Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 84

Search results for: CFRP

84 A Fundamental Study on the Anchor Performance of Non-Surface Treated Multi CFRP Tendons

Authors: Woo-tai Jung, Jong-sup Park, Jae-yoon Kang, Moon-seoung Keum


CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) is mainly used as reinforcing material for degraded structures owing to its advantages including its non-corrodibility, high strength, and lightweight properties. Recently, dedicated studies focused not only on its simple bonding but also on its tensioning. The tension necessary for prestressing requires the anchoring of multi-CFRP tendons with high capacity and the surface treatment of the CFRP tendons may also constitute an important issue according to the type of anchor. The wedge type, swage type or bonded type anchor can be used to anchor the CFRP tendon. The bonded type anchor presents the disadvantage to lengthen the length of the anchor due to the low bond strength of the CFRP tendon without surface treatment. This study intends to overcome this drawback through the application of a method enlarging the bond area at the end of the CFRP tendon. This method enlarges the bond area by splitting the end of the CFRP tendon along its length and can be applied when CFRP is produced by pultrusion. The application of this method shows that the mono-CFRP tendon and 3-multi CFRP tendon secured the anchor performance corresponding to the tensile performance of the CFRP tendon and that the 7-multi tendon secured anchor performance corresponding to 90% of the tensile strength due to the occurrence of buckling in the steel tube anchorage.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), tendon, anchor, tensile property, bond strength

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83 Behaviour of Beam Reinforced with Longitudinal Steel-CFRP Composite Reinforcement under Static Load

Authors: Faris A. Uriayer, Mehtab Alam


The concept of using a hybrid composite by combining two or more different materials to produce bilinear stress–strain behaviour has become a subject of interest. Having studied the mechanical properties of steel-CFRP specimens (CFRP Laminate Sandwiched between Mild Steel Strips), full size steel-CFRP composite reinforcement were fabricated and used as a new reinforcing material inside beams in lieu of traditional steel bars. Four beams, three beams reinforced with steel-CFRP composite reinforcement and one beam reinforced with traditional steel bars were cast, cured and tested under quasi-static loading. The flexural test results of the beams reinforced with this composite reinforcement showed that the beams with steel-CFRP composite reinforcement had comparable flexural strength and flexural ductility with beams reinforced with traditional steel bars.

Keywords: CFRP laminate, steel strip, flexural behaviour, modified model, concrete beam

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82 Experimental Investigation of Damaged Reinforced Concrete Beams Repaired with Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Strip under Impact Loading

Authors: M. Al-Farttoosi, M. Y. Rafiq, J. Summerscales, C. Williams


Many buildings and bridges are damaged due to impact loading, explosions, terrorist attacks and wars. Most of the damaged structures members such as beams, columns and slabs are not totally failed and it can be repaired. Nowadays, carbon fibre reinforced polymer CFRP has been wildly used in strengthening and retrofitting the structures members. CFRP can rector the load carrying capacity of the damaged structures members to make them serviceable. An experimental investigation was conducted to investigate the impact behaviour of the damaged beams repaired with CFRP. The tested beams had different degrees of damage and near surface mounted technique NSM was used to install the CFRP. A heavy drop weight impact test machine was used to conduct the experimental work. The study investigated the impact strength, stiffness, cracks and deflection of the CFRP repaired beams. The results show that CFRP significantly increased the impact resistance of the damaged beams. CFRP increased the damaged beams stiffness and reduced the deflection. The results showed that the NSM technique is more effective in repairing beams and preventing the debonding of the CFRP.

Keywords: damaged, concrete, impact, repaired

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81 Numerical Simulation of Structural Behavior of NSM CFRP Strengthened RC Beams Using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Faruk Ortes, Baris Sayin, Tarik Serhat Bozkurt, Cemil Akcay


The technique using near-surface mounted (NSM) carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites has proved to be an reliable strengthening technique. However, the effects of different parameters for the use of NSM CFRP are not fully developed yet. This study focuses on the development of a numerical modeling that can predict the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with NSM FRP rods exposed to bending loading and the efficiency of various parameters such as CFRP rod size and filling material type are evaluated by using prepared models. For this purpose, three different models are developed and implemented in the ANSYS® software using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The numerical results indicate that CFRP rod size and filling material type are significant factors in the behavior of the analyzed RC beams.

Keywords: numerical model, FEA, RC beam, NSM technique, CFRP rod, filling material

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80 Effect of Impact Load on the Bond between Steel and CFRP Laminate

Authors: Alaa Al-Mosawe, Riadh Al-Mahaidi


Carbon fiber reinforced polymers have been wildly used to strengthen steel structural elements. Those structural elements are normally subjected to static, dynamic, fatigue loadings during their life time. CFRP laminate is one of the common methods to strengthen these structures under the subjected loads. A number of researches have been focused on the bond characteristics of CFRP sheets to steel members under static, dynamic and fatigue loadings. There is a lack in understanding the behavior of the CFRP laminates under impact loading. This paper is showing the effect of high load rate on this bond. CFRP laminate CFK 150/2000 was used to strengthen steel joint by using Araldite 420 epoxy. The results showed that applying high load rate has a significant effect on the bond strength while a little influence on the effective bond length.

