Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 82

Search results for: Amina Muzaffar

82 Relationship Quality, Value Creation Practices and Brand Loyalty in Virtual Communities: Evidence from Facebook Communities

Authors: Zoya Khan, Amina Muzaffar

Abstract:

Social media based brand communities are communities that are developed around a brand. In the highly globalized world of today, Facebook is undoubtedly being regarded and has been widely recognized as a trendy and well-accepted medium of marketing. By means of a Facebook fan page, organizations can effectually create, enhance, and sustain customer-brand relationship. In this article, we explore whether brand communities based on social media (a special type of online brand communities) have positive effects on the main community elements and value creation practices in the communities as well as on brand trust and brand loyalty. A survey was conducted and 201 valid responses were used for analysis. The results of structural equation modeling show that brand communities established on social media have positive effects on value creation practices. Brand use, impression management practices and brand identification has an impact on brand trust and this brand trust then further leads to brand loyalty.

Keywords: relationship quality, impression management practices, brand identification, brand trust, brand loyalty

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
81 Revolution and Political Opposition in Contemporary Arabic Poetry: A Thematic Study of Two Poems by Muzaffar Al-Nawwab

Authors: Nasser Y. Athamneh

Abstract:

Muzaffar al-Nawwab (1934--) is a modern Iraqi poet, critic, and painter, well-known to Arab youth of the second half of the 20th century for his revolutionary spirit and political activism. For the greater part of his relatively long life, al-Nawwab was wanted 'dead or alive,' so to speak, by most of the Arab regimes and authorities due to his scathing, and at times unsparingly obscene attacks on them. Hence it is that the Arab masses found in his poetry the rebellious expression of their own anger and frustration, stifled by fear for their physical safety. Thus, al-Nawwab’s contemporary Arab audience loved and embraced him both as an Arab exile and as a poet. They memorized and celebrated his poems and transmitted them secretly by word of mouth and on compact cassette tapes. He himself recited his own poetry and had it recorded on compact cassette tapes for fans to smuggle from one Arab country to the other. The themes of al-Nawwab’s poems are varied, but the most predominant among them is political opposition. In most of his poems, al-Nawwab takes up politics as the major theme. Yet, he often represents it coupled with the leitmotifs of women and wine. Indeed he oscillates almost systematically between political commitment to the revolutionary cause of the masses of his nation and homeland on the one hand and love for women and wine on the other. For the persona in al-Nawwab’s poetry, love-longing for the woman and devotion to the cause of revolution and Pan-Arabism are interrelated; each of them readily evokes the other. In this paper, an attempt is made at investigating the treatment and representation of the theme of revolution and political opposition in some of al-Nawwab’s poems. This investigation will be conducted through close reading and textual analysis of representative sections of the poetic texts under consideration in the paper. The primary texts for the study are selected passages from two representative poems, namely, 'The Night Song of the Bow Strings' (Watariyyaat Layliyyah) and 'In Wine and Sorrow My Heart [Is Immersed]' (bil-khamri wa bil-huzni fu’aady). Other poems and extracts from al-Nawwab’s poetic works will be drawn upon as secondary texts to clarify the arguments in the paper and support its thesis. The discussions and textual analysis of the texts under consideration are meant to show that revolution and undaunted political opposition is a predominant theme in al-Nawwab’s poetry, often represented through the use of the leitmotifs of women and wine.

Keywords: Arabic poetry, Muzaffar al-Nawwab, politics, revolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
80 Place and Role of Corporate Governance in Japan

Authors: Feddaoui Amina

Abstract:

In a broad sense, corporate governance covers the organization of the control and management. The term is also used in a narrower sense, to refer to the relationship between shareholders, and the company’s board. There are a lot of discussions devoted to the understanding of the corporate governance role and its principles. In this paper, we are going to describe the definition of corporate governance as a control system and its principles, and find the role of corporate governance and its pillars. Finally, we are going to drop the theoretical study on the case of Japan.

