Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 298

Search results for: inspection

298 Investigation into Varied Inspection Utilization for Mass Customization

Authors: Trishen Naidoo, Anthony Walker, Shaniel Davrajh, Glen Bright

Abstract:

An investigation into on-line inspection was performed where research is focused on the use of varied inspection (as opposed to 100% inspection) for mass customization (MC). Manufacturers need new methods for quality control in mass customization, and these methods need to address some of the old problems such as over-inspection and bottlenecking. Due to the risks of varied inspection, many manufacturers do not implement it and rather opt for sampling methods. However, there are many advantages of varied inspection and can have applications in mass customization. A control system incorporating fuzzy logic (FL) control is used to perform the variations in inspection usage in a simulated environment. The proposed system can have a key impact in appraisal costs reduction and possibly work-in-process reduction in high variety environments.

Keywords: appraisal costs, fuzzy logic, quality control, work-in-process

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
297 Non-Destructive Inspection for Tunnel Lining Concrete with Small Void by Using Ultrasonic

Authors: Yasuyuki Nabeshima

Abstract:

Many tunnels which have been constructed since more than 50 years were existing in Japan. Lining concrete in these tunnels have many problems such as crack, flacking and void. Inner void between lining concrete and rock was very hard to find by outside visual check and hammering test. In this paper, non-destructive inspection by using ultrasonic was applied to investigate inner void. A model concrete with inner void was used as specimen and ultrasonic inspection was applied to specify the location and the size of void. As a result, ultrasonic inspection could accurately find the inner void.

Keywords: tunnel, lining concrete, void, non-destructive inspection, ultrasonic

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
296 State-of-the Art Practices in Bridge Inspection

Authors: Salam Yaghi, Saleh Abu Dabous

Abstract:

Government reports and published research have flagged and brought to public attention the deteriorating condition of a large percentage of bridges in Canada and the United States. With the increasing number of deteriorated bridges in the US, Canada, and around the globe, condition assessment techniques of concrete bridges are evolving. Investigation for bridges’ defects such as cracks, spalls, and delamination and their level of severity are the main objectives of condition assessment. Inspection and rehabilitation programs are being implemented to monitor and maintain deteriorated bridge infrastructure. This paper highlights the state-of-the art of current practices being performed for concrete bridge inspection. The information is gathered from the literature and through a distributed questionnaire. The current practices in concrete bridge inspection rely on the use of hummer sounding and chain dragging tests. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) techniques are not being utilized fully in the process. Nonetheless, they are being partially utilized by the recommendation of the bridge inspector after conducting the visual inspection. Lanes are usually closed during the performance of visual inspection and bridge inspection in general.

Keywords: bridge inspection, condition assessment, questionnaire, non-destructive testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
295 Need for Standardization of Manual Inspection in Small and Medium-Scale Manufacturing Industries

Authors: Adithya Nadig

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In the field of production, characterization of surface roughness plays a vital role in assessing the quality of a manufactured product. The defined parameters for this assessment, each, have their own drawbacks in describing a profile surface. From the purview of small-scale and medium-scale industries, an increase in time spent for manual inspection of a product for various parameters adds to the cost of the product. In order to reduce this, a uniform and established standard is necessary for quantifying a profile of a manufactured product. The inspection procedure in the small and medium-scale manufacturing units at Jigani Industrial area, Bangalore, was observed. The parameters currently in use in those industries are described in the paper and a change in the inspection method is proposed.

Keywords: efficiency of quality assessment, manual areal profiling technique, manufacturing in small and medium-scale industries product-oriented inspection, standardization of manual inspection, surface roughness characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 461
294 To Determine the Effects of Regulatory Food Safety Inspections on the Grades of Different Categories of Retail Food Establishments across the Dubai Region

Authors: Shugufta Mohammad Zubair

Abstract:

This study explores the Effect of the new food System Inspection system also called the new inspection color card scheme on reduction of critical & major food safety violations in Dubai. Data was collected from all retail food service establishments located in two zones in the city. Each establishment was visited twice, once before the launch of the new system and one after the launch of the system. In each visit, the Inspection checklist was used as the evaluation tool for observation of the critical and major violations. The old format of the inspection checklist was concerned with scores based on the violations; but the new format of the checklist for the new inspection color card scheme is divided into administrative, general major and critical which gives a better classification for the inspectors to identify the critical and major violations of concerned. The study found that there has been a better and clear marking of violations after the launch of new inspection system wherein the inspectors are able to mark and categories the violations effectively. There had been a 10% decrease in the number of food establishment that was previously given A grade. The B & C grading were also considerably dropped by 5%.

