Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Saida Keraghel

17 Investigation of the Inhibition Effect of 2,3-Diaminopyridine on Mild Steel Corrosion in Solution Simulating Water of Pores Concrete in Absence and Presence of Chloride Ions

Authors: Fatiha Benghanem, Mokhtar Berarma, Saida Keraghel, Ali Ourari


Corrosion is the result of the reaction between a material and its environment. Steel in concrete is protected from corrosion by a passive film promoted by concrete alkalinity. For the initiation of corrosion, this protective film must be destroyed and this can be mainly done in two ways: by the attack of chlorides on the steel or by carbonation of the cover concrete due the reaction with carbon dioxide, which causes reduction in the alkalinity of concrete. The literature reports several ways to decrease or to prevent reinforcement corrosion. Among them, the use of corrosion inhibitors has been an envisaged solution. Two approaches are generally used to evaluate the efficiency of inhibitors for concrete application; one uses simulated pore solution testing , and the other uses actual concrete or mortar specimens. Both methods are some times used in conjunction. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of 2,3-diaminopyridine as a corrosion inhibitors of steel in alkaline media which simulate the electrolyte in the concrete pores. The effectiveness of this compound as corrosion inhibitor was investigated by measuring the corrosion potentials, the polarization curves and the corrosion current densities of steel with and without chlorides. The study of corrosion inhibition by this compound led to the conclusion that he has low rates of inhibition in the absence of aggressive ions and high rates in their presence. This type of organic compounds are promoting for the protection of armatures in concrete.

Keywords: corrosion, inhibitors, mild steel, conjunction

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16 Modelization of Land Degradation by Desertification Using Medalus Method, Case Study of the Wilaya of Saida, Algeria

Authors: Fekir Youcef, Mederbal Khalladi, M. A. Hamadouche, D. Anteur


Algeria is one of the countries that are highly affected by desertification which is the consequence of several factors. For this purpose, there is a need to study this problem by quantitative approaches. In this study, we apply the MEDALUS method (Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use) to a watershed located in Saida town in semi-arid environment in the south west of Algeria. The method is based on sensitive areas identification by making use of the different parameters that may affect the desertification process such as vegetation, soil, climate and management. Spatial analyses are strong tools that allow modelization of each indicator. Results show that according to European standards, a large scale of the watershed falls into critical classes. And therefore, the modelization approach can be an effective way to study and understand the desertification showing an example of the project of the green dam that limits the desertification process to affect the north areas off Algeria.

Keywords: Algeria, desertification, MEDALUS, modelization

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15 Performance Evaluation of Different Technologies of PV Modules in Algeria

Authors: Amira Balaska, Ali Tahri, Amine Boudghene Stambouli, Takashi Oozeki


This paper is dealing with the evaluation of photovoltaic modules as part of the Sahara Solar Breeder project (SSB), five different photovoltaic module technologies which are: m-si, CIS, HIT, Back Contact, a-si_μc -si and a weather station recently installed at the University of Saida (Tahar Moulay) in Saida city located at the gate of the great southern Algeria’s Sahara. The objective of the present work is the study of solar photovoltaic capacity and performance parameters of each PV module technology. The goal of the study is to compare the five different PV technologies in order to find which technologies are suitable for the climate conditions of Algeria’s desert. Measurements of various parameters as irradiance, temperature, humidity and so on by the weather station and I-V curves were performed outdoors at the location without shadow. Finally performance parameters as performance ratio, energy yield and temperature losses are given and analyzed.

Keywords: photovoltaic modules, performance ratio, energy yield, sahara solar breeder, outdoor conditions

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14 Valorisation of a Bioflocculant and Hydroxyapatites as Coagulation-Flocculation Adjuvants in Wastewater Treatment of the Steppe in the Wilaya of Saida

Authors: Fatima Zohra Choumane, Belkacem Benguella, Bouhana Maachou, Nacera Saadi


