Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5572

Search results for: tacit knowledge

5572 Understanding Tacit Knowledge and Its Role in Military Organizations: Methods of Managing Tacit Knowledge

Authors: M. Erhan Orhan, Onur Ozdemir


Expansion of area of operation and increasing diversity of threats forced the military organizations to change in many ways. However, tacit knowledge still is the most fundamental component of organizational knowledge. Since it is human oriented and in warfare human stands at the core of the organization. Therefore, military organizations should find effective ways of systematically utilizing tacit knowledge. In this context, this article suggest some methods for turning tacit knowledge into explicit in military organizations.

Keywords: tacit knowledge, military, knowledge management, warfare, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
5571 The Effectiveness of Exchange of Tacit and Explicit Knowledge Using Digital and Face to Face Sharing

Authors: Delio I. Castaneda, Paul Toulson


The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge sharing effectiveness of two types of knowledge, tacit and explicit, depending on two channels: face to face or digital. Participants were 217 knowledge workers in New Zealand and researchers who attended a knowledge management conference in the United Kingdom. In the study, it was found that digital tools are effective to share explicit knowledge. In addition, digital tools that facilitated dialogue were effective to share tacit knowledge. It was also found that face to face communication was an effective way to share tacit and explicit knowledge. Results of this study contribute to clarify in what cases digital tools are effective to share tacit knowledge. Additionally, even though explicit knowledge can be easily shared using digital tools, this type of knowledge is also possible to be shared through dialogue. Result of this study may support practitioners to redesign programs and activities based on knowledge sharing to make strategies more effective.

Keywords: digital knowledge, explicit knowledge, knowledge sharing, tacit knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
5570 Active Development of Tacit Knowledge Using Social Media and Learning Communities

Authors: John Zanetich


This paper uses a pragmatic research approach to investigate the relationships between Active Development of Tacit Knowledge (ADTK), social media (Facebook) and classroom learning communities. This paper investigates the use of learning communities and social media as the context and means for changing tacit knowledge to explicit and presents a dynamic model of the development of a classroom learning community. The goal of this study is to identify the point that explicit knowledge is converted to tacit knowledge and to test a way to quantify the exchange using social media and learning communities.

Keywords: tacit knowledge, knowledge management, college programs, experiential learning, learning communities

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
5569 The Effect of Tacit Knowledge for Intelligence Cycle

Authors: Bahadir Aydin


It is difficult to access accurate knowledge because of mass data. This huge data make environment more and more caotic. Data are main piller of intelligence. The affiliation between intelligence and knowledge is quite significant to understand underlying truths. The data gathered from different sources can be modified, interpreted and classified by using intelligence cycle process. This process is applied in order to progress to wisdom as well as intelligence. Within this process the effect of tacit knowledge is crucial. Knowledge which is classified as explicit and tacit knowledge is the key element for any purpose. Tacit knowledge can be seen as "the tip of the iceberg”. This tacit knowledge accounts for much more than we guess in all intelligence cycle. If the concept of intelligence cycle is scrutinized, it can be seen that it contains risks, threats as well as success. The main purpose of all organizations is to be successful by eliminating risks and threats. Therefore, there is a need to connect or fuse existing information and the processes which can be used to develop it. Thanks to this process the decision-makers can be presented with a clear holistic understanding, as early as possible in the decision making process. Altering from the current traditional reactive approach to a proactive intelligence cycle approach would reduce extensive duplication of work in the organization. Applying new result-oriented cycle and tacit knowledge intelligence can be procured and utilized more effectively and timely.

