Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Fatiha Benghanem

31 Investigation of the Inhibition Effect of 2,3-Diaminopyridine on Mild Steel Corrosion in Solution Simulating Water of Pores Concrete in Absence and Presence of Chloride Ions

Authors: Fatiha Benghanem, Mokhtar Berarma, Saida Keraghel, Ali Ourari

Abstract:

Corrosion is the result of the reaction between a material and its environment. Steel in concrete is protected from corrosion by a passive film promoted by concrete alkalinity. For the initiation of corrosion, this protective film must be destroyed and this can be mainly done in two ways: by the attack of chlorides on the steel or by carbonation of the cover concrete due the reaction with carbon dioxide, which causes reduction in the alkalinity of concrete. The literature reports several ways to decrease or to prevent reinforcement corrosion. Among them, the use of corrosion inhibitors has been an envisaged solution. Two approaches are generally used to evaluate the efficiency of inhibitors for concrete application; one uses simulated pore solution testing , and the other uses actual concrete or mortar specimens. Both methods are some times used in conjunction. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of 2,3-diaminopyridine as a corrosion inhibitors of steel in alkaline media which simulate the electrolyte in the concrete pores. The effectiveness of this compound as corrosion inhibitor was investigated by measuring the corrosion potentials, the polarization curves and the corrosion current densities of steel with and without chlorides. The study of corrosion inhibition by this compound led to the conclusion that he has low rates of inhibition in the absence of aggressive ions and high rates in their presence. This type of organic compounds are promoting for the protection of armatures in concrete.

Keywords: corrosion, inhibitors, mild steel, conjunction

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30 Classification of Attacks Over Cloud Environment

Authors: Karim Abouelmehdi, Loubna Dali, Elmoutaoukkil Abdelmajid, Hoda Elsayed, Eladnani Fatiha, Benihssane Abderahim

Abstract:

The security of cloud services is the concern of cloud service providers. In this paper, we will mention different classifications of cloud attacks referred by specialized organizations. Each agency has its classification of well-defined properties. The purpose is to present a high-level classification of current research in cloud computing security. This classification is organized around attack strategies and corresponding defenses.

Keywords: cloud computing, classification, risk, security

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29 Biimodal Biometrics System Using Fusion of Iris and Fingerprint

Authors: Attallah Bilal, Hendel Fatiha

Abstract:

This paper proposes the bimodal biometrics system for identity verification iris and fingerprint, at matching score level architecture using weighted sum of score technique. The features are extracted from the pre processed images of iris and fingerprint. These features of a query image are compared with those of a database image to obtain matching scores. The individual scores generated after matching are passed to the fusion module. This module consists of three major steps i.e., normalization, generation of similarity score and fusion of weighted scores. The final score is then used to declare the person as genuine or an impostor. The system is tested on CASIA database and gives an overall accuracy of 91.04% with FAR of 2.58% and FRR of 8.34%.

Keywords: iris, fingerprint, sum rule, fusion

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28 A Biomimetic Uncemented Hip Resurfacing Versus Various Biomaterials Hip Resurfacing Implants

Authors: Karima Chergui, Hichem Amrani, Hammoudi Mazouz, Fatiha Mezaache

Abstract:

Cemented femoral resurfacings have experienced a revival for younger and more active patients. Future developments have shown that the uncemented version eliminates failures related to cementing implants. A three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) simulation was carried out in order to exploit a new resurfacing prothesis design named MARMEL, proposed by a recent study with Co–Cr–Mo material, for comparing a hip uncemented resurfacing with a novel carbon fiber/polyamide 12 (CF/PA12) composite to other hip resurfacing implants with various bio materials. From FE analysis, the von Mises stress range for the Composite hip resurfacing was much lower than that in the other hip resurfacing implants used in this comparison. These outcomes showed that the biomimetic hip resurfacing had the potential to reduce stress shielding and prevent from bone fracture compared to conventional hip resurfacing implants.

Keywords: biomechanics, carbon–fibre polyamide 12, finite element analysis, hip resurfacing

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27 Performance Evaluation of an Ontology-Based Arabic Sentiment Analysis

Authors: Salima Behdenna, Fatiha Barigou, Ghalem Belalem

Abstract:

Due to the quick increase in the volume of Arabic opinions posted on various social media, Arabic sentiment analysis has become one of the most important areas of research. Compared to English, there is very little works on Arabic sentiment analysis, in particular aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA). In ABSA, aspect extraction is the most important task. In this paper, we propose a semantic aspect-based sentiment analysis approach for standard Arabic reviews to extract explicit aspect terms and identify the polarity of the extracted aspects. The proposed approach was evaluated using HAAD datasets. Experiments showed that the proposed approach achieved a good level of performance compared with baseline results. The F-measure was improved by 19% for the aspect term extraction tasks and 55% aspect term polarity task.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, opinion mining, Arabic, aspect level, opinion, polarity

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26 Recognition of Noisy Words Using the Time Delay Neural Networks Approach