Pollution caused by wastewater is a serious problem in Algeria. This pollution has certainly harmful effects on the environment. In order to reduce the bad effects of these pollutants, many wastewater treatment processes, mainly physicochemical, are implemented. This study consists in using two flocculants; the first one is a biodegradable natural bioflocculant, i.e. Cactaceaeou ficus-indica cactus juice, and the second is the synthetic hydroxyapatite, in a physico-chemical process through coagulation-flocculation, using two coagulants, i.e. ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate, to treat wastewater collected at the entrance of the treatment plant, in the town of Saida. The influence of various experimental parameters, such as the amounts of coagulants and flocculants used, pH, turbidity, COD and BOD5, was investigated. The coagulation - flocculation jar tests of wastewater reveal that ferric chloride, containing a mass of 0.3 g – hydroxyapatite, treated for 1 hour through calcination, is the most effective adjuvant in clarifying the wastewater, with turbidity equal to 98.16 %. In the presence of the two bioflocculants, Cactaceae juice and aluminum sulphate, with a dose of 0.2 g, flocculation is good, with turbidity equal to 95.61 %. Examination of the key reaction parameters, following the flocculation tests of wastewater, shows that the degree of pollution decreases. This is confirmed by the COD and turbidity values obtained. Examination of these results suggests the use of these flocculants in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: wastewater, cactus ficus-indica, hydroxyapatite, coagulation - flocculation

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13 Impact of Natural Period and Epicentral Distance on Storey Lateral Displacements

Authors: Saida Dorbani, M'hammed Badaoui, Djilali Benouar


This paper deals with the effect of the building design and epicentral distance on the storey lateral displacement, for several reinforced concrete buildings (6, 9 and 12 stories), with three floor plans: symmetric, mono symmetric, and unsymmetrical. These structures are subjected to seismic accelerations from the Boumerdes earthquake (Algeria, May 21st, Mw=6.5). The objective of this study is to highlight the impact of the fundamental period and epicentral distance on storey displacements for a given earthquake. The seismic lateral displacement is carried out in both longitudinal and transverse direction by the response spectrum method.

Keywords: natural period, epicenter distance, reinforced concrete buildings, storey displacement

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12 Reduction of Speckle Noise in Echocardiographic Images: A Survey

Authors: Fathi Kallel, Saida Khachira, Mohamed Ben Slima, Ahmed Ben Hamida


Speckle noise is a main characteristic of cardiac ultrasound images, it corresponding to grainy appearance that degrades the image quality. For this reason, the ultrasound images are difficult to use automatically in clinical use, then treatments are required for this type of images. Then a filtering procedure of these images is necessary to eliminate the speckle noise and to improve the quality of ultrasound images which will be then segmented to extract the necessary forms that exist. In this paper, we present the importance of the pre-treatment step for segmentation. This work is applied to cardiac ultrasound images. In a first step, a comparative study of speckle filtering method will be presented and then we use a segmentation algorithm to locate and extract cardiac structures.

Keywords: medical image processing, ultrasound images, Speckle noise, image enhancement, speckle filtering, segmentation, snakes

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11 C Vibration Analysis of a Beam on Elastic Foundation with Elastically Restrained Ends Using Spectral Element Method

Authors: Hamioud Saida, Khalfallah Salah


In this study, a spectral element method is employed to predict the free vibration of a Euler-Bernoulli beam resting on a Winkler foundation with elastically restrained ends. The formulation of the dynamic stiffness matrix has been established by solving the differential equation of motion, which was transformed to frequency domain. Non-dimensional natural frequencies and shape modes are obtained by solving the partial differential equations, numerically. Numerical comparisons and examples are performed to show the effectiveness of the SEM and to investigate the effects of various parameters, such as the springs at the boundaries and the elastic foundation parameter on the vibration frequencies. The obtained results demonstrate that the present method can also be applied to solve the more general problem of the dynamic analysis of structures with higher order precision.

Keywords: elastically supported Euler-Bernoulli beam, free-vibration, spectral element method, Winkler foundation

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10 Applied Bayesian Regularized Artificial Neural Network for Up-Scaling Wind Speed Profile and Distribution

Authors: Aghbalou Nihad, Charki Abderafi, Saida Rahali, Reklaoui Kamal


Maximize the benefit from the wind energy potential is the most interest of the wind power stakeholders. As a result, the wind tower size is radically increasing. Nevertheless, choosing an appropriate wind turbine for a selected site require an accurate estimate of vertical wind profile. It is also imperative from cost and maintenance strategy point of view. Then, installing tall towers or even more expensive devices such as LIDAR or SODAR raises the costs of a wind power project. Various models were developed coming within this framework. However, they suffer from complexity, generalization and lacks accuracy. In this work, we aim to investigate the ability of neural network trained using the Bayesian Regularization technique to estimate wind speed profile up to height of 100 m based on knowledge of wind speed lower heights. Results show that the proposed approach can achieve satisfactory predictions and proof the suitability of the proposed method for generating wind speed profile and probability distributions based on knowledge of wind speed at lower heights.