Keywords: information, intelligence cycle, knowledge, tacit Knowledge

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5568 Understanding Tacit Knowledge and DIKW

Authors: Bahadir Aydin


Today it is difficult to reach accurate knowledge because of mass data. This huge data makes the environment more and more caotic. Data is a main piller of intelligence. There is a close tie between knowledge and intelligence. Information gathered from different sources can be modified, interpreted and classified by using knowledge development process. This process is applied in order to attain intelligence. Within this process the effect of knowledge is crucial. Knowledge is classified as explicit and tacit knowledge. Tacit knowledge can be seen as "only the tip of the iceberg”. This tacit knowledge accounts for much more than we guess in all intelligence cycle. If the concept of intelligence scrutinized, it can be seen that it contains risks, threats as well as success. The main purpose for all organization is to be succesful by eliminating risks and threats. Therefore, there is a need to connect or fuse existing information and the processes which can be used to develop it. By the help of process the decision-maker can be presented with a clear holistic understanding, as early as possible in the decision making process. Planning, execution and assessments are the key functions that connects to information to knowledge. Altering from the current traditional reactive approach to a proactive knowledge development approach would reduce extensive duplication of work in the organization. By new approach to this process, knowledge can be used more effectively.

Keywords: knowledge, intelligence cycle, tacit knowledge, KIDW

Procedia PDF Downloads 440
5567 Sharing Tacit Knowledge: The Essence of Knowledge Management

Authors: Ayesha Khatun


In 21st century where markets are unstable, technologies rapidly proliferate, competitors multiply, products and services become obsolete almost overnight and customers demand low cost high value product, leveraging and harnessing knowledge is not just a potential source of competitive advantage rather a necessity in technology based and information intensive industries. Knowledge management focuses on leveraging the available knowledge and sharing the same among the individuals in the organization so that the employees can make best use of it towards achieving the organizational goals. Knowledge is not a discrete object. It is embedded in people and so difficult to transfer outside the immediate context that it becomes a major competitive advantage. However, internal transfer of knowledge among the employees is essential to maximize the use of knowledge available in the organization in an unstructured manner. But as knowledge is the source of competitive advantage for the organization it is also the source of competitive advantage for the individuals. People think that knowledge is power and sharing the same may lead to lose the competitive position. Moreover, the very nature of tacit knowledge poses many difficulties in sharing the same. But sharing tacit knowledge is the vital part of knowledge management process because it is the tacit knowledge which is inimitable. Knowledge management has been made synonymous with the use of software and technology leading to the management of explicit knowledge only ignoring personal interaction and forming of informal networks which are considered as the most successful means of sharing tacit knowledge. Factors responsible for effective sharing of tacit knowledge are grouped into –individual, organizational and technological factors. Different factors under each category have been identified. Creating a positive organizational culture, encouraging personal interaction, practicing reward system are some of the strategies that can help to overcome many of the barriers to effective sharing of tacit knowledge. Methodology applied here is completely secondary. Extensive review of relevant literature has been undertaken for the purpose.

Keywords: knowledge, tacit knowledge, knowledge management, sustainable competitive advantage, organization, knowledge sharing

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5566 Ontology as Knowledge Capture Tool in Organizations: A Literature Review

Authors: Maria Margaretha, Dana Indra Sensuse, Lukman


Knowledge capture is a step in knowledge life cycle to get knowledge in the organization. Tacit and explicit knowledge are needed to organize in a path, so the organization will be easy to choose which knowledge will be use. There are many challenges to capture knowledge in the organization, such as researcher must know which knowledge has been validated by an expert, how to get tacit knowledge from experts and make it explicit knowledge, and so on. Besides that, the technology will be a reliable tool to help the researcher to capture knowledge. Some paper wrote how ontology in knowledge management can be used for proposed framework to capture and reuse knowledge. Organization has to manage their knowledge, process capture and share will decide their position in the business area. This paper will describe further from literature review about the tool of ontology that will help the organization to capture its knowledge.

