Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4705

Search results for: concrete structures

4705 On the Creep of Concrete Structures

Authors: A. Brahma

Abstract:

Analysis of deferred deformations of concrete under sustained load shows that the creep has a leading role on deferred deformations of concrete structures. Knowledge of the creep characteristics of concrete is a Necessary starting point in the design of structures for crack control. Such knowledge will enable the designer to estimate the probable deformation in pre-stressed concrete or reinforced and the appropriate steps can be taken in design to accommodate this movement. In this study, we propose a prediction model that involves the acting principal parameters on the deferred behaviour of concrete structures. For the estimation of the model parameters Levenberg-Marquardt method has proven very satisfactory. A confrontation between the experimental results and the predictions of models designed shows that it is well suited to describe the evolution of the creep of concrete structures.

Keywords: concrete structure, creep, modelling, prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
4704 Disadvantages and Drawbacks of Concrete Blocks and Fix Their Defects

Authors: Ehsan Sadie

Abstract:

Today, the cost of repair and maintenance of structures is very important and by studying the behavior of reinforced concrete structures Will become specified several factors such as : Design and calculation errors, lack of proper implementation of structural changes, the damage caused by the introduction of random loads, concrete corrosion and environmental conditions reduce durability of the structures . Meanwhile building codes alteration also cause changes in the assessment and review of the design and structure rather if necessary will be improved and strengthened in the future.

Keywords: concrete building , expandable cement, honeycombed surface , reinforcement corrosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
4703 Modified Tendon Model Considered Structural Nonlinearity in PSC Structures

Authors: Yangsu Kwon, Hyo-Gyoung Kwak

Abstract:

Nonlinear tendon constitutive model for nonlinear analysis of pre-stressed concrete structures are presented. Since the post-cracking behavior of concrete structures, in which bonded reinforcements such as tendons and/or reinforcing steels are embedded, depends on many influencing factors(the tensile strength of concrete, anchorage length of reinforcements, concrete cover, and steel spacing) that are deeply related to the bond characteristics between concrete and reinforcements, consideration of the tension stiffening effect on the basis of the bond-slip mechanism is necessary to evaluate ultimate resisting capacity of structures. In this paper, an improved tendon model, which considering the slip effect between concrete and tendon, and effect of tension stiffening, is suggested. The validity of the proposed models is established by comparing between the analytical results and experimental results in pre-stressed concrete beams.

Keywords: bond-slip, prestressed concrete, tendon, ultimate strength

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4702 A Review on Concrete Structures in Fire

Authors: S. Iffat, B. Bose

Abstract:

Concrete as a construction material is versatile because it displays high degree of fire-resistance. Concrete’s inherent ability to combat one of the most devastating disaster that a structure can endure in its lifetime, can be attributed to its constituent materials which make it inert and have relatively poor thermal conductivity. However, concrete structures must be designed for fire effects. Structural components should be able to withstand dead and live loads without undergoing collapse. The properties of high-strength concrete must be weighed against concerns about its fire resistance and susceptibility to spalling at elevated temperatures. In this paper, the causes, effects and some remedy of deterioration in concrete due to fire hazard will be discussed. Some cost effective solutions to produce a fire resistant concrete will be conversed through this paper.

Keywords: concrete, fire, spalling, temperature, compressive strength, density

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4701 Structural Rehabilitation, Retrofitting and Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Manish Kumar

Abstract:

Reinforced cement concrete is getting extensively used for construction of different type of structures for the last one century. During this period, we have constructed many structures like buildings, bridges, industrial structures, pavement, water tanks etc. using this construction material. These structures have been created with huge investment of resources. It is essential to maintain those structures in functional condition. Since deterioration in RCC Structures is a common and natural phenomenon it is required to have a detailed plan, methodology for structural repair and rehabilitation shall be in place for dealing such issues. It is important to know exact reason of distress, type of distress and correct method of repair concrete structures. The different methods of repair are described in paper according to distress category which can be refereed for repair. Major finding of the study is that to protect our structure we need to have maintenance frequency and correct material to be chosen for repair. Also workmanship during repair needs to be taken utmost care for quality repair.