Authors: Khenfer-Koummich Fatima, Mesbahi Larbi, Hendel Fatiha

Abstract:

This paper presents a recognition system for isolated words like robot commands. It’s carried out by Time Delay Neural Networks; TDNN. To teleoperate a robot for specific tasks as turn, close, etc… In industrial environment and taking into account the noise coming from the machine. The choice of TDNN is based on its generalization in terms of accuracy, in more it acts as a filter that allows the passage of certain desirable frequency characteristics of speech; the goal is to determine the parameters of this filter for making an adaptable system to the variability of speech signal and to noise especially, for this the back propagation technique was used in learning phase. The approach was applied on commands pronounced in two languages separately: The French and Arabic. The results for two test bases of 300 spoken words for each one are 87%, 97.6% in neutral environment and 77.67%, 92.67% when the white Gaussian noisy was added with a SNR of 35 dB.

Keywords: TDNN, neural networks, noise, speech recognition

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25 Evaluation of Activity of Anacyclus Pyrethrum Methanolic Extract on Acute Inflammation Induced in Rats

Authors: Dalila Bouamra, Chekib Arslane Baki, Abdelhamid Bouchebour, Fatiha Koussa, Amel Benamara, Seoussen Kada

Abstract:

The activity of methanolic extract from Anacyclus pyrethrum was evaluated using λ-carrageenan 1% induced paw edema in Wistar Albinos rats. The oral administration of 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, body weight of methanolic extract, one hour before induction of inflammation, exerted a significant inhibition effect of 47%, 57% and 62% respectively after 4h λ-carrageenan treatment and highly significant inhibition effect of 57%, 66% and 75% respectively after 8h λ-carrageenan treatment, compared to non treated group (100%) and that treated with aspirin, a standard anti-inflammatory drug. On the other hand, the effect of the plant extract on stomach was macroscopically and microscopically studied. The plant extract has an impact on the loss ratio of granulocytes that have invaded the stomach after a period of inflammation at a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight.

Keywords: inflammation, Anacyclus pyrethrum, gastritis, Wistar Albinos rats

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24 Voice Commands Recognition of Mentor Robot in Noisy Environment Using HTK

Authors: Khenfer-Koummich Fatma, Hendel Fatiha, Mesbahi Larbi

Abstract:

this paper presents an approach based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM: Hidden Markov Model) using HTK tools. The goal is to create a man-machine interface with a voice recognition system that allows the operator to tele-operate a mentor robot to execute specific tasks as rotate, raise, close, etc. This system should take into account different levels of environmental noise. This approach has been applied to isolated words representing the robot commands spoken in two languages: French and Arabic. The recognition rate obtained is the same in both speeches, Arabic and French in the neutral words. However, there is a slight difference in favor of the Arabic speech when Gaussian white noise is added with a Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) equal to 30 db, the Arabic speech recognition rate is 69% and 80% for French speech recognition rate. This can be explained by the ability of phonetic context of each speech when the noise is added.

Keywords: voice command, HMM, TIMIT, noise, HTK, Arabic, speech recognition

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23 Towards Resilient Cloud Computing through Cyber Risk Assessment

Authors: Hilalah Alturkistani, Alaa AlFaadhel, Nora AlJahani, Fatiha Djebbar

Abstract:

Cloud computing is one of the most widely used technology which provides opportunities and services to government entities, large companies, and standard users. However, cybersecurity risk management studies of cloud computing and resiliency approaches are lacking. This paper proposes resilient cloud cybersecurity risk assessment and management tailored specifically, to Dropbox with two approaches:1) technical-based solution motivated by a cybersecurity risk assessment of cloud services, and 2)a target personnel-based solution guided by cybersecurity-related survey among employees to identify their knowledge that qualifies them withstand to any cyberattack. The proposed work attempts to identify cloud vulnerabilities, assess threats and detect high risk components, to finally propose appropriate safeguards such as failure predicting and removing, redundancy or load balancing techniques for quick recovery and return to pre-attack state if failure happens.

Keywords: cybersecurity risk management plan, resilient cloud computing, cyberattacks, cybersecurity risk assessment

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22 Encounters with the Other Sisters of the Past: the Role of Colonial History and Memory in the Adjustment of the Postcolonial Female Identity

Authors: Fatiha Kaïd Berrahal, Nassima Kaïd, Djihad Affaf Selt

Abstract:

The present paper is a comparative analysis of the Algerian writer Assia Djebar’s women of Algiers in Their Apartment (1982) and the Anglo-Egyptian Ahdaf Soueif’s The Map of Love (1999) foregrounded on the female protagonists’ painfully common colonial and patriarchal experiences, though in different geographical regions of North Africa. This study raises questions pertaining, first, to the emerging contemporary genre “Historiographic meta-fiction” in which the novels examined could be inscribed, then, the interplay of colonial history and personal memory that impinges on the development of the identity of the post-colonial female subject. As the novels alternate between the historical and the autobiographical, we currently seek to understand how it is pertinent and pressing for women to excavate the lost and occluded stories of the past for the adjustment of their present personal identities, which are undoubtedly an important part of the identity of a nation.