Keywords: knowledge capture, ontology, technology, organization

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5565 Analyzing the Critical Factors Influencing Employees' Tacit and Explicit Knowledge Sharing Intentions for Sustainable Competitive Advantage: A Systematic Review and a Conceptual Framework

Authors: Made Ayu Aristyana Dewi


Due to the importance of knowledge in today’s competitive world, an understanding of how to enhance employee knowledge sharing has become critical. This study discerning employees’ knowledge sharing intentions according to the type of knowledge to be shared, whether tacit or explicit. This study provides a critical and systematic review of the current literature on knowledge sharing, with a particular focus on the most critical factors influencing employees’ tacit and explicit knowledge sharing intentions. The extant literature was identified through four electronic databases, from 2006 to 2016. The findings of this review reveal that most of the previous studies only focus on individual and social factors as the antecedents of knowledge sharing intention. Therefore, those previous studies did not consider some other potential factors, like organizational and technological factors that may hinder the progress of knowledge sharing processes. Based on the findings of the critical review, a conceptual framework is proposed, which presents the antecedents of employees’ tacit and explicit knowledge sharing intentions and its impact on innovation and sustainable competitive advantage.

Keywords: antecedents, explicit knowledge, individual factors, innovation, intentions, knowledge sharing, organizational factors, social factors, sustainable competitive advantage, tacit knowledge, technological factors

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5564 The Use of Learning Management Systems during Emerging the Tacit Knowledge

Authors: Ercan Eker, Muhammer Karaman, Akif Aslan, Hakan Tanrikuluoglu


Deficiency of institutional memory and knowledge management can result in information security breaches, loss of prestige and trustworthiness and the worst the loss of know-how and institutional knowledge. Traditional learning management within organizations is generally handled by personal efforts. That kind of struggle mostly depends on personal desire, motivation and institutional belonging. Even if an organization has highly motivated employees at a certain time, the institutional knowledge and memory life cycle will generally remain limited to these employees’ spending time in this organization. Having a learning management system in an organization can sustain the institutional memory, knowledge and know-how in the organization. Learning management systems are much more needed especially in public organizations where the job rotation is frequently seen and managers are appointed periodically. However, a learning management system should not be seen as an organizations’ website. It is a more comprehensive, interactive and user-friendly knowledge management tool for organizations. In this study, the importance of using learning management systems in the process of emerging tacit knowledge is underlined.

Keywords: knowledge management, learning management systems, tacit knowledge, institutional memory

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
5563 Understanding Knowledge Sharing and Its Effect on Creative Performance from a Dyadic Relationship Perspective

Authors: Fan Wei, Tang Yipeng


Knowledge sharing is of great value to organizational performance and innovation ability. However, the mainstream research has focused largely on the impact of knowledge sharing at the team level on individuals and teams. There is a lack of empirical studies on how employees interact in the exchange of knowledge and its effect on employees’ own creative performance. Based on communication accommodation theory and social exchange theory, this article explores the construction of an employee knowledge interaction mechanism under the moderating of social status and introduces the leader's creativity expectation as a moderating variable to explore its cross-level moderating effect on employee knowledge sharing and their own creative performance. An empirical test was conducted on 36 teaching and research teams in the two primary schools, and the results showed that: (1) Explicit/tacit knowledge of employees is positively correlated with acquisition of explicit/tacit knowledge; (2) Colleagues’ evaluations of employees’ social status play a moderating role between the employees’ explicit/tacit knowledge and the acquisition of explicit/tacit knowledge. (3) The leadership creativity expectation positively regulates the relationship between the employees' explicit knowledge acquisition and creative performance. This research helps to open the "black box" of the interpersonal interaction mechanism of knowledge sharing and also provides an important theoretical basis and practical guidance for organizational managers to effectively stimulate employee knowledge sharing and creative performance.

Keywords: knowledge sharing, knowledge interaction, social status, leadership creativity expectations, creative performance

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5562 Active Development of Tacit Knowledge: Knowledge Management, High Impact Practices and Experiential Learning