Keywords: food inspection, risk assessment, color card scheme, violations

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
293 A Regression Analysis Study of the Applicability of Side Scan Sonar based Safety Inspection of Underwater Structures

Authors: Chul Park, Youngseok Kim, Sangsik Choi

Abstract:

This study developed an electric jig for underwater structure inspection in order to solve the problem of the application of side scan sonar to underwater inspection, and analyzed correlations of empirical data in order to enhance sonar data resolution. For the application of tow-typed sonar to underwater structure inspection, an electric jig was developed. In fact, it was difficult to inspect a cross-section at the time of inspection with tow-typed equipment. With the development of the electric jig for underwater structure inspection, it was possible to shorten an inspection time over 20%, compared to conventional tow-typed side scan sonar, and to inspect a proper cross-section through accurate angle control. The indoor test conducted to enhance sonar data resolution proved that a water depth, the distance from an underwater structure, and a filming angle influenced a resolution and data quality. Based on the data accumulated through field experience, multiple regression analysis was conducted on correlations between three variables. As a result, the relational equation of sonar operation according to a water depth was drawn.

Keywords: underwater structure, SONAR, safety inspection, resolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
292 Application of the Mobile Phone for Occupational Self-Inspection Program in Small-Scale Industries

Authors: Jia-Sin Li, Ying-Fang Wang, Cheing-Tong Yan

Abstract:

In this study, an integrated approach of Google Spreadsheet and QR code which is free internet resources was used to improve the inspection procedure. The mobile phone Application(App)was also designed to combine with a web page to create an automatic checklist in order to provide a new integrated information of inspection management system. By means of client-server model, the client App is developed for Android mobile OS and the back end is a web server. It can set up App accounts including authorized data and store some checklist documents in the website. The checklist document URL could generate QR code first and then print and paste on the machine. The user can scan the QR code by the app and filled the checklist in the factory. In the meanwhile, the checklist data will send to the server, it not only save the filled data but also executes the related functions and charts. On the other hand, it also enables auditors and supervisors to facilitate the prevention and response to hazards, as well as immediate report data checks. Finally, statistics and professional analysis are performed using inspection records and other relevant data to not only improve the reliability, integrity of inspection operations and equipment loss control, but also increase plant safety and personnel performance. Therefore, it suggested that the traditional paper-based inspection method could be replaced by the APP which promotes the promotion of industrial security and reduces human error.

Keywords: checklist, Google spreadsheet, APP, self-inspection

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
291 A Molding Surface Auto-inspection System

Authors: Ssu-Han Chen, Der-Baau Perng

Abstract:

Molding process in IC manufacturing secures chips against the harms done by hot, moisture or other external forces. While a chip was being molded, defects like cracks, dilapidation, or voids may be embedding on the molding surface. The molding surfaces the study poises to treat and the ones on the market, though, differ in the surface where texture similar to defects is everywhere. Manual inspection usually passes over low-contrast cracks or voids; hence an automatic optical inspection system for molding surface is necessary. The proposed system is consisted of a CCD, a coaxial light, a back light as well as a motion control unit. Based on the property of statistical textures of the molding surface, a series of digital image processing and classification procedure is carried out. After training of the parameter associated with above algorithm, result of the experiment suggests that the accuracy rate is up to 93.75%, contributing to the inspection quality of IC molding surface.

Keywords: molding surface, machine vision, statistical texture, discrete Fourier transformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
290 Transmission Line Inspection Using Drones

Authors: Jae Kyung Lee, Joon Young Park

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Maintenance on power transmission lines requires a lot of works. Sometimes they should be maintained on live-line environment with high altitude. Therefore, there always exist risks of falling from height and electric shock. To decline those risks, drones are recently applying on the electric power industry. This paper presents new operational technology while inspecting power transmission line. This paper also describes a technique for creating a flight path of a drone for transmission line inspection and a technique for controlling the drones of different types. Its technical and economical feasibilities have confirmed through experiments.