Keywords: postcolonial feminism, islamic feminism, memory, histoirographic metafiction

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21 Recognition of Voice Commands of Mentor Robot in Noisy Environment Using Hidden Markov Model

Authors: Khenfer Koummich Fatma, Hendel Fatiha, Mesbahi Larbi

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM: Hidden Markov Model) using HTK tools. The goal is to create a human-machine interface with a voice recognition system that allows the operator to teleoperate a mentor robot to execute specific tasks as rotate, raise, close, etc. This system should take into account different levels of environmental noise. This approach has been applied to isolated words representing the robot commands pronounced in two languages: French and Arabic. The obtained recognition rate is the same in both speeches, Arabic and French in the neutral words. However, there is a slight difference in favor of the Arabic speech when Gaussian white noise is added with a Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) equals 30 dB, in this case; the Arabic speech recognition rate is 69%, and the French speech recognition rate is 80%. This can be explained by the ability of phonetic context of each speech when the noise is added.

Keywords: Arabic speech recognition, Hidden Markov Model (HMM), HTK, noise, TIMIT, voice command

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20 Micromechanics of Stress Transfer across the Interface Fiber-Matrix Bonding

Authors: Fatiha Teklal, Bachir Kacimi, Arezki Djebbar

Abstract:

The study and application of composite materials are a truly interdisciplinary endeavor that has been enriched by contributions from chemistry, physics, materials science, mechanics and manufacturing engineering. The understanding of the interface (or interphase) in composites is the central point of this interdisciplinary effort. From the early development of composite materials of various nature, the optimization of the interface has been of major importance. Even more important, the ideas linking the properties of composites to the interface structure are still emerging. In our study, we need a direct characterization of the interface; the micromechanical tests we are addressing seem to meet this objective and we chose to use two complementary tests simultaneously. The microindentation test that can be applied to real composites and the drop test, preferred to the pull-out because of the theoretical possibility of studying systems with high adhesion (which is a priori the case with our systems). These two tests are complementary because of the principle of the model specimen used for both the first "compression indentation" and the second whose fiber is subjected to tensile stress called the drop test. Comparing the results obtained by the two methods can therefore be rewarding.

Keywords: Fiber, Interface, Matrix, Micromechanics, Pull-out

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19 Downstream Supply Chain Collaboration: The Cornerstone of the Global Supply Chain

Authors: Fatiha Naaoui-Outini

Abstract:

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to shed light on how a Downstream Supply Chain facilitated the Customer Service Performance (BTB) by more collaborative practices between the different stakeholders in the chain. Methodology/approach – The paper developed a theoretical framework and conducted a qualitative exploratory study approach based on six semi-structured interviews with two international groups in the distribution sector with the aim of understanding and analyzing how companies have changed their supply chains to ensure optimal customer service. Findings/Implications – The study contributes to the Global Supply Chain Management and Collaboration literature by integrating the role of the downstream supply chain into research that may actually influence customer service performance on BTB. Our findings also provide firms with some guidelines on building successful downstream supply chain collaboration and a significant influence on customer service performance in BTB. Because of the exploratory nature of the study approach, the research results are limited to the data collected, and these preliminary findings require further confirmation.

Keywords: customer service performance (B2B), global supply chain, downstream supply collaboration, qualitative case study

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18 Availability of Metals in Fired Bricks Incorporating Harbour Sediments

Authors: Fabienne Baraud, Lydia Leleyter, Sandra Poree, Melanie Lemoine, Fatiha Oudghiri

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Alternative solutions to immersion at sea are searched for the huge amounts of dredged sediments around the world that might contain various types of contaminants. Possible re-uses of such materials in civil engineering appear as sustainable solutions. The French SEDIBRIC project (valorisation de SEDIments en BRIQues et tuiles) aims to replace a part of natural clays with dredged sediments in the preparation of fired bricks. The potential environmental impact of this re-use is explored to complete the technical and economic feasibility of the study. As part of the project, we investigate the environmental availability of metallic elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mg, Mn, Pb, Ti, and Zn) initially present in the dredged sediments selected for the project. Leaching tests (with H₂O, HCl, or EDTA) are conducted in the sediments than in the final bricks in order to evaluate the possible influence of some steps of the bricks manufacturing (desalination pre-treatment, firing, etc.). The desalination pre-treatment using tap water has no or few impacts on the environmental availability of the studied elements. On the opposite, the firing process (900°C) affects the value of the total content of elements detected in the bricks but also the environmental availability for various elements. For instance, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn are stabilized in the bricks, whereas the availability of some other elements (i.e., Cr, Ni) increases, depending on the nature of the extracting solution.