Authors: John Zanetich


Due to their positive associations with student learning and retention, certain undergraduate opportunities are designated ‘high-impact.’ High-Impact Practices (HIPs) such as, learning communities, community based projects, research, internships, study abroad and culminating senior experience, share several traits bin common: they demand considerable time and effort, learning occurs outside of the classroom, and they require meaningful interactions between faculty and students, they encourage collaboration with diverse others, and they provide frequent and substantive feedback. As a result of experiential learning in these practices, participation in these practices can be life changing. High impact learning helps individuals locate tacit knowledge, and build mental models that support the accumulation of knowledge. On-going learning from experience and knowledge conversion provides the individual with a way to implicitly organize knowledge and share knowledge over a lifetime. Knowledge conversion is a knowledge management component which focuses on the explication of the tacit knowledge that exists in the minds of students and that knowledge which is embedded in the process and relationships of the classroom educational experience. Knowledge conversion is required when working with tacit knowledge and the demand for a learner to align deeply held beliefs with the cognitive dissonance created by new information. Knowledge conversion and tacit knowledge result from the fact that an individual's way of knowing, that is, their core belief structure, is considered generalized and tacit instead of explicit and specific. As a phenomenon, tacit knowledge is not readily available to the learner for explicit description unless evoked by an external source. The development of knowledge–related capabilities such as Aggressive Development of Tacit Knowledge (ADTK) can be used in experiential educational programs to enhance knowledge, foster behavioral change, improve decision making, and overall performance. ADTK allows the student in HIPs to use their existing knowledge in a way that allows them to evaluate and make any necessary modifications to their core construct of reality in order to amalgamate new information. Based on the Lewin/Schein Change Theory, the learner will reach for tacit knowledge as a stabilizing mechanism when they are challenged by new information that puts them slightly off balance. As in word association drills, the important concept is the first thought. The reactionary outpouring to an experience is the programmed or tacit memory and knowledge of their core belief structure. ADTK is a way to help teachers design their own methods and activities to unfreeze, create new learning, and then refreeze the core constructs upon which future learning in a subject area is built. This paper will explore the use of ADTK as a technique for knowledge conversion in the classroom in general and in HIP programs specifically. It will focus on knowledge conversion in curriculum development and propose the use of one-time educational experiences, multi-session experiences and sequential program experiences focusing on tacit knowledge in educational programs.

Keywords: tacit knowledge, knowledge management, college programs, experiential learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
5561 A Strategic Communication Design Model for Indigenous Knowledge Management

Authors: Dilina Janadith Nawarathne


This article presents the initial development of a communication model (Model_isi) as the means of gathering, preserving and transferring indigenous knowledge in the field of knowledge management. The article first discusses the need for an appropriate complimentary model for indigenous knowledge management which differs from the existing methods and models. Then the paper suggests the newly developed model for indigenous knowledge management which generate as result of blending key aspects of different disciplines, which can be implemented as a complementary approach for the existing scientific method. The paper further presents the effectiveness of the developed method in reflecting upon a pilot demonstration carried out on selected indigenous communities of Sri Lanka.

Keywords: indigenous knowledge management, knowledge transferring, tacit knowledge, research model, asian centric philosophy

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5560 Investigating the Interaction of Individuals' Knowledge Sharing Constructs

Authors: Eugene Okyere-Kwakye


Knowledge sharing is a practice where individuals commonly exchange both tacit and explicit knowledge to jointly create a new knowledge. Knowledge management literature vividly express that knowledge sharing is the keystone and perhaps it is the most important aspect of knowledge management. To enhance the understanding of knowledge sharing domain, this study is aimed to investigate some factors that could influence employee’s attitude and behaviour to share their knowledge. The researchers employed the social exchange theory as a theoretical foundation for this study. Three essential factors namely: Trust, mutual reciprocity and perceived enjoyment that could influence knowledge sharing behaviour has been incorporated into a research model. To empirically validate this model, data was collected from one hundred and twenty respondents. The multiple regression analysis was employed to analyse the data. The results indicate that perceived enjoyment and trust have a significant influence on knowledge sharing. Surprisingly, mutual reciprocity did not influence knowledge sharing. The paper concludes by highlight the practical implications of the findings and areas for future research to consider.

