Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Okorowo Cyril Agochi

19 Conceptualization and Strategies of Biogas Technology for Rural Development in Nigeria

Authors: Okorowo Cyril Agochi


The main challenge of present world is to harness the energy source which is environment friendly and ecologically balanced. This need has forced to search for other alternate source of energy. But unfortunately the new alternative energy sources like the solar, hydro, wind etc. require huge economical value and technical power to operate, which seem to be very difficult for the developing countries like Nigeria. In the present moment biogas energy can be one and only reliable, easily available and economically feasible source of alternative and renewable source which can be managed by locally available sources and simple technology for secondary schools, tertiary institution and rural villages. This paper is aimed at boosting the energy generation for developing of rural Nigeria, through Biogas.

Keywords: bio-gas, energy, environment, nigeria, technology

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18 Design Analysis of Solar Energy Panels for Tropical Nigeria

Authors: Cyril Agochi Okorowo


More than ever human activity relating to uncontrolled greenhouse gas (GHG) and its effects on the earth is gaining greater attention in the global academic and policy discussions. Activities of man have greatly influenced climate change over the years as a result of a consistent increase in the use of fossil fuel energy. Scientists and researchers globally are making significant and devoted efforts towards the development and implementation of renewable energy technologies that are harmless to the environment. One of such energy is solar energy with its source from the sun. There are currently two primary ways of harvesting this energy from the sun: through photovoltaic (PV) panels and through thermal collectors. This work discusses solar energy as the abundant renewable energy in the tropical Nigeria, processes of harvesting the energy and recommends solar energy as an alternative means of electric power generation in a time the demand for power in Nigeria supersedes supply.

Keywords: analysis, energy, design, solar

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17 Solar Energy: The Alternative Electric Power Resource in Tropical Nigeria

Authors: Okorowo Cyril Agochi


More than ever human activity relating to uncontrolled greenhouse gas (GHG) and its effects on the earth is gaining greater attention in the global academic and policy discussions. Activities of man has greatly influenced climate change over the years as a result of consistent increase in the use of fossil fuel energy. Scientists and researchers globally are making significant and devoted efforts towards the development and implementation of renewable energy technologies that are harmless to the environment. One of such energy is solar energy with its source from the sun. There are currently two primary ways of harvesting this energy from the sun: through photovoltaic (PV) panels and through thermal collectors. This work discuses solar energy the abundant renewable energy in the tropical Nigeria, processes of harvesting and recommends same as an alternative means of electric power generation in a time the demand for power supersedes supply.

Keywords: electric, power, renewable energy, solar energy, sun, tropical

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16 Gas Flaring in the Niger Delta Nigeria: An Act of Inhumanity to Man and His Environment

Authors: Okorowo Cyril Agochi


The Niger Delta Region of Nigeria is home to about 20 million people and 40 different ethnic groups. The region has an area of seventy thousand square kilometers (70,000 KM2) of wetlands, formed primarily by sediments deposition and makes up 7.5 percent of Nigeria's total landmass. The notable ecological zones in this region includes: coastal barrier islands; mangrove swamp forests; fresh water swamps; and lowland rainforests. This incredibly naturally-endowed ecosystem region, which contains one of the highest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet, in addition to supporting abundant flora and fauna, is threatened by the inhuman act known as gas flaring. Gas flaring is the combustion of natural gas that is associated with crude oil when it is pumped up from the ground. In petroleum-producing areas such as the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where insufficient investment was made in infrastructure to utilize natural gas, flaring is employed to dispose of this associated gas. This practice has impoverished the communities where it is practiced, with attendant environmental, economic and health challenges. This paper discusses the adverse environmental and health implication associated with the practice, the role of Government, Policy makers, Oil companies and the Local communities aimed at bring this inhuman practice to a prompt end.

