Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 58

Search results for: tendon

58 An Inherent Risk to Damage the Popliteus Tendon by Some Femoral Component Designs: A Pilot Study in Indian Knees

Authors: Rajendra Kanojia


Femoral components with inbuilt rotation require thicker flexion resection of the lateral femoral condyle and could potential risk to damage the popliteus tendon especially in the smaller Asian knees. We prospectively evaluated 10 patients with bilateral varus osteoarthritis knee to size the cuts and their location in relation to the popliteus tendon. Two different types of implant were used on either side, one side requires resection in 3° external rotation (group A) and other side femoral component with inbuilt external roation (group B). We had popliteus tendon injury in 3 knees all from group B. Risk of damaging the popliteus tendon was found higher in group B.

Keywords: popliteaus tendon injury, TKA, orthopaedic surgery, biomechanics and clinical applications

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57 A Fundamental Study on the Anchor Performance of Non-Surface Treated Multi CFRP Tendons

Authors: Woo-tai Jung, Jong-sup Park, Jae-yoon Kang, Moon-seoung Keum


CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) is mainly used as reinforcing material for degraded structures owing to its advantages including its non-corrodibility, high strength, and lightweight properties. Recently, dedicated studies focused not only on its simple bonding but also on its tensioning. The tension necessary for prestressing requires the anchoring of multi-CFRP tendons with high capacity and the surface treatment of the CFRP tendons may also constitute an important issue according to the type of anchor. The wedge type, swage type or bonded type anchor can be used to anchor the CFRP tendon. The bonded type anchor presents the disadvantage to lengthen the length of the anchor due to the low bond strength of the CFRP tendon without surface treatment. This study intends to overcome this drawback through the application of a method enlarging the bond area at the end of the CFRP tendon. This method enlarges the bond area by splitting the end of the CFRP tendon along its length and can be applied when CFRP is produced by pultrusion. The application of this method shows that the mono-CFRP tendon and 3-multi CFRP tendon secured the anchor performance corresponding to the tensile performance of the CFRP tendon and that the 7-multi tendon secured anchor performance corresponding to 90% of the tensile strength due to the occurrence of buckling in the steel tube anchorage.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), tendon, anchor, tensile property, bond strength

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56 Modified Tendon Model Considered Structural Nonlinearity in PSC Structures

Authors: Yangsu Kwon, Hyo-Gyoung Kwak


Nonlinear tendon constitutive model for nonlinear analysis of pre-stressed concrete structures are presented. Since the post-cracking behavior of concrete structures, in which bonded reinforcements such as tendons and/or reinforcing steels are embedded, depends on many influencing factors(the tensile strength of concrete, anchorage length of reinforcements, concrete cover, and steel spacing) that are deeply related to the bond characteristics between concrete and reinforcements, consideration of the tension stiffening effect on the basis of the bond-slip mechanism is necessary to evaluate ultimate resisting capacity of structures. In this paper, an improved tendon model, which considering the slip effect between concrete and tendon, and effect of tension stiffening, is suggested. The validity of the proposed models is established by comparing between the analytical results and experimental results in pre-stressed concrete beams.

Keywords: bond-slip, prestressed concrete, tendon, ultimate strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
55 Mouse Knockouts for Elucidating the Role of Cysteine-Rich Angiogenic Inducer 61 in Tendon Development and Maintenance

Authors: Josephine Hai, Jie Jiang, Karen M. Lyons


Of the musculoskeletal tissues, tendon is least understood in terms of biological development. The current study examines Cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61, or CCN1, a member of the CCN family of secreted matricellular proteins that regulate cell behavior via intercellular signaling. Though CCN1 is notable in limiting fibrosis by inducing senescence in fibroblasts, little is known about its role in normal fibrous tissue, where it may be essential to the development of ECM-rich structures like tendons. We found that CCN1 knockout mice (using limb-specific Prx1-Cre) exhibited clubfoot and waddling gaits, a unique phenotype not described in any other mutant to date. Histological analysis showed that the Achilles and patellar tendons, where we previously found high CCN1 expression in adult reporter mice, were thicker and denser in the Prx1-Cre knockouts than in their wildtype littermates. We then hypothesized that CCN1 is required directly in tendon progenitor cells for normal tendon development and generated tendon-specific CCN1 knockout mice using Scx-Cre. We observed similar Achilles/patellar tendon morphology among the Scx-Cre and Prx1-Cre mutants, indicating that the phenotype is a direct result of CCN1’s loss in tendon. To further study phenotype onset and progression, we will histologically characterize these tendons across different developmental time-points. We will also perform RNA-seq and qPCR to analyze tenocyte gene expression and expect fibrotic marker upregulation in the Scx-Cre mutants if CCN1 is required to maintain a normal tendon phenotype. Thus, our study aims to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying tendon formation and maintenance. Understanding tendons at the most basic level invites novel approaches to tendon repair.

Keywords: development, matricellular, musculoskeletal, tendon

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54 Effect of Two Bouts of Eccentric Exercise on Knee Flexors Changes in Muscle-Tendon Lengths

Authors: Shang-Hen Wu, Yung-Chen Lin, Wei-Song Chang, Ming-Ju Lin


This study investigated whether the repeated bout effect (RBE) of knee flexors (KF) eccentric exercise would be changed in muscle-tendon lengths. Eight healthy university male students used their KF of non-dominant leg and performed a bout of 60 maximal isokinetic (30°/s) eccentric contractions (MaxECC1). A week after MaxECC1, all subjects used the same KF to perform a subsequent bout of MaxECC2. Changes in maximal isokinetic voluntary contraction torque (MVC-CON), muscle soreness (SOR), relaxed knee joint angle (RANG), leg circumference (CIR), and ultrasound images (UI; muscle-tendon length and muscle angle) were measured before, immediately after, 1-5 days after each bout. Two-way ANOVA was used to analyze all the dependent variables. After MaxECC1, all the dependent variables (e.g. MVC-CON: ↓30%, muscle-tendon length: ↑24%, muscle angle: ↑15%) showed significantly change. Following MaxECC2, all the above dependent variables (e.g. MVC-CON:↓21%, tendon length: ↑16%, muscle angle: ↑6%) were significantly smaller than those of MaxECC1. These results of this study found that protective effect conferred by MaxECC1 against MaxECC2, and changes in muscle damage indicators, muscle-tendon length and muscle angle following MaxECC2 were smaller than MaxECC1. Thus, the amount of shift of muscle-tendon length and muscle angle was related to the RBE.