Keywords: bayesian regularization, neural network, wind shear, accuracy

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9 The Sustainability of Farm Forestry Management in Bulukumba Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors: Nuraeni, Suryanti, Saida, Annas Boceng


Farm forestry is a forest where farmers or landowners do cultivation and farming activities on their land. This study aims to determine the dimensions of sustainable development of farm forestry and to analyze the leverage factors to improve the sustainability status of farm forestry management in Bulukumba Regency. This research was conducted in Kajang District, Bulukumba Regency. The analysis of the sustainability of farm forestry management applied Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS), a modification of the Rapid Appraisal of The Status of Farming (RAPFARM). The index value of farm forestry sustainability was by 62.01% for ecological dimension, 51.54% for economic dimension, 61.00% for the social and cultural dimension, and 63.24% for legal and institutional dimension with sustainable enough category status. Meanwhile, the index value for the technology and infrastructure was by 47.16% of less sustainable category status. The result of leverage analysis of attributes for the dimensions of ecological, economic, social and cultural, legal and institutional as well as infrastructure and technology afforded twenty-two (22) leverage sensitive factors that influence the sustainability of farm forestry.

Keywords: farm forestry, South Sulawesi, management, sustainability

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8 Preliminary Study on Milk Composition and Milk Protein Polymorphism in the Algerian Local Sheep's Breeds

Authors: A. Ameur Ameur, F. Chougrani, M. Halbouche


In order to characterize the sheep's milk, we analyzed and compared, in a first stage of our work, the physical and chemical characteristics in two Algerian sheep breeds: Hamra race and race Ouled Djellal breeding at the station the experimental ITELV Ain Hadjar (Saïda Province). Analyses are performed by Ekomilk Ultra-analyzer (EON TRADING LLC, USA), they focused on the pH, density, freezing, fat, total protein, solids-the total dry extract. The results obtained for these parameters showed no significant differences between the two breeds studied. The second stage of this work was the isolation and characterization of milk proteins. For this, we used the precipitation of caseins phi [pH 4.6]. For this, we used the precipitation of caseins Phi (pH 4.6). After extraction, purification and assay, both casein and serum protein fractions were then assayed by the Bradford method and controlled by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in the different conditions (native, in the presence of urea and in the presence of SDS). The electrophoretic pattern of milk samples showed the presence similarities of four major caseins variants (αs1-, αs2-β-and k-casein) and two whey proteins (β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin) of two races Hamra and Ouled Djellal. But compared to bovine milk, they have helped to highlight some peculiarities as related to serum proteins (α La β Lg) as caseins, including αs1-Cn.

Keywords: Hamra, Ouled Djellal, protein polymorphism, sheep breeds

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7 Design and Synthesis of Two Tunable Bandpass Filters Based on Varactors and Defected Ground Structure

Authors: M'Hamed Boulakroune, Mouloud Challal, Hassiba Louazene, Saida Fentiz


This paper presents a new ultra wideband (UWB) microstrip bandpass filter (BPF) at microwave frequencies. The first one is based on multiple-mode resonator (MMR) and rectangular-shaped defected ground structure (DGS). This filter, which is compact size of 25.2 x 3.8 mm2, provides in the pass band an insertion loss of 0.57 dB and a return loss greater than 12 dB. The second structure is a tunable bandpass filters using planar patch resonators based on diode varactor. This filter is formed by a triple mode circular patch resonator with two pairs of slots, in which the varactors are connected. Indeed, this filter is initially centered at 2.4 GHz, the center frequency of the tunable patch filter could be tuned up to 1.8 GHz simultaneously with the bandwidth, reaching high tuning ranges. Lossless simulations were compared to those considering the substrate dielectric, conductor losses, and the equivalent electrical circuit model of the tuning element in order to assess their effects. Within these variations, simulation results showed insertion loss better than 2 dB and return loss better than 10 dB over the passband. The proposed filters presents good performances and the simulation results are in satisfactory agreement with the experimentation ones reported elsewhere.

Keywords: defected ground structure, diode varactor, microstrip bandpass filter, multiple-mode resonator

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6 Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Synthesis by Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Platinum-Group Metal Catalysts

