 Structural Evaluation of Airfield Pavement Using Finite Element Analysis Based Methodology

Authors: Richard Ji


Nondestructive deflection testing has been accepted widely as a cost-effective tool for evaluating the structural condition of airfield pavements. Backcalculation of pavement layer moduli can be used to characterize the pavement existing condition in order to compute the load bearing capacity of pavement. This paper presents an improved best-fit backcalculation methodology based on deflection predictions obtained using finite element method (FEM). The best-fit approach is based on minimizing the squared error between falling weight deflectometer (FWD) measured deflections and FEM predicted deflections. Then, concrete elastic modulus and modulus of subgrade reaction were back-calculated using Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD) deflections collected at the National Airport Pavement Testing Facility (NAPTF) test site. It is an alternative and more versatile method in considering concrete slab geometry and HWD testing locations compared to methods currently available.

Keywords: nondestructive testing, pavement moduli backcalculation, finite element method, concrete pavements

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5576 Study of Ultrasonic Waves in Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Composite Plates for the Aerospace Applications

Authors: DucTho Le, Duy Kien Dao, Quoc Tinh Bui, Haidang Phan


The article is concerned with the motion of ultrasonic guided waves in a unidirectional fiber-reinforced composite plate under acoustic sources. Such unidirectional composite material has orthotropic elastic properties as it is very stiff along the fibers and rather compliant across the fibers. The dispersion equations of free Lamb waves propagating in an orthotropic layer are derived that results in the dispersion curves. The connection of these equations to the Rayleigh-Lamb frequency relations of isotropic plates is discussed. By the use of reciprocity in elastodynamics, closed-form solutions of elastic wave motions subjected to time-harmonic loads in the layer are computed in a simple manner. We also consider the problem of Lamb waves generated by a set of time-harmonic sources. The obtained computations can be very useful for developing ultrasound-based methods for nondestructive evaluation of composite structures.

Keywords: lamb waves, fiber-reinforced composite plates, dispersion equations, nondestructive evaluation, reciprocity theorems

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5575 Reinforced Concrete Bridge Deck Condition Assessment Methods Using Ground Penetrating Radar and Infrared Thermography

Authors: Nicole M. Martino


Reinforced concrete bridge deck condition assessments primarily use visual inspection methods, where an inspector looks for and records locations of cracks, potholes, efflorescence and other signs of probable deterioration. Sounding is another technique used to diagnose the condition of a bridge deck, however this method listens for damage within the subsurface as the surface is struck with a hammer or chain. Even though extensive procedures are in place for using these inspection techniques, neither one provides the inspector with a comprehensive understanding of the internal condition of a bridge deck – the location where damage originates from.  In order to make accurate estimates of repair locations and quantities, in addition to allocating the necessary funding, a total understanding of the deck’s deteriorated state is key. The research presented in this paper collected infrared thermography and ground penetrating radar data from reinforced concrete bridge decks without an asphalt overlay. These decks were of various ages and their condition varied from brand new, to in need of replacement. The goals of this work were to first verify that these nondestructive evaluation methods could identify similar areas of healthy and damaged concrete, and then to see if combining the results of both methods would provide a higher confidence than if the condition assessment was completed using only one method. The results from each method were presented as plan view color contour plots. The results from one of the decks assessed as a part of this research, including these plan view plots, are presented in this paper. Furthermore, in order to answer the interest of transportation agencies throughout the United States, this research developed a step-by-step guide which demonstrates how to collect and assess a bridge deck using these nondestructive evaluation methods. This guide addresses setup procedures on the deck during the day of data collection, system setups and settings for different bridge decks, data post-processing for each method, and data visualization and quantification.