Keywords: eccentric exercise, maximal isokinetic voluntary contraction torque, repeated bout effect, ultrasound

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53 Tensile Test of Corroded Strand and Maintenance of Corroded Prestressed Concrete Girders

Authors: Jeon Chi-Ho, Lee Jae-Bin, Shim Chang-Su


National bridge inventory in Korea shows that the number of old prestressed concrete (PSC) bridgeover 30 years of service life is rapidly increasing. Recently tendon corrosion is one of the most critical issues in the maintenance of PSC bridges. In this paper, mechanical properties of corroded strands, which were removed from old bridges, were evaluated using tensile test. In the result, the equations to express the mechanical behavior of corroded strand were derived and compared to existing equation. For the decision of tendon replacement, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of corrosion level on strength and ductility of the structure. Considerations on analysis of PSC girders were introduced, and decision making on tendon replacement was also proposed.

Keywords: prestressed concrete bridge, tendon, corrosion, strength, ductility

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52 The Tendon Reflexes on the Performance of Flanker Task in the Subjects of Cerebrovascular Accidents

Authors: Harshdeep Singh, Kuljeet Singh Anand


Background: Cerebrovascular Accidents (CVA) cause abnormal or asymmetrical tendon reflexes contributing to motor impairments. Since the tendon reflexes are mediated by the spinal cord, their effects on cognitive performances are overlooked. This study aims to find the contributions of tendon reflexes on the performance of the Flanker task. Methods: A total population of 46 mixed subjects with movement disorders were recruited for the study. Deep tendon reflexes (DTR) of the biceps, triceps and brachioradialis were assessed for both upper extremities. Later, the Flanker task was performed on all the subjects, and the mean Reaction Time (RT) along with both the congruent and incongruent stimuli were evaluated. For the final analysis, the Kruskal Wallis test was performed to see the difference between the DTR and the performance of the Flanker Task. Results: The Kruskal Wallis test results showed a significant difference between the DTR scores, X²(2) = 11.328, p= 0.023 with the mean RT of the flanker task and X²(2) = 9.531, p= 0.049 with mean RT of the Incongruent Stimuli. Whereas the result found a non-significant difference in the mean RT of the Congruent Stimuli. Conclusion: Each DTR score is distributed differently with the mean RT of the flanker task and for the incongruent stimuli as well. Therefore, the tendon reflexes in PD may be contributing to the performance of the Flanker Task and may be an indicator of abnormal cognitive performance. Further research is needed to evaluate how the RTs are distributed with each DTR score.

Keywords: cerebrovascular accidents, deep tendon reflexes, flanker task, reaction time, congruent stimuli, incongruent stimuli

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51 A Study of Influence of Freezing on Mechanical Properties of Tendon Fascicles

Authors: Martyna Ekiert, Andrzej Mlyniec


Tendons are the biological structures, which primary function is to transfer force generated by muscles to the bones. Unfortunately, damages of tendons are also one of the most common injuries of the human musculoskeletal system. For the most severe cases of tendon rupture, such as the tear of calcaneus tendon or anterior cruciate ligament of the knee, a surgical procedure is the only possible way of full recovery. Tendons used as biological grafts are usually subjected to the process of deep freezing and subsequent thawing. This, in particular for multiple freezing/thawing cycles, may result in changes of tendon internal structure causing deterioration of mechanical properties of the tissue. Therefore, studies on the influence of freezing on tendons biomechanics, including internal water content in soft tissue, seems to be greatly needed. An experimental study of the influence of freezing on mechanical properties of the tendon was performed on fascicles samples dissected form bovine flexor tendons. The preparation procedure was performed with the presence of 0.9% saline solution in order to prevent an excessive tissue drying. All prepared samples were subjected to the different number of freezing/thawing cycles. For freezing part of the protocol we used -80°C temperature while for slow thawing we used fridge temperature (4°C) combined with equalizing temperatures in the standard state (25°C). After final thawing, the mechanical properties of each sample was examined using cyclic loading test. Our results may contribute for better understanding of negative effects of soft tissues freezing, resulting from abnormal thermal expansion of water. This also may help to determine the limit of freezing/thawing cycles disqualifying tissue for surgical purposes and thus help optimize tissues storage conditions.

Keywords: freezing, soft tissue, tendon, bovine fascicles

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50 The Acute Effects of Higher Versus Lower Load Duration and Intensity on Morphological and Mechanical Properties of the Healthy Achilles Tendon: A Randomized Crossover Trial

Authors: Eman Merza, Stephen Pearson, Glen Lichtwark, Peter Malliaras


The Achilles tendon (AT) exhibits volume changes related to fluid flow under acute load which may be linked to changes in stiffness. Fluid flow provides a mechanical signal for cellular activity and may be one mechanism that facilitates tendon adaptation. This study aimed to investigate whether isometric intervention involving a high level of load duration and intensity could maximize the immediate reduction in AT volume and stiffness compared to interventions involving a lower level of load duration and intensity. Sixteen healthy participants (12 males, 4 females; age= 24.4 ± 9.4 years; body mass= 70.9 ± 16.1 kg; height= 1.7 ± 0.1 m) performed three isometric interventions of varying levels of load duration (2 s and 8 s) and intensity (35% and 75% maximal voluntary isometric contraction) over a 3 week period. Freehand 3D ultrasound was used to measure free AT volume (at rest) and length (at 35%, 55%, and 75% of maximum plantarflexion force) pre- and post-interventions. The slope of the force-elongation curve over these force levels represented individual stiffness (N/mm). Large reductions in free AT volume and stiffness resulted in response to long-duration high-intensity loading whilst less reduction was produced with a lower load intensity. In contrast, no change in free AT volume and a small increase in AT stiffness occurred with lower load duration. These findings suggest that the applied load on the AT must be heavy and sustained for a long duration to maximize immediate volume reduction, which might be an acute response that enables optimal long-term tendon adaptation via mechanotransduction pathways.