Keywords: deterioration, functional condition, reinforced cement concrete, resources

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4700 Numerical Simulation and Laboratory Tests for Rebar Detection in Reinforced Concrete Structures using Ground Penetrating Radar

Authors: Maha Al-Soudani, Gilles Klysz, Jean-Paul Balayssac

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to use Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a non-destructive testing (NDT) method to increase its accuracy in recognizing the geometric reinforced concrete structures and in particular, the position of steel bars. This definition will help the managers to assess the state of their structures on the one hand vis-a-vis security constraints and secondly to quantify the need for maintenance and repair. Several configurations of acquisition and processing of the simulated signal were tested to propose and develop an appropriate imaging algorithm in the propagation medium to locate accurately the rebar. A subsequent experimental validation was used by testing the imaging algorithm on real reinforced concrete structures. The results indicate that, this algorithm is capable of estimating the reinforcing steel bar position to within (0-1) mm.

Keywords: GPR, NDT, Reinforced concrete structures, Rebar location.

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
4699 Reinforced Concrete Design Construction Issues and Earthquake Failure-Damage Responses

Authors: Hasan Husnu Korkmaz, Serra Zerrin Korkmaz

Abstract:

Earthquakes are the natural disasters that threat several countries. Turkey is situated on a very active earthquake zone. During the recent earthquakes, thousands of people died due to failure of reinforced concrete structures. Although Turkey has a very sufficient earthquake code, the design and construction mistakes were repeated for old structures. Lack of the control mechanism during the construction process may be the most important reason of failure. The quality of the concrete and poor detailing of steel or reinforcement is the most important headings. In this paper, the reasons of failure of reinforced concrete structures were summarized with relevant photos. The paper is beneficial for civil engineers as well as architect who are in the process of construction and design of structures in earthquake zones.

Keywords: earthquake, reinforced concrete structure, failure, material

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
4698 Health Monitoring of Concrete Assets in Refinery

Authors: Girish M. Bhatia

Abstract:

Most of the important structures in refinery complex are RCC Structures for which in-depth structural monitoring and inspection is required for incessant service. Reinforced concrete structures can be under threat from a combination of insidious challenges due to environmental conditions, including temperature and humidity that lead to accelerated deterioration mechanisms like carbonation, as well as marine exposure, above and below ground structures can experience ingress from aggressive ground waters carrying chlorides and sulphates leading to unexpected deterioration that threaten the integrity of a vital structural asset. By application of health monitoring techniques like corrosion monitoring with help of sensor probes, visual inspection of high rise structures with help of drones, it is possible to establish an early warning at the onset of these destructive processes.

Keywords: concrete structures, corrosion sensors, drones, health monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
4697 High Performance Concrete Using “BAUT” (Metal Aggregates) the Gateway to New Concrete Technology for Mega Structures

Authors: Arjun, Gautam, Sanjeev Naval

Abstract:

Concrete technology has been changing rapidly and constantly since its discovery. Concrete is the most widely used man-made construction material, versatility of making concrete is the 2nd largest consumed material on earth. In this paper an effort has been made to use metal aggregates in concrete has been discussed, the metal aggregates has been named as “BAUT” which had outstandingly qualities to resist shear, tension and compression forces. In this paper, COARSE BAUT AGGREGATES (C.B.A.) 10mm & 20mm and FINE BAUT AGGREGATES (F.B.A.) 3mm were divided and used for making high performance concrete (H.P.C). This “BAUT” had cutting edge technology through draft and design by the use of Auto CAD, ANSYS software can be used effectively In this research paper we study high performance concrete (H.P.C) with “BAUT” and consider the grade of M65 and finally we achieved the result of 90-95 Mpa (high compressive strength) for mega structures and irregular structures where center of gravity (CG) is not balanced. High Performance BAUT Concrete is the extraordinary qualities like long-term performance, no sorptivity by BAUT AGGREGATES, better rheological, mechanical and durability proportion that conventional concrete. This high strength BAUT concrete using “BAUT” is applied in the construction of mega structure like skyscrapers, dam, marine/offshore structures, nuclear power plants, bridges, blats and impact resistance structures. High Performance BAUT Concrete which is a controlled concrete possesses invariable high strength, reasonable workability and negligibly permeability as compare to conventional concrete by the mix of Super Plasticizers (SMF), silica fume and fly ash.