Keywords: bridge deck deterioration, ground penetrating radar, infrared thermography, NDT of bridge decks

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5574 An Intelligent Nondestructive Testing System of Ultrasonic Infrared Thermal Imaging Based on Embedded Linux

Authors: Hao Mi, Ming Yang, Tian-yue Yang


Ultrasonic infrared nondestructive testing is a kind of testing method with high speed, accuracy and localization. However, there are still some problems, such as the detection requires manual real-time field judgment, the methods of result storage and viewing are still primitive. An intelligent non-destructive detection system based on embedded linux is put forward in this paper. The hardware part of the detection system is based on the ARM (Advanced Reduced Instruction Set Computer Machine) core and an embedded linux system is built to realize image processing and defect detection of thermal images. The CLAHE algorithm and the Butterworth filter are used to process the thermal image, and then the boa server and CGI (Common Gateway Interface) technology are used to transmit the test results to the display terminal through the network for real-time monitoring and remote monitoring. The system also liberates labor and eliminates the obstacle of manual judgment. According to the experiment result, the system provides a convenient and quick solution for industrial non-destructive testing.

Keywords: remote monitoring, non-destructive testing, embedded Linux system, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
5573 Development of Energy Management System Based on Internet of Things Technique

Authors: Wen-Jye Shyr, Chia-Ming Lin, Hung-Yun Feng


The purpose of this study was to develop an energy management system for university campuses based on the Internet of Things (IoT) technique. The proposed IoT technique based on WebAccess is used via network browser Internet Explore and applies TCP/IP protocol. The case study of IoT for lighting energy usage management system was proposed. Structure of proposed IoT technique included perception layer, equipment layer, control layer, application layer and network layer.

Keywords: energy management, IoT technique, sensor, WebAccess

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
5572 Low-Power Digital Filters Design Using a Bypassing Technique

Authors: Thiago Brito Bezerra


This paper presents a novel approach to reduce power consumption of digital filters based on dynamic bypassing of partial products in their multipliers. The bypassing elements incorporated into the multiplier hardware eliminate redundant signal transitions, which appear within the carry-save adders when the partial product is zero. This technique reduces the power consumption by around 20%. The circuit implementation was made using the AMS 0.18 um technology. The bypassing technique applied to the circuits is outlined.

Keywords: digital filter, low-power, bypassing technique, low-pass filter

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5571 Design and Implementation of Wave-Pipelined Circuit Using Reconfigurable Technique

Authors: Adhinarayanan Venkatasubramanian


For design of high speed digital circuit wave pipeline is the best approach this can be operated at higher operating frequencies by adjusting clock periods and skews so as latch the o/p of combinational logic circuit at the stable period. In this paper, there are two methods are proposed in automation task one is BIST (Built in self test) and second method is Reconfigurable technique. For the above two approaches dedicated AND gate (multiplier) by applying wave pipeline technique. BIST approach is implemented by Xilinx Spartan-II device. In reconfigurable technique done by ASIC. From the results, wave pipeline circuits are faster than nonpipeline circuit and area, power dissipation are reduced by reconfigurable technique.

Keywords: SOC, wave-pipelining, FPGA, self-testing, reconfigurable, ASIC

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5570 Thread Lift: Classification, Technique, and How to Approach to the Patient

Authors: Panprapa Yongtrakul, Punyaphat Sirithanabadeekul, Pakjira Siriphan


Background: The thread lift technique has become popular because it is less invasive, requires a shorter operation, less downtime, and results in fewer postoperative complications. The advantage of the technique is that the thread can be inserted under the skin without the need for long incisions. Currently, there are a lot of thread lift techniques with respect to the specific types of thread used on specific areas, such as the mid-face, lower face, or neck area. Objective: To review the thread lift technique for specific areas according to type of thread, patient selection, and how to match the most appropriate to the patient. Materials and Methods: A literature review technique was conducted by searching PubMed and MEDLINE, then compiled and summarized. Result: We have divided our protocols into two sections: Protocols for short suture, and protocols for long suture techniques. We also created 3D pictures for each technique to enhance understanding and application in a clinical setting. Conclusion: There are advantages and disadvantages to short suture and long suture techniques. The best outcome for each patient depends on appropriate patient selection and determining the most suitable technique for the defect and area of patient concern.