Keywords: Achilles tendon, volume, stiffness, free tendon, 3d ultrasound

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49 Simultaneous Bilateral Patella Tendon Rupture: A Systematic Review

Authors: André Rui Coelho Fernandes, Mariana Rufino, Divakar Hamal, Amr Sousa, Emma Fossett, Kamalpreet Cheema


Aim: A single patella tendon rupture is relatively uncommon, but a simultaneous bilateral event is a rare occurrence and has been scarcely reviewed in the literature. This review was carried out to analyse the existing literature on this event, with the aim of proposing a standardised approach to the diagnosis and management of this injury. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Three independent reviewers conducted searches in PubMed, OvidSP for Medline and Embase, as well as Cochrane Library using the same search strategy. From a total of 183 studies, 45 were included, i.e. 90 patellas. Results: 46 patellas had a Type 1 Rupture equating to 51%, with Type 3 being the least common, with only 7 patellas sustaining this injury. The mean Insall-Salvio ratio for each knee was 1.62 (R) and 1.60 (L) Direct Primary Repair was the most common surgical technique compared to Tendon Reconstruction, with End to End and Transosseous techniques split almost equally. Brace immobilisation was preferred over cast, with a mean start to weight-bearing of 3.23 weeks post-op. Conclusions: Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare injury that should be considered in patients with knee extensor mechanism disruption. The key limitation of this study was the low number of patients encompassed by the eligible literature. There is space for a higher level of evidence study, specifically regarding surgical treatment choice and methods, as well as post-operative management, which could potentially improve the outcomes in the management of this injury.

Keywords: trauma and orthopaedic surgery, bilateral patella, tendon rupture, trauma

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48 The Rupture of Tendon Achilles During the Recreative and Sports Activities

Authors: Jasmin S. Nurkovic, Ljubisa Dj. Jovasevic, Zana C. Dolicanin, Zoran S. Bajin


Ruptured muscles and tendons very often must be repatriated by open operation in young persons. In young, muscles are ruptured more often than tendons, at the sane time in older persons are more exposed to rupture than muscles. Ruptured of the calcaneus are the most present of all ruptures. Sometime the rupture is complete, but very often the incomplete rupture can be noticed. During six years, from 2006 to 2012, we treated nineteen male patients and three female patients with the rupture of tendon Achilles. The youngest patient was aged thirty two, and the oldest was also managed sixty four. The youngest female patient was forty one and the oldest was forty six. One of our patients who was under corticosteroid treatment did not take any part in sport activities but she was, as she told us, going for a long walk, the same was with other two patients one man and one woman. We had nineteen male patients age 32 to 64 and three female patients age 41, 44 and 46. Conservative treatment by cast was applied in five patients and very good results were in three of them. In two patients surgical treatment failed in patient’s age 53 and 64. Only one of all patients treated by surgery had healing problems because of necrotic changes of the skin where incision was made. One of our female patients age 45 was under steroid treatment for almost 20 years because of asthmatic problems. We suggested her wearing boots with 8cm long heels by day and by night eight weeks. The final results were satisfactory and all the time she was able to work and to walk. It was the only case we had with bilateral tendon rupture. After eight weeks the cast is removed and psychiatric treatment started, patient is using crutches with partial weight bearing over a period of two weeks. Quite the same treatment conservative treatment, only the cast is not removed after two but after four weeks. Everyday activities after the surgical treatment started ten weeks and sport activities can start after fourteen to sixteen weeks. An increased activity of our patient without previous preparing for forces activity can result, as we already see, with tendon rupture. Treatment is very long and very often surgical. We find that surgical treatment resulted as safer and better solution for patients. We also had a patient with spontaneous rupture of tendon during longer walking but this patient was under prolonged corticosteroid treatment.

Keywords: tendon, Achilles, rupture, sport

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47 Soft Robotic Exoskeletal Glove with Single Motor-Driven Tendon-Based Differential Drive

Authors: M. Naveed Akhter, Jawad Aslam, Omer Gillani


To aid and rehabilitate increasing number of patients suffering from spinal cord injury (SCI) and stroke, a lightweight, wearable, and 3D printable exoskeletal glove has been developed. Unlike previously developed metal or fabric-based exoskeletons, this research presents the development of soft exoskeletal glove made of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). The drive mechanism consists of a single motor-driven antagonistic tendon to perform extension or flexion of middle and index finger. The tendon-based differential drive has been incorporated to allow for grasping of irregularly shaped objects. The design features easy 3D-printability with TPU without a need for supports. The overall weight of the glove and the actuation unit is approximately 500g. Performance of the glove was tested on a custom test-bench with integrated load cells, and the grip strength was tested to be around 30N per finger while grasping objects of irregular shape.

Keywords: 3D printable, differential drive, exoskeletal glove, rehabilitation, single motor driven

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46 Glenoid Osteotomy with Various Tendon Transfers for Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy: Clinical Outcomes

Authors: Ramin Zargarbashi, Hamid Rabie, Behnam Panjavi, Hooman Kamran, Seyedarad Mosalamiaghili, Zohre Erfani, Seyed Peyman Mirghaderi, Maryam Salimi


Background: Posterior shoulder dislocation is one of the disabling complications of brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI), and various treatment options, including capsule and surrounding muscles release for open reduction, humeral derotational osteotomy, and tendon transfers, have been recommended to manage it. In the present study, we aimed to determine the clinical outcome of open reduction with soft tissue release, tendon transfer, and glenoid osteotomy inpatients with BPBI and posterior shoulder dislocation or subluxation. Methods: From 2018 to 2020, 33 patients that underwent open reduction, glenoid osteotomy, and tendon transfer were included. The glenohumeral deformity was classified according to the Waters radiographic classification. Functional assessment was performed using the Mallet grading system before and at least two years after the surgery. Results: The patients were monitored for 26.88± 5.47 months. Their average age was 27.5±14 months. Significant improvement was seen in the overall Mallet score (from 13.5 to 18.91 points) and its segments, including hand to mouth, hand to the neck, global abduction, global external rotation, abduction degree, and external rotation degree. Hand-to-back score and the presence of trumpet sign were significantly decreased in the post-operation phase (all p values<0.001). The above-mentioned variables significantly changed for both infantile and non-infantile dislocations. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that open reduction along with glenoid osteotomy improves retroversion, and muscle strengthening with different muscle transfers is an effective technique for BPBI.