Keywords: drones, transmission line, inspection, control system

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
289 Steel Bridge Coating Inspection Using Image Processing with Neural Network Approach

Authors: Ahmed Elbeheri, Tarek Zayed

Abstract:

Steel bridges deterioration has been one of the problems in North America for the last years. Steel bridges deterioration mainly attributed to the difficult weather conditions. Steel bridges suffer fatigue cracks and corrosion, which necessitate immediate inspection. Visual inspection is the most common technique for steel bridges inspection, but it depends on the inspector experience, conditions, and work environment. So many Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) models have been developed use Non-destructive technologies to be more accurate, reliable and non-human dependent. Non-destructive techniques such as The Eddy Current Method, The Radiographic Method (RT), Ultra-Sonic Method (UT), Infra-red thermography and Laser technology have been used. Digital Image processing will be used for Corrosion detection as an Alternative for visual inspection. Different models had used grey-level and colored digital image for processing. However, color image proved to be better as it uses the color of the rust to distinguish it from the different backgrounds. The detection of the rust is an important process as it’s the first warning for the corrosion and a sign of coating erosion. To decide which is the steel element to be repainted and how urgent it is the percentage of rust should be calculated. In this paper, an image processing approach will be developed to detect corrosion and its severity. Two models were developed 1st to detect rust and 2nd to detect rust percentage.

Keywords: steel bridge, bridge inspection, steel corrosion, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
288 Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Urban Rail Transit Intelligent Inspection

Authors: Xinglu Nie, Feifei Tang, Chuntao Wei, Zhimin Ruan, Qianhong Zhu

Abstract:

Current method of manual-style inspection can not fully meet the requirement of the urban rail transit security in China. In this paper, an intelligent inspection method using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is utilized. A series of orthophoto of rail transit monitored area was collected by UAV, image correction and registration were operated among multi-phase images, then the change detection was used to detect the changes, judging the engineering activities and human activities that may become potential threats to the security of urban rail. Not only qualitative judgment, but also quantitative judgment of changes in the security control area can be provided by this method, which improves the objectives and efficiency of the patrol results. The No.6 line of Chongqing Municipality was taken as an example to verify the validation of this method.

Keywords: rail transit, control of protected areas, intelligent inspection, UAV, change detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
287 Underneath Vehicle Inspection Using Fuzzy Logic, Subsumption, and Open Cv-Library

Authors: Hazim Abdulsada

Abstract:

The inspection of underneath vehicle system has been given significant attention by governments after the threat of terrorism become more prevalent. New technologies such as mobile robots and computer vision are led to have more secure environment. This paper proposed that a mobile robot like Aria robot can be used to search and inspect the bombs under parking a lot vehicle. This robot is using fuzzy logic and subsumption algorithms to control the robot that movies underneath the vehicle. An OpenCV library and laser Hokuyo are added to Aria robot to complete the experiment for under vehicle inspection. This experiment was conducted at the indoor environment to demonstrate the efficiency of our methods to search objects and control the robot movements under vehicle. We got excellent results not only by controlling the robot movement but also inspecting object by the robot camera at same time. This success allowed us to know the requirement to construct a new cost effective robot with more functionality.

Keywords: fuzzy logic, mobile robots, Opencv, subsumption, under vehicle inspection

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
286 Image Distortion Correction Method of 2-MHz Side Scan Sonar for Underwater Structure Inspection

Authors: Youngseok Kim, Chul Park, Jonghwa Yi, Sangsik Choi

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The 2-MHz Side Scan SONAR (SSS) attached to the boat for inspection of underwater structures is affected by shaking. It is difficult to determine the exact scale of damage of structure. In this study, a motion sensor is attached to the inside of the 2-MHz SSS to get roll, pitch, and yaw direction data, and developed the image stabilization tool to correct the sonar image. We checked that reliable data can be obtained with an average error rate of 1.99% between the measured value and the actual distance through experiment. It is possible to get the accurate sonar data to inspect damage in underwater structure.