Keywords: adhesively bonded joints, bond strength, CFRP laminate, impact tensile loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
79 Repair and Strengthening of Plain and FRC Shear Deficient Beams Using Externally Bonded CFRP Sheets

Authors: H. S. S. Abou El-Mal, H. E. M. Sallam


This paper presents experimental and analytical study on the behavior of repaired and strengthened shear critical RC beams using externally bonded CFRP bi-directional fabrics. The use of CFRP sheets to repair or strengthen RC beams has been repetitively studied and proven feasible. However, the use of combined repair techniques and applying that method to both plain and FRC beams can maximize the shear capacity of RC shear deficient beams. A total of twelve slender beams were tested under four-point bending. The test parameters included CFRP layout, number of layers and fiber direction, injecting cracks before applying repairing sheets, enhancing the flexural capacity to differentiate between shear repair and strengthening techniques, and concrete matrix types. The findings revealed that applying CFRP sheets increased the overall shear capacity, the amount and orientation of wrapping is of prime importance in both repairing and strengthening, CFRP wrapping could change the failure mode from shear to flexural shear, the use of crack injection combined to CFRP wrapping further improved the shear capacity while, applying the previous method to FRC beams enhanced both shear capacity and failure ductility. Acceptable agreement was found between predicted shear capacities using the Canadian code and the experimental results of the current study.

Keywords: CFRP, FRC, repair, shear strengthening

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78 Shear Strengthening of RC T-Beams by Means of CFRP Sheets

Authors: Omar A. Farghal


This research aimed to experimentally and analytically investigate the contribution of bonded web carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets to the shear strength of reinforced concrete (RC) T-beams. Two strengthening techniques using CFRP strips were applied along the shear-span zone: the first one is vertical U-jacket and the later is vertical strips bonded to the beam sides only. Fibers of both U-jacket and side sheets were vertically oriented (θ = 90°). Test results showed that the strengthening technique with U-jacket CFRP sheets improved the shear strength particularly. Three mechanisms of failure were recognized for the tested beams depending upon the end condition of the bonded CFRP sheet. Although the failure mode for the different beams was a brittle one, the strengthened beams provided with U-jacket CFRP sheets showed more or less a ductile behavior at a higher loading level up to a load level just before failure. As a consequence, these beams approved an acceptable enhancement in the structural ductility. Moreover, the obtained results concerning both the strains induced in the CFRP sheets and the maximum loads are used to study the applicability of the analytical models proposed in this study (ACI code) to predict: the nominal shear strength of the strengthened beams.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced polymer, wrapping, ductility, shear strengthening

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77 Behavior of Square Reinforced-Concrete Columns Strenghtened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) under Concentric Loading

Authors: Dana Abed, Mu`Tasim Abdel-Jaber, Nasim Shatarat


This study aims at investigating the influence of cross-sectional size on axial compressive capacity of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) wrapped square reinforced concrete short columns. Three sets of columns were built for this purpose: 200x200x1200 mm; 250x250x1500 mm and 300x300x1800 mm. Each set includes a control column and a strengthened column with one layer of CFRP sheets. All columns were tested under the effect of pure axial compression load. The results of the study show that using CFRP sheets resulted in capacity enhancement of 37%, 32% and 27% for the 200×200, 250×250, and 300×300 mm, respectively. The results of the experimental program demonstrated that the percentage of improvement in strength decreased by increasing the cross-sectional size of the column.

Keywords: CFRP, columns, concentric loading, cross-sectional

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
76 A Study on the Comparatison of Mechanical and Thermal Properties According to Laminated Orientation of CFRP through Bending Test

Authors: Hee Jae Shin, Lee Ku Kwac, In Pyo Cha, Min Sang Lee, Hyun Kyung Yoon, Hong Gun Kim


In rapid industrial development has increased the demand for high-strength and lightweight materials. Thus, various CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) with composite materials are being used. The design variables of CFRP are its lamination direction, order, and thickness. Thus, the hardness and strength of CFRP depend much on their design variables. In this paper, the lamination direction of CFRP was used to produce a symmetrical ply [0°/0°, -15°/+15°, -30°/+30°, -45°/+45°, -60°/+60°, -75°/+75°, and 90°/90°] and an asymmetrical ply [0°/15°, 0°/30°, 0°/45°, 0°/60° 0°/75°, and 0°/90°]. The bending flexure stress of the CFRP specimen was evaluated through a bending test. Its thermal property was measured using an infrared camera. The symmetrical specimen and the asymmetrical specimen were analyzed. The results showed that the asymmetrical specimen increased the bending loads according to the increase in the orientation angle; and from 0°, the symmetrical specimen showed a tendency opposite the asymmetrical tendency because the tensile force of fiber differs at the vertical direction of its load. Also, the infrared camera showed that the thermal property had a trend similar to that of the mechanical properties.