Keywords: perceived enjoyment, trust, knowledge sharing, knowledge management

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5559 Intergenerational Succession within Family Businesses: The Role of Sharing and Creation Knowledge

Authors: Wissal Ben Arfi, Jean-Michel Sahut


The purpose of this paper is to provide a deeper understanding of the succession process from a knowledge management perspective. By doing that, succession process in family businesses, as an environment for creating and sharing knowledge, was explored. Design/Methodology/Approach: To support our reasoning, we collected qualitative data through 16 in-depth interviews conducted with all decision makers involved in the family businesses succession process in France. These open-ended responses were subsequently exposed to thematic discourse analysis. Findings: Central to this exhibit is the nature and magnitude of knowledge creation and sharing among the actors within the family succession context and how can tacit knowledge sharing facilitate the succession process. We also identified factors that inhibit down the knowledge creation and sharing processes. The sharing and creation of knowledge among members of a family business appear to be a complex process that must be part of a strategy for change. This implies that it requests trust and takes a certain amount of time because it requires organizational change and a clear and coherent strategic vision that is accepted and assimilated by all the members. Professional and leadership skills are of particular importance in knowledge sharing and creation processes. In most cases, tacit knowledge is crucial when it is shared and accumulated collectively. Our findings reveal that managers should find ways of implementing knowledge sharing and creation processes while acknowledging the succession process within family firms. This study highlights the importance of generating knowledge strategies in order to enhance the performance and the success of intergenerational succession. The empirical outcomes contribute to enrich the field of succession management process and enhance the role of knowledge in shaping family performance and longevity. To a large extent, the lessons learned from the study of succession processes in family-owned businesses are that when there is a deliberate effort to introduce a knowledge-based approach, this action becomes a seminal event in the life of the organization. Originality/Value: The paper contributes to the deep understanding of interactions among actors by examining the knowledge creation and sharing processes since current researches in family succession focused on aspects such as personal development of potential, intra-family succession intention, decision-making processes in family businesses. Besides, as succession is one of the key factors that determine the longevity and the performance of family businesses, it also contributes to literature by examining how tacit knowledge is transferred, shared and created in family businesses and how this can facilitate the intergenerational succession process.

Keywords: family-owned businesses, succession process, knowledge, performance

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5558 [Keynote Talk]: Knowledge Codification and Innovation Success within Digital Platforms

Authors: Wissal Ben Arfi, Lubica Hikkerova, Jean-Michel Sahut


This study examines interfirm networks in the digital transformation era, and in particular, how tacit knowledge codification affects innovation success within digital platforms. Hence, one of the most important features of digital transformation and innovation process outcomes is the emergence of digital platforms, as an interfirm network, at the heart of open innovation. This research aims to illuminate how digital platforms influence inter-organizational innovation through virtual team interactions and knowledge sharing practices within an interfirm network. Consequently, it contributes to the respective strategic management literature on new product development (NPD), open innovation, industrial management, and its emerging interfirm networks’ management. The empirical findings show, on the one hand, that knowledge conversion may be enhanced, especially by the socialization which seems to be the most important phase as it has played a crucial role to hold the virtual team members together. On the other hand, in the process of socialization, the tacit knowledge codification is crucial because it provides the structure needed for the interfirm network actors to interact and act to reach common goals which favor the emergence of open innovation. Finally, our results offer several conditions necessary, but not always sufficient, for interfirm managers involved in NPD and innovation concerning strategies to increasingly shape interconnected and borderless markets and business collaborations. In the digital transformation era, the need for adaptive and innovative business models as well as new and flexible network forms is becoming more significant than ever. Supported by technological advancements and digital platforms, companies could benefit from increased market opportunities and creating new markets for their innovations through alliances and collaborative strategies, as a mode of reducing or eliminating uncertainty environments or entry barriers. Consequently, an efficient and well-structured interfirm network is essential to create network capabilities, to ensure tacit knowledge sharing, to enhance organizational learning and to foster open innovation success within digital platforms.