Keywords: birth injuries, nerve injury, brachial plexus birth palsy, Erb palsy, tendon transfer

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45 Treatment of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tendon Tear Using Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Polydeoxyribonucleotides in a Rabbit Model

Authors: Sang Chul Lee, Gi-Young Park, Dong Rak Kwon


Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate regenerative effects of ultrasound (US)-guided injection with human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) and/or polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) injection in a chronic traumatic full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tear (FTRCTT) in a rabbit model. Material and Methods: Rabbits (n = 32) were allocated into 4 groups. After a 5-mm sized FTRCTT just proximal to the insertion site on the subscapularis tendon was created by excision, the wound was immediately covered by silicone tube to prevent natural healing. After 6 weeks, 4 injections (0.2 mL normal saline, G1; 0.2 mL PDRN, G2; 0.2 mL UCB-MSCs, G3; and 0.2 mL UCB-MSCs with 0.2ml PDRN, G4) were injected into FTRCTT under US guidance. We evaluated gross morphologic changes on all rabbits after sacrifice. Masson’s trichrome, anti-type 1 collagen antibody, bromodeoxyuridine, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule stain were performed to evaluate histological changes. Motion analysis was also performed. Results: The gross morphologic mean tendon tear size in G3 and 4 was significantly smaller than that of G1 and 2 (p < .05). However, there were no significant differences in tendon tear size between G3 and 4. In G4, newly regenerated collagen type 1 fibers, proliferating cells activity, angiogenesis, walking distance, fast walking time, and mean walking speed were greater than in the other three groups on histological examination and motion analysis. Conclusion: Co-injection of UCB-MSCs and PDRN was more effective than UCB-MSCs injection alone in histological and motion analysis in a rabbit model of chronic traumatic FTRCTT. However, there was no significant difference in gross morphologic change of tendon tear between UCB-MSCs with/without PDRN injection. The results of this study regarding the combination of UCB-MSCs and PDRN are worth additional investigations.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cell, umbilical cord, polydeoxyribonucleotides, shoulder, rotator cuff, ultrasonography, injections

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44 Mini-Open Repair Using Ring Forceps Show Similar Results to Repair Using Achillon Device in Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture

Authors: Chul Hyun Park


Background:Repair using the Achillon deviceis a representative mini-open repair technique;however, the limitations of this technique includethe need for special instruments and decreasedrepair strength.A modifiedmini-open repair using ring forcepsmight overcome these limitations. Purpose:This study was performed to compare the Achillon device with ring forceps in mini-open repairsof acute Achilles tendon rupture. Study Design:This was a retrospective cohort study, and the level of evidence was3. Methods:Fifty patients (41 men and 9 women), withacute Achilles tendon rupture on one foot, were consecutively treated using mini-open repair techniques. The first 20 patients were treated using the Achillon device (Achillon group) and the subsequent 30 patients were treated using a ring forceps (Forcep group). Clinical, functional, and isokinetic results,and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups at the last follow-up. Clinical evaluations wereperformed using the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS), length of incision, and operation time. Functional evaluationsincludedactive range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joint, maximum calf circumference (MCC), hopping test, and single limb heel-rise (SLHR) test. Isokinetic evaluations were performed using the isokinetic test for ankle plantar flexion. Results:The AOFAS score (p=0.669), ATRS (p=0.753), and length of incision (p=0.305) were not significantly different between the groups. Operative times in the Achillon group were significantly shorter than that in the Forcep group (p<0.001).The maximum height of SLHR (p=0.023) and number of SLHRs (p=0.045) in the Forcep group were significantly greater than that in the Achillon group. No significant differences in the mean peak torques for plantar flexion at angular speeds of 30°/s (p=0.219) and 120°/s (p=0.656) were detected between the groups. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of postoperative complications between the groups (p=0.093). Conclusion:The ring forceps technique is comparable with the Achillon technique with respect to clinical, functional, and isokinetic results and the postoperative complications. Given that no special instrument is required, the ring forceps technique could be a better option for acute Achilles tendon rupture repair.

Keywords: achilles tendon, acute rupture, repair, mini-open

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43 Determination of Johnson-Cook Material and Failure Model Constants for High Tensile Strength Tendon Steel in Post-Tensioned Concrete Members

Authors: I. Gkolfinopoulos, N. Chijiwa


To evaluate the remaining capacity in concrete tensioned members, it is important to accurately estimate damage in precast concrete tendons. In this research Johnson-Cook model and damage parameters of high-strength steel material were calculated by static and dynamic uniaxial tensile tests. Replication of experimental results was achieved through finite element analysis for both single 8-noded three-dimensional element as well as the full-scale dob-bone shaped model and relevant model parameters are proposed. Finally, simulation results in terms of strain and deformation were verified using digital image correlation analysis.

Keywords: DIC analysis, Johnson-Cook, quasi-static, dynamic, rupture, tendon

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
42 A Constitutive Model of Ligaments and Tendons Accounting for Fiber-Matrix Interaction

Authors: Ratchada Sopakayang, Gerhard A. Holzapfel


In this study, a new constitutive model is developed to describe the hyperelastic behavior of collagenous tissues with a parallel arrangement of collagen fibers such as ligaments and tendons. The model is formulated using a continuum approach incorporating the structural changes of the main tissue components: collagen fibers, proteoglycan-rich matrix and fiber-matrix interaction. The mechanical contribution of the interaction between the fibers and the matrix is simply expressed by a coupling term. The structural change of the collagen fibers is incorporated in the constitutive model to describe the activation of the fibers under tissue straining. Finally, the constitutive model can easily describe the stress-stretch nonlinearity which occurs when a ligament/tendon is axially stretched. This study shows that the interaction between the fibers and the matrix contributes to the mechanical tissue response. Therefore, the model may lead to a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms of ligaments and tendons under axial loading.

Keywords: constitutive model, fiber-matrix, hyperelasticity, interaction, ligament, tendon

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41 A Computational Framework for Load Mediated Patellar Ligaments Damage at the Tropocollagen Level