Keywords: Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP), bending test, infrared camera, composite

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75 Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers

Authors: Hana' Al-Ghanim, Mu'tasim Abdel-Jaber, Maha Alqam


This experimental investigation deals with shear strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams using the externally bonded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. The current study, therefore, evaluates the effectiveness of four various configurations for shear strengthening of deep beams with two different types of CFRP materials including sheets and laminates. For this purpose, a total of 10 specimens of deep beams were cast and tested. The shear performance of the strengthened beams is assessed with respect to the cracks’ formation, modes of failure, ultimate strength and the overall stiffness. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of using the CFRP technique on enhancing the shear capacity of deep beams; however, the efficiency varies depending on the material used and the strengthening scheme adopted. Among the four investigated schemes, the highest increase in the ultimate strength is recorded by using the continuous wrap of two layers of CFRP sheets, exceeding a value of 86%, whereas an enhancement of about 36% is achieved by the inclined CFRP laminates.

Keywords: deep beams, laminates, shear strengthening, sheets

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74 The Flexural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams Externally Strengthened with CFRP Composites Exposed for Different Environment Conditions

Authors: Rajai Al-Rousan


The repair and strengthening of concrete structures is a big challenge for the concrete industry for both engineers and contractors. Due to increasing economical constraints, the current trend is to repair/upgrade deteriorated and functionally obsolete structures rather than replacing them with new structures. CFRP has been used previously by air space industries regardless of the high costs. The decrease in the costs of the composite materials, as results of the technology improvement, has made CFRP an alternative to conventional materials for many applications. The primary objective of this research is to investigate the flexural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams externally strengthened with CFRP composites exposed for three years for the following conditions: (a) room temperature, (b) cyclic ponding in 15% salt-water solution, (c) hot-water of 65oC, and (d) rapid freeze/thaw cycles. Results indicated that the after three years of various environmental conditions, the bond strength between the concrete beams and CFRP sheets was not affected. No signs of separation or debonding of CFRP sheets were observed before testing. Also, externally strengthening RC beams with CFRP sheets leads to a substantial increase in the ductility of concrete structures. This is a result of forcing the concrete to undergo inelastic deformation, resulting in compression failure of the structure after yielding of steel reinforcement. In addition, exposure to heat water tank for three years reduces the ultimate load by about 11%. This 11% reduction in the ultimate load equates to about 53%, 46% and 68% loss of the gain of the strength attributed to the CFRP of 2/3 Layer, 1 Layers and 2 Layers CFRP Sheets respectively. This mean that with decreasing of number of layers the environmental exposure had an efficient effect on concrete by protection concrete from environmental effect and adverse effect on the bond performance.

Keywords: flexural, behavior, CFRP, composites, environment, conditions

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73 Determination of Fatigue Limit in Post Impacted Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Polymer (CFRP) Specimens Using Self Heating Methodology

Authors: Deepika Sudevan, Patrick Rozycki, Laurent Gornet


This paper presents the experimental identification of the fatigue limit for pristine and impacted Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy polymer (CFRP) woven composites based on the relatively new self-heating methodology for composites. CFRP composites of [0/90]8 and quasi isotropic configurations prepared using hand-layup technique are subjected to low energy impacts (20 J energy) simulating a barely visible impact damage (BVID). Runway debris strike, tool drop or hailstone impact can cause a BVID on an aircraft fuselage made of carbon composites and hence understanding the post-impact fatigue response of CFRP laminates is of immense importance to the aerospace community. The BVID zone on the specimens is characterized using X-ray Tomography technique. Both pristine and impacted specimens are subjected to several blocks of constant amplitude (CA) fatigue loading keeping R-ratio a constant but with increments in the mean loading stress after each block. The number of loading cycles in each block is a subjective parameter and it varies for pristine and impacted CFRP specimens. To monitor the temperature evolution during fatigue loading, thermocouples are pasted on the CFRP specimens at specific locations. The fatigue limit is determined by two strategies, first is by considering the stabilized temperature in every block and second is by considering the change in the temperature slope per block. The results show that both strategies can be adopted to determine the fatigue limit in both pristine and impacted CFRP composites.

Keywords: CFRP, fatigue limit, low energy impact, self-heating, WRM

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72 Novel CFRP Adhesive Joints and Structures for Offshore Application

Authors: M. R. Abusrea, Shiyi Jiang, Dingding Chen, Kazuo Arakawa


Novel wind-lens turbine designs can augment power output. Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) is used to form large and complex structures from a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite. Typically, wind-lens turbine structures are fabricated in segments, and then bonded to form the final structure. This paper introduces five new adhesive joints, divided into two groups: One is constructed between dry carbon and CFRP fabrics, and the other is constructed with two dry carbon fibers. All joints and CFRP fabrics were made in our laboratory using VARTM manufacturing techniques. Specimens were prepared for tensile testing to measure joint performance. The results showed that the second group of joints achieved a higher tensile strength than the first group. On the other hand, the tensile fracture behavior of the two groups showed the same pattern of crack originating near the joint ends followed by crack propagation until fracture.