Keywords: BAUT, High Strength Concrete, High Performance Concrete, Fine BAUT Aggregate, Coarse BAUT Aggregate, metal aggregates, cutting edge technology

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4696 Influence of Bio-Based Admixture on Compressive Strength of Concrete for Columns

Authors: K. Raza, S. Gul, M. Ali

Abstract:

Concrete is a fundamental building material, extensively utilized by the construction industry. Problems related to the strength of concrete is an immense issue for the sustainability of concrete structures. Concrete mostly loses its strength due to the cracks produced in it by shrinkage or hydration process. This study aims to enhance the strength and service life of the concrete structures by incorporating bio-based admixture in the concrete. By the injection of bio-based admixture (BBA) in concrete, it will self-heal the cracks by producing calcium carbonate. Minimization of cracks will compact the microstructure of the concrete, due to which strength will increase. For this study, Bacillus subtilis will be used as a bio-based admixture (BBA) in concrete. Calcium lactate up to 1.5% will be used as the food source for the Bacillus subtilis in concrete. Two formulations containing 0 and 5% of Bacillus subtilis by weight of cement, will be used for the casting of concrete specimens. Direct mixing method will be adopted for the usage of bio-based admixture in concrete. Compressive strength test will be carried out after 28 days of curing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) will be performed for the examination of micro-structure of concrete. Results will be drawn by comparing the test results of 0 and 5% the formulations. It will be recommended to use to bio-based admixture (BBA) in concrete for columns because of the satisfactory increase in the compressive strength of concrete.

Keywords: bio-based admixture, Bacillus subtilis, calcium lactate, compressive strength

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4695 Earthquake Retrofitting of Concrete Structures Using Steel Bracing with the Results of Linear and Nonlinear Static Analysis

Authors: Ehsan Sadie

Abstract:

The use of steel braces in concrete structures has been considered by researchers in recent decades due to its easy implementation, economics and the ability to create skylights in braced openings compared to shear wall openings as well as strengthening weak concrete structures to earthquakes. The purpose of this article is to improve and strengthen concrete structures with steel bracing. In addition, cases such as different numbers of steel braces in different openings of concrete structures and interaction between concrete frames and metal braces have been studied. In this paper, by performing static nonlinear analysis and examining ductility, the relative displacement of floors, examining the performance of samples, and determining the coefficient of behavior of composite frames (concrete frames with metal bracing), the behavior of reinforced concrete frames is compared with frame without bracing. The results of analyzes and studies show that the addition of metal bracing increases the strength and stiffness of the frame and reduces the ductility and lateral displacement of the structure. In general, the behavior of the structure against earthquakes will be improved.

Keywords: behavior coefficient, bracing, concrete structure, convergent bracing, earthquake, linear static analysis, nonlinear analysis, pushover curve

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4694 Serviceability of Fabric-Formed Concrete Structures

Authors: Yadgar Tayfur, Antony Darby, Tim Ibell, Mark Evernden, John Orr

Abstract:

Fabric form-work is a technique to cast concrete structures with a great advantage of saving concrete material of up to 40%. This technique is particularly associated with the optimized concrete structures that usually have smaller cross-section dimensions than equivalent prismatic members. However, this can make the structural system produced from these members prone to smaller serviceability safety margins. Therefore, it is very important to understand the serviceability issue of non-prismatic concrete structures. In this paper, an analytical computer-based model to optimize concrete beams and to predict load-deflection behaviour of both prismatic and non-prismatic concrete beams is presented. The model was developed based on the method of sectional analysis and integration of curvatures. Results from the analytical model were compared to load-deflection behaviour of a number of beams with different geometric and material properties from other researchers. The results of the comparison show that the analytical program can accurately predict the load-deflection response of concrete beams with medium reinforcement ratios. However, it over-estimates deflection values for lightly reinforced specimens. Finally, the analytical program acceptably predicted load-deflection behaviour of on-prismatic concrete beams.