Authors: Fadi Al Khatib, Raouf Mbarki, Malek Adouni


In various sport and recreational activities, the patellofemoral joint undergoes large forces and moments while accommodating the significant knee joint movement. In doing so, this joint is commonly the source of anterior knee pain related to instability in normal patellar tracking and excessive pressure syndrome. One well-observed explanation of the instability of the normal patellar tracking is the patellofemoral ligaments and patellar tendon damage. Improved knowledge of the damage mechanism mediating ligaments and tendon injuries can be a great help not only in rehabilitation and prevention procedures but also in the design of better reconstruction systems in the management of knee joint disorders. This damage mechanism, specifically due to excessive mechanical loading, has been linked to the micro level of the fibred structure precisely to the tropocollagen molecules and their connection density. We argue defining a clear frame starting from the bottom (micro level) to up (macro level) in the hierarchies of the soft tissue may elucidate the essential underpinning on the state of the ligaments damage. To do so, in this study a multiscale fibril reinforced hyper elastoplastic Finite Element model that accounts for the synergy between molecular and continuum syntheses was developed to determine the short-term stresses/strains patellofemoral ligaments and tendon response. The plasticity of the proposed model is associated only with the uniaxial deformation of the collagen fibril. The yield strength of the fibril is a function of the cross-link density between tropocollagen molecules, defined here by a density function. This function obtained through a Coarse-graining procedure linking nanoscale collagen features and the tissue level materials properties using molecular dynamics simulations. The hierarchies of the soft tissues were implemented using the rule of mixtures. Thereafter, the model was calibrated using a statistical calibration procedure. The model then implemented into a real structure of patellofemoral ligaments and patellar tendon (OpenKnee) and simulated under realistic loading conditions. With the calibrated material parameters the calculated axial stress lies well with the experimental measurement with a coefficient of determination (R2) equal to 0.91 and 0.92 for the patellofemoral ligaments and the patellar tendon respectively. The ‘best’ prediction of the yielding strength and strain as compared with the reported experimental data yielded when the cross-link density between the tropocollagen molecule of the fibril equal to 5.5 ± 0.5 (patellofemoral ligaments) and 12 (patellar tendon). Damage initiation of the patellofemoral ligaments was located at the femoral insertions while the damage of the patellar tendon happened in the middle of the structure. These predicted finding showed a meaningful correlation between the cross-link density of the tropocollagen molecules and the stiffness of the connective tissues of the extensor mechanism. Also, damage initiation and propagation were documented with this model, which were in satisfactory agreement with earlier observation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to model ligaments from the bottom up, predicted depending to the tropocollagen cross-link density. This approach appears more meaningful towards a realistic simulation of a damaging process or repair attempt compared with certain published studies.

Keywords: tropocollagen, multiscale model, fibrils, knee ligaments

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40 Increasing Access to Upper Limb Reconstruction in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

Authors: Michelle Jennett, Jana Dengler, Maytal Perlman


Background: Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event that results in upper limb paralysis, loss of independence, and disability. People living with cervical SCI have identified improvement of upper limb function as a top priority. Nerve and tendon transfer surgery has successfully restored upper limb function in cervical SCI but is not universally used or available to all eligible individuals. This exploratory mixed-methods study used an implementation science approach to better understand these factors that influence access to upper limb reconstruction in the Canadian context and design an intervention to increase access to care. Methods: Data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information’s Discharge Abstracts Database (CIHI-DAD) and the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS) were used to determine the annual rate of nerve transfer and tendon transfer surgeries performed in cervical SCI in Canada over the last 15 years. Semi-structured interviews informed by the consolidated framework for implementation research (CFIR) were used to explore Ontario healthcare provider knowledge and practices around upper limb reconstruction. An inductive, iterative constant comparative process involving descriptive and interpretive analyses was used to identify themes that emerged from the data. Results: Healthcare providers (n = 10 upper extremity surgeons, n = 10 SCI physiatrists, n = 12 physical and occupational therapists working with individuals with SCI) were interviewed about their knowledge and perceptions of upper limb reconstruction and their current practices and discussions around upper limb reconstruction. Data analysis is currently underway and will be presented. Regional variation in rates of upper limb reconstruction and trends over time are also currently being analyzed. Conclusions: Utilization of nerve and tendon transfer surgery to improve upper limb reconstruction in Canada remains low. There are a complex array of interrelated individual-, provider- and system-level barriers that prevent individuals with cervical SCI from accessing upper limb reconstruction. In order to offer equitable access to care, a multi-modal approach addressing current barriers is required.

Keywords: cervical spinal cord injury, nerve and tendon transfer surgery, spinal cord injury, upper extremity reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
39 A Multiple Freezing/Thawing Cycles Influence Internal Structure and Mechanical Properties of Achilles Tendon

Authors: Martyna Ekiert, Natalia Grzechnik, Joanna Karbowniczek, Urszula Stachewicz, Andrzej Mlyniec


Tendon grafting is a common procedure performed to treat tendon rupture. Before the surgical procedure, tissues intended for grafts (i.e., Achilles tendon) are stored in ultra-low temperatures for a long time and also may be subjected to unfavorable conditions, such as repetitive freezing (F) and thawing (T). Such storage protocols may highly influence the graft mechanical properties, decrease its functionality and thus increase the risk of complications during the transplant procedure. The literature reports on the influence of multiple F/T cycles on internal structure and mechanical properties of tendons stay inconclusive, confirming and denying the negative influence of multiple F/T at the same time. An inconsistent research methodology and lack of clear limit of F/T cycles, which disqualifies tissue for surgical graft purposes, encouraged us to investigate the issue of multiple F/T cycles by the mean of biomechanical tensile tests supported with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) imaging. The study was conducted on male bovine Achilles tendon-derived from the local abattoir. Fresh tendons were cleaned of excessive membranes and then sectioned to obtained fascicle bundles. Collected samples were randomly assigned to 6 groups subjected to 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 cycles of freezing-thawing (F/T), respectively. Each F/T cycle included deep freezing at -80°C temperature, followed by thawing at room temperature. After final thawing, thin slices of the side part of samples subjected to 1, 4, 8 and 12 F/T cycles were collected for SEM imaging. Then, the width and thickness of all samples were measured to calculate the cross-sectional area. Biomechanical tests were performed using the universal testing machine (model Instron 8872, INSTRON®, Norwood, Massachusetts, USA) using a load cell with a maximum capacity of 250 kN and standard atmospheric conditions. Both ends of each fascicle bundle were manually clamped in grasping clamps using abrasive paper and wet cellulose wadding swabs to prevent tissue slipping while clamping and testing. Samples were subjected to the testing procedure including pre-loading, pre-cycling, loading, holding and unloading steps to obtain stress-strain curves for representing tendon stretching and relaxation. The stiffness of AT fascicles bundle samples was evaluated in terms of modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus), calculated from the slope of the linear region of stress-strain curves. SEM imaging was preceded by chemical sample preparation including 24hr fixation in 3% glutaraldehyde buffered with 0.1 M phosphate buffer, washing with 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution and dehydration in a graded ethanol solution. SEM images (Merlin Gemini II microscope, ZEISS®) were taken using 30 000x mag, which allowed measuring a diameter of collagen fibrils. The results confirm a decrease in fascicle bundles Young’s modulus as well as a decrease in the diameter of collagen fibrils. These results confirm the negative influence of multiple F/T cycles on the mechanical properties of tendon tissue.