Keywords: adhesive joints, CFRP, VARTM, resin transfer molding

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71 Bond Strength of Different Strengthening Systems: Concrete Elements under Freeze–Thaw Cycles and Salt Water Immersion Exposure

Authors: Firas Al-Mahmoud, Jean-Michel Mechling, Mohamed Shaban


The long-term durability of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites is often stated as being the main reason for the use of these materials. Indeed, structures externally or Near Surface Mounted (NSM) reinforced with Carbon Fibre Reinforcement Polymer CFRP are often in contact with temperature cycles and salt water immersion and other environmental conditions that reduce the expected durability of the system. Bond degradation is a frequent cause of premature failure of structural elements and environmental conditions are known to relate to such failures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of environmental exposure on the bond for different CFRP strengthening systems. Bending tests were conducted to evaluate the bond with and without environmental exposure. The specimens were strengthened with CFRP sheets, CFRP plates and NSM CFRP rods embedded in two filling materials: epoxy resin and mortar. Then, they were exposed to up to 300 freeze–thaw cycles. One freeze–thaw cycle consisted of four stages according to ASTM or immersed in 3.5% salted tap water. A total of thirty-six specimens were prepared for this purpose. Results showed a decrease in ultimate bond strength for specimens strengthened by CFRP sheets that were immersed in salt water for 120 days, while a reduction was shown for CFRP sheet and plate bonded specimens that were subjected to 300 freeze–thaw cycles. Exposing NSM CFRP rod strengthened specimens, embedded in resin or mortar, to freeze–thaw cycles or to immersion in salt water does not affect the bond strength.

Keywords: durability, strengthening, FRP, bond, freeze–thaw

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70 Strengthening Bridge Piers by Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP): A Case Study for Thuan Phuoc Suspension Bridge in Vietnam

Authors: Lan Nguyen, Lam Cao Van


Thuan Phuoc is a suspension bridge built in Danang city, Vietnam. Because this bridge locates near the estuary, its structure has degraded rapidly. Many cracks have currently occurred on most of the concrete piers of the curved approach spans. This paper aims to present the results of diagnostic analysis of causes for cracks as well as some calculations for strengthening piers by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). Besides, it describes how to use concrete nonlinear analysis software ATENA to diagnostically analyze cracks, strengthening designs. Basing on the results of studying the map of distributing crack on Thuan Phuoc bridge’s concrete piers is analyzed by the software ATENA is suitable for the real conditions and CFRP would be the best solution to strengthen piers in a sound and fast way.

Keywords: ATENA, bridge pier strengthening, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), crack prediction analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
69 Analytical Model to Predict the Shear Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams Externally Strengthened with CFRP Composites Conditions

Authors: Rajai Al-Rousan


This paper presents a proposed analytical model for predicting the shear strength of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with CFRP composites as external reinforcement. The proposed analytical model can predict the shear contribution of CFRP composites of RC beams with an acceptable coefficient of correlation with the tested results. Based on the comparison of the proposed model with the published well-known models (ACI model, Triantafillou model, and Colotti model), the ACI model had a wider range of 0.16 to 10.08 for the ratio between tested and predicted ultimate shears at failure. Also, an acceptable range of 0.27 to 2.78 for the ratio between tested and predicted ultimate shears by the Triantafillou model. Finally, the best prediction (the ratio between the tested and predicted ones) of the ultimate shear capacity is observed by using Colotti model with a range of 0.20 to 1.78. Thus, the contribution of the CFRP composites as external reinforcement can be predicted with high accuracy by using the proposed analytical model.

Keywords: predicting, shear capacity, reinforced concrete, beams, strengthened, externally, CFRP composites

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68 Non-Linear Finite Element Investigation on the Behavior of CFRP Strengthened Steel Square HSS Columns under Eccentric Loading

Authors: Tasnuba Binte Jamal, Khan Mahmud Amanat


Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite materials have proven to have valuable properties and suitability to be used in the construction of new buildings and in upgrading the existing ones due to its effectiveness, ease of implementation and many more. In the present study, a numerical finite element investigation has been conducted using ANSYS 18.1 to study the behavior of square HSS AISC sections under eccentric compressive loading strengthened with CFRP materials. A three-dimensional finite element model for square HSS section using shell element was developed. Application of CFRP strengthening was incorporated in the finite element model by adding an additional layer of shell elements. Both material and geometric nonlinearities were incorporated in the model. The developed finite element model was applied to simulate experimental studies done by past researchers and it was found that good agreement exists between the current analysis and past experimental results, which established the acceptability and validity of the developed finite element model to carry out further investigation. Study was then focused on some selected non-compact AISC square HSS columns and the effects of number of CFRP layers, amount of eccentricities and cross-sectional geometry on the strength gain of those columns were observed. Load was applied at a distance equal to the column dimension and twice that of column dimension. It was observed that CFRP strengthening is comparatively effective for smaller eccentricities. For medium sized sections, strengthening tends to be effective at smaller eccentricities as well. For relatively large AISC square HSS columns, with increasing number of CFRP layers (from 1 to 3 layers) the gain in strength is approximately 1 to 38% to that of unstrengthened section for smaller eccentricities and slenderness ratio ranging from 27 to 54. For medium sized square HSS sections, effectiveness of CFRP strengthening increases approximately by about 12 to 162%. The findings of the present study provide a better understanding of the behavior of HSS sections strengthened with CFRP subjected to eccentric compressive load.