Keywords: fabric-formed concrete, continuous beams, optimisation, serviceability

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4693 Experimental Investigation of Interfacial Bond Strength of Concrete Layers

Authors: Rajkamal Kumar, Sudhir Mishra

Abstract:

The connections between various elements of concrete structures play a vital role in determining the durability of structures. These connections produce discontinuities and to ensure the monolithic behavior of structures, these connections should be carefully designed. The connections between concrete layers may occur in various situations such as structure repairing and rehabilitation or construction of huge structures with cast-in-situ or pre-cast elements, etc. Bond strength at the interface of these concrete layers should be able to prevent the progressive slip from taking place and it should also ensure satisfactory performance of the structure. Different approaches to enhance the bond strength at interface have been a major area of research. Nowadays, micro-concrete is getting popular as a repair material. Under this ambit, this paper aims to present the experimental results of connections between concrete layers of different age with artificial indentation at interface with two types of repair material: Concrete with same parent concrete composition and ready-mix mortar (micro-concrete), artificial indentations (grooves and holes) were made on the old layer of concrete to increase the bond strength. Curing plays an important role in determining the bond strength. Optimum duration for curing have also been discussed for each type of repair material. Different types of failure patterns have also been mentioned.

Keywords: adhesion, cohesion, compressive stress, micro-concrete, shear stress, slant shear test

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4692 Seismic Fragility of Weir Structure Considering Aging Degradation of Concrete Material

Authors: HoYoung Son, DongHoon Shin, WooYoung Jung

Abstract:

This study presented the seismic fragility framework of concrete weir structure subjected to strong seismic ground motions and in particular, concrete aging condition of the weir structure was taken into account in this study. In order to understand the influence of concrete aging on the weir structure, by using probabilistic risk assessment, the analytical seismic fragility of the weir structure was derived for pre- and post-deterioration of concrete. The performance of concrete weir structure after five years was assumed for the concrete aging or deterioration, and according to after five years’ condition, the elastic modulus was simply reduced about one–tenth compared with initial condition of weir structures. A 2D nonlinear finite element analysis was performed considering the deterioration of concrete in weir structures using ABAQUS platform, a commercial structural analysis program. Simplified concrete degradation was resulted in the increase of almost 45% of the probability of failure at Limit State 3, in comparison to initial construction stage, by analyzing the seismic fragility.

Keywords: weir, FEM, concrete, fragility, aging

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4691 Evaluation of Corrosion Caused by Biogenic Sulfuric Acid (BSA) on the Concrete Structures of Sewerage Systems: Chemical Tests

Authors: M. Cortés, E. Vera, O. Rojas

Abstract:

The research studies of the kinetics of the corrosion process that attacks concrete and occurs within sewerage systems agree on the amount of variables that interfere in the process. This study aims to check the impact of the pH levels of the corrosive environment and the concrete surface, the concentrations of chemical sulfuric acid, and in turn, measure the resistance of concrete to this attack under controlled laboratory conditions; it also aims to contribute to the development of further research related to the topic, in order to compare the impact of biogenic sulfuric acid and chemical sulfuric acid involvement on concrete structures, especially in scenarios such as sewerage systems.

Keywords: acid sulfuric, concrete, corrosion, biogenic

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
4690 Ultra High Performance Concrete Using Special Aggregates for Irregular Structures (the New Concrete Technology)

Authors: Arjun, A. D. Singh

Abstract:

Concrete the basic material using in construction across the global these days. The purpose of this special concrete is to provide extra strength and stability for irregular structure where the center of gravity is disturbed. In this paper an effort has been made to use different type of material aggregates has been discussed. We named As "STAR Aggregates" which has qualities to resist Shear, tension and compression forces. We have been divided into coarse aggregates and fine aggregates according to their sizes. Star Aggregates has interlocking behavior and cutting edge technology. Star aggregates had been draft and deign in Auto CAD and then analysis in ANSYS software. by using special aggregates we deign concrete grade of M40 for mega structures and irregular structure. This special concrete with STAR aggregates use in construction for irregular structure like Bridges, Skyscrapers or in deigned buildings.