Keywords: image stabilization, motion sensor, safety inspection, sonar image, underwater structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
285 An Application of Path Planning Algorithms for Autonomous Inspection of Buried Pipes with Swarm Robots

Authors: Richard Molyneux, Christopher Parrott, Kirill Horoshenkov

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This paper aims to demonstrate how various algorithms can be implemented within swarms of autonomous robots to provide continuous inspection within underground pipeline networks. Current methods of fault detection within pipes are costly, time consuming and inefficient. As such, solutions tend toward a more reactive approach, repairing faults, as opposed to proactively seeking leaks and blockages. The paper presents an efficient inspection method, showing that autonomous swarm robotics is a viable way of monitoring underground infrastructure. Tailored adaptations of various Vehicle Routing Problems (VRP) and path-planning algorithms provide a customised inspection procedure for complicated networks of underground pipes. The performance of multiple algorithms is compared to determine their effectiveness and feasibility. Notable inspirations come from ant colonies and stigmergy, graph theory, the k-Chinese Postman Problem ( -CPP) and traffic theory. Unlike most swarm behaviours which rely on fast communication between agents, underground pipe networks are a highly challenging communication environment with extremely limited communication ranges. This is due to the extreme variability in the pipe conditions and relatively high attenuation of acoustic and radio waves with which robots would usually communicate. This paper illustrates how to optimise the inspection process and how to increase the frequency with which the robots pass each other, without compromising the routes they are able to take to cover the whole network.

Keywords: autonomous inspection, buried pipes, stigmergy, swarm intelligence, vehicle routing problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
284 Improved Pattern Matching Applied to Surface Mounting Devices Components Localization on Automated Optical Inspection

Authors: Pedro M. A. Vitoriano, Tito. G. Amaral

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Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) Systems are commonly used on Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) manufacturing. The use of this technology has been proven as highly efficient for process improvements and quality achievements. The correct extraction of the component for posterior analysis is a critical step of the AOI process. Nowadays, the Pattern Matching Algorithm is commonly used, although this algorithm requires extensive calculations and is time consuming. This paper will present an improved algorithm for the component localization process, with the capability of implementation in a parallel execution system.

Keywords: AOI, automated optical inspection, SMD, surface mounting devices, pattern matching, parallel execution

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
283 Considerations upon Structural Health Monitoring of Small to Medium Wind Turbines

Authors: Nicolae Constantin, Ştefan Sorohan

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The small and medium wind turbines are running in quite different conditions as compared to the big ones. Consequently, they need also a different approach concerning the structural health monitoring (SHM) issues. There are four main differences between the above mentioned categories: (i) significantly smaller dimensions, (ii) considerably higher rotation speed, (iii) generally small distance between the turbine and the energy consumer and (iv) monitoring assumed in many situations by the owner. In such conditions, nondestructive inspections (NDI) have to be made as much as possible with affordable, yet effective techniques, requiring portable and accessible equipment. Additionally, the turbines and accessories should be easy to mount, dispose and repair. As the materials used for such unit can be metals, composites and combined, the technologies should be adapted accordingly. An example in which the two materials co-exist is the situation in which the damaged metallic skin of a blade is repaired with a composite patch. The paper presents the inspection of the bonding state of the patch, using portable ultrasonic equipment, able to put in place the Lamb wave method, which proves efficient in global and local inspections as well. The equipment is relatively easy to handle and can be borrowed from specialized laboratories or used by a community of small wind turbine users, upon the case. This evaluation is the first in a row, aimed to evaluate efficiency of NDI performed with rather accessible, less sophisticated equipment and related inspection techniques, having field inspection capabilities. The main goal is to extend such inspection procedures to other components of the wind power unit, such as the support tower, water storage tanks, etc.