Keywords: CFRP strengthening, eccentricity, finite element model, square hollow section

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67 Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Strips

Authors: Mina Iskander, Mina Melad, Mourad Yasser, Waleed Abdel Rahim, Amr Mosa, Mohamed El Lahamy, Ezzeldin Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed Abou-Zeid


Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams in flexure using externally bonded composite laminate of high tensile strength is easy and of the minimum cost compared to traditional methods such as increasing the concrete section depth or reinforcement that requires formwork and curing which affect the structure usability. One of the main limitations of this technique is debonding of the externally bonded laminate, either by end delamination or by mid-span flexural crack-induced debonding. ACI 440.2-08 suggests that using side-bonded FRP laminate in the flexural strengthening of RC beams may serve to limit the extent and width of flexural cracks. Consequently, this technique may decrease the effect of flexural cracks on initiating the mid-span debonding; i.e. delays the flexural crack-induced debonding. Furthermore, bonding the FRP strips to the side of the beam may offer an attractive, practical solution when the soffit of this beam is not accessible. This paper presents an experimental programme designed to investigate the effect of using externally bonded CFRP laminate on the sides of reinforced concrete beams and compares the results to those of bonding the CFRP laminate to the soffit of the beams. In addition, the paper discusses the effect of using end anchorage by U-wrapping the CFRP strips at their end zones with CFRP sheets for beams strengthened with soffit-bonded and side-bonded CFRP strips. Thus, ten rectangular reinforced concrete beams were tested to failure in order to study the effect of changing the location of the externally bonded laminate on the flexural capacity and ductility of the strengthened beams. Pultruded CFRP strips were bonded to the soffit of the beams or their sides to check the possibility of limiting the flexural cracking in mid-span region, which is the main reason for mid-span debonding. Pre-peg CFRP sheets were used near the support as U-wrap for the beam to act as an end-anchorage for the externally bonded strips in order to delay/prevent the end delamination. Strength gains of 38% and 43% were recorded for the soffit-bonded and the side-bonded composite strips with end U-wrapped sheets, respectively. Furthermore, beams with end sheets applied as an end anchorage showed higher ductility than those without these sheets.

Keywords: flexural strengthening, externally bonded CFRP, side-bonded CFRP, CFRP laminates

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66 The Effect of Carbon Nanotubes in Copolyamide Nonwovens on the Properties of CFRP Laminates

Authors: Kamil Dydek, Anna Boczkowska, Paulina Latko-Duralek, Rafal Kozera, Michal Salacinski


In recent years there has been increasing interest in many industries, such as the aviation, automotive, and military industries, in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP). This is because of the excellent properties of CFRP, which are characterized by very high strength and stiffness in relation to their mass, low density (almost twice as low as aluminum and more than five times as low as steel), and corrosion resistance. However, they do not have sufficient electrical conductivity, which is required in some applications. Therefore, work is underway to improve their electrical conductivity, for example, by incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the CFRP structure. CNTs possess excellent properties, such as high electrical conductivity, high aspect ratio, high Young’s modulus, and high tensile strength. An idea developed by our team is a modification of CFRP by the use of thermoplastic nonwovens containing CNTs. Nanocomposite fibers were made from three different masterbatches differing in the content of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and then nonwovens that differed in areal weight were produced using a thermo-press. The out of autoclave method was used to fabricate the laminates from commercial carbon-epoxy prepreg dedicated to aviation applications - one without the nonwovens (reference) and five containing nonwovens placed between each prepreg layer. The volume of electrical conductivity of the manufactured laminates was measured in three directions. In order to investigate the adhesion between carbon fibers and nonwovens, the microstructure of the produced laminates was observed. The mechanical properties of the CFRP composites were measured in a short-beam shear test. In addition, the influence of thermoplastic nonwovens on the thermos-mechanical properties of laminates was analyzed by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. The studies were carried out within grant no. DOB-1-3/1/PS/2014 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development in Poland.