Keywords: interfirm networks, digital platform, virtual teams, open innovation, knowledge sharing

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5557 Knowledge Transfer from Experts to Novice: An Empirical Study on Online Communities

Authors: Firmansyah David


This paper aims to investigate factors that drive individuals to transfer their knowledge in the context of online communities. By revisiting tacit-to-explicit knowledge creation, this research attempts to contribute empirically using three online forums (1) Software Engineering; (2) Aerospace Simulator; (3) Health Insurance System. A qualitative approach was deployed to map and recognize the pattern of users ‘Knowledge Transfer (KT), particularly from expert to novice. The findings suggest a common form on how experts give their effort to formulate ‘explicit’ knowledge and how novices ‘understand’ such knowledge. This research underlines that skill; intuition, judgment; value and belief are the prominent factors, both for experts and novice. Further, this research has recognized the groups of expert and novice by their ability to transfer and to ‘adopt’ new knowledge. Future research infers to triangulate the method in which the quantitative study is needed to measure the level of adoption of (new) knowledge by individuals.

Keywords: explicit, expert, knowledge, online community

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5556 A Constructionist View of Projects, Social Media and Tacit Knowledge in a College Classroom: An Exploratory Study

Authors: John Zanetich


Designing an educational activity that encourages inquiry and collaboration is key to engaging students in meaningful learning. Educational Information and Communications Technology (EICT) plays an important role in facilitating cooperative and collaborative learning in the classroom. The EICT also facilitates students’ learning and development of the critical thinking skills needed to solve real world problems. Projects and activities based on constructivism encourage students to embrace complexity as well as find relevance and joy in their learning. It also enhances the students’ capacity for creative and responsible real-world problem solving. Classroom activities based on constructivism offer students an opportunity to develop the higher–order-thinking skills of defining problems and identifying solutions. Participating in a classroom project is an activity for both acquiring experiential knowledge and applying new knowledge to practical situations. It also provides an opportunity for students to integrate new knowledge into a skill set using reflection. Classroom projects can be developed around a variety of learning objects including social media, knowledge management and learning communities. The construction of meaning through project-based learning is an approach that encourages interaction and problem-solving activities. Projects require active participation, collaboration and interaction to reach the agreed upon outcomes. Projects also serve to externalize the invisible cognitive and social processes taking place in the activity itself and in the student experience. This paper describes a classroom project designed to elicit interactions by helping students to unfreeze existing knowledge, to create new learning experiences, and then refreeze the new knowledge. Since constructivists believe that students construct their own meaning through active engagement and participation as well as interactions with others. knowledge management can be used to guide the exchange of both tacit and explicit knowledge in interpersonal interactions between students and guide the construction of meaning. This paper uses an action research approach to the development of a classroom project and describes the use of technology, social media and the active use of tacit knowledge in the college classroom. In this project, a closed group Facebook page becomes the virtual classroom where interaction is captured and measured using engagement analytics. In the virtual learning community, the principles of knowledge management are used to identify the process and components of the infrastructure of the learning process. The project identifies class member interests and measures student engagement in a learning community by analyzing regular posting on the Facebook page. These posts are used to foster and encourage interactions, reflect a student’s interest and serve as reaction points from which viewers of the post convert the explicit information in the post to implicit knowledge. The data was collected over an academic year and was provided, in part, by the Google analytic reports on Facebook and self-reports of posts by members. The results support the use of active tacit knowledge activities, knowledge management and social media to enhance the student learning experience and help create the knowledge that will be used by students to construct meaning.

Keywords: constructivism, knowledge management, tacit knowledge, social media

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5555 Exploring the Visual Representations of Neon Signs and Its Vernacular Tacit Knowledge of Neon Making