Keywords: natural combustion, emission, environment, flaring, gas, health, Niger Delta

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15 Choosing an Optimal Epsilon for Differentially Private Arrhythmia Analysis

Authors: Arin Ghazarian, Cyril Rakovski


Differential privacy has become the leading technique to protect the privacy of individuals in a database while allowing useful analysis to be done and the results to be shared. It puts a guarantee on the amount of privacy loss in the worst-case scenario. Differential privacy is not a toggle between full privacy and zero privacy. It controls the tradeoff between the accuracy of the results and the privacy loss using a single key parameter called

Keywords: arrhythmia, cardiology, differential privacy, ECG, epsilon, medi-cal data, privacy preserving analytics, statistical databases

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14 Modelling of Heating and Evaporation of Biodiesel Fuel Droplets

Authors: Mansour Al Qubeissi, Sergei S. Sazhin, Cyril Crua, Morgan R. Heikal


This paper presents the application of the Discrete Component Model for heating and evaporation to multi-component biodiesel fuel droplets in direct injection internal combustion engines. This model takes into account the effects of temperature gradient, recirculation and species diffusion inside droplets. A distinctive feature of the model used in the analysis is that it is based on the analytical solutions to the temperature and species diffusion equations inside the droplets. Nineteen types of biodiesel fuels are considered. It is shown that a simplistic model, based on the approximation of biodiesel fuel by a single component or ignoring the diffusion of components of biodiesel fuel, leads to noticeable errors in predicted droplet evaporation time and time evolution of droplet surface temperature and radius.

Keywords: heat/mass transfer, biodiesel, multi-component fuel, droplet

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13 Customizable Sonic EEG Neurofeedback Environment to Train Self-Regulation of Momentary Mental and Emotional State

Authors: Cyril Kaplan, Nikola Jajcay


We developed purely sonic, musical based, highly customizable EEG neurofeedback environment designed to administer a new neurofeedback training protocol. The training protocol concentrates on improving the ability to switch between several mental states characterized by different levels of arousal, each of them correlated to specific brain wave activity patterns in several specific regions of neocortex. This paper describes the neurofeedback training environment we developed and its specificities, thus can be helpful as a manual to guide other neurofeedback users (both researchers and practitioners) interested in our editable open source program (available to download and usage under CC license). Responses and reaction of first trainees that used our environment are presented in this article. Combination of qualitative methods (thematic analysis of neurophenomenological insights of trainees and post-session semi-structured interviews) and quantitative methods (power spectra analysis of EEG recorded during the training) were employed to obtain a multifaceted view on our new training protocol.

Keywords: EEG neurofeedback, mixed methods, self-regulation, switch-between-states training

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12 The Growth Curve of Gompertz Model in Body Weight of Slovak Mixed-Sex Goose Breeds

Authors: Cyril Hrncar, Jozef Bujko, Widya P. B. Putra


The growth curve of poultry is important to evaluate the farming management system. This study was aimed to estimate the growth curve of body weight in goose. The growth curve in this study was estimated with non-linear Gompertz model through CurveExpert 1.4. software. Three Slovak mixed-sex goose breeds of Landes (L), Pomeranian (P) and Steinbacher (S) were used in this study. Total of 28 geese (10 L, 8 P and 10 S) were used to estimate the growth curve. Research showed that the asymptotic weight (A) in those geese were reached of 5332.51 g (L), 6186.14 g (P) and 5048.27 g (S). Thus, the maturing rate (k) in each breed were similar (0.05 g/day). The weight of inflection was reached of 1960.48 g (L), 2274.32 g (P) and 1855.98 g (S). The time of inflection (ti) was reached of 25.6 days (L), 26.2 days (P) and 27.80 days (S). The maximum growth rate (MGR) was reached of 98.02 g/day (L), 113.72 g/day (P) and 92.80 g/day (S). Hence, the coefficient of determination (R2) in Gompertz model was 0.99 for each breed. It can be concluded that Pomeranian geese had highest of growth trait than the other breeds.