Keywords: thread lift, thread lift method, thread lift technique, thread lift procedure, threading

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
5569 A Generalized Sparse Bayesian Learning Algorithm for Near-Field Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: By Exploiting Impropriety and Noncircularity

Authors: Pan Long, Bi Dongjie, Li Xifeng, Xie Yongle


The near-field synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging is an advanced nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E) technique. This paper investigates the complex-valued signal processing related to the near-field SAR imaging system, where the measurement data turns out to be noncircular and improper, meaning that the complex-valued data is correlated to its complex conjugate. Furthermore, we discover that the degree of impropriety of the measurement data and that of the target image can be highly correlated in near-field SAR imaging. Based on these observations, A modified generalized sparse Bayesian learning algorithm is proposed, taking impropriety and noncircularity into account. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm provides performance gain, with the help of noncircular assumption on the signals.

Keywords: complex-valued signal processing, synthetic aperture radar, 2-D radar imaging, compressive sensing, sparse Bayesian learning

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5568 Application of Remote Sensing Technique on the Monitoring of Mine Eco-Environment

Authors: Haidong Li, Weishou Shen, Guoping Lv, Tao Wang


Aiming to overcome the limitation of the application of traditional remote sensing (RS) technique in the mine eco-environmental monitoring, in this paper, we first classified the eco-environmental damages caused by mining activities and then introduced the principle, classification and characteristics of the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technique. The potentiality of LiDAR technique in the mine eco-environmental monitoring was analyzed, particularly in extracting vertical structure parameters of vegetation, through comparing the feasibility and applicability of traditional RS method and LiDAR technique in monitoring different types of indicators. The application situation of LiDAR technique in extracting typical mine indicators, such as land destruction in mining areas, damage of ecological integrity and natural soil erosion. The result showed that the LiDAR technique has the ability to monitor most of the mine eco-environmental indicators, and exhibited higher accuracy comparing with traditional RS technique, specifically speaking, the applicability of LiDAR technique on each indicator depends on the accuracy requirement of mine eco-environmental monitoring. In the item of large mine, LiDAR three-dimensional point cloud data not only could be used as the complementary data source of optical RS, Airborne/Satellite LiDAR could also fulfill the demand of extracting vertical structure parameters of vegetation in large areas.

Keywords: LiDAR, mine, ecological damage, monitoring, traditional remote sensing technique

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5567 Factors Affecting the Results of in vitro Gas Production Technique

Authors: O. Kahraman, M. S. Alatas, O. B. Citil


In determination of values of feeds which, are used in ruminant nutrition, different methods are used like in vivo, in vitro, in situ or in sacco. Generally, the most reliable results are taken from the in vivo studies. But because of the disadvantages like being hard, laborious and expensive, time consuming, being hard to keep the experiment conditions under control and too much samples are needed, the in vitro techniques are more preferred. The most widely used in vitro techniques are two-staged digestion technique and gas production technique. In vitro gas production technique is based on the measurement of the CO2 which is released as a result of microbial fermentation of the feeds. In this review, the factors affecting the results obtained from in vitro gas production technique (Hohenheim Feed Test) were discussed. Some factors must be taken into consideration when interpreting the findings obtained in these studies and also comparing the findings reported by different researchers for the same feeds. These factors were discussed in 3 groups: factors related to animal, factors related to feeds and factors related with differences in the application of method. These factors and their effects on the results were explained. Also it can be concluded that the use of in vitro gas production technique in feed evaluation routinely can be contributed to the comprehensive feed evaluation, but standardization is needed in this technique to attain more reliable results.

Keywords: In vitro, gas production technique, Hohenheim feed test, standardization

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5566 Nondestructive Inspection of Reagents under High Attenuated Cardboard Box Using Injection-Seeded THz-Wave Parametric Generator