Keywords: biomechanics, collagen, fascicle bundles, soft tissue

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38 Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Tars and Metatars Region of Dromedary Camel

Authors: Aboozar Dehghan, S. Sharifi, A. Ardeshiri, F. Jafari, F. Samani


Ultrasonography is a safe, particular, available and easy to use method to evaluate soft tissues. Tendons play the main role to body locomotors system. Ultrasonography performed in tarsus and metatarsus region of rare limb of eight adult, Dromedary camels (camelus dromedaries) in both sex. Clinical examination and gate analysis was performed before slaughtering. From the tarsus to the 1st phalanx was divided to 4 equal region include 1a, 2a, 1b and 2b. Flexor surface was clipped and covered by enough ultrasonography gel. Ultrasonography was performed by linear phased array 8-12 Mhz transducer in transverse and longitudinal section and Superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) and suspensory ligament (SL) were imaged. Echogenicity and diameter of these structures were recorded. Size of tendons and SL measured after necropsy too. statistical analysis obtained that SDFT diameter larger than others in all described regions and mean of DDFT diameter larger than suspensory ligament. Echogenicity of SL more than SDFT and DDFT. No Significant relationship was seen between left and right rare limb structures size. Between sex and tendons and SL diameter, significant relationship not seen.

Keywords: dromedary camel, tars and metatars, ultrasonography

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37 Pressure Relief in Prosthetic Sockets through Hole Implementation Using Different Materials

Authors: Gabi N. Nehme


Below-knee amputees commonly experience asymmetrical gait patterns. It is generally believed that ischemia is related to the formation of pressure sores due to uneven distribution of forces. Micro-vascular responses can reveal local malnutrition. Changes in local skin blood supply under various external loading conditions have been studied for a number of years. Radionuclide clearance, photo-plethysmography, trans-cutaneous oxygen tension along with other studies showed that the blood supply would be influenced by the epidermal forces, and the rate and the amount of blood supply would decrease with increased epidermal loads being shear forces or normal forces. Several cases of socket designs were investigated using Finite Element Model (FEM) and Design of Experiment (DOE) to increase flexibility and minimize the pressure at the limb/socket interface using ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and polyamide 6 (PA6) or Duraform. The pressure reliefs at designated areas where reducing thickness is involved are seen to be critical in determination of amputees’ comfort and are very important to clinical applications. Implementing a hole between the Patellar Tendon (PT) and Distal Tibia (DT) would decrease stiffness and increase prosthesis range of motion where flexibility is needed. In addition, displacement and prosthetic energy storage increased without compromising mechanical efficiency and prosthetic design integrity.

Keywords: patellar tendon, distal tibia, prosthetic socket relief areas, hole implementation

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36 Evaluation of Initial Graft Tension during ACL Reconstruction Using a Three-Dimensional Computational Finite Element Simulation: Effect of the Combination of a Band of Gracilis with the Former Graft

Authors: S. Alireza Mirghasemi, Javad Parvizi, Narges R. Gabaran, Shervin Rashidinia, Mahdi M. Bijanabadi, Dariush G. Savadkoohi


Background: The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the most frequent ligament to be disrupted. Surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament is a common practice to treat the disability or chronic instability of the knee. Several factors associated with success or failure of the ACL reconstruction including preoperative laxity of the knee, selection of the graft material, surgical technique, graft tension, and postoperative rehabilitation. We aimed to examine the biomechanical properties of any graft type and initial graft tensioning during ACL reconstruction using 3-dimensional computational finite element simulation. Methods: In this paper, 3-dimensional model of the knee was constructed to investigate the effect of graft tensioning on the knee joint biomechanics. Four different grafts were compared: 1) Bone-patellar tendon-bone graft (BPTB) 2) Hamstring tendon 3) BPTB and a band of gracilis4) Hamstring and a band of gracilis. The initial graft tension was set as “0, 20, 40, or 60N”. The anterior loading was set to 134 N. Findings: The resulting stress pattern and deflection in any of these models were compared to that of the intact knee. The obtained results showed that the combination of a band of gracilis with the former graft (BPTB or Hamstring) increases the structural stiffness of the knee. Conclusion: Required pretension during surgery decreases significantly by adding a band of gracilis to the proper graft.

Keywords: ACL reconstruction, deflection, finite element simulation, stress pattern

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35 Determination of Activation Energy for Thermal Decomposition of Selected Soft Tissues Components

Authors: M. Ekiert, T. Uhl, A. Mlyniec


Tendons are the biological soft tissue structures composed of collagen, proteoglycan, glycoproteins, water and cells of extracellular matrix (ECM). Tendons, which primary function is to transfer force generated by the muscles to the bones causing joints movement, are exposed to many micro and macro damages. In fact, tendons and ligaments trauma are one of the most numerous injuries of human musculoskeletal system, causing for many people (particularly for athletes and physically active people), recurring disorders, chronic pain or even inability of movement. The number of tendons reconstruction and transplantation procedures is increasing every year. Therefore, studies on soft tissues storage conditions (influencing i.e. tissue aging) seem to be an extremely important issue. In this study, an atomic-scale investigation on the kinetics of decomposition of two selected tendon components – collagen type I (which forms a 60-85% of a tendon dry mass) and elastin protein (which combine with ECM creates elastic fibers of connective tissues) is presented. A molecular model of collagen and elastin was developed based on crystal structure of triple-helical collagen-like 1QSU peptide and P15502 human elastin protein, respectively. Each model employed 4 linear strands collagen/elastin strands per unit cell, distributed in 2x2 matrix arrangement, placed in simulation box filled with water molecules. A decomposition phenomena was simulated with molecular dynamics (MD) method using ReaxFF force field and periodic boundary conditions. A set of NVT-MD runs was performed for 1000K temperature range in order to obtained temperature-depended rate of production of decomposition by-products. Based on calculated reaction rates activation energies and pre-exponential factors, required to formulate Arrhenius equations describing kinetics of decomposition of tested soft tissue components, were calculated. Moreover, by adjusting a model developed for collagen, system scalability and correct implementation of the periodic boundary conditions were evaluated. An obtained results provide a deeper insight into decomposition of selected tendon components. A developed methodology may also be easily transferred to other connective tissue elements and therefore might be used for further studies on soft tissues aging.