Keywords: corporate governance, place, role, Japan

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
79 Modeling Salam Contract for Profit and Loss Sharing

Authors: Dchieche Amina, Aboulaich Rajae

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Profit and loss sharing suggests an equitable sharing of risks and profits between the parts involved in a financial transaction. Salam is a contract in which advance payment is made for goods to be delivered at a future date. The purpose of this work is to price a new contract for profit and loss sharing based on Salam contract, using Khiyar Al Ghabn which is an agreement of choice in case of misrepresent facts.

Keywords: Islamic finance, shariah compliance, profi t and loss sharing, derivatives, risks, hedging, salam contract

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
78 Waad Bil Mourabaha Pricing

Authors: Dchieche Amina, Aboulaich Rajae

Abstract:

In this work, we will modelize Waad Bil Mourabaha contract. This islamic contract provides the right to buy goods at a future date with a Mourabaha. Waad is a promise of sale or purchase of goods, declared in a unilateral way. In spite of the divergence between some schools of Islamic law about the Waad, this contract will allow us to study sophisticated and interesting contract: Waad Bil Mourabaha that can be used for hedging. In order to price Waad Bil Mourabaha contract, we will use an adapted Black and Scholes model using the Shariah compliant assumptions.

Keywords: Islamic finance, Black-Scholes model, call option, risks, hedging

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
77 Gender Difference in the Use of Request Strategies by Urdu/Punjabi Native Speakers

Authors: Muzaffar Hussain

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Requests strategies are considered as a part of the speech acts, which are frequently used in everyday communication. Each language provides speech acts to the speakers; therefore, the selection of appropriate form seems more culture-specific rather than language. The present paper investigates the gender-based difference in the use of request strategies by native speakers of Urdu/Punjabi male and female who are learning English as a second language. The data for the present study were collected from 68 graduate students, who are learning English as an L2 in Pakistan. They were given an online close-ended questionnaire, based on Discourse Completion Test (DCT). After analyzing the data, it was found that the L1 male Urdu/Punjabi speakers were inclined to use more direct request strategies while the female Urdu/Punjabi speakers used indirect request strategies. This paper also found that in some situations female participants used more direct strategies than male participants. The present study concludes that the use of request strategies is influenced by culture, social status, and power distribution in a society.

Keywords: gender variation, request strategies, face-threatening, second language pragmatics, language competence

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
76 UK GAAP and IFRS Standards: Similarities and Differences

Authors: Feddaoui Amina

Abstract:

This paper aimed to help researchers and international companies to the differences and similarities between IFRS (International financial reporting standards) and UK GAAP or UK accounting principles, and to the accounting changes between standard setting of the International Accounting Standards Board and the Accounting Standards Board in United Kingdom. We will use in this study statistical methods to calculate similarities and difference frequencies between the UK standards and IFRS standards, according to the PricewaterhouseCoopers report in 2005. We will use the one simple test to confirm or refuse our hypothesis. In conclusion, we found that the gap between UK GAAP and IFRS is small.

Keywords: accounting, UK GAAP, IFRS, similarities, differences

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
75 Creative Accounting as a Financial Numbers Game

Authors: Feddaoui Amina

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Through this study we will try to shed light on the theoretical framework proposed for understanding creative accounting as a financial numbers game and one of the most important techniques of accounts manipulation, its main actors and its practices. We will discover the role of the modified Jones model (1995) in detecting creative accounting practices using discretionary accruals. Finally we will try to confirm the importance and the need to address this type of practices using corporate governance as a main control system and an important defense line to reduce these dangerous accounts manipulation.

Keywords: financial numbers game, creative accounting, modified Jones model, accounts manipulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
74 Antimicrobial Activity of Oil Extracted from the Almonds of the Fruits of Argania spinosa in the West of Algeria (Mostaganem)

Authors: Nassima Behidj-Benyounes, Nadjiba Chebouti, Thoraya Dahmane, Amina Henni

Abstract:

This work examines the study of the antimicrobrial effect of oil extracted from the seeds of Argania spinosa L. (Sapotaceae) in the area of Stida (Mostaganem). This natural substance is extracted by using the Soxhlet. The antimicrobial activity of this oil is evaluated on several microorganisms. It has been tested on five bacterial strains; Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The extract has been studied by using Candida albicans. It should be noted that these agents are characterized by a high frequency of contamination and pathogenicity. Through this study, we note that these microorganisms are moderately sensitive to the argan oil.