Keywords: availability, bricks, dredged sediments, metals

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17 First Occurrence of Histopathological Assessment in Gadoid Deep-Fish Phycis blennoides from the Southwestern Mediterranean Sea

Authors: Zakia Alioua, Amira Soumia, Zerouali-Khodja Fatiha

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In spite of a wide variety of contaminants such as heavy metals and organic compounds in addition to the importance of extended pollution, the deep-sea and its species are not in haven and being affected through contaminants exposure. This investigation is performed in order to provide data on the presence of pathological changes in the liver and gonads of the greater forkbeard. A total of 998 specimens of the teleost fish Phycis blennoides Brünnich, 1768 ranged from 5,7 to 62,7 cm in total length, were obtained from the commercial fisheries of Algerian ports. The sampling has been carried out monthly from December 2013 to June 2015 and from January to June 2016 caught by trawlers and longlines between 75 and 600 fathoms in the coast of Algeria. Individuals were sexed their gonads, and their livers were removed and processed for light microscopy and one case of atresia was identified. In whole, overall 0,002% of the specimens presented some degree of liver steatosis. For the gastric section, 442 selected stomachs contents were observed looking for parasitic infestation and enumerate 212 nematodes. A prospecting survey for metal contaminant was performed on the liver by atomic absorption spectrophotometry analysis.

Keywords: atresia, coast of Algeria, histopathology, nematode, Phycis blennoides, steatosis

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16 Mechanisms Involved in Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt

Authors: Bensaid Fatiha

Abstract:

The objective of our present work is the description of the antagonistic capacities of one strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens and the nonpathogenic fungic isolate Fusarium oxysporum against phytopathogenic agent Fusarium oxysporum F. Sp. lycopersici. This work has been achieved in two main parts: the first is interested on the in vitro antagonistic activities; the second was interested to study the soil receptiveness of fusarium wilt tomato. The use of strain of fluorescent Pseudomonas and a non-pathogenic strain of F. oxysporum in the different antagonism tests, has allowed assuring a certain bio-protection from the plants of tomatoes opposite to F. oxysporum F. Sp. lycopersici, agent of a wilt of tomato. These antagonistic have shown a substantial in vitro antagonistic activity on the three mediums (KB, PDA, KB+PDA) against F. oxysporum F. Sp. lycopersici, by inhibiting its growth mycelium with rate of inhibition going until 80 % with non-pathogen of Fusarium oxysporum and 60 % with strain of fluorescens Pseudomonas. Soil microbial balance, between the antagonistic population and that of pathogenic, can be modulated through microbiological variations or abiotic additives influencing directly or indirectly the metabolic behavior microbial. In this experiment, addition of glucose or EDTA, could increase or decrease the resistance of soil by activation of pathogenic or antagonists, as a result of modification and modulation in their metabolic activities.

Keywords: fluorescents, nonpathogenic, fusarium oxysporum, fusarium wilt, antagonism, biological control, soil receptivity

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15 The Choicest Design of InGaP/GaAs Heterojunction Solar Cell

Authors: Djaafar Fatiha, Ghalem Bachir, Hadri Bagdad

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We studied mainly the influence of temperature, thickness, molar fraction and the doping of the various layers (emitter, base, BSF and window) on the performances of a photovoltaic solar cell. In a first stage, we optimized the performances of the InGaP/GaAs dual-junction solar cell while varying its operation temperature from 275°K to 375 °K with an increment of 25°C using a virtual wafer fabrication TCAD Silvaco. The optimization at 300 °K led to the following result: Icc =14.22 mA/cm2, Voc =2.42V, FF=91.32 %, η= 22.76 % which is close with those found in the literature. In a second stage ,we have varied the molar fraction of different layers as well their thickness and the doping of both emitters and bases and we have registered the result of each variation until obtaining an optimal efficiency of the proposed solar cell at 300°K which was of Icc=14.35mA/cm2,Voc=2.47V,FF=91.34,and η=23.33% for In(1-x)Ga(x)P molar fraction( x=0.5).The elimination of a layer BSF on the back face of our cell, enabled us to make a remarkable improvement of the short-circuit current (Icc=14.70 mA/cm2) and a decrease in open circuit voltage Voc and output η which reached 1.46V and 11.97% respectively. Therefore, we could determine the critical parameters of the cell and optimize its various technological parameters to obtain the best performance for a dual junction solar cell .This work opens the way with new prospects in the field of the photovoltaic one. Such structures will thus simplify the manufacturing processes of the cells; will thus reduce the costs while producing high outputs of photovoltaic conversion.

Keywords: modeling, simulation, multijunction, optimization, Silvaco ATLAS

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14 Flashover Voltage of Silicone Insulating Surface Covered by Water Drops under AC Voltage

Authors: Fatiha Aouabed, Abdelhafid Bayadi, Rabah Boudissa

Abstract:

Nowadays, silicone rubber insulation materials are widely used in high voltage outdoor insulation systems as they can combat pollution flashover problems. The difference in pollution flashover performance of silicone rubber and other insulating materials is due to the way that water wets their surfaces. It resides as discrete drops on silicone rubber, and the mechanism of flashover is due to the breakdown of the air between the water drops and the distortion of these drops in the direction of the electric field which brings the insulation to degradation and failure. The main objective of this work is to quantify the effect of different types of water drops arrangements, their position and dry bands width on the flashover voltage of the silicone insulating surface with non-uniform electric field systems. The tests were carried out on a rectangular sample under AC voltage. A rod-rod electrode system is used. The findings of this work indicate that the performance of the samples decreases with the presence of water drops on their surfaces. Further, these experimental findings show that there is a limiting number of rows from which the flashover voltage of the insulation is minimal and constant. This minimum is a function of the distance between two successive rows. Finally, it is concluded that the system withstand voltage increases when the row of droplets on the electrode axis is removed.