Authors: T. Maruyama, T. Saida, S. Naritsuka, S. Iijima


Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are generally synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Fe, Co, and Ni as catalysts. However, due to the Ostwald ripening of metal catalysts, the diameter distribution of the grown SWCNTs is considerably wide (>2 nm), which is not suitable for electronics applications. In addition, reduction in the growth temperature is desirable for fabricating SWCNT devices compatible with the LSI process. Herein, we performed SWCNT growth by alcohol catalytic CVD using platinum-group metal catalysts (Pt, Rh, and Pd) because these metals have high melting points, and the reduction in the Ostwald ripening of catalyst particles is expected. Our results revealed that web-like SWCNTs were obtained from Pt and Rh catalysts at growth temperature between 500 °C and 600 °C by optimizing the ethanol pressure. The SWCNT yield from Pd catalysts was considerably low. By decreasing the growth temperature, the diameter and chirality distribution of SWCNTs from Pt and Rh catalysts became small and narrow. In particular, the diameters of most SWCNTs grown using Pt catalysts were below 1 nm and their diameter distribution was considerably narrow. On the contrary, SWCNTs can grow from Rh catalysts even at 300 °C by optimizing the growth condition, which is the lowest temperature recorded for SWCNT growth. Our results demonstrated that platinum-group metals are useful for the growth of small-diameter SWCNTs and facilitate low-temperature growth.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, chemical vapor deposition, catalyst, platinum, rhodium, palladium

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5 Contribution of Spatial Teledetection to the Geological Mapping of the Imiter Buttonhole: Application to the Mineralized Structures of the Principal Corps B3 (CPB3) of the Imiter Mine (Anti-atlas, Morocco)

Authors: Bouayachi Ali, Alikouss Saida, Baroudi Zouhir, Zerhouni Youssef, Zouhair Mohammed, El Idrissi Assia, Essalhi Mourad


The world-class Imiter silver deposit is located on the northern flank of the Precambrian Imiter buttonhole. This deposit is formed by epithermal veins hosted in the sandstone-pelite formations of the lower complex and in the basic conglomerates of the upper complex, these veins are controlled by a regional scale fault cluster, oriented N70°E to N90°E. The present work on the contribution of remote sensing on the geological mapping of the Imiter buttonhole and application to the mineralized structures of the Principal Corps B3. Mapping on satellite images is a very important tool in mineral prospecting. It allows the localization of the zones of interest in order to orientate the field missions by helping the localization of the major structures which facilitates the interpretation, the programming and the orientation of the mining works. The predictive map also allows for the correction of field mapping work, especially the direction and dimensions of structures such as dykes, corridors or scrapings. The use of a series of processing such as SAM, PCA, MNF and unsupervised and supervised classification on a Landsat 8 satellite image of the study area allowed us to highlight the main facies of the Imite area. To improve the exploration research, we used another processing that allows to realize a spatial distribution of the alteration mineral indices, and the application of several filters on the different bands to have lineament maps.

Keywords: principal corps B3, teledetection, Landsat 8, Imiter II, silver mineralization, lineaments

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4 Impact of Anthropogenic Activities on Soil Quality Using the Land Snail Cantareus apertus as Bioindicator of Heavy Metals Accumulation in The Bejaia Region (Northeastern Algeria)

Authors: Benbelil-Tafoughalt Saida, Tababouchet Meriem


The main goal of this study was to investigate the impact of anthropogenic activities on soil quality using the land snail Cantareusapertus as a bioindicator of heavy metal accumulation. Concentrations of cadmium, copper, and zinc were measured in various body organs, viz: viscera and foot of the land snail Cantareusapertus. The snails were collected from two different sites in the Bejaia region (Northeastern Algeria), exposed to different sources of contamination by trace metals. The first sampling site is an urban areas, and the second is characterized by heavy industry, a potential source of soil pollution via heavy metal contamination. The concentrations of heavy metal in all viscera and foot samples were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Bioconcentration of the trace metals Cu, Zn, and Cd varied between the viscera and the foot with the viscera having the highest concentration (µgg-1) of all metals than the foots; Cu, 2.03 – 5.8 (Viscera), 0.05 – 3.30 (Foot), Zn, 23.64 – 45.02 (Viscera), 1.87 – 15.15 (Foot) and Cd, 0.36 – 15.26 (Viscera), 0.18 – 13.73 (Foot), which suggest that ingestion may be the main uptake route of these essential metals. On the other hand, the levels of heavy metals varied significantly among the sampling area (P<0.001). in fact, in the foots as well as in the viscera, the concentrations of all studied metals is significantly higher in the snails sampled from sites closest to potential sources of pollution compared to those collected from urban areas characterized by moderate pollution.