Authors: Shin Yoneda, Mikiya Kato, Kosuke Murate, Kodo Kawase


In recent years, there have been numerous attempts to smuggle narcotic drugs and chemicals by concealing them in international mail. Combatting this requires a non-destructive technique that can identify such illicit substances in mail. Terahertz (THz) waves can pass through a wide variety of materials, and many chemicals show specific frequency-dependent absorption, known as a spectral fingerprint, in the THz range. Therefore, it is reasonable to investigate non-destructive mail inspection techniques that use THz waves. For this reason, in this work, we tried to identify reagents under high attenuation shielding materials using injection-seeded THz-wave parametric generator (is-TPG). Our THz spectroscopic imaging system using is-TPG consisted of two non-linear crystals for emission and detection of THz waves. A micro-chip Nd:YAG laser and a continuous wave tunable external cavity diode laser were used as the pump and seed source, respectively. The pump beam and seed beam were injected to the LiNbO₃ crystal satisfying the noncollinear phase matching condition in order to generate high power THz-wave. The emitted THz wave was irradiated to the sample which was raster scanned by the x-z stage while changing the frequencies, and we obtained multispectral images. Then the transmitted THz wave was focused onto another crystal for detection and up-converted to the near infrared detection beam based on nonlinear optical parametric effects, wherein the detection beam intensity was measured using an infrared pyroelectric detector. It was difficult to identify reagents in a cardboard box because of high noise levels. In this work, we introduce improvements for noise reduction and image clarification, and the intensity of the near infrared detection beam was converted correctly to the intensity of the THz wave. A Gaussian spatial filter is also introduced for a clearer THz image. Through these improvements, we succeeded in identification of reagents hidden in a 42-mm thick cardboard box filled with several obstacles, which attenuate 56 dB at 1.3 THz, by improving analysis methods. Using this system, THz spectroscopic imaging was possible for saccharides and may also be applied to cases where illicit drugs are hidden in the box, and multiple reagents are mixed together. Moreover, THz spectroscopic imaging can be achieved through even thicker obstacles by introducing an NIR detector with higher sensitivity.

Keywords: nondestructive inspection, principal component analysis, terahertz parametric source, THz spectroscopic imaging

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5565 Implementation of 4-Bit Direct Charge Transfer Switched Capacitor DAC with Mismatch Shaping Technique

Authors: Anuja Askhedkar, G. H. Agrawal, Madhu Gudgunti


Direct Charge Transfer Switched Capacitor (DCT-SC) DAC is the internal DAC used in Delta-Sigma (∆∑) DAC which works on Over-Sampling concept. The Switched Capacitor DAC mainly suffers from mismatch among capacitors. Mismatch among capacitors in DAC, causes non linearity between output and input. Dynamic Element Matching (DEM) technique is used to match the capacitors. According to element selection logic there are many types. In this paper, Data Weighted Averaging (DWA) technique is used for mismatch shaping. In this paper, the 4 bit DCT-SC-DAC with DWA-DEM technique is implemented using WINSPICE simulation software in 180nm CMOS technology. DNL for DAC with DWA is ±0.03 LSB and INL is ± 0.02LSB.

Keywords: ∑-Δ DAC, DCT-SC-DAC, mismatch shaping, DWA, DEM

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5564 Imp_hist-Si: Improved Hybrid Image Segmentation Technique for Satellite Imagery to Decrease the Segmentation Error Rate

Authors: Neetu Manocha


Image segmentation is a technique where a picture is parted into distinct parts having similar features which have a place with similar items. Various segmentation strategies have been proposed as of late by prominent analysts. But, after ultimate thorough research, the novelists have analyzed that generally, the old methods do not decrease the segmentation error rate. Then author finds the technique HIST-SI to decrease the segmentation error rates. In this technique, cluster-based and threshold-based segmentation techniques are merged together. After then, to improve the result of HIST-SI, the authors added the method of filtering and linking in this technique named Imp_HIST-SI to decrease the segmentation error rates. The goal of this research is to find a new technique to decrease the segmentation error rates and produce much better results than the HIST-SI technique. For testing the proposed technique, a dataset of Bhuvan – a National Geoportal developed and hosted by ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation) is used. Experiments are conducted using Scikit-image & OpenCV tools of Python, and performance is evaluated and compared over various existing image segmentation techniques for several matrices, i.e., Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal Noise Ratio (PSNR).