Keywords: contamination, flashover, testing, silicone rubber insulators, surface wettability, water droplets

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13 Mesoscopic Defects of Forming and Induced Properties on the Impact of a Composite Glass/Polyester

Authors: Bachir Kacimi, Fatiha Teklal, Arezki Djebbar

Abstract:

Forming processes induce residual deformations on the reinforcement and sometimes lead to mesoscopic defects, which are more recurrent than macroscopic defects during the manufacture of complex structural parts. This study deals with the influence of the fabric shear and buckles defects, which appear during draping processes of composite, on the impact behavior of a glass fiber reinforced polymer. To achieve this aim, we produced several specimens with different amplitude of deformations (shear) and defects on the fabric using a specific bench. The specimens were manufactured using the contact molding and tested with several impact energies. The results and measurements made on tested specimens were compared to those of the healthy material. The results showed that the buckle defects have a negative effect on elastic parameters and revealed a larger damage with significant out-of-plane mode relatively to the healthy composite material. This effect is the consequence of a local fiber impoverishment and a disorganization of the fibrous network, with a reorientation of the fibers following the out-of-plane buckling of the yarns, in the area where the defects are located. For the material with calibrated shear of the reinforcement, the increased local fiber rate due to the shear deformations and the contribution to stiffness of the transverse yarns led to an increase in mechanical properties.

Keywords: Defects, Forming, Impact, Induced properties, Textiles

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12 Purification of Bilge Water by Adsorption

Authors: Fatiha Atmani, Lamia Djellab, Nacera Yeddou Mezenner, Zohra Bensaadi

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Generally, bilge waters can be briefly defined as saline and greasy wastewaters. The oil and grease are mixed with the sea water, which affects many marine species. Bilge water is a complex mixture of various compounds such as solvents, surfactants, fuel, lubricating oils, and hydraulic oils. It is resulted mainly by the leakage from the machinery and fresh water washdowns,which are allowed to drain to the lowest inner part of the ship's hull. There are several physicochemical methods used for bilge water treatment such as biodegradation electrochemical and electro-coagulation/flotation.The research herein presented discusses adsorption as a method to treat bilge water and eggshells were studied as an adsorbent. The influence of operating parameters as contact time, temperature and adsorbent dose (0,2 - 2g/l) on the removal efficiency of Chemical oxygen demand, COD, and turbidity was analyzed. The bilge wastewater used for this study was supplied by Harbour Bouharoune. Chemical oxygen demand removal increased from 26.7% to 68.7% as the adsorbent dose increased from 0.2 to 2 g. The kinetics of adsorption by eggshells were fast, reaching 55 % of the total adsorption capacity in ten minutes (T= 20°C, pH =7.66, m=2g/L). It was found that the turbidity removal efficiency decreased and 95% were achieved at the end of 90 min reaction. The adsorption process was found to be effective for the purification of bilge water and pseudo-second-order kinetic model was fitted for COD removal.

Keywords: adsorption, bilge water, eggshells and kinetics, equilibrium and kinetics

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11 Histological Changes in the Culex pipiens Mosquito Larvae Treated by the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

Authors: Fatma Sahir- Halouane, Sonia Hamid, Farida Tihar-Benzina, Fatiha Bouhlali, Souad Lourchane

Abstract:

The Culicidae are biting insects, the most harmful to people, they are almost all bloodsuckers, and they are responsible of the spread of many important diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and elephantiasis. Entomopathogenic microorganisms occupy an important place among the alternative methods of fighting against pests insect. The fungus Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic agent naturally present in the ecosystems. It offers a very interesting potential for controlling populations of mosquitoes. This study aimed to show the histological changes that occured in Culex pipiens larvae infected with Beauveria bassiana. The 4th instar larvae were infected with B. bassiana in 10-7 spore/ml dilution, the histological section was studied showing that the fungi infected all the body parts specially Cuticle, Epiderms, fat bodies and midgut. After then the insect have a white appearance and covered with a thick coat of hyphea. The obtained results show that the application of Beauveria bassiana on cuticle of the fourth stage larvae of Culex pipiens was dependent of an apparent disturbance on the structure of the cuticle or there has been the degeneration of its different parts, infection of the fungus does not stop at the body walls. Therefore, it affects even the Adipose tissue, epidermal cells and intestine.