Keywords: Argania spinosa, oil, several microorganisms, almonds, antimicrobial activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
73 The Study of the Determinants of Impulse Buying in Algeria

Authors: Amina Merabet, Ali Iznasni, Abderrezzak Benhabib

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Impulse buying is of strategic importance to distributors. Currently, distribution companies rely heavily on contextual variables (music, smells, colors, sound, design ...) in order to push customers towards purchase and consumption. As such, a crucial way for commercial brands to increase sales is to stimulate impulse buying. For this reason, this study aims at identifying the factors that initiate and encourage impulse buying, as well as the levers that help distributors highlight effective marketing techniques in order to encourage consumers to make impulse purchase. Thus, we try to show, upon a field survey of 590 buyers, the impact of situational elements of both the store and the product on achieving impulse buying.

Keywords: Algerian shoppers, impulse buying, shopping environment, situational variables, product

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
72 Impact Analysis of Cultivation of Jatropha Tree on Fuel Prices and Environment

Authors: Saba Arif, Anam Nadeem, Roman Kalvin, Muzaffar Ali, Burhan Ali, Juntakan Taweekun

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Globally transportation sector accounts for around 25% of energy demand and nearly 62% of oil consumed. Therefore, new energy sources are required to introduce for this huge demand replenishment of depleting conventional energy sources. Currently, biofuels such as Jatropha trees as an energy carrier for transportation sector are being utilized effectively round the globe. However, climate conditions at low altitudes with an average annual temperature above 20 degrees Celsius and rainfall of 300-1000mm are considered the most suitable environment for the efficient growth of Jatropha trees. The current study is providing a theoretical survey-based analysis to investigate the effect of rate of cultivation of jatropha trees on the reduction of fuel prices and its environmental benefits. The resulted study shows that jatropha tree’s 100 kg seeds give 80kg oil and the conversion process cost is very small as 890 PKR. Moreover, the extraction of oil from Jatropha tree is tax-free compared to other fuels. The analysis proved very essential for potential assessment of Jatropha regarding future energy fuel for transportation sector at global level. Additionally, it can be very beneficial for increment in the total amount of transportation fuel in Pakistan.

Keywords: jatropha tree, environmental impact, energy contents, theoretical survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
71 Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effect of Two Diterpenes from Plectranthus barbatus

Authors: Nawal Al Musayeib, Musarat Amina, Perwez Alam

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Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) is the most common species of genus Plectranthus. It is used for treating various ailments. In this study, two rare diterpenes 11,14-dihydroxy-8,11,13-abietatrien-7-one (1) and 12-hydroxyabieta-8(14),9(11),12-trien-7-one (2) were isolated for the first time from P. barbatus. Their chemical structures were verified utilizing various spectroscopic experiments. The effect of diterpenes against undifferentiated/anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line (FRO) was evaluated and they were quantitatively analysed using HPTLC method. The two diterpenes were found to be cytotoxic, however compound 1 showed significant cytotoxic effects where 95% reduction in the cell viability was observed in different time intervals. The quantity of compound 1 and compound 2 in PBCE were found to be 2.04 and15.97 μg/mg, respectively of dried weight of the extract.

Keywords: abietatrien, cancer, diterpenes, Plectranthus barbatus

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
70 Current Environmental Accounting Disclosure Requirements and Compliance by Nigerian Oil Companies

Authors: Amina Jibrin Ahmed

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The environment is mankind's natural habitat. Industrial activities over time have taken their toll on it in the form of deterioration and degradation. The petroleum industry is particularly notorious for its negative impact on its host environments. The realization that this poses a threat to sustainability led to the increased awareness and subsequent recognition of the importance of environmental disclosure in financial statements. This paper examines the laws and regulations put in place by the Nigerian Government to mitigate this impact, and the level of compliance by Shell Nigeria, the pioneer and largest oil company in the country. Based on the disclosure made, this paper finds there is indeed a high level of compliance by that company, and voluntary disclosure moreover.