Keywords: CFRP, thermoplastic nonwovens, carbon nanotubes, electrical conductivity

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65 Experimental Study on Connection Method of Precast Beam-Column Using CFRPS

Authors: Harmonis Rante, Rudy Djamaluddin, Herman Parung, Victor Sampebulu


Many research of FRP strengthening on beam-column joint have been done. They used FRP as a strengthening material but not as a connection method. This paper presents a result of experimental-study on connection method of precast beam-column using CFRP sheet to investigate the possibility of CFRP sheet to be a connecting material. Six specimens were prepared and tested to investigate the behavior of CFRP-s connection capacity. The performance of two-connection method is presented in this paper. Three specimens have been tested so far, they were specimen without belt, specimen using one belt and monolith specimen as a control specimen. Result indicated that FRP joint system without belt reached higher capacity than joint system using one belt, but both are lower than monolith joint. Capacity of joint system without belt is 90.6% and 62.5% for the joint system using one belt, respectively compared to the control specimen.

Keywords: belt, CFRP-s, connection method, strengthening

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64 Effect of Different Carbon Fabric Orientations on the Fracture Properties of Carbon Fabric Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: S. F. Halim, H. F. Naguib, S. N. Lawandy, R. S. Hegazy, M. N. Baheg


The main drawbacks of the traditional carbon fabric reinforced epoxy resin (CFRP) are low strain failure, delamination between composites layers, and low impact resistance due to the brittleness of epoxy resin. The aim of this study is to enhance the fracture properties of the CFRP composites laminates via the variation of composite's designs. A series of composites were fabricated in which bidirectional (00/900) carbon fabric (CF) layers were laid inside the resin matrix with orientation codes as F1 [(00, 900)/ (00, 900)], F2 [(900, 00)/ (00, 900)] and F3 [(00,900)/ (900, 00). The mechanical and dynamic properties of the composites were estimated. In addition, the morphology of samples surface was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) after impact fracture. The results revealed that the CFRP properties could be tailored fitting specific applications by controlling the fabric orientation inside the CFRP composite design. F2 orientation [(900, 00)/ (00.900)] showed the highest tensile and flexural strength values. On the other hand, the impact strength values of composites were in the order F1 > F2 > F3. The storage modulus, loss modulus, and glass transition temperature Tg values obtained from the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) examination was in the order F1 > F2 > F3. The variation in the properties of the composite was clearly explained by the SEM micrographs as the failure of F3 orientation properties was referred to as the complete breakage of the CF layers upon fracture.

Keywords: carbon fiber, CFRP, composites, epoxy resins, flexural strength

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63 Behavior of Square Reinforced-Concrete Columns Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers under Eccentric Loading

Authors: Dana J. Abed, Mu'tasim S. Abdel-Jaber, Nasim K. Shatarat


In this paper, an experimental study on twelve square columns was conducted to investigate the influence of cross-sectional size on axial compressive capacity of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) wrapped square reinforced concrete (RC) short columns subjected to eccentric loadings. The columns were divided into three groups with three cross sections (200×200×1200, 250×250×1500 and 300×300×1800 mm). Each group was tested under two different eccentricities: 10% and 20% of the width of samples measured from the center of the column cross section. Four columns were developed in each arrangement. Two columns in each category were left unwrapped as control samples, and two were wrapped with one layer CFRP perpendicular to the specimen surface. In general; CFRP sheets has enhanced the performance of the strengthened columns compared to the control columns. It was noticed that the percentage of compressive capacity enhancement was decreased by increasing the cross-sectional size, and increasing loading eccentricity generally leads to reduced load bearing capacity in columns. In the same group specimens, when the eccentricity increased the percentage of enhancement in load carrying capacity was increased. The study concludes that the optimum use of the CFRP sheets for axial strength enhancement is for smaller cross-section columns under higher eccentricities.

Keywords: CFRP, columns, eccentric loading, cross-sectional

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
62 Flexural Strengthening of Steel Beams Using Fiber Reinforced Polymers

Authors: Sally Hosny, Mona G. Ibrahim, N. K. Hassan


Fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) is one of the most environmentally method for strengthening and retrofitting steel structure buildings. The behaviour of flexural strengthened steel I-beams using FRP was investigated. The finite element (FE) models were developed using ANSYS® as verification cases to simulate the experimental behaviour of using FRP strips to flexure strengthen steel I-beam. Two experimental studies were selected for verification; first examined the effect of different thicknesses and modulus of elasticity while the second studied the effect of applying different carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) bond lengths. The proposed FE models were in good agreement with the experimental results in terms of failure modes, load bearing capacities and strain distribution on CFRP strips. The verified FE models can be utilized to conduct a parametric study where various widths (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 mm), thickness (1.2, 2 and 4 mm) and lengths (1500, 1700 and 1800 mm) of CFRP were analyzed. The results presented clearly revealed that the load bearing capacity was significantly increased (+7%) when the width and thickness were increased. However, load bearing capacity was slightly affected using longer CFRP strips. Moreover, applying another glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) of 1500 mm in length, 50 mm in width and thicknesses of 1.2, 2 and 4 mm were investigated. Load bearing capacity of strengthened I-beams using GFRP is less than CFRP by average 8%. Statistical analysis has been conducted using Minitab®.