Keywords: Culex pipiens, Beauveria bassiana, histological changes, cuticle, intestine and adipose tissue

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10 Effects of Certain Natural Food Additives (Pectin, Gelatin and Whey Proteins) on the Qualities of Fermented Milk

Authors: Abderrahim Cheriguene, Fatiha Arioui

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The experimental study focuses on the extraction of pectin, whey protein and gelatin, and the study of their functional properties. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory approach integrated has been implanted to study the effect of the incorporation of these natural food additives in the matrix of a fermented milk type set yogurt, to study the stability of the product during the periods of fermentation and post-acidification over a period of 21 days at 4°C. Pectin was extracted in hot HCl solution. Thermo-precipitation was carried out to obtain the whey proteins while the gelatin was extracted by hydrolysis of the collagen from bovine ossein. The fermented milk was prepared by varying the concentration of the incorporated additives. The measures and controls carried performed periodically on fermented milk experimental tests were carried out: pH, acidity, viscosity, the enumeration of Streptococcus thermophilus, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, taste, aftertaste, whey exudation, and odor. It appears that the acidity, viscosity, and number of Streptococcus thermophilus increased with increasing concentration of additive added in the experimental tests. Indeed, it seems clear that the quality of fermented milk and storability is more improved than the incorporation rate is high. The products showed a better test and a firmer texture limiting the whey exudation.

Keywords: fermented milk, pectin, gelatin, whey proteins, functional properties, quality, conservation, valorization

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9 Behavior of Pet Packaging on Quality Characteristics of an Algerian Virgin Olive Oil Under Various Conditions of Storage

Authors: Hamitri-Guerfi Fatiha, Mekimene Lekhder, Madani Khodir, Youyou Ahcene

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Virgin olive oil is appreciated by consumers, the quality of the oil is regulated by the international olive oil council depends on its chemical composition, so, the correct packing conditions are a prerequisite to preserve oil color, flavor, and nutriments, from production to consumption. The contact of food with various materials of packaging, since the production, until their consumption constitutes one of the essential aspects of food safety (directive 76/833/CEE). In Algeria, plastic bottles, although, they are economic and light are largely used at packaging olive oil but not used in other countries. This is due to migration phenomena that can occur from these materials. Thus, the goal of this work is to examine the physicochemical behavior of the couple packaging plastic-oil during their exposure to three temperatures corresponding to the conditions of storage applied in Algeria. Like, it is difficult to compare blowers of bottles which are heavy engineering, it comes out from this study that the effect of heat, the absorption of water, the constraints of storage of acidity, as well as the composition of oil, the PET bottles showed a remarkable structural instability, this defect of quality was confirmed by the analysis of morphology by electronic scan microscopy. These bottles present a total migration significantly higher than the threshold of acceptance. Moreover, a metal contamination of oil by its packaging was confirmed by the spectroscopy of atomic absorption and a microanalysis. The differences observed between the results of the microanalysis applied and the mechanical characterizations of the various bottles are reported, showing the reality of the container-contents exchanges.

Keywords: interaction, stability, pet, virgin olive oil

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8 Quranic Recitation Listening Relate to Memory Processing, Language Selectivity and Attentional Process

Authors: Samhani Ismail, Tahamina Begum, Faruque Reza, Zamzuri Idris, Hafizan Juahir, Jafri Malin Abdullah

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Holy Quran, a rhymed prosed scripture has a complete literary structure that exemplifies the peak of literary beauty. Memorizing of its verses could enhance one’s memory capacity and cognition while those who are listening to its recitation it is also believed that the Holy Quran alter brainwave producing neuronal excitation engaging with cognitive processes. 28 normal healthy subjects (male =14 & female = 14) were recruited and EEG recording was done using 128-electrode sensor net (Electrical Geosics, Inc.) with the impedance of ≤ 50kΩ. They listened to Sura Fatiha recited by Sheikh Qari Abdul Basit bin Abdus Samad. Arabic news and no sound were chosen as positive and negative control, respectively. The waveform was analysed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to get the power in frequency bands. Bilateral frontal (F7, F8) and temporal region (T7, T8) showed decreased power significantly in alpha wave band in respondent stimulated by Sura Fatihah recitation reflects acoustic attention processing. However, decreased in alpha power in selective attention to memorized, and in familial but not memorized language, reveals the memorial processing in long-term memory. As a conclusion, Quranic recitation relates both cognitive element of memory and language in its listeners and memorizers.

Keywords: auditory stimulation, cognition, EEG, linguistic, memory, Quranic recitation

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7 Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Matricaria pubscens Extracts: A Wild Space of North African Pharmacopeia

Authors: Abdelouahab Dehimati, Fatiha Bedjou

Abstract:

This study focused on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of four extracts from the plant Matricaria pubscens (Asteraceae) harvest in the region of Ghardaia, the northern Sahara of Algeria. The different extracts were analyzed for their content of phenolic compounds and their biological activities. The ethanol extract expresses a better extraction yield (44.22%). We have first performed the quantitative colorimetric methods for total polyphenols. Wherein the aqueous extract shows the highest total polyphenol content and total flavonoid (216.66±2.58 mg Eq GA/g and 111.04±0.49 mg Eq Q/g E, respectively) and ethanol extract 50% total tannins content (68.88±2.72 mg Eq AT/g E). The evaluation of the antioxidant activity of extracts of Matricaria pubscens by the arbitrary value IC50. The ethanol 50% extract is expressed strong activity with an IC50 14.19±1.25 mg/m against the DPPH radical and 11.66±0.53 mg/ml against the ABTS radical). In addition, the aqueous extract showed strong reducing power with an IC50 (48.61±1.14 mg/ml). However, the results obtained by the reducing power of phosphomolybdat the test are calculated by the iron maximum absorbance where ethanol extract 50% gives an absorbance of about 1.641 ± 0.01nm. Otherwise, methanol 70% and butanol 80% extracts gave a very large chelating effect of iron with an IC50 (38.38±0.01 μg/ml and 38.58±0.04 μg/ml respectively). By the method of disc Diffuson, the results of the antimicrobial activity are achieved butanolic extract 80% shows high activity towards MRSA (MIC: 3.51mg/ml; BMC>100 mg/ml). Their shares, the extracts were the most active for the antifungal test, the butanol 80% extract was the most active against A. niger (MIC: 12.5 mg/ml; FMC>100 mg/ml). These preliminary results could be used to justify the traditional use of this plant and their phenolic compounds could be exploited for therapeutic purposes, such as antioxidants and antimicrobial effects.

Keywords: Matricaria pubscens, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, IC50, MIC

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6 Comparative Analysis of Control Techniques Based Sliding Mode for Transient Stability Assessment for Synchronous Multicellular Converter

Authors: Rihab Hamdi, Amel Hadri Hamida, Fatiha Khelili, Sakina Zerouali, Ouafae Bennis

Abstract:

This paper features a comparative study performance of sliding mode controller (SMC) for closed-loop voltage control of direct current to direct current (DC-DC) three-cells buck converter connected in parallel, operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM), based on pulse-width modulation (PWM) with SMC based on hysteresis modulation (HM) where an adaptive feedforward technique is adopted. On one hand, for the PWM-based SM, the approach is to incorporate a fixed-frequency PWM scheme which is effectively a variant of SM control. On the other hand, for the HM-based SM, oncoming an adaptive feedforward control that makes the hysteresis band variable in the hysteresis modulator of the SM controller in the aim to restrict the switching frequency variation in the case of any change of the line input voltage or output load variation are introduced. The results obtained under load change, input change and reference change clearly demonstrates a similar dynamic response of both proposed techniques, their effectiveness is fast and smooth tracking of the desired output voltage. The PWM-based SM technique has greatly improved the dynamic behavior with a bit advantageous compared to the HM-based SM technique, as well as provide stability in any operating conditions. Simulation studies in MATLAB/Simulink environment have been performed to verify the concept.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, hysteresis modulation, parallel multi-cells converter, pulse-width modulation, robustness, sliding mode control

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5 Structural Morphing on High Performance Composite Hydrofoil to Postpone Cavitation

Authors: Fatiha Mohammed Arab, Benoit Augier, Francois Deniset, Pascal Casari, Jacques Andre Astolfi

Abstract:

For the top high performance foiling yachts, cavitation is often a limiting factor for take-off and top speed. This work investigates solutions to delay the onset of cavitation thanks to structural morphing. The structural morphing is based on compliant leading and trailing edge, with effect similar to flaps. It is shown here that the commonly accepted effect of flaps regarding the control of lift and drag forces can also be used to postpone the inception of cavitation. A numerical and experimental study is conducted in order to assess the effect of the geometric parameters of hydrofoil on their hydrodynamic performances and in cavitation inception. The effect of a 70% trailing edge and a 30% leading edge of NACA 0012 is investigated using Xfoil software at a constant Reynolds number 106. The simulations carried out for a range flaps deflections and various angles of attack. So, the result showed that the lift coefficient increase with the increase of flap deflection, but also with the increase of angle of attack and enlarged the bucket cavitation. To evaluate the efficiency of the Xfoil software, a 2D analysis flow over a NACA 0012 with leading and trailing edge flap was studied using Fluent software. The results of the two methods are in a good agreement. To validate the numerical approach, a passive adaptive composite model is built and tested in the hydrodynamic tunnel at the Research Institute of French Naval Academy. The model shows the ability to simulate the effect of flap by a LE and TE structural morphing due to hydrodynamic loading.