Keywords: star aggregates, high performance concrete, material aggregates, interlocking

Procedia PDF Downloads 485
4689 Waterproofing Agent in Concrete for Tensile Improvement

Authors: Muhamad Azani Yahya, Umi Nadiah Nor Ali, Mohammed Alias Yusof, Norazman Mohamad Nor, Vikneswaran Munikanan

Abstract:

In construction, concrete is one of the materials that can commonly be used as for structural elements. Concrete consists of cement, sand, aggregate and water. Concrete can be added with admixture in the wet condition to suit the design purpose such as to prolong the setting time to improve workability. For strength improvement, concrete is being added with other hybrid materials to increase strength; this is because the tensile strength of concrete is very low in comparison to the compressive strength. This paper shows the usage of a waterproofing agent in concrete to enhance the tensile strength. High tensile concrete is expensive because the concrete mix needs fiber and also high cement content to be incorporated in the mix. High tensile concrete being used for structures that are being imposed by high impact dynamic load such as blast loading that hit the structure. High tensile concrete can be defined as a concrete mix design that achieved 30%-40% tensile strength compared to its compression strength. This research evaluates the usage of a waterproofing agent in a concrete mix as an element of reinforcement to enhance the tensile strength. According to the compression and tensile test, it shows that the concrete mix with a waterproofing agent enhanced the mechanical properties of the concrete. It is also show that the composite concrete with waterproofing is a high tensile concrete; this is because of the tensile is between 30% and 40% of the compression strength. This mix is economical because it can produce high tensile concrete with low cost.

Keywords: high tensile concrete, waterproofing agent, concrete, rheology

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
4688 Lightweight Concrete Fracture Energy Derived by Inverse Analysis

Authors: Minho Kwon, Seonghyeok Lee, Wooyoung Jung

Abstract:

In recent years, with increase of construction of skyscraper structures, the study of concrete materials to improve their weight and performance has been emerging as a key of research area. Typically, the concrete structures has disadvantage of increasing the weight due to its mass in comparison to the strength of the materials. Therefore, in order to improve such problems, the light-weight aggregate concrete and high strength concrete materials have been studied during the past decades. On the other hand, the study of light-weight aggregate concrete materials has lack of data in comparison to the concrete structure using high strength materials, relatively. Consequently, this study presents the performance characteristics of light-weight aggregate concrete materials due to the material properties and strength. Also, this study conducted the experimental tests with respect to normal and lightweight aggregate materials, in order to indentify the tensile crack failure of the concrete structures. As a result, the Crack Mouth Opening Displacement (CMOD) from the experimental tests was constructed and the fracture energy using inverse problem analysis was developed from the force-CMOD relationship in this study, respectively.

Keywords: lightweight aggregate concrete, crack mouth opening displacement, inverse analysis, fracture energy

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4687 Role of Sequestration of CO2 Due to the Carbonation in Total CO2 Emission Balance in Concrete Life

Authors: P. P. Woyciechowski

Abstract:

Calculation of the carbon footprint of cement concrete is a complex process including consideration of the phase of primary life (components and concrete production processes, transportation, construction works, maintenance of concrete structures) and secondary life, including demolition and recycling. Taking into consideration the effect of concrete carbonation can lead to a reduction in the calculated carbon footprint of concrete. In this paper, an example of CO2 balance for small bridge elements made of Portland cement reinforced concrete was done. The results include the effect of carbonation of concrete in a structure and of concrete rubble after demolition. It was shown that important impact of carbonation on the balance is possible only when rubble carbonation is possible. It was related to the fact that only the sequestration potential in the secondary phase of concrete life has significant value.