Keywords: decomposition, molecular dynamics, soft tissue, tendons

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34 Quick off the Mark with Achilles Tendon Rupture

Authors: Emily Moore, Andrew Gaukroger, Matthew Solan, Lucy Bailey, Alexandra Boxall, Andrew Carne, Chintu Gadamsetty, Charlotte Morley, Katy Western, Iwona Kolodziejczyk


Introduction: Rupture of the Achilles tendon is common and has a long recovery period. Most cases are managed non-operatively. Foot and Ankle Surgeons advise an ultrasound scan to check the gap between the torn ends. A large gap (with the ankle in equinus) is a relative indication for surgery. The definitive decision regarding surgical versus non-operative management can only be made once an ultrasound scan is undertaken and the patient is subsequently reviewed by a Foot and Ankle surgeon. To get to this point, the patient journey involves several hospital departments. In nearby trusts, patients reattend for a scan and go to the plaster room both before and after the ultrasound for removal and re-application of the cast. At a third visit to the hospital, the surgeon and patient discuss options for definitive treatment. It may take 2-3 weeks from the initial Emergency Department visit before the final treatment decision is made. This “wasted time” is ultimately added to the recovery period for the patient. In this hospital, Achilles rupture patients are seen in a weekly multidisciplinary OneStop Heel Pain clinic. This pathway was already efficient but subject to occasional frustrating delays if a key staff member was absent. A new pathway was introduced with the goal to reduce delays to a definitive treatment plan. Method: A retrospective series of Achilles tendon ruptures managed according to the 2019 protocol was identified. Time taken from the Emergency Department to have both an ultrasound scan and specialist Foot and Ankle surgical review were calculated. 30 consecutive patients were treated with our new pathway and prospectively followed. The time taken for a scan and for specialist review were compared to the 30 consecutive cases from the 2019 (pre-COVID) cohort. The new pathway includes 1. A new contoured splint applied to the front of the injured limb held with a bandage. This can be removed and replaced (unlike a plaster cast) in the ultrasound department, removing the need for plaster room visits. 2. Urgent triage to a Foot and Ankle specialist. 3. Ultrasound scan for assessment of rupture gap and deep vein thrombosis check. 4. Early decision regarding surgery. Transfer to weight bearing in a prosthetic boot in equinuswithout waiting for the once-a-week clinic. 5. Extended oral VTE prophylaxis. Results: The time taken for a patient to have both an ultrasound scan and specialist review fell > 50%. All patients in the new pathway reached a definitive treatment decision within one week. There were no significant differences in patient demographics or rates of surgical vs non-operative treatment. The mean time from Emergency Department visit to specialist review and ultrasound scan fell from 8.7 days (old protocol) to 2.9 days (new pathway). The maximum time for this fell from 23 days (old protocol) to 6 days (new pathway). Conclusion: Teamwork and innovation have improved the experience for patients with an Achilles tendon rupture. The new pathway brings many advantages - reduced time in the Emergency Department, fewer hospital visits, less time using crutches and reduced overall recovery time.

Keywords: orthopaedics, achilles rupture, ultrasound, innovation

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33 Rituximab Therapy for Musculoskeletal Involvement in Systemic Sclerosis

Authors: Liudmila Garzanova, Lidia Ananyeva, Olga Koneva, Olga Ovsyannikova, Oxana Desinova, Mayya Starovoytova, Rushana Shayahmetova, Anna Khelkovskaya-Sergeeva


Objectives. There is very few data on changes of the musculoskeletal manifestations (artritis, arthralgia, muscle weakness, etc.) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) on rituximab (RTX) therapy. The aim of our study was to assess the severity of the musculoskeletal involvement in SSc patients (pts) and its changes during RTX therapy. Methods. Our study included 103 pts with SSc. The mean followup period was 12.6±10.7 months. The mean age was 47±12.9 years, female-87 pts (84%), the diffuse cutaneous subset of the disease had 55 pts (53%). The mean disease duration was 6.2±5.5 years. All pts had interstitial lung disease (ILD) and were positive for ANA, 67% of them were positive for antitopoisomerase-1. All patients received prednisolone at a dose of 11.3±4.5 mg/day, immunosuppressants at inclusion received 47% of them. Pts received RTX due to the ineffectiveness of previous therapy for ILD. The cumulative mean dose of RTX was 1.7±0.6 grams. Arthritis was observed in 22 pts (21%), arthralgias in 47 pts (46%). Muscle weakness was observed in 17 pts (17%). Tendon friction rubs was established in 7 pts (7%). The results at baseline and at the end of the follow up are presented in the form of mean values. Results. There was an improvement of all outcome parameters and musculoskeletal manifestations on RTX therapy. There was a decrease in the number of pts with arthritis from 22 (21%) to 10 (9%), a decrease in the number of pts with arthralgias from 47 (46%) to 31 (30%). The number of pts with muscle weakness decreased from 17 (17%) to 7 (7%). The number of pts with tendon friction rubs decreased from 7 (7%) to 3 (3%). The creatine phosphokinase decreased from 365.5±186 to 70.8±50.4 (p=0.00006). The C-reactive protein (CRP) decreased from 23.2±31.3 to 8.62±7.4 (p=0.001). The dose of prednisolone was reduced from 11.3±4.5 to 9.8±3.5 mg/day (p=0.0004). Conclusion. In our study, musculoskeletal involvement was detected in almost half of the patients with SSc-ILD. There was an improvement of musculoskeletal manifestations despite a small cumulative dose of RTX. We also managed to reduce the dose of glucocorticosteroids. The improvement of musculoskeletal manifestations was accompanied by a decrease in laboratory parameters - creatine phosphokinase and CRP. RTX is effective option for treatment of musculoskeletal manifestations in SSc.

