Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7349

Search results for: social embeddedness

7349 The Antecedents of Continued Usage on Social-Oriented Virtual Communities Based on Automaticity Mechanism

Authors: Hsiu-Hua Cheng

Abstract:

In recent years, the number of social-oriented virtual communities users has increased significantly. Corporate investment in advertising on social-oriented virtual communities increases quickly. With the gigantic commercial value of the digital market, competitions between virtual communities are keen. In this context, how to retain existing customers to continue using social-oriented virtual communities is an urgent issue for virtual community managers. This study employs the perspective of automaticity mechanism and combines the social embeddedness theory with the literature of involvement and habit in order to explore antecedents of users’ continuous usage on social-oriented virtual communities. The results can be a reference for scholars and managers of social-oriented virtual communities.

Keywords: continued usage, habit, social embeddedness, involvement, virtual community

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7348 Cultural Embeddedness of E-Participation Methods in Hungary

Authors: Hajnalka Szarvas

Abstract:

The research examines the effectiveness of e-participation tools and methods from a point of view of cultural fitting to the Hungarian community traditions. Participation can have very different meanings depending on the local cultural and historical traditions, experiences of the certain societies. Generally when it is about e-democracy or e-participation tools most of the researches are dealing with its technological sides and novelties, but there is not much said about the cultural and social context of the different platforms. However from the perspective of their success it would be essential to look at the human factor too, the actual users, how the certain DMS or any online platform is fitting to the way of thought, the way of functioning of the certain society. Therefore the paper will explore that to what extent the different online platforms like Loomio, Democracy OS, Your Priorities EVoks, Populus, miutcank.hu, Liquid Democracy, Brain Bar Budapest Lab are compatible with the Hungarian mental structures and community traditions, the contents of collective mind about community functioning. As a result the influence of cultural embeddedness of the logic of e-participation development tools on success of these methods will be clearly seen. Furthermore the most crucial factors in general which determine the efficiency of e-participation development tools in Hungary will be demonstrated.

Keywords: cultural embeddedness, e-participation, local community traditions, mental structures

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7347 Managerial Advice-Seeking and Supply Chain Resilience: A Social Capital Perspective

Authors: Ethan Nikookar, Yalda Boroushaki, Larissa Statsenko, Jorge Ochoa Paniagua

Abstract:

Given the serious impact that supply chain disruptions can have on a firm's bottom-line performance, both industry and academia are interested in supply chain resilience, a capability of the supply chain that enables it to cope with disruptions. To date, much of the research has focused on the antecedents of supply chain resilience. This line of research has suggested various firm-level capabilities that are associated with greater supply chain resilience. A consensus has emerged among researchers that supply chain flexibility holds the greatest potential to create resilience. Supply chain flexibility achieves resilience by creating readiness to respond to disruptions with little cost and time by means of reconfiguring supply chain resources to mitigate the impacts of the disruption. Decisions related to supply chain disruptions are made by supply chain managers; however, the role played by supply chain managers' reference networks has been overlooked in the supply chain resilience literature. This study aims to understand the impact of supply chain managers on their firms' supply chain resilience. Drawing on social capital theory and social network theory, this paper proposes a conceptual model to explore the role of supply chain managers in developing the resilience of supply chains. Our model posits that higher level of supply chain managers' embeddedness in their reference network is associated with increased resilience of their firms' supply chain. A reference network includes individuals from whom supply chain managers seek advice on supply chain related matters. The relationships between supply chain managers' embeddedness in reference network and supply chain resilience are mediated by supply chain flexibility.

Keywords: supply chain resilience, embeddedness, reference networks, social capitals

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7346 Social Enterprises in Rural Canada

Authors: Prescott C. Ensign

Abstract:

Social enterprises play a vital role in Canada’s rural and northern communities. Most operate as non-profit organizations, use market approaches, and generate revenue from services or goods to support goals that address social, cultural, and environmental issues. As provincial and federal governments make reductions to programs providing social services to local communities, rural and northern residents who already have fewer resources from which to draw will be especially affected. Social enterprises will be called on to take up the slack. The aim of this paper is to provide a more comprehensive picture of the social enterprise as an organization and to understand the impact that context/ecosystem has on a social enterprise as it develops.

Keywords: social enterprises, structuration, embeddedness, ecosystem

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7345 Research on Traditional Rammed Earth Houses in Southern Zhejiang, China: Based on the perspective of "Geographical Embeddedness"

Authors: Han Wu, Jie Wang

Abstract:

Zhejiang’s special geographical environment has created characteristic mountain dwellings with climate adaptability. Among them, the terrain of southern Zhejiang is dominated by mountainous and hilly landforms, and its traditional dwellings have distinctive characteristics. They are often adapted to local conditions and laid out in accordance with the mountains. In order to block the severe winter weather conditions, local traditional building materials such as rammed earth are mostly used. However, with the development of urbanization, traditional villages have undergone large-scale changes, gradually losing their original uniqueness. In order to solve this problem, this paper takes traditional villages around Baishanzu National Park in Zhejiang as an example and selects nine typical villages in Jingning County and Longquan, respectively. Based on field investigations, extracting the environmental adaptability of local traditional rammed earth houses from the perspective of “geographical embeddedness”. And then combined with case analysis, discussing the translation and development of its traditional architectural methods in contemporary rammed earth buildings in southern Zhejiang.