Authors: Brian Kwok


Hong Kong is well-known for its name as "the Pearl of the Orient", due to its spectacular night-view with vast amount of decorative neon lights on the streets. Neon signs are first used as the pervasive media of communication for all kinds of commercial advertising, ranging from movie theatres to nightclubs and department stores, and later appropriated by artists as medium of artwork. As a well-established visual language, it displays texts in bilingual format due to British's colonial influence, which are sometimes arranged in an opposite reading order. Research on neon signs as a visual representation is rare but significant because they are part of people’s collective memories of the unique cityscapes which associate the shifting values of people's daily lives and culture identity. Nevertheless, with the current policy to remove abandoned neon signs, their total number dramatically declines recently. The Buildings Department found an estimation of 120,000 unauthorized signboards (including neon signs) in Hong Kong in 2013, and the removal of such is at a rate of estimated 1,600 per year since 2006. In other words, the vernacular cultural values and historical continuity of neon signs will gradually be vanished if no immediate action is taken in documenting them for the purpose of research and cultural preservation. Therefore, the Hong Kong Neon Signs Archive project was established in June of 2015, and over 100 neon signs are photo-documented so far. By content analysis, this project will explore the two components of neon signs – the use of visual languages and vernacular tacit knowledge of neon makers. It attempts to answer these questions about Hong Kong's neon signs: 'What are the ways in which visual representations are used to produce our cityscapes and streetscapes?'; 'What are the visual languages and conventions of usage in different business types?'; 'What the intact knowledge are applied when producing these visual forms of neon signs?'

Keywords: cityscapes, neon signs, tacit knowledge, visual representation

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5554 Framework for Socio-Technical Issues in Requirements Engineering for Developing Resilient Machine Vision Systems Using Levels of Automation through the Lifecycle

Authors: Ryan Messina, Mehedi Hasan


This research is to examine the impacts of using data to generate performance requirements for automation in visual inspections using machine vision. These situations are intended for design and how projects can smooth the transfer of tacit knowledge to using an algorithm. We have proposed a framework when specifying machine vision systems. This framework utilizes varying levels of automation as contingency planning to reduce data processing complexity. Using data assists in extracting tacit knowledge from those who can perform the manual tasks to assist design the system; this means that real data from the system is always referenced and minimizes errors between participating parties. We propose using three indicators to know if the project has a high risk of failing to meet requirements related to accuracy and reliability. All systems tested achieved a better integration into operations after applying the framework.

Keywords: automation, contingency planning, continuous engineering, control theory, machine vision, system requirements, system thinking

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5553 Knowledge Diffusion via Automated Organizational Cartography (Autocart)

Authors: Mounir Kehal


The post-globalization epoch has placed businesses everywhere in new and different competitive situations where knowledgeable, effective and efficient behavior has come to provide the competitive and comparative edge. Enterprises have turned to explicit - and even conceptualizing on tacit - knowledge management to elaborate a systematic approach to develop and sustain the intellectual capital needed to succeed. To be able to do that, you have to be able to visualize your organization as consisting of nothing but knowledge and knowledge flows, whilst being presented in a graphical and visual framework, referred to as automated organizational cartography. Hence, creating the ability of further actively classifying existing organizational content evolving from and within data feeds, in an algorithmic manner, potentially giving insightful schemes and dynamics by which organizational know-how is visualized. It is discussed and elaborated on most recent and applicable definitions and classifications of knowledge management, representing a wide range of views from mechanistic (systematic, data driven) to a more socially (psychologically, cognitive/metadata driven) orientated. More elaborate continuum models, for knowledge acquisition and reasoning purposes, are being used for effectively representing the domain of information that an end user may contain in their decision making process for utilization of available organizational intellectual resources (i.e. Autocart). In this paper, we present an empirical research study conducted previously to try and explore knowledge diffusion in a specialist knowledge domain.

Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge maps, knowledge diffusion, organizational cartography

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5552 Knowledge Diffusion via Automated Organizational Cartography: Autocart