Keywords: arthritis, musculoskeletal involvement, systemic sclerosis, rituximab

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32 Arthroscopic Superior Capsular Reconstruction Using the Long Head of the Biceps Tendon (LHBT)

Authors: Ho Sy Nam, Tang Ha Nam Anh


Background: Rotator cuff tears are a common problem in the aging population. The prevalence of massive rotator cuff tears varies in some studies from 10% to 40%. Of irreparable rotator cuff tears (IRCTs), which are mostly associated with massive tear size, 79% are estimated to have recurrent tears after surgical repair. Recent studies have shown that superior capsule reconstruction (SCR) in massive rotator cuff tears can be an efficient technique with optimistic clinical scores and preservation of stable glenohumeral stability. Superior capsule reconstruction techniques most commonly use either fascia lata autograft or dermal allograft, both of which have their own benefits and drawbacks (such as the potential for donor site issues, allergic reactions, and high cost). We propose a simple technique for superior capsule reconstruction that involves using the long head of the biceps tendon as a local autograft; therefore, the comorbidities related to graft harvesting are eliminated. The long head of the biceps tendon proximal portion is relocated to the footprint and secured as the SCR, serving to both stabilize the glenohumeral joint and maintain vascular supply to aid healing. Objective: The purpose of this study is to assess the clinical outcomes of patients with large to massive RCTs treated by SCR using LHBT. Materials and methods: A study was performed of consecutive patients with large to massive RCTs who were treated by SCR using LHBT between January 2022 and December 2022. We use one double-loaded suture anchor to secure the long head of the biceps to the middle of the footprint. Two more anchors are used to repair the rotator cuff using a single-row technique, which is placed anteriorly and posteriorly on the lateral side of the previously transposed LHBT. Results: The 3 men and 5 women had an average age of 61.25 years (range 48 to 76 years) at the time of surgery. The average follow-up was 8.2 months (6 to 10 months) after surgery. The average preoperative ASES was 45.8, and the average postoperative ASES was 85.83. The average postoperative UCLA score was 29.12. VAS score was improved from 5.9 to 1.12. The mean preoperative ROM of forward flexion and external rotation of the shoulder was 720 ± 160 and 280 ± 80, respectively. The mean postoperative ROM of forward flexion and external rotation were 1310 ± 220 and 630 ± 60, respectively. There were no cases of progression of osteoarthritis or rotator cuff muscle atrophy. Conclusion: SCR using LHBT is considered a treatment option for patients with large or massive RC tears. It can restore superior glenohumeral stability and function of the shoulder joint and can be an effective procedure for selected patients, helping to avoid progression to cuff tear arthropathy.

Keywords: superior capsule reconstruction, large or massive rotator cuff tears, the long head of the biceps, stabilize the glenohumeral joint

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31 Dynamic Behavior of the Nanostructure of Load-Bearing Biological Materials

Authors: Mahan Qwamizadeh, Kun Zhou, Zuoqi Zhang, Yong Wei Zhang


Typical load-bearing biological materials like bone, mineralized tendon and shell, are biocomposites made from both organic (collagen) and inorganic (biomineral) materials. This amazing class of materials with intrinsic internally designed hierarchical structures show superior mechanical properties with regard to their weak components from which they are formed. Extensive investigations concentrating on static loading conditions have been done to study the biological materials failure. However, most of the damage and failure mechanisms in load-bearing biological materials will occur whenever their structures are exposed to dynamic loading conditions. The main question needed to be answered here is: What is the relation between the layout and architecture of the load-bearing biological materials and their dynamic behavior? In this work, a staggered model has been developed based on the structure of natural materials at nanoscale and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used to study the dynamic behavior of the structure of load-bearing biological materials to answer why the staggered arrangement has been selected by nature to make the nanocomposite structure of most of the biological materials. The results showed that the staggered structures will efficiently attenuate the stress wave rather than the layered structure. Furthermore, such staggered architecture is effectively in charge of utilizing the capacity of the biostructure to resist both normal and shear loads. In this work, the geometrical parameters of the model like the thickness and aspect ratio of the mineral inclusions selected from the typical range of the experimentally observed feature sizes and layout dimensions of the biological materials such as bone and mineralized tendon. Furthermore, the numerical results validated with existing theoretical solutions. Findings of the present work emphasize on the significant effects of dynamic behavior on the natural evolution of load-bearing biological materials and can help scientists to design bioinspired materials in the laboratories.

Keywords: load-bearing biological materials, nanostructure, staggered structure, stress wave decay

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30 Combined Effect of Therapeutic Exercises and Shock Wave versus Therapeutic Exercises and Phonophoresis in Treatment of Shoulder Impingement Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Mohamed M. Mashaly, Ahmed M. F. El Shiwi


Background: Shoulder impingement syndrome is an encroachment of subacromial tissues, rotator cuff, subacromial bursa, and the long head of the biceps tendon, as a result of narrowing of the subacromial space. Activities requiring repetitive or sustained use of the arms over head often predispose the rotator cuff tendon to injury. Purpose: To compare between Combined effect therapeutic exercises and Shockwave therapy versus therapeutic exercises and phonophoresis in the treatment of shoulder impingement syndrome. Methods: Thirty patients diagnosed as shoulder impingement syndrome stage II Neer classification due to mechanical causes. Patients were randomly distributed into two equal groups. The first group consisted of 15 patients with a mean age of (45.46+8.64) received therapeutic exercises (stretching exercise of posterior shoulder capsule and strengthening exercises of shoulder muscles) and shockwave therapy (6000 shocks, 2000/session, 3 sessions, 2 weeks apart, 0.22mJ/mm^2) years. The second group consisted of 15 patients with a mean age of 46.26 (+ 8.05) received same therapeutic exercises and phonophoresis (3 times per week, each other day, for 4 consecutive weeks). Patients were evaluated pretreatment and post treatment for shoulder pain severity, shoulder functional disability, shoulder flexion, abduction and internal rotation motions. Results: Patients of both groups showed significant improvement in all the measured variables. In between groups difference the shock wave group showed a significant improvement in all measured variables than phonophoresis group. Interpretation/Conclusion: Combined effect of therapeutic exercises and shock wave were more effective than therapeutic exercises and phonophoresis on decreasing shoulder pain severity, shoulder functional disability, increasing in shoulder flexion, abduction, internal rotation in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome.

Keywords: shoulder impingement syndrome, therapeutic exercises, shockwave, phonophoresis

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29 X-Glove: Case Study of Soft Robotic Hand Exoskeleton

Authors: Pim Terachinda, Witaya Wannasuphoprasit, Wasuwat Kitisomprayoonkul, Anan Srikiatkhachorn


Restoration of hand function and dexterity remain challenges in rehabilitation after stroke. We have developed soft exoskeleton hand robot in which using tendon-driven mechanism. Finger flexion and extension can be triggered by a foot switch and force can be adjusted manually depending on patient’s grip strength. The objective of this study is to investigate feasibility and safety of this device. The study was done in 2 stroke patients with the strength of the finger flexors/extensors grade 1/0 and 3/1 on Medical Research Council scale, respectively. Grasp and release training was performed for 30 minutes. No complication was observed. Results demonstrated that the device is safe, and therapy can be tailored to individual patient’s need. However, further study is required to determine recovery and rehabilitation outcomes after training in patients after nervous system injury.

Keywords: hand, rehabilitation, robot, stroke

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