Keywords: body weight, growth curve, inflection, Slovak geese, Gompertz model

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11 A Theory of Vertical Partnerships Model as Responsive Failure in Alternative Arrangement for Infrastructural Development in the Third World Countries: A Comparative Public Administration Analysis

Authors: Cyril Ekuaze


This paper was instigated by a set of assumption drawn at the introduction to a research work on alternative institutional arrangements for sustaining rural infrastructure in developing countries. Of one of such assumption is the one held that, a problem facing developing countries is the sustaining of infrastructural investment long enough to allow the facility to at least repay the cost of the development as been due to insufficient maintenance. On the contrary, this work argues that, most international partnerships relation with developing nations in developing infrastructures is “vertical modeling” with the hierarchical authority and command flow from top to bottom. The work argued that where international donor partners/agencies set out infrastructural development agenda in the developing nations without cognizance of design suitability and capacity for maintenance by the recipient nations; and where public administrative capacity building in the field of science, technology and engineering requisite for design, development and sustenance of infrastructure in the recipient countries are negated, prospective output becomes problematic.

Keywords: vertical partnerships, responsive failure, infrastructural development, developing countries

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10 Challenges of Embedding Entrepreneurship in Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria

Authors: Michael Ubale Cyril


Challenges of embedding entrepreneurship in tertiary institutions in Nigeria requires a consistent policy for equipping schools with necessary facilities like establishing incubating technology centre, the right calibres of human resources, appropriate pedagogical tools for teaching entrepreneurship education and exhibition grounds where products and services will be delivered and patronised by the customers. With the death of facilities in public schools in Nigeria, educators are clamouring for a way out. This study investigated the challenges of embedding entrepreneurship education in Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria. The population for the study was 201 comprising 34 industrial entrepreneurs, 76 technical teachers and 91 final year undergraduates. The data was analysed using means of 3 groups, standard deviation, and analysis of variance. The study found out, that technical teachers have not been trained to teach entrepreneurship education, approaches to teaching methodology, were not varied and lack of infrastructural facilities like building was not a factor. It was recommended that technical teachers be retrained to teach entrepreneurship education, textbooks in entrepreneurship should be published with Nigerian outlook.

Keywords: challenges, embedding, entrepreneurship pedagogical, technology incubating centres

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9 Proposition of an Intelligent System Based on the Augmented Reality for Warehouse Logistics

Authors: Safa Gharbi, Hayfa Zgaya, Nesrine Zoghlami, Slim Hammadi, Cyril De Barbarin, Laurent Vinatier, Christiane Coupier


Increasing productivity and quality of service, improving the working comfort and ensuring the efficiency of all processes are important challenges for every warehouse. The order picking is recognized to be the most important and costly activity of all the process in warehouses. This paper presents a new approach using Augmented Reality (AR) in the field of logistics. It aims to create a Head-Up Display (HUD) interface with a Warehouse Management System (WMS), using AR glasses. Integrating AR technology allows the optimization of order picking by reducing time of picking process, increasing the efficiency and delivering quickly. The picker will be able to access immediately to all the information needed for his tasks. All the information is displayed when needed in the field of vision (FOV) of the operator, without any action requested from him. These research works are part of the industrial project RASL (Réalité Augmentée au Service de la Logistique) which gathers two major partners: the LAGIS (Laboratory of Automatics, Computer Engineering and Signal Processing in Lille-France) and Genrix Group, European leader in warehouses logistics, who provided his software for implementation, and his logistics expertise.

Keywords: Augmented Reality (AR), logistics and optimization, Warehouse Management System (WMS), Head-Up Display (HUD)

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8 A Domain Specific Modeling Language Semantic Model for Artefact Orientation

Authors: Bunakiye R. Japheth, Ogude U. Cyril


Since the process of transforming user requirements to modeling constructs are not very well supported by domain-specific frameworks, it became necessary to integrate domain requirements with the specific architectures to achieve an integrated customizable solutions space via artifact orientation. Domain-specific modeling language specifications of model-driven engineering technologies focus more on requirements within a particular domain, which can be tailored to aid the domain expert in expressing domain concepts effectively. Modeling processes through domain-specific language formalisms are highly volatile due to dependencies on domain concepts or used process models. A capable solution is given by artifact orientation that stresses on the results rather than expressing a strict dependence on complicated platforms for model creation and development. Based on this premise, domain-specific methods for producing artifacts without having to take into account the complexity and variability of platforms for model definitions can be integrated to support customizable development. In this paper, we discuss methods for the integration capabilities and necessities within a common structure and semantics that contribute a metamodel for artifact-orientation, which leads to a reusable software layer with concrete syntax capable of determining design intents from domain expert. These concepts forming the language formalism are established from models explained within the oil and gas pipelines industry.