Keywords: satellite image, image segmentation, edge detection, error rate, MSE, PSNR, HIST-SI, linking, filtering, imp_HIST-SI

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5563 Modelling and Numerical Analysis of Thermal Non-Destructive Testing on Complex Structure

Authors: Y. L. Hor, H. S. Chu, V. P. Bui


Composite material is widely used to replace conventional material, especially in the aerospace industry to reduce the weight of the devices. It is formed by combining reinforced materials together via adhesive bonding to produce a bulk material with alternated macroscopic properties. In bulk composites, degradation may occur in microscopic scale, which is in each individual reinforced fiber layer or especially in its matrix layer such as delamination, inclusion, disbond, void, cracks, and porosity. In this paper, we focus on the detection of defect in matrix layer which the adhesion between the composite plies is in contact but coupled through a weak bond. In fact, the adhesive defects are tested through various nondestructive methods. Among them, pulsed phase thermography (PPT) has shown some advantages providing improved sensitivity, large-area coverage, and high-speed testing. The aim of this work is to develop an efficient numerical model to study the application of PPT to the nondestructive inspection of weak bonding in composite material. The resulting thermal evolution field is comprised of internal reflections between the interfaces of defects and the specimen, and the important key-features of the defects presented in the material can be obtained from the investigation of the thermal evolution of the field distribution. Computational simulation of such inspections has allowed the improvement of the techniques to apply in various inspections, such as materials with high thermal conductivity and more complex structures.

Keywords: pulsed phase thermography, weak bond, composite, CFRP, computational modelling, optimization

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5562 New Technique of Estimation of Charge Carrier Density of Nanomaterials from Thermionic Emission Data

Authors: Dilip K. De, Olukunle C. Olawole, Emmanuel S. Joel, Moses Emetere


A good number of electronic properties such as electrical and thermal conductivities depend on charge carrier densities of nanomaterials. By controlling the charge carrier densities during the fabrication (or growth) processes, the physical properties can be tuned. In this paper, we discuss a new technique of estimating the charge carrier densities of nanomaterials from the thermionic emission data using the newly modified Richardson-Dushman equation. We find that the technique yields excellent results for graphene and carbon nanotube.

Keywords: charge carrier density, nano materials, new technique, thermionic emission

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5561 Development of Nondestructive Imaging Analysis Method Using Muonic X-Ray with a Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detector

Authors: I-Huan Chiu, Kazuhiko Ninomiya, Shin’ichiro Takeda, Meito Kajino, Miho Katsuragawa, Shunsaku Nagasawa, Atsushi Shinohara, Tadayuki Takahashi, Ryota Tomaru, Shin Watanabe, Goro Yabu


In recent years, a nondestructive elemental analysis method based on muonic X-ray measurements has been developed and applied for various samples. Muonic X-rays are emitted after the formation of a muonic atom, which occurs when a negatively charged muon is captured in a muon atomic orbit around the nucleus. Because muonic X-rays have higher energy than electronic X-rays due to the muon mass, they can be measured without being absorbed by a material. Thus, estimating the two-dimensional (2D) elemental distribution of a sample became possible using an X-ray imaging detector. In this work, we report a non-destructive imaging experiment using muonic X-rays at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. The irradiated target consisted of polypropylene material, and a double-sided silicon strip detector, which was developed as an imaging detector for astronomical observation, was employed. A peak corresponding to muonic X-rays from the carbon atoms in the target was clearly observed in the energy spectrum at an energy of 14 keV, and 2D visualizations were successfully reconstructed to reveal the projection image from the target. This result demonstrates the potential of the non-destructive elemental imaging method that is based on muonic X-ray measurement. To obtain a higher position resolution for imaging a smaller target, a new detector system will be developed to improve the statistical analysis in further research.

Keywords: DSSD, muon, muonic X-ray, imaging, non-destructive analysis

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5560 Blind Data Hiding Technique Using Interpolation of Subsampled Images

Authors: Singara Singh Kasana, Pankaj Garg


In this paper, a blind data hiding technique based on interpolation of sub sampled versions of a cover image is proposed. Sub sampled image is taken as a reference image and an interpolated image is generated from this reference image. Then difference between original cover image and interpolated image is used to embed secret data. Comparisons with the existing interpolation based techniques show that proposed technique provides higher embedding capacity and better visual quality marked images. Moreover, the performance of the proposed technique is more stable for different images.