Keywords: structural health monitoring, small wind turbines, non-destructive inspection, field inspection capabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
282 Quality Approaches for Mass-Produced Fashion: A Study in Malaysian Garment Manufacturing

Authors: N. J. M. Yusof, T. Sabir, J. McLoughlin

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Garment manufacturing industry involves sequential processes that are subjected to uncontrollable variations. The industry depends on the skill of labour in handling the varieties of fabrics and accessories, machines, and also a complicated sewing operation. Due to these reasons, garment manufacturers created systems to monitor and control the product’s quality regularly by conducting quality approaches to minimize variation. The aims of this research were to ascertain the quality approaches deployed by Malaysian garment manufacturers in three key areas-quality systems and tools; quality control and types of inspection; sampling procedures chosen for garment inspection. The focus of this research also aimed to distinguish quality approaches used by companies that supplied the finished garments to both domestic and international markets. The feedback from each of company’s representatives was obtained using the online survey, which comprised of five sections and 44 questions on the organizational profile and quality approaches used in the garment industry. The results revealed that almost all companies had established their own mechanism of process control by conducting a series of quality inspection for daily production either it was formally been set up or vice versa. Quality inspection was the predominant quality control activity in the garment manufacturing and the level of complexity of these activities was substantially dictated by the customers. AQL-based sampling was utilized by companies dealing with the export market, whilst almost all the companies that only concentrated on the domestic market were comfortable using their own sampling procedures for garment inspection. This research provides an insight into the implementation of quality approaches that were perceived as important and useful in the garment manufacturing sector, which is truly labour-intensive.

Keywords: garment manufacturing, quality approaches, quality control, inspection, Acceptance Quality Limit (AQL), sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
281 Design of Dry Chemical Fire Extinguisher Inspection Equipment in Order to Reduce Ergonomic Risks for Fire Extinguisher Inspectors

Authors: Sitrapee Changmuenwai, Sudaratana Wongweragiat

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It is important that a dry chemical fire extinguisher must be inspected for its readiness. For each inspection, the inspectors need to turn the fire extinguisher tank upside down to let the chemical inside the tank move and prevent solidification, which would make the tank not ready for usage when needed. Each tank weighs approximately 16 kg. The inspectors have to turn each tank upside down twice (2 minutes/round). They need to put the tanks over their shoulder close to their ear in order to hear the chemical flow inside the tank or use their hands to feel it. The survey and questionnaire 'The Questionnaire Know Body', which includes neck, left shoulder, upper and lower right arms suggest that all 12 security staffs have the same fatigues. The current dry chemical fire extinguisher inspection affects various ergonomic health problems. Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) is used for evaluation of posture risks so that the working postures may be redesigned or corrected. The dry chemical fire extinguisher inspection equipment has been developed to reduce ergonomic health risks for the inspectors. A REBA analysis has been performed again, and the risk score has been decreased from 13 to 3. In addition, feedbacks from the first trial of the developed equipment show that there are demands to increase the installation in order to reduce the ergonomic health risks.

Keywords: dry chemical fire extinguisher inspection equipment, ergonomic, REBA, rapid entire body assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
280 Imperfect Production Inventory Model with Inspection Errors and Fuzzy Demand and Deterioration Rates

Authors: Chayanika Rout, Debjani Chakraborty, Adrijit Goswami

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Our work presents an inventory model which illustrates imperfect production and imperfect inspection processes for deteriorating items. A cost-minimizing model is studied considering two types of inspection errors, namely, Type I error of falsely screening out a proportion of non-defects, thereby passing them on for rework and Type II error of falsely not screening out a proportion of defects, thus selling those to customers which incurs a penalty cost. The screened items are reworked; however, no returns are entertained due to deteriorating nature of the items. In more practical situations, certain parameters such as the demand rate and the deterioration rate of inventory cannot be accurately determined, and therefore, they are assumed to be triangular fuzzy numbers in our model. We calculate the optimal lot size that must be produced in order to minimize the total inventory cost for both the crisp and the fuzzy models. A numerical example is also considered to exemplify the procedure which is followed by the analysis of sensitivity of various parameters on the decision variable and the objective function.

Keywords: deteriorating items, EPQ, imperfect quality, rework, type I and type II inspection errors

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
279 Proposal of Non-Destructive Inspection Function Based on Internet of Things Technology Using Drone

Authors: Byoungjoon Yu, Jihwan Park, Sujung Sin, Junghyun Im, Minsoo Park, Sehwan Park, Seunghee Park