Keywords: control process, metrics of engineering, structured abstraction, semantic model

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7 Synthesis, Characterization, Theoretical Crystal Structures and Antitubercular Activity Study of (E)-N'-(2,4-Dihydroxybenzylidene) Nicotinohydrazide and Some of Its Metal Complexes

Authors: Ogunniran Kehinde Olurotimi, Adekoya Joseph, Ehi-Eromosele Cyril, Mehdi Shihab, Mesubi Adediran, Tadigoppula Narender


Nicotinic acid hydrazide and 2,4-dihydoxylbenzaldehyde were condensed at 20°C to form an acylhydrazone (H3L) with ONO coordination pattern. The structure of the acylhydrazone was elucidated by using CHN analyzer, ESI mass spectrometry, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and 2D NMR such as COSY and HSQC. Thereafter, five novel metal complexes [Mn(II), Fe(II), Pt(II) Zn(II) and Pd(II)] of the hydrazone ligand were synthesized and their structural characterization were achieved by several physicochemical methods, namely elemental analysis, electronic spectra, infrared, EPR, molar conductivity and powder X-ray diffraction studies. Structural geometries of some of the compounds were supported by using Hyper Chem-8 program for the molecular mechanics and semi-empirical calculations. The stability energy (E) and electron potentials (eV) for the frontier molecules were calculated by using PM3 method. An octahedral geometry was suggested for both Pd(II) and Zn(II) complexes while both Mn(II) and Fe(II) complexes conformed with tetrahedral pyramidal. However, Pt(II) complex agreed with tetrahedral geometry. In vitro antitubercular activity study of the ligand and the metal complexes were evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, H37Rv, by using micro-diluted method. The results obtained revealed that (PtL1) (MIC = 0.56 µg/mL), (ZnL1) (MIC = 0.61 µg/mL), (MnL1) (MIC = 0.71 µg/mL) and (FeL1) (MIC = 0.82 µg/mL), exhibited a significant activity when compared with first line drugs such as isoniazid (INH) (MIC = 0.9 µg/mL). H3L1 exhibited lesser antitubercular activity with MIC value of 1.02 µg/mL. However, the metal complexes displayed higher cytoxicity but were found to be non-significant different (P ˂ 0.05) to isoniazid drug.

Keywords: hydrazones, electron spin resonance, thermogravimetric, powder X-ray diffraction, antitubercular agents

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6 A Fluid-Walled Microfluidic Device for Cell Migration Studies

Authors: Cyril Deroy, Agata Rumianek, David R. Greaves, Peter R. Cook, Edmond J. Walsh


Various microfluidic platforms have been developed in the past couple of decades offering experimental methods for the study of cell migration; however, their implementation in the laboratory has remained limited. Some reasons cited for the lack of uptake include the technical complexity of the devices, high failure rate associated with gas-bubbles, biocompatibility concerns with the use of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and equipment/time/expertise requirements for operation and manufacture. As sample handling remains challenging due to the closed format of microfluidic devices, open microfluidic systems have been developed offering versatility and simplicity of use. Rather than confining fluids by solid walls, samples can be accessed directly over the open platform, by removing at least one of the solid boundaries, such as the cover. In this paper, a method for the fabrication of open fluid-walled microfluidic circuits for cell migration studies is introduced, where only materials commonly used by the life-science community are required; tissue culture dishes and cell media. The simplicity of the method, and ability to retrieve cells of interest are two key features of the method. Both passive and active flow-devices can be created in this way. To demonstrate the versatility of the method a cell migration assay is performed, which requires fabricating circuits for establishing chemical gradients, loading cells and incubating, creating chemical gradients, real time imaging of cell migration and finally retrieval of cells. The open architecture has high fidelity as it eliminates air bubble related failures and enables the precise control of gradients. The ability to fabricate custom microfluidic designs in minutes should make this method suitable for use in a wide range of cell migration studies.