Keywords: interpolation, image subsampling, PSNR, SIM

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5559 Independent Encryption Technique for Mobile Voice Calls

Authors: Nael Hirzalla


The legality of some countries or agencies’ acts to spy on personal phone calls of the public became a hot topic to many social groups’ talks. It is believed that this act is considered an invasion to someone’s privacy. Such act may be justified if it is singling out specific cases but to spy without limits is very unacceptable. This paper discusses the needs for not only a simple and light weight technique to secure mobile voice calls but also a technique that is independent from any encryption standard or library. It then presents and tests one encrypting algorithm that is based of frequency scrambling technique to show fair and delay-free process that can be used to protect phone calls from such spying acts.

Keywords: frequency scrambling, mobile applications, real-time voice encryption, spying on calls

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5558 A Method for Automated Planning of Fiber to the Home Access Network Infrastructures

Authors: Hammad Khalid


In this paper, a strategy for computerized arranging of Fiber to the Home (FTTH) get to systems is proposed. We presented an efficient methodology for arranging access organize framework. The GIS information and a lot of calculations were utilized to make the arranging procedure increasingly programmed. The technique clarifies various strides of the arranging process. Considering various situations, various designs can be produced by utilizing the technique. It was likewise conceivable to produce the designs in an extremely brief temporal contrast with the conventional arranging. A contextual investigation is considered to delineate the utilization and abilities of the arranging technique. The technique, be that as it may, doesn't completely robotize the arranging however, make the arranging procedure fundamentally quick. The outcomes and dialog are displayed and end is given at last.

Keywords: FTTH, GIS, robotize, plan

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5557 Optimization of Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) Technique Coupled with GC MS for Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds Released by Trogoderma Variabile

Authors: Thamer Alshuwaili, Yonglin Ren, Bob Du, Manjree Agarwal


The warehouse beetle, Trogoderma variabile Ballion (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is a major pest of packaged and processed stored products. Warehouse beetle is the common name which was given by Okumura (1972). This pest has been reported to infest 119 different commodities, and it is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Also, it is difficult to control because of the insect's ability to stay without food for long times, and it can survive for years under dry conditions and low-moisture food, and it has also developed resistance to many insecticides. The young larvae of these insects can cause damage to seeds, but older larvae prefer to feed on whole grains. The percentage of damage caused by these insects range between 30-70% in the storage. T. variabile is the species most responsible for causing significant damage in grain stores worldwide. Trogoderma spp. is a huge problem for cereal grains, and there are many countries, such as the USA, Australia, China, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania who have specific quarantine regulations against possible importation. Also, grain stocks can be almost completely destroyed because of the massive populations the insect may develop. However, the purpose of the current research was to optimize conditions to collect volatile organic compound from Trogoderma variabile at different life stages by using headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and flame ionization detection (FID). Using SPME technique to extract volatile from insects is an efficient, straightforward and nondestructive method. Result of the study shows that 15 insects were optimal number for larvae and adults. Selection of the number of insects depend on the height of the peak area and the number of peaks. Sixteen hours were optimized as the best extraction time for larvae and 8 hours was the optimal number of adults.

Keywords: Trogoderma variabile, warehouse beetle , GC-MS, Solid phase microextraction

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5556 Corrosion Monitoring Techniques Impact on Concrete Durability: A Review

Authors: Victor A. Okenyi, Kehinde A. Alawode


Corrosion of reinforcement in concrete structures remains a durability issue in structural engineering with the increasing cost of repair and maintenance. The mechanism and factors influencing reinforcement corrosion in concrete with various electrochemical monitoring techniques including non-destructive, destructive techniques and the roles of sensors have been reviewed with the aim of determining the monitoring technique that proved most effective in determining corrosion parameters and more practicable for the assessment of concrete durability. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and linear polarization resistance (LPR) techniques showed great performance in evaluating corrosion kinetics and corrosion rate, respectively, while the gravimetric weight loss (GWL) technique provided accurate measurements. However, no single monitoring technique showed to be the ultimate technique, and this calls for more research work in the development of more dynamic monitoring tools capable of considering all possible corrosion factors in the corrosion monitoring process.

Keywords: corrosion, concrete structures, durability, non-destructive technique, sensor

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