Keywords: environmental accounting, legitimacy theory, environmental impact assessment, environmental disclosure, host communities

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69 A Validated UPLC-MS/MS Assay Using Negative Ionization Mode for High-Throughput Determination of Pomalidomide in Rat Plasma

Authors: Muzaffar Iqbal, Essam Ezzeldin, Khalid A. Al-Rashood

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Pomalidomide is a second generation oral immunomodulatory agent, being used for the treatment of multiple myeloma in patients with disease refractory to lenalidomide and bortezomib. In this study, a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay was developed and validated for high-throughput determination of pomalidomide in rat plasma using celecoxib as an internal standard (IS). Liquid liquid extraction using dichloromethane as extracting agent was employed to extract pomalidomide and IS from 200 µL of plasma. Chromatographic separation was carried on Acquity BEHTM C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) using an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile:10 mM ammonium acetate (80:20, v/v), at a flow rate of 0.250 mL/min. Both pomalidomide and IS were eluted at 0.66 ± 0.03 and 0.80 ± 0.03 min, respectively with a total run time of 1.5 min only. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization in negative mode. The precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 272.01 → 160.89 for pomalidomide and m/z 380.08 → 316.01 for IS were used to quantify them respectively, using multiple reaction monitoring mode. The developed method was validated according to regulatory guideline for bioanalytical method validation. The linearity in plasma sample was achieved in the concentration range of 0.47–400 ng/mL (r2 ≥ 0.997). The intra and inter-day precision values were ≤ 11.1% (RSD, %) whereas accuracy values ranged from - 6.8 – 8.5% (RE, %). In addition, other validation results were within the acceptance criteria and the method was successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study of pomalidomide in rats.

Keywords: pomalidomide, pharmacokinetics, LC-MS/MS, celecoxib

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
68 Effects of the Ambient Temperature and the Defect Density on the Performance the Solar Cell (HIT)

Authors: Bouzaki Mohammed Moustafa, Benyoucef Boumediene, Benouaz Tayeb, Benhamou Amina

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The ambient temperature and the defects density in the Hetero-junction with Intrinsic Thin layers solar cells (HIT) strongly influence their performances. In first part, we presented the bands diagram on the front/back simulated solar cell based on a-Si: H / c-Si (p)/a-Si:h. In another part, we modeled the following layers structure: ZnO/a-Si:H(n)/a-Si:H(i)/c-Si(p)/a-Si:H(p)/Ag where we studied the effect of the ambient temperature and the defects density in the gap of the crystalline silicon layer on the performance of the heterojunction solar cell with intrinsic layer (HIT).

Keywords: heterojunction solar cell, solar cell performance, bands diagram, ambient temperature, defect density

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
67 Simulation and Experimental of Solid Mixing of Free Flowing Material Using Solid Works in V-Blender

Authors: Amina Bouhaouche, Zineb Kaoua, Lila Lahreche, Sid Ali Kaoua, Kamel Daoud

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The objective of this study is to present a novel approach for analyzing the solid dispersion and mixing performance by a numerical simulation method using solid works software of a monodisperse particles for a large span of time reached 20 minutes. To assure the viability of a numerical simulation, an experimental study of a binary mixture of monodiperse particles taken as free flowing material in a V blender was developed on the basis of relative standard deviation curves, and the arrangement of the particles in the vessel. The experimental results were discussed and compared to the numerical simulation results.

Keywords: non-cohesive material, solid mixing, solid works, v-blender

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
66 Heat Transfer Performance for Turbulent Flow through a Tube Using Baffles

Authors: Amina Benabderrahmane, Abdelylah Benazza, Samir Laouedj

Abstract:

Three dimensional numerical investigation of heat transfer enhancement inside a non-uniformly heated parabolic trough solar collector fitted with baffles under turbulent flow was studied in the current paper. Molten salt is used as heat transfer fluid and simulations are carried out in ANSYS computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The present data was validating by the empirical correlations available in the literatures and good agreement was obtained. The Nusselt number and friction factor values for using baffles are considerably higher than that for smooth pipe. The emplacement and the distance between two consecutive baffles have an effect non-negligible on heat transfer characteristics; the results demonstrate that the temperature gradient reduces with the inclusion of inserts.