Keywords: chemotaxis, fluid walls, gradient generation, open microfluidics

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5 “The Effectiveness of Group Logo Therapy on Meaning and Quality of Life of Women in Old Age Home”

Authors: Sophia Cyril Vincent


Background: As per the Indian Census 2011, there is nearly 104 million elderly population aged above 60 years (53 million females and 51 males), and the count is expected to be 173 million by the end of 2026. Nearly 5.5% of women and 1.5% of men are living alone.1 In India, even though it is the moral duty of the children to take care of aged parents, many elders are landing in old age homes due to the social transformation factors like mushrooming of nuclear families, migration of children, cultural echoes, differences in mindset and values. Nearly 728 old age homes are seen across the country, out of which 78 old age homes with approximately 3000 inmates are seen only in Bangalore2. The existing literature shows that elderly women residing in old age homes experience the challenges like- loneliness, health issues, rejection from children, grief, death anxiety, etc, which leads to mental and physical wellbeing in numerous and tangible ways3. Hence the best and cost-effective way to improve the meaning and quality of life among elderly females is logotherapy, a type of psychotherapeutic analysis and treatment, motivating and driving force4 within the human experience to lead a decent life. Aim: The current research is aimed at studying the effectiveness of a logotherapy intervention on meaning and quality of life among elderly women of old age homes. Samples:200 women aged < 60 years and staying in the old age home for more than 1 year were randomly allocated to the control group and experimental group. Methodology: Using the Meaning in life questionnaire (MLQ)and the World health organization quality of life (WHOQOL) questionnaire, meaning and quality of life were assessed among both groups' women. Intensive Logotherapy and meaning in life program for five days were provided for the experimental group and the control group, with no treatment. Result: Under analysis. Conclusion: It is the right of the elderly woman to lead a happy and peaceful life till her death irrespective of the residing place. Hence, continuous monitoring and effective management are necessary for elderly women.

Keywords: quality of life, meaning of life, logo therapy, old age home

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4 Microfluidic Chambers with Fluid Walls for Cell Biology

Authors: Cristian Soitu, Alexander Feuerborn, Cyril Deroy, Alfonso Castrejon-Pita, Peter R. Cook, Edmond J. Walsh


Microfluidics now stands as an academically mature technology after a quarter of a century research activities have delivered a vast array of proof of concepts for many biological workflows. However, translation to industry remains poor, with only a handful of notable exceptions – e.g. digital PCR, DNA sequencing – mainly because of biocompatibility issues, limited range of readouts supported or complex operation required. This technology exploits the domination of interfacial forces over gravitational ones at the microscale, replacing solid walls with fluid ones as building blocks for cell micro-environments. By employing only materials used by biologists for decades, the system is shown to be biocompatible, and easy to manufacture and operate. The method consists in displacing a continuous fluid layer into a pattern of isolated chambers overlaid with an immiscible liquid to prevent evaporation. The resulting fluid arrangements can be arrays of micro-chambers with rectangular footprint, which use the maximum surface area available, or structures with irregular patterns. Pliant, self-healing fluid walls confine volumes as small as 1 nl. Such fluidic structures can be reconfigured during the assays, giving the platform an unprecedented level of flexibility. Common workflows in cell biology are demonstrated – e.g. cell growth and retrieval, cloning, cryopreservation, fixation and immunolabeling, CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, and proof-of-concept drug tests. This fluid-shaping technology is shown to have potential for high-throughput cell- and organism-based assays. The ability to make and reconfigure on-demand microfluidic circuits on standard Petri dishes should find many applications in biology, and yield more relevant phenotypic and genotypic responses when compared to standard microfluidic assays.