Keywords: carbon footprint, balance of carbon dioxide in nature, concrete carbonation, the sequestration potential of concrete

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4686 Evaluation of Applicability of High Strength Stirrup for Prestressed Concrete Members

Authors: J.-Y. Lee, H.-S. Lim, S.-E. Kim

Abstract:

Recently, the use of high-strength materials is increasing as the construction of large structures and high-rise structures increases. This paper presents an analysis of the shear behavior of prestressed concrete members with various types of materials by simulating a finite element (FE) analysis. The analytical results indicated that the shear strength and shear failure mode were strongly influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. Though the yield strength of shear reinforcement increased the shear strength of prestressed concrete members, there was a limit to the increase in strength because of the change of shear failure modes. According to the results of FE analysis on various parameters, the maximum yield strength of the steel stirrup that can be applied to prestressed concrete members was about 860 MPa.

Keywords: prestressed concrete members, high strength reinforcing bars, high strength concrete, shear behavior

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4685 Durability of Lightweight Concrete Material Made from Date Palma Seeds

Authors: Mohammed Almograbi

Abstract:

Libya is one of the largest producers of dates from date palm, generating about 60000 tonnes of date palm seeds (DPS) annually. This large amount of seeds led to studies into the possible use as aggregates in lightweight concrete for some special structures. The utilization of DPS as aggregate in concrete provides a good solution as alternative aggregate to the stone aggregate. It has been recognized that, DPS can be used as coarse aggregate in structural lightweight concrete industry. For any structure member, the durability is one of the most important considerations during its service life. This paper presents the durability properties of DPS concrete. These include the water permeability, water absorption, sorptivity and chloride penetration. The test results obtained were comparable to the conventional lightweight concrete.

Keywords: date palm seeds, lightweight concrete, durability, sustainability, permeability of concrete, water absorption of concrete, sorptivity of concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 547
4684 Performance of Staggered Wall Buildings Subjected to Low to Medium Earthquake Loads

Authors: Younghoo Choi, Yong Jun, Jinkoo Kim

Abstract:

In this study seismic performance of typical reinforced concrete staggered wall system structures was evaluated through nonlinear static and incremental dynamic analyses. To this end, and 15-story SWS structures were designed and were analyzed to obtain their nonlinear force-displacement relationships. The analysis results showed that the 5-story SWS structures failed due to yielding of columns and walls located in the lower stories, whereas in the 15-story structures plastic hinges were more widely distributed throughout the stories.

Keywords: staggered wall systems, reinforced concrete, seismic performance

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4683 Developing a Self-Healing Concrete Filler Using Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Based Two-Part Adhesive

Authors: Shima Taheri, Simon Clark

Abstract:

Concrete is an essential building material used in the majority of structures. Degradation of concrete over time increases the life-cycle cost of an asset with an estimated annual cost of billions of dollars to national economies. Most of the concrete failure occurs due to cracks, which propagate through a structure and cause weakening leading to failure. Stopping crack propagation is thus the key to protecting concrete structures from failure and is the best way to prevent inconveniences and catastrophes. Furthermore, the majority of cracks occur deep within the concrete in inaccessible areas and are invisible to normal inspection. Few materials intrinsically possess self-healing ability, but one that does is concrete. However, self-healing in concrete is limited to small dormant cracks in a moist environment and is difficult to control. In this project, we developed a method for self-healing of nascent fractures in concrete components through the automatic release of self-curing healing agents encapsulated in breakable nano- and micro-structures. The Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based two-part adhesive is encapsulated in core-shell structures with brittle/weak inert shell, synthesized via miniemulsion/solvent evaporation polymerization. Stress fields associated with propagating cracks can break these capsules releasing the healing agents at the point where they are needed. The shell thickness is playing an important role in preserving the content until the final setting of concrete. The capsules can also be surface functionalized with carboxyl groups to overcome the homogenous mixing issues. Currently, this formulated self-healing system can replace up to 1% of cement in a concrete formulation. Increasing this amount to 5-7% in the concrete formulation without compromising compression strength and shrinkage properties, is still under investigation. This self-healing system will not only increase the durability of structures by stopping crack propagation but also allow the use of less cement in concrete construction, thereby adding to the global effort for CO2 emission reduction.