Keywords: Baffles, heat transfer enhancement, molten salt, Monte Carlo ray trace technique, numerical investigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
65 Modeling and Simulating Drop Interactions in Spray Structure of High Torque Low Speed Diesel Engine

Authors: Rizwan Latif, Syed Adnan Qasim, Muzaffar Ali

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Fuel direct injection represents one of the key aspects in the development of the diesel engines, the idea of controlling the auto-ignition and the consequent combustion of a liquid spray injected in a reacting atmosphere during a time scale of few milliseconds has been a challenging task for the engine community and pushed forward to a massive research in this field. The quality of the air-fuel mixture defines the combustion efficiency, and therefore the engine efficiency. A droplet interaction in dense as well as thin portion of the spray receives equal importance as other parameters in spray structure. Usually, these are modeled along with breakup process and analyzed alike. In this paper, droplet interaction is modeled and simulated for high torque low speed scenario. Droplet interactions may further be subdivided into droplet collision and coalescence, spray wall impingement, droplets drag, etc. Droplet collisions may occur in almost all spray applications, but especially in diesel like conditions such as high pressure sprays as utilized in combustion engines. These collisions have a strong influence on the mean droplet size and its spatial distribution and can, therefore, affect sub-processes of spray combustion such as mass, momentum and energy transfer between gas and droplets. Similarly, for high-pressure injection systems spray wall impingement is an inherent sub-process of mixture formation. However, its influence on combustion is in-explicit.

Keywords: droplet collision, coalescence, low speed, diesel fuel

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
64 Appraisal of Maintenance Practices in Selected Tourist Attraction in Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Eldah Ephraim Buba, Amina Bata Zoaka, Aishatu Ibrahim

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This study appraised maintenance practices in selected tourist attractions in Bauchi state, Nigeria. Four tourist attractions were used for the research. Checklists were used to assess operations and repairs maintenance practices in the different attractions. The study carried out personal assessment thrice in six months without prior knowledge of the staff in charge for operational maintenance. Records of repairs maintenance from the attractions maintenance unit for a period of ten years were assessed using the checklists. The findings of the study show that operations maintenance was not adequately carried out in the four tourists attractions. Repairs maintenance was carried out in Yankari game reserve and safari, but repairs maintenance was poor in the other three attractions. The study therefore, recommends that adequate maintenance should be practiced in tourist attractions to expand the lifespan of the facilities and also encourage tourist patronage.

Keywords: appraisal, maintenance, practices, tourist attraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
63 Electronic and Magnetic Properties of the Dy₀.₀₆₂₅Y₀.₉₃₇₅ FeO₃ and Dy₀.₁₂₅ Y₀.₈₇₅ FeO₃ Perovskites

Authors: Sari Aouatef, Larabi Amina

Abstract:

First-principles calculations within density functional theory based are used to investigate the influence of doped rare earth elements on some properties of perovskite systems Dy₀.₀₆₂₅Y₀.₉₃₇₅FeO₃ and Dy₀.₁₂₅ Y₀.₈₇₅ FeO₃. The electronic and magnetic properties are studied by means of the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method with Vasp code. The calculated densities of states presented in this work identify the semiconducting behavior for Dy₀.₁₂₅ Y₀.₈₇₅ FeO₃, and the semi-metallic behavior for Dy₀.₀₆₂₅Y₀.₉₃₇₅ FeO₃. Besides, to investigate magnetic properties of several compounds, four magnetic configurations are considered (ferromagnetic (FM), antiferromagnetic type A (A-AFM), antiferromagnetic type C (C-AFM) and antiferromagnetic type G (G-AFM). By doping the Dy element, the system shows different changes in the magnetic order and electronic structure. It is found that Dy₀.₀₆₂₅Y₀.₉₃₇₅ FeO₃ exhibits the strongest magnetic change corresponding to the transition to the ferromagnetic order with the largest magnetic moment of 4.997.