Keywords: FRP, strengthened steel I-beams, flexural, FEM, ANSYS

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61 Effects of CFRP Confinement on PCC and Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Muhammad Jahangeer Munir, Liaqat Ali Qureshi, Junaid Ahmed


This paper presents the investigation regarding use of glass fibers in structural concrete members and determining the behavior of normal PCC, GFRC and retrofitted GFRC under different tests performed in the laboratory. Effect of retrofitting on the GFRC & PCC was investigated by using three patterns of CFRP wrapping. Properties like compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of normal GFRC and retrofitted GFRC were investigated and compared with their PCC counterparts. It was found that GFRC has more compressive strength as compared to PCC. At lower confinement pressures PCC behaves better than GFRC. Confinement efficiency was lower in GFRC as compared to PCC in terms of Split tensile strength. In case of GFRC all the patterns of wrapped CFRP strips showed more strength than their PCC counterparts.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced polymers, confinement, glass fibers, retrofitting

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60 Creep Behaviour of Heterogeneous Timber-UHPFRC Beams Assembled by Bonding: Experimental and Analytical Investigation

Authors: K. Kong, E. Ferrier, L. Michel


The purpose of this research was to investigate the creep behaviour of the heterogeneous Timber-UHPFRC beams. New developments have been done to further improve the structural performance, such as strengthening of the timber (glulam) beam by bonding composite material combine with an ultra-high performance fibre reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) internally reinforced with or without carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) bars. However, in the design of wooden structures, in addition to the criteria of strengthening and stiffness, deformability due to the creep of wood, especially in horizontal elements, is also a design criterion. Glulam, UHPFRC and CFRP may be an interesting composite mix to respond to the issue of creep behaviour of composite structures made of different materials with different rheological properties. In this paper, we describe an experimental and analytical investigation of the creep performance of the glulam-UHPFRC-CFRP beams assembled by bonding. The experimental investigations creep behaviour was conducted for different environments: in- and outside under constant loading for approximately a year. The measured results are compared with numerical ones obtained by an analytical model. This model was developed to predict the creep response of the glulam-UHPFRC-CFRP beams based on the creep characteristics of the individual components. The results show that heterogeneous glulam-UHPFRC beams provide an improvement in both the strengthening and stiffness, and can also effectively reduce the creep deflection of wooden beams.

Keywords: carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) bars, creep behaviour, glulam, ultra-high performance fibre reinforced concrete (UHPFRC)

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59 A Technology of Hot Stamping and Welding of Carbon Reinforced Plastic Sheets Using High Electric Resistance

Authors: Tomofumi Kubota, Mitsuhiro Okayasu


In recent years, environmental problems and energy problems typified by global warming are intensifying, and transportation devices are required to reduce the weight of structural materials from the viewpoint of strengthening fuel efficiency regulations and energy saving. Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) used in this research is attracting attention as a structural material to replace metallic materials. Among them, thermoplastic CFRP is expected to expand its application range in terms of recyclability and cost. High formability and weldability of the unidirectional CFRP sheets conducted by a proposed hot stamping process were proposed, in which the carbon fiber reinforced plastic sheets are heated by a designed technique. In this case, the CFRP sheets are heated by the high electric voltage applied through carbon fibers. In addition, the electric voltage was controlled by the area ratio of exposed carbon fiber on the sample surfaces. The lower exposed carbon fiber on the sample surface makes high electric resistance leading to the high sample temperature. In this case, the CFRP sheets can be heated to more than 150 °C. With the sample heating, the stamping and welding technologies can be carried out. By changing the sample temperature, the suitable stamping condition can be detected. Moreover, the proper welding connection of the CFRP sheets was proposed. In this study, we propose a fusion bonding technique using thermoplasticity, high current flow, and heating caused by electrical resistance. This technology uses the principle of resistance spot welding. In particular, the relationship between the carbon fiber exposure rate and the electrical resistance value that affect the bonding strength is investigated. In this approach, the mechanical connection using rivet is also conducted to make a comparison of the severity of welding. The change of connecting strength is reflected by the fracture mechanism. The low and high connecting strength are obtained for the separation of two CFRP sheets and fractured inside the CFRP sheet, respectively. In addition to the two fracture modes, micro-cracks in CFRP are also detected. This approach also includes mechanical connections using rivets to compare the severity of the welds. The change in bond strength is reflected by the destruction mechanism. Low and high bond strengths were obtained to separate the two CFRP sheets, each broken inside the CFRP sheets. In addition to the two failure modes, micro cracks in CFRP are also detected. In this research, from the relationship between the surface carbon fiber ratio and the electrical resistance value, it was found that different carbon fiber ratios had similar electrical resistance values. Therefore, we investigated which of carbon fiber and resin is more influential to bonding strength. As a result, the lower the carbon fiber ratio, the higher the bonding strength. And this is 50% better than the conventional average strength. This can be evaluated by observing whether the fracture mode is interface fracture or internal fracture.