Keywords: geographical embeddedness , lighting, modernization translation, rammed earth building, ventilation

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7344 Psychological Contract and Job Embeddedness Perspectives to Understand Cynicism as a Behavioural Response to Pressures in the Workplace

Authors: Merkouche Wassila, Marchand Alain, Renaud Stéphane

Abstract:

Organizations are facing competitive pressures constraining them to modify their practices and change initial work conditions of employees, however, these modifications have to sustain initial quality of work and engagements toward the workforce. We focus on the importance of promises in the perspective of psychological contract. According to this perspective, employees perceiving a breach of the expected obligations from the employer may become unsatisfied at work and develop organizational withdrawal behaviors. These are negative counterproductive behaviours aiming to damage the organisation according to the principle of reciprocity and social exchange. We present an integrative model of the determinants and manifestations of organizational withdrawal (OW), a set of behaviors allowing the employee to leave his job or avoid his assigned work. OW contains two main components often studied in silos: work withdrawal (delays, absenteeism and other adverse behaviors) and job withdrawal (turnover). We use the systemic micro, meso and macro sociological approach designing the individual at the heart of a system containing individual, organizational, and environmental determinants. Under the influence of these different factors, the individual assesses the type of behavior to adopt. We provide better lighting for understanding OW using both psychological contract approach through the perception of its respect by the organization and job embeddedness approach which explains why the employee does not leave the organization and then remains in his post while practicing negative and counterproductive behaviors such as OW. We study specifically cynicism as a type of OW as it is a dimension of burnout. We focus on the antecedents of cynicism to try to prevent it in the workplace.

Keywords: burnout, cynicism, job embeddedness, organizational withdrawal, psychological contract

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7343 Examining the Antecedents and Consequences of Work-Family Enrichment

Authors: Rujuta Matapurkar, Shivganesh Bhargava

Abstract:

This paper discusses work-family enrichment and its relationship with certain antecedents and outcomes while considering effect of mindfulness and organizational pride as moderators. The work-family enrichment has been the topic of interest for researchers as well as practitioners for decades now. It focusses on the positive side of work family interaction rather that the scarcity or balance principle. Research shows that work family enrichment is linked to multiple work place outcomes like job satisfaction, organization citizenship behavior and turnover intention. Enrichment is also linked to life outcomes like life satisfaction, wellbeing. Thus not only the individuals but the organizations too want to engage in the activities resulting in the positive spillover between work and non-work domains. One of the recent focus areas in organization behavior literature has been Mindfulness. Mindfulness is defined as a trait or state in which the mind focuses on the present. It is the conscious attention and awareness of the present thought. The research in the area of mindfulness at work suggests that the same is related to work family balance and job satisfaction. This paper discusses the possibility of mindfulness having effect on the relationship between antecedents of enrichment and enrichment. On the outcome side job embeddedness and job ambivalence are the newest additions to the retention literature. Job ambivalence talks about having strong positive as well as negative feelings about the job. Job ambivalence is the work outcome which is linked to turnover intention. This paper talks about the relationship between enrichment and job ambivalence. Another measure for work place outcomes which is discussed in recent research is job embeddedness. This term talks about the advantages of continuing with the job rather than quitting it. It is described as like a net or a web in which an individual can become stuck and is focused on why people stay rather than on how they leave. The research has have found that establishing or increasing job embeddedness is likely to increase retention, attendance, citizenship and job performance. This paper studies the relationship between enrichment and embeddedness. Lastly this paper studies whether organizational pride has an an effect on the relationship between enrichment and its outcomes. This paper concludes with the direction for future research.

Keywords: work-family enrichment, mindfulness, job ambivalence, job embeddedness, organizational pride

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7342 Support for and Participation in 'Spontaneous' Mass Protest in Iceland: The Moderating Effects of Biographical Availability, Critical Mass, and Social Embeddedness

Authors: Jon Gunnar Bernburg

Abstract:

The present study addresses a topic that is fundamental to social movement theory, namely, the contingent link between movement support and movement participation. Usually, only a small fraction of those who agree with the cause of a social movement is mobilized into participating in it (a pattern sometimes referred to as 'the collective action problem'). However, historical moments sometimes emerge when many supporters become mobilized to participate in the movement, greatly enhancing the chance of movement success. By studying a case in point, this paper addresses the limited work on how support and participation are related at such critical moments. Specifically, the paper examines the association between supporting and participating in a huge 'pro-democracy' protest in Iceland in April 2016, in the wake of the global Panama Papers scandal. Organized via social media by only a handful of activists, but supported by a majority of Icelanders, the protest attracted about a fourth of the urban population, leading to a snap election and government change. Surveying Iceland’s urban population, this paper tests hypotheses about the processes mobilizing supporters to participate in the protest. The findings reveal how variables derived from the theories of biographical availability (males vs. females, working class vs. professionals), critical mass (expectations, prior protest success), and social embeddedness (close ties with protesters) moderate the association between protest support and participation. The study helps to account for one of the largest protests in Iceland’s history while contributing to the theory about how historical contexts shape the behavior of movement supporters.