Keywords: DFT, Perovskites, multiferroic, magnetic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
62 Effects of the Type of Soil on the Efficiency of a Bioremediation Dispositive by Using Bacterium Hydrocarbonoclastes

Authors: Amel Bouderhem, Aminata Ould El Hadj Khelil, Amina N. Djrarbaoui, Aroussi Aroussi

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The present work aims to find the influence of the nature of the soil on the effectiveness of the biodegradation of hydrocarbons by a mixture of bacterial strains hydrocarbonoclastes. Processes of bioaugmentation and biostimulation trial are applied to samples of soils polluted voluntarily by the crude oil. For the evaluation of the biodegradation of hydrocarbons, the bacterial load, the pH and organic carbon total are followed in the different experimental batches. He bacterial load of the sandy soil varies among the witnesses of 45,2 .108 CFU/ml at the beginning of the experimentation to 214,07.108 CFU/ml at the end of the experiment. Of the soil silty-clay varies between 103,31 .108 CFU/ml and 614,86.108 CFU/ml . It was found a strong increase in the bacterial biomass during the processing of all samples. This increase is more important in the samples of sand bioaugmente or biomass increased from 63.16 .108 CFU/ml to 309.68 .108 CFU/ml than in soil samples silty clay- bioaugmente whose content in bacteria evolved of 73,01 .108 CFU/ml to 631.80 . 108CFU/ml

Keywords: pollution, hydrocarbons, bioremediation, bacteria hydrocarbonoclastes, ground, texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
61 Synthesis and Physico-Chemical Analysis of Jatropha curcas Seed Oil for ISO VG32 and VG46 Applications

Authors: M. Nuhu, M. S. Amina, A. H. Aminu, A. J. Abbas, N. Salahudeen, A. Z. Yusuf

Abstract:

Transesterification of jatropha methyl ester (JME) with the common polyol, trimethylolpropane (TMP) produced the TMP based ester which exhibits improved temperature properties. This paper discusses the physic-chemical properties of jatropha bio-lubricant base oil applicable for ISO VG32 and VG46 requirement. The catalyst employed for the JME was CaO synthesized in National Research Institute for Chemical Technology (NARICT) that gives 100% conversion. The molar ratio of JME to TMP was 3.5:1 and the catalyst (NaOCH3) loading were found to be 0.8% of the weight of the total reactants. The final fractionated jatropha bio-lubricant base was found to contain 11.95% monoesters, 43.89% diesters and 44.16% triesters (desired product). In addition, it was found that the bio-lubricant base oil produced is comparable to the ISO VG46 commercial standards for light and industrial gears applications and other plant based bio-lubricant.

Keywords: biodegradability, methyl ester, pour point, transesterification, viscosity index

Procedia PDF Downloads 565
60 Objects Tracking in Catadioptric Images Using Spherical Snake

Authors: Khald Anisse, Amina Radgui, Mohammed Rziza

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Tracking objects on video sequences is a very challenging task in many works in computer vision applications. However, there is no article that treats this topic in catadioptric vision. This paper is an attempt that tries to describe a new approach of omnidirectional images processing based on inverse stereographic projection in the half-sphere. We used the spherical model proposed by Gayer and al. For object tracking, our work is based on snake method, with optimization using the Greedy algorithm, by adapting its different operators. The algorithm will respect the deformed geometries of omnidirectional images such as spherical neighborhood, spherical gradient and reformulation of optimization algorithm on the spherical domain. This tracking method that we call "spherical snake" permitted to know the change of the shape and the size of object in different replacements in the spherical image.