Keywords: fluid walls, micro-chambers, reconfigurable, freestyle

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3 Solar-Thermal-Electric Stirling Engine-Powered System for Residential Units

Authors: Florian Misoc, Cyril Okhio, Joshua Tolbert, Nick Carlin, Thomas Ramey


This project is focused on designing a Stirling engine system for a solar-thermal-electrical system that can supply electric power to a single residential unit. Since Stirling engines are heat engines operating any available heat source, is notable for its ability to generate clean and reliable energy without emissions. Due to the need of finding alternative energy sources, the Stirling engines are making a comeback with the recent technologies, which include thermal energy conservation during the heat transfer process. Recent reviews show mounting evidence and positive test results that Stirling engines are able to produce constant energy supply that ranges from 5kW to 20kW. Solar Power source is one of the many uses for Stirling engines. Using solar energy to operate Stirling engines is an idea considered by many researchers, due to the ease of adaptability of the Stirling engine. In this project, the Stirling engine developed was designed and tested to operate from biomass source of energy, i.e., wood pellets stove, during low solar radiation, with good results. A 20% efficiency of the engine was estimated, and 18% efficiency was measured, making it suitable and appropriate for residential applications. The effort reported was aimed at exploring parameters necessary to design, build and test a ‘Solar Powered Stirling Engine (SPSE)’ using Water (H₂O) as the Heat Transfer medium, with Nitrogen as the working gas that can reach or exceed an efficiency of 20%. The main objectives of this work consisted in: converting a V-twin cylinder air compressor into an alpha-type Stirling engine, construct a Solar Water Heater, by using an automotive radiator as the high-temperature reservoir for the Stirling engine, and an array of fixed mirrors that concentrate the solar radiation on the automotive radiator/high-temperature reservoir. The low-temperature reservoir is the surrounding air at ambient temperature. This work has determined that a low-cost system is sufficiently efficient and reliable. Off-the-shelf components have been used and estimates of the ability of the Engine final design to meet the electricity needs of small residence have been determined.

Keywords: stirling engine, solar-thermal, power inverter, alternator

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2 Comparison of Developed Statokinesigram and Marker Data Signals by Model Approach

Authors: Boris Barbolyas, Kristina Buckova, Tomas Volensky, Cyril Belavy, Ladislav Dedik


Background: Based on statokinezigram, the human balance control is often studied. Approach to human postural reaction analysis is based on a combination of stabilometry output signal with retroreflective marker data signal processing, analysis, and understanding, in this study. The study shows another original application of Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory (MDST), too. Methods: In this study, the participants maintained quiet bipedal standing for 10 s on stabilometry platform. Consequently, bilateral vibration stimuli to Achilles tendons in 20 s interval was applied. Vibration stimuli caused that human postural system took the new pseudo-steady state. Vibration frequencies were 20, 60 and 80 Hz. Participant's body segments - head, shoulders, hips, knees, ankles and little fingers were marked by 12 retroreflective markers. Markers positions were scanned by six cameras system BTS SMART DX. Registration of their postural reaction lasted 60 s. Sampling frequency was 100 Hz. For measured data processing were used Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory. Regression analysis of developed statokinesigram trajectory (DST) data and retroreflective marker developed trajectory (DMT) data were used to find out which marker trajectories most correlate with stabilometry platform output signals. Scaling coefficients (λ) between DST and DMT by linear regression analysis were evaluated, too. Results: Scaling coefficients for marker trajectories were identified for all body segments. Head markers trajectories reached maximal value and ankle markers trajectories had a minimal value of scaling coefficient. Hips, knees and ankles markers were approximately symmetrical in the meaning of scaling coefficient. Notable differences of scaling coefficient were detected in head and shoulders markers trajectories which were not symmetrical. The model of postural system behavior was identified by MDST. Conclusion: Value of scaling factor identifies which body segment is predisposed to postural instability. Hypothetically, if statokinesigram represents overall human postural system response to vibration stimuli, then markers data represented particular postural responses. It can be assumed that cumulative sum of particular marker postural responses is equal to statokinesigram.