Keywords: Iceland, crisis, protest support vs. participation, theories of mass mobilization

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7341 The Impact of Research and Development Cooperation Partner Diversity, Knowledge Source Diversity and Knowledge Source Network Embeddedness on Radical Innovation: Direct Relationships and Interaction with Non-Price Competition

Authors: Natalia Strobel, Jan Kratzer

Abstract:

In this paper, we test whether different types of research and development (R&D) alliances positively impact the radical innovation performance of firms. We differentiate between the R&D alliances without extern R&D orders and embeddedness in knowledge source network. We test the differences between the domestically diversified R&D alliances and R&D alliances diversified abroad. Moreover, we test how non-price competition influences the impact of domestically diversified R&D alliances, and R&D alliance diversified abroad on radical innovation performance. Our empirical analysis is based on the comprehensive Swiss innovation panel, which allowed us to study 3520 firms between the years between 1996 and 2011 in 3 years intervals. We analyzed the data with a linear estimation with Swamy-Aurora transformation using plm package in R software. Our results show as hypothesized a positive impact of R&D alliances diversity abroad as well as domestically on radical innovation performance. The effect of non-price interaction is in contrast to our hypothesis, not significant. This suggests that diversity of R&D alliances is highly advantageous independent of non-price competition.

Keywords: R&D alliances, partner diversity, knowledge source diversity, non-price competition, absorptive capacity

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7340 De-Commoditisation of Food: How Organic Farmers from the Madrid Region Reconnect Products and Places through Web Marketing

Authors: Salvatore Pinna

Abstract:

The growth of organic farming practices in the last few decades is continuing to stimulate the international debate about this alternative food market. As a part of a PhD project research about embeddedness in Alternative Food Networks (AFNs), this paper focuses on the promotional aspects of organic farms websites from the Madrid region. As a theoretical tool, some knowledge categories drawn on the geographic studies literature are used to classify the many ideas expressed in the web pages. By analysing texts and pictures of 30 websites, the study aims to question how and to what extent actors from organic world communicate to the potential customers their personal beliefs about farming practices, products qualities, and ecological and social benefits. Moreover, the paper raises the question of whether organic farming laws and regulations lack of completeness about the social and cultural aspects of food.

Keywords: alternative food networks, de-commoditisation, organic farming, madrid, reconnection of food

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7339 Research Networks and Knowledge Sharing: An Exploratory Study of Aquaculture in Europe

Authors: Zeta Dooly, Aidan Duane

Abstract:

The collaborative European funded research and development landscape provides prime environmental conditions for multi-disciplinary teams to learn and enhance their knowledge beyond the capability of training and learning within their own organisation cocoons. Whilst the emergence of the academic entrepreneur has changed the focus of educational institutions to that of quasi-businesses, the training and professional development of lecturers and academic staff are often not formalised to the same level as industry. This research focuses on industry and academic collaborative research funded by the European Commission. The impact of research is scalable if an optimum research network is created and managed effectively. This paper investigates network embeddedness, the nature of relationships, links, and nodes within a research network, and the enhancement of the network’s knowledge. The contribution of this paper extends our understanding of establishing and maintaining effective collaborative research networks. The effects of network embeddedness are recognized in the literature as pertinent to innovation and the economy. Network theory literature claims that networks are essential to innovative clusters such as Silicon valley and innovation in high tech industries. This research provides evidence to support the impact collaborative research has on the disparate individuals toward their innovative contributions to their organisations and their own professional development. This study adopts a qualitative approach and uncovers some of the challenges of multi-disciplinary research through case study insights. The contribution of this paper recommends the establishment of scaffolding to accommodate cooperation in research networks, role appointment, and addressing contextual complexities early to avoid problem cultivation. Furthermore, it suggests recommendations in relation to network formation, intra-network challenges in relation to open data, competition, friendships, and competency enhancement. The network capability is enhanced by the adoption of the relevant theories; network theory, open innovation, and social exchange, with the understanding that the network structure has an impact on innovation and social exchange in research networks. The research concludes that there is an opportunity to deepen our understanding of the impact of network reuse and network hoping that provides scaffolding for the network members to enhance and build upon their knowledge using a progressive approach.

Keywords: research networks, competency building, network theory, case study

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7338 A Review of Existing Turnover Intention Theories

Authors: Pauline E. Ngo-Henha

Abstract:

Existing turnover intention theories are reviewed in this paper. This review was conducted with the help of the search keyword “turnover intention theories” in Google Scholar during the month of July 2017. These theories include: The Theory of Organizational Equilibrium (TOE), Social Exchange Theory, Job Embeddedness Theory, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, the Resource-Based View, Equity Theory, Human Capital Theory, and the Expectancy Theory. One of the limitations of this review paper is that data were only collected from Google Scholar where many papers were sometimes not freely accessible. However, this paper attempts to contribute to the research in clarifying the distinction between theories and models in the context of turnover intention.