Keywords: computer vision, spherical snake, omnidirectional image, object tracking, inverse stereographic projection

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
59 The High Efficiency of Cationic Azo Dye Removal Using Raw, Purified and Pillared Clay from Algerian Clay

Authors: Amina Ramdani, Abdelkader Kadeche, Zoubida Taleb, Safia Taleb

Abstract:

The aim of this present study is to evaluate the adsorption capacity of a dye, Malachite green, on a local Algerian montmorillonite clay mineral (raw, purified and Cr-pillared). Various parameters influencing the dye adsorption process ie contact time, adsorbent dose, initial concentration of dye, pH of the solution and temperature. Cr pillared clay has been obtained with a better surface character than purified and natural clay. An increase in basal spacing from 12.45 Å (Mont-Na) to 22.88 Å (Mont-PLCr), surface area from 67 m2 /g (Mont-Na) to 102 m2 /g (Mont-PLCr). The experimental results show that the dye adsorption kinetic were fast: 5 min for Cr-pillared clay mineral, and 30 min for raw and purified clay mineral (RC and Mont-Na). The removal efficiency on Mont-PLCr (98.64%) is greater than that of Mont-Na (86.20%) and RC (82.09%). The acidity and basicity of the medium considerably affect the adsorption of the dye. It attained its maximum at pH 4.8. The equilibrium and kinetic data were found to fit well the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second-order model.

Keywords: Dye removal, pillared clay, isotherm, kinetic

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
58 An Assessment into Impact of Regional Conflicts upon Socio-Political Sustainability in Pakistan

Authors: Syed Toqueer Akhter, Muhammad Muzaffar Abbas

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Conflicts in Pakistan are a result of a configuration of factors, which are directly related to the system of the state, the unstable regional setting, and the geo-strategic location of Pakistan at large. This paper examines the impact of regional conflict onto the socio-political sustainability of Pakistan. The magnitude of the spillover from a conflicted region is similar in size of the equivalent increase in domestic conflict. Pakistan has gone at war three times with India; the border with India is named as the tensest borderlines of the world. Disagreements with India and lack of dispute settlement mechanisms have negatively effected the peace in the region, influx of illegal weapons and refugees from Afghanistan as an outcome of 9/11 incidence, have exasperated the criticality of levels of internal conflict in Pakistan. Our empirical findings are based on the data collected on regional conflict levels, regional trade, global trade, comparative defence capabilities of the region in contrast to Pakistan and the government regime (Autocratic, Democratic) over 1972-2007. It has been proposed in this paper that the intent of domestic conflict is associated with the conflict in the region, regional trade, global trade and the government regime of Pakistan. The estimated model (OLS) implies that domestic conflict is effected positively and significantly with long term impact of conflict in the region. Also, if defence capabilities of the region are better than that of Pakistan it effects domestic conflict positively and significantly. Conflict in neighbouring countries are found as a source of domestic conflict in Pakistan, whereas the regional trade as well as type of government regimes in Pakistan lowered the intensity of domestic conflict significantly, while globalized trade imply risk of domestic conflict to be reduced but not significantly.

Keywords: conflict, regional trade, socio-politcal instability

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57 Length-Weight and Length-Length Relationships of Oreochromis aureus in Relation to Body Size from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Amina Zubari, Abdus Salam, Summera Yasmeen, Syed Ali Ayub Bukhari, Abir Ishtiaq

Abstract:

In the present study, eighty three wild Oreochromis aureus of different body size ranging 5.3-14.6 cm in total length were collected from the River Chenab, District Muzzafer Garh, Pakistan to investigate the parameters of length –weight, length-length relationships and condition factor in relation to size. Each fish was measured and weighed on arrival at laboratory. Log transformed regressions were used to test the allometric growth. Length-weight relationship was found highly significant (r = 0.964; P < 0.01). The values of exponent “ b” in Length–weight regression (W=aLb), deviated from 3, showing isometric growth (b = 2.75). Results for LLRs indicated that these are highly correlated (P< 0.001). Condition factor (K) found constant with increasing body weight, however, showed negative influence with increasing total length.