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a technology to monitor the soundness of an Internet-based bridge using a non-conductive inspection function. There has been a collapse accident due to the aging of the bridge structure, and it is necessary to prepare for the deterioration of the bridge. The NDT/SHM system for maintenance of existing bridge structures requires a large number of inspection personnel and expensive inspection costs, and access of expensive and large equipment to measurement points is required. Because current drone inspection equipment can only be inspected through camera, it is difficult to inspect inside damage accurately, and the results of an internal damage evaluation are subjective, and it is difficult for non-specialists to recognize the evaluation results. Therefore, it is necessary to develop NDT/SHM techniques for maintenance of new-concept bridge structures that allow for free movement and real-time evaluation of measurement results. This work is financially supported by Korea Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport (MOLIT) as 'Smart City Master and Doctor Course Grant Program' and a grant (14SCIP-B088624-01) from Construction Technology Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

Keywords: Structural Health Monitoring, SHM, non-contact sensing, nondestructive testing, NDT, Internet of Things, autonomous self-driving drone

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
278 Formal Models of Sanitary Inspections Teams Activities

Authors: Tadeusz Nowicki, Radosław Pytlak, Robert Waszkowski, Jerzy Bertrandt, Anna Kłos

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This paper presents methods for formal modeling of activities in the area of sanitary inspectors outbreak of food-borne diseases. The models allow you to measure the characteristics of the activities of sanitary inspection and as a result allow improving the performance of sanitary services and thus food security.

Keywords: food-borne disease, epidemic, sanitary inspection, mathematical models

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
277 Inspection of Railway Track Fastening Elements Using Artificial Vision

Authors: Abdelkrim Belhaoua, Jean-Pierre Radoux

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In France, the railway network is one of the main transport infrastructures and is the second largest European network. Therefore, railway inspection is an important task in railway maintenance to ensure safety for passengers using significant means in personal and technical facilities. Artificial vision has recently been applied to several railway applications due to its potential to improve the efficiency and accuracy when analyzing large databases of acquired images. In this paper, we present a vision system able to detect fastening elements based on artificial vision approach. This system acquires railway images using a CCD camera installed under a control carriage. These images are stitched together before having processed. Experimental results are presented to show that the proposed method is robust for detection fasteners in a complex environment.

Keywords: computer vision, image processing, railway inspection, image stitching, fastener recognition, neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
276 Comparative Study of Non-Identical Firearms with Priority to Repair Subject to Inspection

Authors: A. S. Grewal, R. S. Sangwan, Dharambir, Vikas Dhanda

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The purpose of this paper is to develop and analyze two reliability models for a system of non-identical firearms – one is standard firearm (called as original unit) and the other is a country-made firearm (called as duplicate /substandard unit). There is a single server who comes immediately to do inspection and repair whenever needed. On the failure of standard firearm, the server inspects the operative country-made firearm to see whether the unit is capable of performing the desired function well or not. If country-made firearm is not capable to do so, the operation of the system is stopped and server starts repair of the standard firearms immediately. However, no inspection is done at the failure of the country-made firearm as the country-made firearm alone is capable of performing the given task well. In model I, priority to repair the standard firearm is given in case system fails completely and country-made firearm is already under repair, whereas in model II there is no such priority. The failure and repair times of each unit are assumed to be independent and uncorrelated random variables. The distributions of failure time of the units are taken as negative exponential while that of repair and inspection times are general. By using semi-Markov process and regenerative point technique some econo-reliability measures are obtained. Graphs are plotted to compare the MTSF (mean time to system failure), availability and profit of the models for a particular case.

Keywords: non-identical firearms, inspection, priority to repair, semi-Markov process, regenerative point

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
275 Progressive Type-I Interval Censoring with Binomial Removal-Estimation and Its Properties

Authors: Sonal Budhiraja, Biswabrata Pradhan

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This work considers statistical inference based on progressive Type-I interval censored data with random removal. The scheme of progressive Type-I interval censoring with random removal can be described as follows. Suppose n identical items are placed on a test at time T0 = 0 under k pre-fixed inspection times at pre-specified times T1 < T2 < . . . < Tk, where Tk is the scheduled termination time of the experiment. At inspection time Ti, Ri of the remaining surviving units Si, are randomly removed from the experiment. The removal follows a binomial distribution with parameters Si and pi for i = 1, . . . , k, with pk = 1. In this censoring scheme, the number of failures in different inspection intervals and the number of randomly removed items at pre-specified inspection times are observed. Asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) are established under some regularity conditions. A β-content γ-level tolerance interval (TI) is determined for two parameters Weibull lifetime model using the asymptotic properties of MLEs. The minimum sample size required to achieve the desired β-content γ-level TI is determined. The performance of the MLEs and TI is studied via simulation.