Keywords: Literature Review, Theory, Turnover, Turnover intention

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7337 Japan as a Tourism Nation: Emerging Immigrant Entrepreneurship in the Tourism Sector of Kyoto

Authors: Szabó Renáta Andrea

Abstract:

In 2012 Japan created a new plan in order to become a tourism nation. The number of foreign tourists rises rapidly year by year, and with the upcoming Olympics in 2020, tourism turned into a prioritized national strategy. This paper offers a new perspective of tourism research: instead of focusing on the host nation or the inbound tourists, it represents an emerging in-between group: foreign entrepreneur residents. Despite the fact that Japan continuously scores as one of the lowest in East and South Asia related to entrepreneurial activity, in recent years, the activity of foreign entrepreneur residents is on the rise. This study is focused on Kyoto - the former capital of Japan and a popular tourist destination - and applies the mixed embeddedness model, which was used to understand this new phenomena and explore this emerging mediator group between locals and foreign tourists. Immigrant entrepreneurship is often related to a disadvantageous situation, and the businesses are introduced as the sole purpose of making a profit. The study seeks to argue with this point of view and augment the standard approaches to immigrant entrepreneurship. The findings introduce the key factors of this lifestyle choice besides profit and present how entrepreneurship is becoming an escape route to avoid standard working environment while living in Japan. It also shows the gap in the visa system and raises awareness about the emerging trend.

Keywords: immigrant entrepreneurship, Japan, lifestyle entrepreneurship, mixed embeddedness model, tourism

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7336 A Randomised Controlled Trial and Process Evaluation of the Lifestart Parenting Programme

Authors: Sharon Millen, Sarah Miller, Laura Dunne, Clare McGeady, Laura Neeson

Abstract:

This paper presents the findings from a randomised controlled trial (RCT) and process evaluation of the Lifestart parenting programme. Lifestart is a structured child-centred programme of information and practical activity for parents of children aged from birth to five years of age. It is delivered to parents in their own homes by trained, paid family visitors and it is offered to parents regardless of their social, economic or other circumstances. The RCT evaluated the effectiveness of the programme and the process evaluation documented programme delivery and included a qualitative exploration of parent and child outcomes. 424 parents and children participated in the RCT: 216 in the intervention group and 208 in the control group across the island of Ireland. Parent outcomes included: parental knowledge of child development, parental efficacy, stress, social support, parenting skills and embeddedness in the community. Child outcomes included cognitive, language and motor development and social-emotional and behavioural development. Both groups were tested at baseline (when children were less than 1 year old), mid-point (aged 3) and at post-test (aged 5). Data were collected during a home visit, which took two hours. The process evaluation consisted of interviews with parents (n=16 at baseline and end-point), and focus groups with Lifestart Coordinators (n=9) and Family Visitors (n=24). Quantitative findings from the RCT indicated that, compared to the control group, parents who received the Lifestart programme reported reduced parenting-related stress, increased knowledge of their child’s development, and improved confidence in their parenting role. These changes were statistically significant and consistent with the hypothesised pathway of change depicted in the logic model. There was no evidence of any change in parents’ embeddedness in the community. Although four of the five child outcomes showed small positive change for children who took part in the programme, these were not statistically significant and there is no evidence that the programme improves child cognitive and non-cognitive skills by immediate post-test. The qualitative process evaluation highlighted important challenges related to conducting trials of this magnitude and design in the general population. Parents reported that a key incentive to take part in study was receiving feedback from the developmental assessment, which formed part of the data collection. This highlights the potential importance of appropriate incentives in relation to recruitment and retention of participants. The interviews with intervention parents indicated that one of the first changes they experienced as a result of the Lifestart programme was increased knowledge and confidence in their parenting ability. The outcomes and pathways perceived by parents and described in the interviews are also consistent with the findings of the RCT and the theory of change underpinning the programme. This hypothesises that improvement in parental outcomes, arising as a consequence of the programme, mediate the change in child outcomes. Parents receiving the Lifestart programme reported great satisfaction with and commitment to the programme, with the role of the Family Visitor being identified as one of the key components of the programme.