Keywords: Oreochromis aureus, weight-length relationship, condition factor, predictive equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 636
56 Using “Eckel” Model to Measure Income Smoothing Practices: The Case of French Companies

Authors: Feddaoui Amina

Abstract:

Income smoothing represents an attempt on the part of the company's management to reduce variations in earnings through the manipulation of the accounting principles. In this study, we aimed to measure income smoothing practices in a sample of 30 French joint stock companies during the period (2007-2009), we used Dummy variables method and “ECKEL” model to measure income smoothing practices and Binomial test accourding to SPSS program, to confirm or refute our hypothesis. This study concluded that there are no significant statistical indicators of income smoothing practices in the sample studied of French companies during the period (2007-2009), so the income series in the same sample studied of is characterized by stability and non-volatility without any intervention of management through accounting manipulation. However, this type of accounting manipulation should be taken into account and efforts should be made by control bodies to apply Eckel model and generalize its use at the global level.

Keywords: income, smoothing, 'Eckel', French companies

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
55 Finite State Markov Chain Model of Pollutants from Service Stations

Authors: Amina Boukelkoul, Rahil Boukelkoul, Leila Maachia

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The cumulative vapors emitted from the service stations may represent a hazard to the environment and the population. Besides fuel spill and their penetration into deep soil layers are the main contributors to soil and ground-water contamination in the vicinity of the petrol stations. The amount of the effluents from the service stations depends on strategy of maintenance and the policy adopted by the management to reduce the pollution. One key of the proposed approach is the idea of managing the effluents from the service stations which can be captured via use of a finite state Markov chain. Such a model can be embedded within a probabilistic operation and maintenance simulation reflecting the action to be done. In this paper, an approach of estimating a probabilistic percentage of the amount of emitted pollutants is presented. The finite state Markov model is used for decision problems with number of determined periods (life cycle) to predict the amount according to various options of operation.

Keywords: environment, markov modeling, pollution, service station

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54 Examples from a Traditional Sismo-Resistant Architecture

Authors: Amira Zatir, Abderahmane Mokhtari, Amina Foufa, Sara Zatir

Abstract:

It exists in several regions in the world, of numerous historic monuments, buildings and housing environment, built in traditional ways which survive for earthquakes, even in zones where the seismic risk is particularly raised. These constructions, stemming from vernacular architecture, allow, through their resistances in the time earthquakes, to identify the various sismo-resistant "local" techniques. Through the examples and the experiences presented, the remark which can be made, is that in the traditional built, two major principles in a way opposite, govern the constructions in earthquake-resistant. It is about the very big flexibility, whom answer very light constructions, like the Japanese wooden constructions, Turkish and even Chinese; that of the very big rigidity to which correspond constructions in masonry in particular stone, more or less heavy and massive, which we meet in particular in the Mediterranean Basin, and in the historic sanctuary of Machu Pacchu. In it sensible and well-reflected techniques of construction are added, of which the use of the humble materials such as the earth and the adobe. The ancient communities were able to face the seismic risks, thanks to them know-how reflected in their intelligently designed constructions, testifying of a local seismic culture.

Keywords: earthquake, architecture, traditional, construction, resistance

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53 Body Composition Analysis of Wild Labeo Bata in Relation to Body Size and Condition Factor from Chenab, Multan, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Amina Zubari, Abdus Salam, Syed Ali Ayub Bukhari, Naveed Ahmad Khan

Abstract:

Seventy three wild Labeo bata of different body sizes, ranging from 8.20-16.00 cm total length and 7.4-86.19 g body weight, were studied for the analysis of body composition parameters (Water content, ash content, fat content, protein content) in relation to body size and condition factor. Mean percentage is found as for water 77.71 %, ash 3.42 %, fat 2.20 % and protein content 16.65 % in whole wet body weight. Highly significant positive correlations were observed between condition factor and body weight (r = 0.243). Protein contents, organic content and ash (% wet body weight) increase with increasing percent water contents for Labeo bata while these constituents (% dry body weight) and fat contents (% wet and dry body weight) have no influence on percent water. It was observed that variations in the body constituents have no association to body weight or length.

Keywords: Labeo bata, body size, body composition, condition factor

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