Keywords: CFRP, hot stamping, weliding, deforamtion, mechanical property

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58 Durability Study of Pultruded CFRP Plates under Sustained Bending in Distilled Water and Seawater Immersions: Effects on the Visco-Elastic Properties

Authors: Innocent Kafodya, Guijun Xian


This paper presents effects of distilled water, seawater and sustained bending strains of 30% and 50% ultimate strain at room temperature, on the durability of unidirectional pultruded carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) plates. In this study, dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) was used to investigate the synergic effects of the immersions and bending strains on the visco-elastic properties of (CFRP) such as storage modulus, tan delta and glass transition temperature. The study reveals that the storage modulus and glass transition temperature increase while tan delta peak decreases in the initial stage of both immersions due to the progression of curing. The storage modulus and Tg subsequently decrease and tan delta increases due to the matrix plasticization. The blister induced damages in the unstrained seawater samples enhance water uptake and cause more serious degradation of Tg and storage modulus than in water immersion. Increasing sustained bending decreases Tg and storage modulus in a long run for both immersions due to resin matrix cracking and debonding. The combined effects of immersions and strains are not clearly reflected due to the statistical effects of DMA sample sizes and competing processes of molecular reorientation and postcuring.

Keywords: pultruded CFRP plate, bending strain, glass transition temperature, storage modulus, tan delta

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57 Punching Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs Using Internal Square Patches of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer

Authors: Malik Assi


This research presents a strengthening technique for enhancing the punching shear resistance of concrete flat slabs. Internal square patches of CFRP were centrally installed inside 450*450mm concrete panels during casting at a chosen distance from the tension face to produce six simply supported samples. The dimensions of those patches ranged from 50*50mm to 360*360mm. All the examined slabs contained the same amount of tensile reinforcement, had identical dimensions, were designed according to the American Concrete Institute code (ACI) and tested to failure. Compared to the control unstrengthened spacemen, all the strengthened slabs have shown an enhancement in punching capacity and stiffness. This enhancement has been found to be proportional to the area of the installed CFRP patches. In addition to the reasonably enhanced stiffness and punching shear, this strengthening technique can change the slab failure mode from shear to flexural.

Keywords: CFRP patches, Flat slabs, Flexural, Stiffness, Punching shear

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56 Structural Assessment of Low-Rise Reinforced Concrete Frames under Tsunami Loads

Authors: Hussain Jiffry, Kypros Pilakoutas, Reyes Garcia Lopez


This study examines the effect of tsunami loads on reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings analytically. The impact of tsunami wave loads and waterborne objects are analyzed using a typical substandard full-scale two-story RC frame building tested as part of the EU-funded Ecoleader project. The building was subjected to shake table tests in bare condition and subsequently strengthened using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) composites and retested. Numerical models of the building in both bare and CFRP-strengthened conditions are calibrated in DRAIN-3DX software to match the test results. To investigate the response of wave loads and impact forces, the numerical models are subjected to nonlinear dynamic analyses using force-time history input records. The analytical results are compared in terms of displacements at the floors and the 'impact point' of a boat. The results show that the roof displacement of the CFRP-strengthened building reduced by 63% when compared to the bare building. The results also indicate that strengthening only the mid-height of the impact column using CFRP is more efficient at reducing damage when compared to strengthening other parts of the column. Alternative solutions to mitigate damage due to tsunami loads are suggested.

Keywords: tsunami loads, hydrodynamic load, impact load, waterborne objects, RC buildings

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55 Experimental Studies of Sigma Thin-Walled Beams Strengthen by CFRP Tapes

Authors: Katarzyna Rzeszut, Ilona Szewczak


The review of selected methods of strengthening of steel structures with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) tapes and the analysis of influence of composite materials on the steel thin-walled elements are performed in this paper. The study is also focused to the problem of applying fast and effective strengthening methods of the steel structures made of thin-walled profiles. It is worth noting that the issue of strengthening the thin-walled structures is a very complex, due to inability to perform welded joints in this type of elements and the limited ability to applying mechanical fasteners. Moreover, structures made of thin-walled cross-section demonstrate a high sensitivity to imperfections and tendency to interactive buckling, which may substantially contribute to the reduction of critical load capacity. Due to the lack of commonly used and recognized modern methods of strengthening of thin-walled steel structures, authors performed the experimental studies of thin-walled sigma profiles strengthened with CFRP tapes. The paper presents the experimental stand and the preliminary results of laboratory test concerning the analysis of the effectiveness of the strengthening steel beams made of thin-walled sigma profiles with CFRP tapes. The study includes six beams made of the cold-rolled sigma profiles with height of 140 mm, wall thickness of 2.5 mm, and a length of 3 m, subjected to the uniformly distributed load. Four beams have been strengthened with carbon fiber tape Sika CarboDur S, while the other two were tested without strengthening to obtain reference results. Based on the obtained results, the evaluation of the accuracy of applied composite materials for strengthening of thin-walled structures was performed.

Keywords: CFRP tapes, sigma profiles, steel thin-walled structures, strengthening

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