Keywords: parent-child relationship, parental self-efficacy, parental stress, school readiness

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7335 The Impact of Neighborhood Effects on the Economic Mobility of the Inhabitants of Three Segregated Communities in Salvador (Brazil)

Authors: Stephan Treuke

Abstract:

The paper analyses the neighbourhood effects on the economic mobility of the inhabitants of three segregated communities of Salvador (Brazil), in other words, the socio-economic advantages and disadvantages affecting the lives of poor people due to their embeddedness in specific socio-residential contexts. Recent studies performed in Brazilian metropolis have concentrated on the structural dimensions of negative externalities in order to explain neighbourhood-level variations in a field of different phenomena (delinquency, violence, access to the labour market and education) in spatial isolated and socially homogeneous slum areas (favelas). However, major disagreement remains whether the contiguity between residents of poor neighbourhoods and higher-class condominio-dwellers provides structures of opportunities or whether it fosters socio-spatial stigmatization. Based on a set of interviews, investigating the variability of interpersonal networks and their activation in the struggle for economic inclusion, the study confirms that the proximity of Nordeste de Amaralina to middle-/upper-class communities affects positively the access to labour opportunities. Nevertheless, residential stigmatization, as well as structures of social segmentation, annihilate these potentials. The lack of exposition to individuals and groups extrapolating from the favela’s social, educational and cultural context restricts the structures of opportunities to local level. Therefore, residents´ interpersonal networks reveal a high degree of redundancy and localism, based on bonding ties connecting family and neighbourhood members. The resilience of segregational structures in Plataforma contributes to the naturalization of social distance patters. It’s embeddedness in a socially homogeneous residential area (Subúrbio Ferroviário), growing informally and beyond official urban politics, encourages the construction of isotopic patterns of sociability, sharing the same values, social preferences, perspectives and behaviour models. Whereas it’s spatial isolation correlates with the scarcity of economic opportunities, the social heterogeneity of Fazenda Grande II interviewees and the socialising effects of public institutions mitigate the negative repercussions of segregation. The networks’ composition admits a higher degree of heterophilia and a greater proportion of bridging ties accounting for the access to broader information actives and facilitating economic mobility. The variability observed within the three different scenarios urges to reflect about the responsability of urban politics when it comes to the prevention or consolidation of the social segregation process in Salvador. Instead of promoting the local development of the favela Plataforma, public housing programs priorize technocratic habitational solutions without providing the residents’ socio-economic integration. The impact of negative externalities related to the homogeneously poor neighbourhood is potencialized in peripheral areas, turning its’ inhabitants socially invisible, thus being isolated from other social groups. The example of Nordeste de Amaralina portrays the failing interest of urban politics to bridge the social distances structuring the brazilian society’s rigid stratification model, founded on mecanisms of segmentation (unequal access to labour market and education system, public transport, social security and law protection) and generating permanent conflicts between the two socioeconomically distant groups living in geographic contiguity. Finally, in the case of Fazenda Grande II, the public investments in both housing projects and complementary infrastructure (e.g. schools, hospitals, community center, police stations, recreation areas) contributes to the residents’ socio-economic inclusion.

Keywords: economic mobility, neighborhood effects, Salvador, segregation

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7334 Social Entrepreneurship: When Social Innovation Is Driven by Value Creation

Authors: Zeinab Hmama, Majda Alaoui

Abstract:

Social entrepreneurship is seen as a response to social problem. The literature on social entrepreneurship highlights two elements: social value creation and economic value creation. The creation of social value is a process that results from the creation of a value with 'value' for society that leads to a social change. However, theoretical thoughts consider that social value is a multidimensional concept that is difficult to define. Many definitions of social value and social change have been proposed. Most of these definitions use financial and economic value to justify the social value created. As a result, social value is often identified in monetary value. Referring to the economic concept to explain social value is not a false approach but limits the understanding of the creation of social value and reduces exploration of opportunities and analysis of other facets of this value. In this article, we explore the dimensions of social entrepreneurship and try to better understand the concept of social value based on the different visions conveyed in the literature.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, social impact, social change, measurement, social value, social problem, value creation

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7333 Transnational Migration of Sports Workers from Africa to Foreign Countries: The Impact of their Assistance to the Domestic Community Through their Socioeconomic Choices of Action

Authors: Ernest Yeboah Acheampong, Malek Bouhaouala, Michel Raspaud

Abstract:

Studies on African sport workers’ migration have given less attention to examining the extent to which the individual (sports workers) contributes to a socio-economic development of their domestic communities. The decision to support or not to support can also have a debilitating effect on the domestic communities. This article therefore, analyses the choices of action of these actors with an exact focus on footballers to the domestic community. This exploratory survey focuses on 13 UEFA countries leagues of footballers from 43 African countries, including seventeen interviews and four autobiographies of the players. Max Weber theory of individual subjectivity can underpin their decisions making processes to either offer assistance or not to their locales. This study revealed some players closed relationships, particularly those raised in the typical locales as they often provide support via projects like building hospitals, schools, sporting facilities, health centres, and scholarship schemes among others. While others shown commitment and readiness to offer assistance, touch livelihood, and promote social development based on their lived experiences abroad. With many lamenting against lack of support from local and national authorities as disincentive to do more yet committed to the cause of the society. This article can conclude that football athletes logics of action depend on the individual values and conceptions from evidence of their socio-economic projects, as well as social embeddedness in the locality

Keywords: choices of action, domestic development, footballers, transnational migration

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7332 The Differentiation of Performances among Immigrant Entrepreneurs: A Biographical Approach

Authors: Daniela Gnarini

Abstract:

This paper aims to contribute to the field of immigrants' entrepreneurial performance. The debate on immigrant entrepreneurship has been dominated by cultural explanations, which argue that immigrants’ entrepreneurial results are linked to groups’ characteristics. However, this approach does not consider important dimensions that influence entrepreneurial performances. Furthermore, cultural theories do not take into account the huge differences in performances also within the same ethnic group. For these reason, this study adopts a biographical approach, both at theoretical and at methodological level, which can allow to understand the main aspects that make the difference in immigrants' entrepreneurial performances, by exploring the narratives of immigrant entrepreneurs, who operate in the restaurant sector in two different Italian metropolitan areas: Milan and Rome. Through the qualitative method of biographical interviews, this study analyses four main dimensions and their combinations: a) individuals' entrepreneurial and migratory path: this aspect is particularly relevant to understand the biographical resources of immigrant entrepreneurs and their change and evolution during time; b) entrepreneurs' social capital, with a particular focus on their networks, through the adoption of a transnational perspective, that takes into account both the local level and the transnational connections. This study highlights that, though entrepreneurs’ connections are significant, especially as far as those with family members are concerned, often their entrepreneurial path assumes an individualised trajectory. c) Entrepreneurs' human capital, including both formal education and skills acquired through informal channels. The latter are particularly relevant since in the interviews and data collected the role of informal transmission emerges. d) Embeddedness within the social, political and economic context, to understand the main constraints and opportunities both at local and national level. The comparison between two different metropolitan areas within the same country helps to understand this dimension.

Keywords: biographies, immigrant entrepreneurs, life stories, performance

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7331 Anti-Social Media: Implications of Social Media in the Form of Stressors on Our Daily Lives

Authors: Aimen Batool Bint-E-Rashid, Huma Irfan

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate the role of social media (Snapchat, Facebook, Twitter, etc.) in our daily lives and its implication on our everyday routine in the form of stressors. The study has been validated by a social media survey with 150 social media users belonging to various age groups. The study explores how social media can make an individual anti-social in his or her life offline. To explain the phenomenon, we have proposed and evaluated a model based on social media usage and stressors including burnout and social overload. Results, through correlation and regression tests, have revealed that with increase in social media usage, social overload and burnout also increases. Evidence for the fact that excessive social media usage causes social overload and burnout has been provided in the study.

Keywords: burnout, emotional exhaustion, fatigue, stressors, social networking, social media, social overload

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7330 Relationships between Social Entrepreneurship, CSR and Social Innovation: In Theory and Practice

Authors: Krisztina Szegedi, Gyula Fülöp, Ádám Bereczk

Abstract:

The shared goal of social entrepreneurship, corporate social responsibility and social innovation is the advancement of society. The business model of social enterprises is characterized by unique strategies based on the competencies of the entrepreneurs, and is not aimed primarily at the maximization of profits, but rather at carrying out goals for the benefit of society. Corporate social responsibility refers to the active behavior of a company, by which it can create new solutions to meet the needs of society, either on its own or in cooperation with other social stakeholders. The objectives of this article are to define concepts, describe and integrate relevant theoretical models, develop a model and introduce some examples of international practice that can inspire initiatives for social development.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, CSR, social innovation, social entrepreneurship

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7329 Organizational Ideologies and Their Embeddedness in Fashion Show Productions in Shanghai and London Fashion Week: International-Based-Chinese Independent Designers' Participatory Behaviors in Different Fashion Cities

Authors: Zhe Wang

Abstract:

The fashion week, as a critical international fashion event in shaping world fashion cities, is one of the most significant world events that serves as the core medium for designers to stage new collections. However, its role in bringing about and shaping design ideologies of major fashion cities have long been neglected from a fashion ecosystem perspective. With the expanding scale of international fashion weeks in terms of culture and commerce, the organizational structures of these fashion weeks are becoming more complex. In the emerging fashion city, typified by Shanghai, a newly-formed 'hodgepodge' transforming the current global fashion ecosystem. A city’s legitimate fashion institutions, typically the organizers of international fashion weeks, have cultivated various cultural characteristics via rules and regulations pertaining to international fashion weeks. Under these circumstances, designers’ participatory behaviors, specifically show design and production, are influenced by the cultural ideologies of official organizers and institutions. This research compares international based Chinese (IBC) independent designers’ participatory behavior in London and Shanghai Fashion Weeks: specifically, the way designers present their clothing and show production. both of which are found to be profoundly influenced by cultural and design ideologies of fashion weeks. They are, to a large degree, manipulated by domestic institutions and organizers. Shanghai fashion week has given rise to a multiple, mass-ended entertainment carnival design and cultural ideology in Shanghai, thereby impacting the explicit cultural codes or intangible rules that IBC designers must adhere to when designing and producing fashion shows. Therefore, influenced by various cultural characteristics in the two cities, IBC designers’ show design and productions, in turn, play an increasingly vital role in shaping the design characteristic of an international fashion week. Through researching the organizational systems and design preferences of organizers of London and Shanghai fashion weeks, this paper demonstrates the embeddedness of design systems in the forming of design ideologies under various cultural and institutional contexts. The core methodology utilized in this research is ethnography. As a crucial part of a Ph.D. project on innovations in fashion shows under a cross-cultural context run by Edinburgh College of Art, School of Design, the fashion week’s organizational culture in various cultural contexts is investigated in London and Shanghai for approximately six months respectively. Two IBC designers, Angel Chen and Xuzhi Chen were followed during their participation of London and Shanghai Fashion Weeks from September 2016 to June 2017, during which two consecutive seasons were researched in order to verify the consistency of design ideologies’ associations with organizational system and culture.