Keywords: asymptotic normality, consistency, regularity conditions, simulation study, tolerance interval

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
274 A Case Study on the Field Surveys and Repair of a Marine Approach-Bridge

Authors: S. H. Park, D. W. You

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This study is about to the field survey and repair works in a marine approach-bride. In order to evaluate the stability of the ground and the structure, field surveys such as exterior inspection, non-destructive inspection, measurement, and geophysical exploration are carried out. Numerical analysis is conducted to investigate the cause of the abutment displacement at the same time. In addition, repair works are practiced to the region damaged with intent to sustain long-term safety.

Keywords: field survey, expansion joint, repair, maintenance

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
273 Resilience-Based Emergency Bridge Inspection Routing and Repair Scheduling under Uncertainty

Authors: Zhenyu Zhang, Hsi-Hsien Wei

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Highway network systems play a vital role in disaster response for disaster-damaged areas. Damaged bridges in such network systems can impede disaster response by disrupting transportation of rescue teams or humanitarian supplies. Therefore, emergency inspection and repair of bridges to quickly collect damage information of bridges and recover the functionality of highway networks is of paramount importance to disaster response. A widely used measure of a network’s capability to recover from disasters is resilience. To enhance highway network resilience, plenty of studies have developed various repair scheduling methods for the prioritization of bridge-repair tasks. These methods assume that repair activities are performed after the damage to a highway network is fully understood via inspection, although inspecting all bridges in a regional highway network may take days, leading to the significant delay in repairing bridges. In reality, emergency repair activities can be commenced as soon as the damage data of some bridges that are crucial to emergency response are obtained. Given that emergency bridge inspection and repair (EBIR) activities are executed simultaneously in the response phase, the real-time interactions between these activities can occur – the blockage of highways due to repair activities can affect inspection routes which in turn have an impact on emergency repair scheduling by providing real-time information on bridge damages. However, the impact of such interactions on the optimal emergency inspection routes (EIR) and emergency repair schedules (ERS) has not been discussed in prior studies. To overcome the aforementioned deficiencies, this study develops a routing and scheduling model for EBIR while accounting for real-time inspection-repair interactions to maximize highway network resilience. A stochastic, time-dependent integer program is proposed for the complex and real-time interacting EBIR problem given multiple inspection and repair teams at locations as set post-disaster. A hybrid genetic algorithm that integrates a heuristic approach into a traditional genetic algorithm to accelerate the evolution process is developed. Computational tests are performed using data from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, based on a regional highway network in Sichuan, China, consisting of 168 highway bridges on 36 highways connecting 25 cities/towns. The results show that the simultaneous implementation of bridge inspection and repair activities can significantly improve the highway network resilience. Moreover, the deployment of inspection and repair teams should match each other, and the network resilience will not be improved once the unilateral increase in inspection teams or repair teams exceeds a certain level. This study contributes to both knowledge and practice. First, the developed mathematical model makes it possible for capturing the impact of real-time inspection-repair interactions on inspection routing and repair scheduling and efficiently deriving optimal EIR and ERS on a large and complex highway network. Moreover, this study contributes to the organizational dimension of highway network resilience by providing optimal strategies for highway bridge management. With the decision support tool, disaster managers are able to identify the most critical bridges for disaster management and make decisions on proper inspection and repair strategies to improve highway network resilience.

Keywords: disaster management, emergency bridge inspection and repair, highway network, resilience, uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
272 Self-Propelled Intelligent Robotic Vehicle Based on Octahedral Dodekapod to Move in Active Branched Pipelines with Variable Cross-Sections

Authors: Sergey N. Sayapin, Anatoly P. Karpenko, Suan H. Dang

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Comparative analysis of robotic vehicles for pipe inspection is presented in this paper. The promising concept of self-propelled intelligent robotic vehicle (SPIRV) based on octahedral dodekapod for inspection and operation in active branched pipelines with variable cross-sections is reasoned. SPIRV is able to move in pipeline, regardless of its spatial orientation. SPIRV can also be used to move along the outside of the pipelines as well as in space between surfaces of annular tubes. Every one of faces of the octahedral dodekapod can clamp/unclamp a thing with a closed loop surface of various forms as well as put pressure on environmental surface of contact. These properties open new possibilities for its applications in SPIRV. We examine design principles of octahedral dodekapod as future intelligent building blocks for various robotic vehicles that can self-move and self-reconfigure.