Keywords: self-healing concrete, concrete crack, concrete deterioration, durability

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4682 A New Instrumented Drop-Weight Test Machine for Studying the Impact Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: M. Al-Farttoosi, M. Y. Rafiq, J. Summerscales, C. Williams

Abstract:

Structures can be subjected to impact loading from various sources like earthquake, tsunami, missiles and explosions. The impact loading can cause different degrees of damage to concrete structures. The demand for strengthening and rehabilitation of damaged structures is increasing. In recent years, Car0bon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) matrix composites has gain more attention for strengthening and repairing these structures. To study the impact behaviour of the reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened or repaired using CFRP, a heavy impact test machine was designed and manufactured .The machine included a newly designed support system for beams together with various instrumentation. This paper describes the support design configuration of the impact test machine, instrumentation and dynamic analysis of the concrete beams. To evaluate the efficiency of the new impact test machine, experimental impact tests were conducted on simple supported reinforced concrete beam. Different methods were used to determine the impact force and impact response of the RC beams in terms of inertia force, maximum deflection, reaction force and fracture energy. The manufactured impact test machine was successfully used in testing RC beams under impact loading and used successfully to test the reinforced concrete beams strengthened or repaired using CFRP under impact loading.

Keywords: beam, concrete, impact, machine

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4681 Impact of the Quality of Aggregate on the Elasticity Modulus of Concrete

Authors: K. Krizova

Abstract:

This objective of this article is to present concrete that differs by the size of the aggregate used. The set of concrete contained six concrete recipes manufactured as traditional vibrated concrete containing identical basic components of concrete. The experiment focused on monitoring the resulting properties of hardened concrete, specifically the primary strength and modulus of the concrete elasticity and the developing parameters from 7 to 180 days were assessed.

Keywords: aggregate, cement, concrete, elasticity modulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
4680 Effect of the Truss System to the Flexural Behavior of the External Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Rudy Djamaluddin, Yasser Bachtiar, Rita Irmawati, Abd. Madjid Akkas, Rusdi Usman Latief

Abstract:

The aesthetic qualities and the versatility of reinforced concrete have made it a popular choice for many architects and structural engineers. Therefore, the exploration of natural materials such as gravels and sands as well as lime-stone for cement production is increasing to produce a concrete material. The exploration must affect to the environment. Therefore, the using of the concrete materials should be as efficient as possible. According to its natural behavior of the concrete material, it is strong in compression and weak in tension. Therefore the contribution of the tensile stresses of the concrete to the flexural capacity of the beams is neglected. However, removing of concrete on tension zone affects to the decreasing of flexural capacity. Introduce the strut action of truss structures may an alternative to solve the decreasing of flexural capacity. A series of specimens were prepared to clarify the effect of the truss structures in the concrete beams without concrete on the tension zone. Results indicated that the truss system is necessary for the external reinforced concrete beams. The truss system of concrete beam without concrete on tension zone (BR) could develop almost same capacity to the normal beam (BN). It can be observed also that specimens BR has lower number of cracks than specimen BN. This may be caused by the fact that there was no bonding effect on the tensile reinforcement on specimen BR to distribute the cracks.

Keywords: external reinforcement, truss, concrete beams, flexural behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
4679 “BUM629” Special Hybrid Reinforcement Materials for Mega Structures

Authors: Gautam, Arjun, V. R. Sharma

Abstract:

In the civil construction steel and concrete plays a different role but the same purposes dealing with the design of structures that support or resist loads. Concrete has been used in construction since long time from now. Being brittle and weak in tension, concrete is always reinforced with steel bars for the purposes in beams and columns etc. The paper deals with idea of special designed 3D materials which we named as “BUM629” to be placed/anchored in the structural member and mixed with concrete later on, so as to resist the developments of cracks due to shear failure , buckling,tension and compressive load in concrete. It had cutting edge technology through Draft, Analysis and Design the “BUM629”. The results show that “BUM629” has the great results in Mechanical application. Its material properties are design according to the need of structure; we apply the material such as Mild Steel and Magnesium Alloy. “BUM629” are divided into two parts one is applied at the middle section of concrete member where bending movements are maximum and the second part is laying parallel to vertical bars near clear cover, so we design this material and apply in Reinforcement of Civil Structures. “BUM629” is analysis and design for use in the mega structures like skyscrapers, dams and bridges.