Keywords: institutional ideologies, international fashion weeks, IBC independent designers; fashion show

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7328 Orientation towards Social Entrepreneurship-Prioritary: Givens for Overcoming Social Inequality

Authors: Revaz Gvelesiani

Abstract:

Nowadays, social inequality increasingly strengthens the trend from business entrepreneurship to social entrepreneurship. It can be said that business entrepreneurs, according to their interests, move towards social entrepreneurship. Effectively operating markets create mechanisms, which lead to 'good' behavior. This is the most important feature of the rationally functioning society. As for the prospects of social entrepreneurship, expansion of entrepreneurship concept at the social arena may lead to such an outcome, when people who are skeptical about business, become more open towards entrepreneurship as a type of activity. This is the way which by means of increased participation in entrepreneurship promotes fair distribution of wealth. Today 'entrepreneurship for all' is still a dream, although the one, which may come true.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, business entrepreneurship, functions of entrepreneurship, social inequality, social interests, interest groups, interest conflicts

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7327 Cultivating Students’ Competences through Social Innovation Education

Authors: Ioanna Garefi, Irene Kalemaki

Abstract:

Education is not solely about preparing young people for the world of work but also about equipping them with competences that will enable them to become socially proactive, empowered, responsible, and engaged citizens who will collectively contribute to and benefit from an inclusive and sustainable future. Hence, progress assessment towards competence development is an ongoing process where continuous efforts are needed. This paper abstract presents the work of the H2020 NEMESIS project that aims to investigate, experiment and co-create together with schools a model for introducing and embedding social innovation education (SIE henceforth) in European primary and secondary schools. All in all, during the 2018-2019 academic year, 8 schools from 5 European countries involving 56 teachers, 1030 students, and 80 external stakeholders, experimented with different methodologies for embedding SIE in their contexts. This paper captures briefly the impact of these efforts towards the cultivation and progression of students’ social innovation (SI henceforth) competences. As part of the model, 14 SI competences, whose progress was evaluated, have been introduced falling under 3 interrelated categories: competences for identifying opportunities for social and collective value creation, competences for developing collaborations and building meaningful relations and competences for taking action both on an individual and collective level. Methodologically wise, the evaluation strategy employed was informed by a realist approach, enabling the researchers to go beyond synthesizing 'what happened' and towards understanding 'why it happened', delving into ‘what works, for whom and in what circumstances’. The reason for choosing such an approach was because it goes beyond attempting to answer the basic yes or no question of evaluation and focus on an ‘explanatory quest’ tracing the limits of when and where intervention is effective. A rich mix of sources of evidence have been employed, from focus groups with 80 people from the 5 EU countries to an online survey to 206 students, classroom observations, students’ narratives granting them with the opportunity to freely express their opinions, short stories letting students express their feelings through their imagination and also, drawings so that younger children can express their perception of reality. All these evidences offered insights on the impact of SIE on the development of students’ competences. Research findings showed that students progressed in all 14 SI competences through their involvement in the different activities. This positive progression is attributed to the model’s three core principles: 1) the student-centered approach, rendering students active and self-determined producers of their own learning, 2) the co-creation process fostering intergenerational interactions, empowering thus students by making their voices heard and valued and also, 3) the transformative social action whereby through their projects, students are able to witness the impact they are bringing about with their actions. Concluding, these initial findings, together with the forthcoming evaluation research to a pool of 30 schools around Europe, have the potential to raise the dynamics of the under-investigated field of SIE and encourage its embeddedness in more schools around Europe.

Keywords: competence development, education, social innovation, students

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7326 Social Business: Opportunities and Challenges

Authors: Muhammad Mustafizur Rahaman

Abstract:

Social business is a new concept in the field of Business Economics and Capitalist Economy. It has increased the importance in economic and social development in emerging economies. Professor Muhammad Yunus is the founding father of the notion. While conventional business underscores profit maximization as a core business principle, social business calls for addressing social problems at the expense of profit. This underlying principle gives social business advantageous position over conventional businesses to serve those who live at the bottom of the pyramid. It also poses grave challenges to the social business because social business sacrifices profit at one hand and seeks financial sustainability on the other. For the sake of its financial sustainability, the social business might increase the price of its product or service which might lower its social impact, thus, makes the business self-defeating. Therefore, social business should be more innovative in every business process including production, marketing, and management. Otherwise, the business is unlikely to be driven out from the society.