Keywords: anthropogenic activities, Bioconcentration, Cantareus apertus, trace metals

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3 The Potential Effect of Sexual Selection on the Distal Genitalia Variability of the Simultaneously Hermaphroditic Land Snail Helix aperta in Bejaia/Kabylia/Algeria

Authors: Benbellil-Tafoughalt Saida, Tababouchet Meriem


Sexual selection is the most supported explanation for genital extravagance occurring in animals. In promiscuous species, population density, as well as climate conditions, may act on the sperm competition intensity, one of the most important mechanism of post-copulatory sexual selection. The present study is empirical testing of sexual selection's potential role on genitalia variation in the simultanuously hermaphroditic land snail Helixaperta (Pulmonata, Stylommatophora). The purpose was to detect the patterns as well as the origin of the distal genitalia variability and especially to test the potential effect of sexual selection. The study was performed on four populations, H. aperta, different in habitat humidity regimes and presenting variable densities, which were mostly low. The organs of interest were those involved in spermatophore production, reception, and manipulation. We examined whether the evolution of those organs is connected to sperm competition intensity which is traduced by both population density and microclimate humidity. We also tested the hypothesis that those organs evolve in response to shell size. The results revealed remarkable differences in both snails’ size and organs lengths between populations. In most cases, the length of genitalia correlated positively to snails’ body size. Interestingly, snails from the more humid microclimate presented the highest mean weight and shell dimensions comparing to those from the less humid microclimate. However, we failed to establish any relation between snail densities and any of the measured genitalia traits.

Keywords: fertilization pouch, helix aperta, land snails, reproduction, sperm storage, spermatheca

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2 Pistachio Supplementation Ameliorates the Motor and Cognitive Deficits in Rotenone-Induced Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: Saida Haider, Syeda Madiha


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurological disorder characterized by motor deficits and loss of dopaminergic neurons. Oxidative stress is said to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of the disease. In the present study, PD was induced by injection of rotenone (1.5 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for eight days. Pistachio (800 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was given for two weeks. At the end of treatment brains were dissected out and striatum was isolated for biochemical and neurochemical analysis. Morris water maze (MWM) test and novel object recognition (NOR) task was used to test the memory function while motor behavior was determined by open field test (OFT), Kondziela inverted screen test (KIST), pole test (PT), beam walking test (BWT), inclined plane test (IPT) and footprint (FP) test. Several dietary components have been evaluated as potential therapeutic compounds in many neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidence shows that nuts have protective effects against various diseases by improving the oxidative status and reducing lipid peroxidation. Pistachio is the only nut that contains anthocyanin, a potent antioxidant having neuroprotective properties. Results showed that pistachio supplementation significantly restored the rotenone-induced motor deficits and improved the memory performance. Moreover, rats treated with pistachio also exhibited enhanced oxidative status and increased dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration in striatum. In conclusion, to our best knowledge, we have for the first time shown that pistachio nut possesses neuroprotective effects against rotenone-induced motor and cognitive deficits. These beneficial effects of pistachio may be attributed to its high content of natural antioxidant and phenolic compounds. Hence, consumption of pistachio regularly as part of a daily diet can be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of PD.

Keywords: rotenone, pistachio, oxidative stress, Parkinson’s disease

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1 Synthesis and Characterization of the Carbon Spheres Built Up from Reduced Graphene Oxide

Authors: Takahiro Saida, Takahiro Kogiso, Takahiro Maruyama


The ordered structural carbon (OSC) material is expected to apply to the electrode of secondary batteries, the catalyst supports, and the biomaterials because it shows the low substance-diffusion resistance by its uniform pore size. In general, the OSC material is synthesized using the template material. Changing size and shape of this template provides the pore size of OSC material according to the purpose. Depositing the oxide nanosheets on the polymer sphere template by the layer by layer (LbL) method was reported as one of the preparation methods of OSC material. The LbL method can provide the controlling thickness of structural wall without the surface modification. When the preparation of the uniform carbon sphere prepared by the LbL method which composed of the graphene oxide wall and the polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) core, the reduction treatment will be the important object. Since the graphene oxide has poor electron conductivity due to forming a lot of functional groups on the surface, it could be hard to apply to the electrode of secondary batteries and the catalyst support of fuel cells. In this study, the graphene oxide wall of carbon sphere was reduced by the thermal treatment under the vacuum conditions, and its crystalline structure and electronic state were characterized. Scanning electron microscope images of the carbon sphere after the heat treatment at 300ºC showed maintaining sphere shape, but its shape was collapsed with increasing the heating temperature. In this time, the dissolution rate of PMMA core and the reduction rate of graphene oxide were proportionate to heating temperature. In contrast, extending the heating time was conducive to the conservation of the sphere shape. From results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, its electronic state of the surface was indicated mainly sp² carbon. From the above results, we succeeded in the synthesis of the sphere structure composed by the reduction graphene oxide.

Keywords: carbon sphere, graphene oxide, reduction, layer by layer

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