Keywords: BUM629, magnesium alloy, cutting edge technology, mechanical application, draft, analysis and design, mega structures

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4678 FRP Bars Spacing Effect on Numerical Thermal Deformations in Concrete Beams under High Temperatures

Authors: A. Zaidi, F. Khelifi, R. Masmoudi, M. Bouhicha

Abstract:

5 In order to eradicate the degradation of reinforced concrete structures due to the steel corrosion, professionals in constructions suggest using fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) for their excellent properties. Nevertheless, high temperatures may affect the bond between FRP bar and concrete, and consequently the serviceability of FRP-reinforced concrete structures. This paper presents a nonlinear numerical investigation using ADINA software to investigate the effect of the spacing between glass FRP (GFRP) bars embedded in concrete on circumferential thermal deformations and the distribution of radial thermal cracks in reinforced concrete beams submitted to high temperature variations up to 60 °C for asymmetrical problems. The thermal deformations predicted from nonlinear finite elements model, at the FRP bar/concrete interface and at the external surface of concrete cover, were established as a function of the ratio of concrete cover thickness to FRP bar diameter (c/db) and the ratio of spacing between FRP bars in concrete to FRP bar diameter (e/db). Numerical results show that the circumferential thermal deformations at the external surface of concrete cover are linear until cracking thermal load varied from 32 to 55 °C corresponding to the ratio of e/db varied from 1.3 to 2.3, respectively. However, for ratios e/db >2.3 and c/db >1.6, the thermal deformations at the external surface of concrete cover exhibit linear behavior without any cracks observed on the specified surface. The numerical results are compared to those obtained from analytical models validated by experimental tests.

Keywords: concrete beam, FRP bars, spacing effect, thermal deformation

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4677 Evaluating the Methods of Retrofitting and Renovating the Masonry Schools of Ahvaz City

Authors: Navid Khayat, Babak Mombeni

Abstract:

This study investigates the retrofitting of schools in Ahvaz City. Three schools, namely, Enghelab, Sherafat, and Golchehreh, in Ahvaz City, are initially examined through Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic tests. Given the tests and controls on the structures of these schools, the methods are presented for their reconstruction. The plan is presented for each school by estimating the cost and generally the feasibility and estimated the duration of project reconstruction. After reconstruction, the mentioned tests are re-performed for rebuilt parts and the results indicate a significant improvement in performance of structure because of reconstruction. According to the results, despite the fact that the use of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) for structure retrofitting is costly, due to the low executive costs and also other benefits of FRP, it is generally considered as one of the most effective ways of retrofitting. Building the concrete coating on walls is another effective method in retrofitting the buildings. According to this method, a grid of horizontal and vertical bars is installed on the wall and then the concrete is poured on it. The use of concrete coating on the concrete and brick structures leads to the useful results and the experience indicates that the poured concrete filled the joints well and provides the appropriate bonding and adhesion.

Keywords: renovation, retrofitting, masonry structures, concrete coating

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4676 Compressive Strength Evaluation of Underwater Concrete Structures Integrating the Combination of Rebound Hardness and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Methods with Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Seunghee Park, Junkyeong Kim, Eun-Seok Shin, Sang-Hun Han

Abstract:

In this study, two kinds of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques (rebound hardness and ultrasonic pulse velocity methods) are investigated for the effective maintenance of underwater concrete structures. A new methodology to estimate the underwater concrete strengths more effectively, named “artificial neural network (ANN) – based concrete strength estimation with the combination of rebound hardness and ultrasonic pulse velocity methods” is proposed and verified throughout a series of experimental works.

Keywords: underwater concrete, rebound hardness, Schmidt hammer, ultrasonic pulse velocity, ultrasonic sensor, artificial neural networks, ANN

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