Keywords: Modular robot, octahedral dodekapod, pipe inspection robot, spatial parallel structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
271 Time-Series Analysis of Port State Control Inspections for Tankers

Authors: Chien-Chung Yuan, Cunqiang Cai, Wu-Hsun Chung, Shu-Te Sung

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A tanker is a critical vessel used to transport or store liquids or gases in bulk in maritime shipping. However, it is more dangerous than other types of vessels. Port State Control (PSC) inspection is an important measure to ensure maritime safety when such vessels traveling between ports. However, the current inspection system lacks a useful tool to observe the inspections for tankers and to identify non-random instances in PSC inspections. This study collects the inspection records in Taiwan’s ports from 2015 to 2018 and utilizes run charts to map the PSC inspections for tankers in terms of deficiencies. Based on these time-series charts, several patterns of deficiencies are identified. The results demonstrate that run charts are a useful tool to observe how the PSC inspections for tankers are performed. Also, the charts can help port administrations to identify abnormal phenomena for further investigation. Furthermore, with valuable information from the analysis, port administrations can take proactive improvement measures to ensure the safety of tanker shipping.

Keywords: port state control, tanker, run chart, deficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
270 Methodologies for Crack Initiation in Welded Joints Applied to Inspection Planning

Authors: Guang Zou, Kian Banisoleiman, Arturo González

Abstract:

Crack initiation and propagation threatens structural integrity of welded joints and normally inspections are assigned based on crack propagation models. However, the approach based on crack propagation models may not be applicable for some high-quality welded joints, because the initial flaws in them may be so small that it may take long time for the flaws to develop into a detectable size. This raises a concern regarding the inspection planning of high-quality welded joins, as there is no generally acceptable approach for modeling the whole fatigue process that includes the crack initiation period. In order to address the issue, this paper reviews treatment methods for crack initiation period and initial crack size in crack propagation models applied to inspection planning. Generally, there are four approaches, by: 1) Neglecting the crack initiation period and fitting a probabilistic distribution for initial crack size based on statistical data; 2) Extrapolating the crack propagation stage to a very small fictitious initial crack size, so that the whole fatigue process can be modeled by crack propagation models; 3) Assuming a fixed detectable initial crack size and fitting a probabilistic distribution for crack initiation time based on specimen tests; and, 4) Modeling the crack initiation and propagation stage separately using small crack growth theories and Paris law or similar models. The conclusion is that in view of trade-off between accuracy and computation efforts, calibration of a small fictitious initial crack size to S-N curves is the most efficient approach.

Keywords: crack initiation, fatigue reliability, inspection planning, welded joints

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269 Knowledge of Pap Smear Test and Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid in Cervical Cancer Patients in Manado

Authors: Eric Ng, Freddy W. Wagey, Frank M. M. Wagey

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide and the most common cancer in many low- and middle-income countries. The main causes are the lack of prevention programs and effective therapy, as well as the lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness for early detection. The Pap smear test and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) allow the cervical lesion to be detected so that progression to cervical cancer can be avoided. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of Pap smear test and VIA in cervical cancer patients. Methodology: A total of 67 cervical cancer patients in Manado who volunteered to participate in the research were identified as the sample. The data were collected during the month of November 2019-January 2020 with a questionnaire about the respondents' knowledge relating to Pap smear test and VIA. Questionnaire data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: Knowledge of pap smear among cervical cancer patients were good in 9 respondents (13.4%), moderate in 20 respondents (29.9%), and bad in 38 respondents (56.7%), whereas the knowledge of VIA was good in 13 respondents (19.4%), moderate in 15 respondents (22.4%), and bad in 39 respondents (58.2%). Conclusion: Majority of cervical cancer patients in Manado still had bad knowledge about Pap smear tests and VIA.

Keywords: cervical cancer, knowledge, pap smear test, visual inspection with acetic acid

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