Keywords: innovativeness, self-defeat, social business, social problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 515
7325 Determinants of Internationalization of Social Enterprises: A 20-Year Review

Authors: Xiaoqing Li

Abstract:

Social entrepreneurship drives the global movement as social enterprises create best ways to satisfy social needs through connecting international resources. However, what determines social enterprises to internationalize is underexplored. This study aims to answer this question by conducting a systematic review of studies of past 20 years on social enterprises' internationalization. Findings reveal that factors at the individual (entrepreneur), firm, and environment (home and host country) levels determine the degree of social enterprises' internationalization. Future research is challenged by: a. adopting an integrated approach examining the three levels to explain social enterprises' internationalization; b. the different nature of social enterprises from commercial businesses demands scholars to refine and develop appropriate theoretical models to capture the dynamism of social enterprises' internationalization behavior.

Keywords: determinants, entrepreneurship, internationalization, social enterprises

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7324 Social Business Models: When Profits and Impacts Are Not at Odds

Authors: Elisa Pautasso, Matteo Castagno, Michele Osella

Abstract:

In the last decade, the emergence of new social needs as an effect of the economic crisis has stimulated the flourishing of business endeavours characterised by explicit social goals. Social start-ups, social enterprises or Corporate Social Responsibility operations carried out by traditional companies are quintessential examples in this regard. This paper analyses these kinds of initiatives in order to discover the main characteristics of social business models and to provide insights to social entrepreneurs for developing or improving their strategies. The research is conducted through the integration of literature review and case study analysis and, thanks to the recognition of the importance of both profits and social impacts as the key success factors for a social business model, proposes a framework for identifying indicators suitable for measuring the social impacts generated.

Keywords: business model, case study, impacts, social business

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7323 The Effectiveness of Social Story with the Help Smart Board use to Teach Social Skills for Preschool Children with ASD

Authors: Dilay Akgun Giray

Abstract:

Basic insuffiency spaces of ASD diagnosed individuals can be grouped as cognitive and academic characteristics, communicational characteristics, social characteristics and emotional characteristics. Referring to the features that children with ASD exhibit on social events, it is clear they have limitations for several social skills. One of the evidence based practices which has been developed and used for the limitations of definite social skills for individuals with autism is “Social Story Method”. Social stories was designed and applied for the first time in 1991, a special education teacher, in order to acquire social skills and improve the existing social skills for children with ASD. Many studies have revealed the effectiveness of social stories for teaching the social skills to individuals with ASD. In this study, three social skills that the child ,who was diagnosed ASD, is going to need primarily will be studied with smart board. This study is multiple probe across-behavior design which is one of the single subject research models.

Keywords: authism spectrum disorders, social skills, social story, smart board

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7322 Social Structure, Involuntary Relations and Urban Poverty

Authors: Mahmood Niroobakhsh

Abstract:

This article deals with special structuralism approaches to explain a certain kind of social problem. Widespread presence of poverty is a reminder of deep-rooted unresolved problems of social relations. The expected role from an individual for the social system recognizes poverty derived from an interrelated social structure. By the time, enabled to act on his role in the course of social interaction, reintegration of the poor in society may take place. Poverty and housing type are reflections of the underlying social structure, primarily structure’s elements, systemic interrelations, and the overall strength or weakness of that structure. Poverty varies based on social structure in that the stronger structures are less likely to produce poverty.

Keywords: absolute poverty, relative poverty, social structure, urban poverty

Procedia PDF Downloads 566
7321 The Journey to Social Entrepreneurship: Profile Analysis of Social Enterprises in Morocco

Authors: Zeinab Hmama

Abstract:

Much recent discourse has highlighted the supporting role of social entrepreneurs in solving social problems. However, the identification of social enterprise’s characteristics in emerging countries has not yet been thoroughly examined. This research seeks to explores the profile of social enterprises in Morocco. In this perspective, we conduct a quantitative study on a sample of 87 social enterprises. This study was undertaken in Morocco based on a quantitative study lead among sample consists of 82 organizations qualified as social enterprises. Therefore, the response rate was 45.12% (37/82). Participants in the study were described on the basis of the following demographic characteristics: Gender, Age, Education Level and field, Entrepreneurial activity age, Legal forms, Line of business.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, social enterprise, problem resolution, value creation

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7320 Corporate Social Media: Understanding the Impact of Service Quality and Social Value on Customer Behavior

Authors: Regina Connolly, Murray Scott, William DeLone

Abstract:

Social media are revolutionary technologies that are transforming the way we communicate, the way we collaborate and the way we influence. Companies are making major investments in platforms such as Facebook and Twitter because they realize that social media are an influential force on customer perceptions and behavior. However, to date there is little guidance on what constitutes an effective deployment of social media and there is no empirical evidence that social medial investments are yielding positive returns. This research develops and validates the components of an effective corporate social media platform in order to examine the impact of effective social media on customer intentions and behavior.

Keywords: service quality, social value, social media, IS success, Web 2.0, customer behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 439