Keywords: center of pressure (CoP), method of developed statokinesigram trajectory (MDST), model of postural system behavior, retroreflective marker data

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1 Enhancing the Structural and Electrochemical Performance of Li-Rich Layered Metal Oxides Cathodes for Li-Ion Battery by Coating with the Active Material

Authors: Cyril O. Ehi-Eromosele, Ajayi Kayode


The Li-rich layered metal oxides (LLO) are the most promising candidates for promising electrodes of high energy Li-ion battery (LIB). In literature, these electrode system has either been designed as a hetero-structure of the primary components (composite) or as a core-shell structure with improved electrochemistry reported for both configurations when compared with its primary components. With the on-going efforts to improve on the electrochemical performance of the LIB, it is important to investigate comparatively the structural and electrochemical characteristics of the core-shell like and ‘composite’ forms of these materials with the same compositions and synthesis conditions which could influence future engineering of these materials. Therefore, this study concerns the structural and electrochemical properties of the ‘composite’ and core-shell like LLO cathode materials with the same nominal composition of 0.5Li₂MnO₃-0.5LiNi₀.₅Mn₀.₃Co₀.₂O₂ (LiNi₀.₅Mn₀.₃Co₀.₂O₂ as core and Li₂MnO₃ as the shell). The results show that the core-shell sample (–CS) gave better electrochemical performance than the ‘composite’ sample (–C). Both samples gave the same initial charge capacity of ~300 mAh/g when cycled at 10 mA/g and comparable charge capacity (246 mAh/g for the –CS sample and 240 mAh/g for the –C sample) when cycled at 200 mA/g. However, the –CS sample gave a higher initial discharge capacity at both current densities. The discharge capacity of the –CS sample was 232 mAh/g and 164 mAh/g while the –C sample is 208 mAh/g and 143 mAh/g at the current densities of 10 mA/g and 200 mA/g, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results show that the –CS sample generally exhibited a smaller resistance than the –C sample both for the uncycled and after 50th cycle. Detailed structural analysis is on-going, but preliminary results show that the –CS sample had bigger unit cell volume and a higher degree of cation mixing. The thermal stability of the –CS sample was higher than the –C sample. XPS investigation also showed that the pristine –C sample gave a more reactive surface (showing formation of carbonate species to a greater degree) which could result in the greater resistance seen in the EIS result. To reinforce the results obtained for the 0.5Li₂MnO₃-0.5LiNi₀.₅Mn₀.₃Co₀.₃O₂ composition, the same investigations were extended to another ‘composite’ and core-shell like LLO cathode materials also with the same nominal composition of 0.5Li₂MnO₃-0.5LiNi₀.₃Mn₀.₃Co₀.₃O₂. In this case, the aim was to determine the electrochemical performance of the material using a low Ni content (LiNi₀.₃Mn₀.₃Co₀.₃O₂) as the core to clarify the contributions of the core-shell configuration to the electrochemical performance of these materials. Ni-rich layered oxides show active catalytic surface leading to electrolyte oxidation resulting in poor thermal stability and cycle life. Here, the core-shell sample also gave better electrochemical performance than the ‘composite’ sample with 0.5Li₂MnO₃-0.5LiNi₀.₃Mn₀.₃Co₀.₃O₂ composition. Furthermore, superior electrochemical performance was also recorded for the core-shell like spinel modified LLO (0.5Li₂MnO₃-0.45LiNi₀.₅Mn₀.₃Co₀.₂O₂-0.05LiNi₀.₅Mn₁.₅O₄) when compared to the composite system. These results show that the core-shell configuration can generally be used to improve the structural and electrochemical properties of the LLO and spinel modified LLO materials.

Keywords: lithium-ion battery, lithium rich oxide cathode, core-shell structure, composite structure

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