Keywords: cavitation, flaps, hydrofoil, panel method, xfoil

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4 Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis against Culex pipiens (Insect: Culicidae) Effect of Bti on Two Non-Target Species Eylais hamata (Acari: Hydrachnidia) and Physa marmorata (Gastropoda: Physidae) and Dosage of Their GST Biomarker

Authors: Meriem Mansouri, Fatiha Bendali Saoudi, Noureddine Soltani

Abstract:

Biological control presents a means of control for the protection of the environment. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Berliner 1915 is an inseticide of biological origin because it is a bacterium of the Bacillaceae family. This biocide has a biological importance, because of its specific larvicidal action against Culicidae, blood-sucking insects, responsible for several diseases to humans and animals through the world. As well as, its high specificity for these insects. Also, the freshwater mites, this necessarily parasitic group for aquatic species such as the Physidae, also have an effective biological control against the Culicidae, because of their voracious predation to the larvae of these insects. The present work aims to study the effects of the biocide Bacillus thuringiensis var israelinsis, against non-target adults of water mites Eylais hamata Koenike, 1897, as well as its associated host species Physa marmorata Fitzinger, 1833. After 12 days of oral treatment of adults with lethal concentration (LC50:0.08µg/ml), determined from essays on 4th instar larvae of Culex pipiens (hematophagous insects). No adverse effect has been recorded for adult individuals of Eylais hamata, contrary, snail Physa marmorata were sensitive for this dose of Bti. In parallel, after treatment at the Bti by LC50, the enzyme stress bio marker glutathione S-transferase, was measured after 24, 48 and 72 hours. The enzymatic activity of GST has increased after 24 and 48 hours following treatment.

Keywords: biological control, Bacillus thuringiensis var israelinsis, culicidae, hydrachnidia, enzymatic activity

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3 Steady and Spatio-Temporal Monitoring of Water Quality Feeding Area Southwest of Great Casablanca (Morocco)

Authors: Hicham Maklache, Rajae Delhi, Fatiha Benzha, Mohamed Tahiri

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In Morocco, where semi-arid climate is dominant, the supply of industrial and drink water is provided primarily by surface water. Morocco has currently 118 multi-purpose dams. If the construction of these works was a necessity to ensure in all seasons, the water essential to our country, it is impartial to control and protect the quality of running water. -Most dam reservoir used are threatened by eutrophication due to increased terrigenous and anthropogenic pollutants, coming from an over-fertilization of water by phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients and accelerated by uncontrolled development of microalgae aging. It should also be noted that the daily practices of citizens with respect to the resource, an essential component involved in almost all human activities (agriculture, agro-industries, hydropower, ...), has contributed significantly to the deterioration of water quality despite its treatment in several plants. Therefore, the treated water, provides a legacy of bad tastes and odors unacceptable to the consumer. -The present work exhibits results of water quality watershed Oum Erbia used to supply drinking water to the whole terraced area connecting the city of Khenifra to the city of Azemmour. The area south west of Great Casablanca (metropolis of the kingdom with about 4 million inhabitants) supplied 50% of its water needs by sourcing Dam Sidi Said Maachou located, last anchor point of the watershed before the spill in the Atlantic Ocean. The results were performed in a spatio-temporal scale and helped to establish a history of monitoring water quality during the 2009-2011 cycles, the study also presents the development of quality according to the seasonal rhythmicity and rainfall. It gives also an overview on the concept of watershed stewardship.

Keywords: crude surface water quality, Oum Er Rbia hydraulic basin, spatio-temporal monitoring, Great Casablanca drink water quality, Morocco

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2 Development of a New Margarine Added Date Seed Oil: Characteristics and Chemical Composition of Date Seed Oil

Authors: Hamitri-Guerfi Fatiha, Madani Khodir, Hadjal Samir, Kati Djamel, Youyou Ahcene

Abstract:

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a principal fruit that is grown in many regions of the world, resulting in a surplus production of dates. Algeria is considered to be one of the date producing countries. Date seeds (pits) have been a problem to the date industry as a waste stream. However, finding a way to make a profit on the pits would benefit date farmers substantially. This work concentrated on the valorization of date seed oils. A preliminary study was carried out on three varieties (soft, half soft, and dry) and we selected the dry variety. This work concerns the valorization of the date seed oil of the dry variety: ‘Mech Degla’ by its incorporation in a food formulation: margarine of table. Lipid extraction was carried out by hot extraction with the soxhlet; the extracts obtained are rich in fat contents, the results gave outputs of 13.21±0.21 %. The antioxidant activity of extracted oils was studied by the test of DPPH, the content polyphenols as well as the anti-radicalaire activity. The analysis of fatty acids was made by CPG. Thus, it comes out from our results that the recovered fat contents are interesting and considerable. A formulation of the margarine ‘BIO’ was elaborated on the scale industrialist by the addition of the extracts of date seeds ‘Mech-Degla’ oil in order to substitute a synthetic additive. The physicochemical characteristics of the elaborate margarines prove to be in conformity with the standards set by the Algerian companies. The texture of the elaborate margarine has an acceptable color, an aspect brilliant and homogeneous, it is plastic and easy to paste having an index of required SFC and the margarine melts easily in the mouth. Moreover, the evaluation of oxidative stability is carried out by the test of Rancimat. The result obtained reported that the margarine enriched with date seed oil, proved more resistant to oxidation, than the margarine without extract, which is improved much during incorporation of the extracts simultaneously. By conclusion, considering the content of polyphénols noted in the two extracts (aqueous and oily), we can exhort the scientific community to become aware of the treasures of our country especially the wonders of the south which are the dates and theirs under products (pits).

Keywords: antioxydant activity, date seed oil, quality characteristics, margarine

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