Authors: Mounir Kehal, Adel Al Araifi


The post-globalisation epoch has placed businesses everywhere in new and different competitive situations where knowledgeable, effective and efficient behaviour has come to provide the competitive and comparative edge. Enterprises have turned to explicit- and even conceptualising on tacit- Knowledge Management to elaborate a systematic approach to develop and sustain the Intellectual Capital needed to succeed. To be able to do that, you have to be able to visualize your organization as consisting of nothing but knowledge and knowledge flows, whilst being presented in a graphical and visual framework, referred to as automated organizational cartography. Hence, creating the ability of further actively classifying existing organizational content evolving from and within data feeds, in an algorithmic manner, potentially giving insightful schemes and dynamics by which organizational know-how is visualised. It is discussed and elaborated on most recent and applicable definitions and classifications of knowledge management, representing a wide range of views from mechanistic (systematic, data driven) to a more socially (psychologically, cognitive/metadata driven) orientated. More elaborate continuum models, for knowledge acquisition and reasoning purposes, are being used for effectively representing the domain of information that an end user may contain in their decision making process for utilization of available organizational intellectual resources (i.e. Autocart). In this paper we present likewise an empirical research study conducted previously to try and explore knowledge diffusion in a specialist knowledge domain.

Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge maps, knowledge diffusion, organizational cartography

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
5551 Knowledge Integration from Concept to Practice: An Exploratory Study of Designing a Flood Resilient Urban Park in Viet Nam

Authors: To Quyen Le, Oswald Devisch, Tu Anh Trinh, Els Hannes


Urban centres worldwide are affected differently by flooding. In Vietnam this impact is increasingly negative caused by a process of rapid urbanisation. Traditional spatial planning and flood mitigation planning are not able to deal with this growing threat. This article therefore proposes to focus on increasing the participation of local communities in flood control and management. It explores, on the basis of a design studio exercise, how lay knowledge on flooding can be integrated within planning processes. The article presents a theoretical basis for the structured criterion for site selection for a flood resilient urban park from the perspective of science, then discloses the tacit and explicit knowledge of the flood-prone area and finally integrates this knowledge into the design strategies for flood resilient urban park design.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, AHP, design resilience, flood resilient urban park, knowledge integration

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5550 The Effects of Geographical and Functional Diversity of Collaborators on Quality of Knowledge Generated

Authors: Ajay Das, Sandip Basu


Introduction: There is increasing recognition that diverse streams of knowledge can often be recombined in novel ways to generate new knowledge. However, knowledge recombination theory has not been applied to examine the effects of collaborator diversity on the quality of knowledge such collaborators produce. This is surprising because one would expect that a collaborative team with certain aspects of diversity should be able to recombine process elements related to knowledge development, which are relatively tacit, but also complementary because of the collaborator’s varying backgrounds. Theory and Hypotheses: We propose to examine two aspects of diversity in the environments of collaborative teams to try and capture such potential recombinations of relatively tacit, process knowledge. The first aspect of diversity in team members’ environments is geographical. Collaborators with more geographical distance between them (perhaps working in different countries) often have more autonomy in the processes they adopt for knowledge development. In the absence of overt monitoring, such collaborators are likely to adopt differing approaches to knowledge development. The sharing of such varying approaches among collaborators is likely to result in greater quality of the common collaborative pursuit. The second aspect is diversity in the work backgrounds of team members. Such diversity can also increase the potential for knowledge recombination. For example, if one or more members are from a manufacturing center (versus all of them being from a purely R&D center), such members will provide unique perspectives on the implementation of innovative ideas. Again, knowledge that has been evaluated from these diverse perspectives is likely to be of a higher quality. In addition to the above aspects of environmental diversity among team members, we also plan to examine the extent to which individual collaborators are in different environments from the primary innovation center of their employing firms. Proposed Methods: We will test our model on a sample of firms in the semiconductor industry. Our level of analysis will be individual patents generated by these firms and the teams involved in the generation of these. Information on manufacturing activities of our sample firms will be obtained from SEMI, a proprietary database of the semiconductor industry, as well as company 10-K reports. Conclusion: We believe that our results will represent a preliminary attempt to understand how various forms of diversity in collaborative teams impact the knowledge development process. Our dependent variable of knowledge quality is important to study since higher values of this variable can not only drive firm performance but the broader development of regions and societies through spillover impacts on future innovation. The results of this study will, therefore, inform future research and practice in innovation, geographical location, and vertical integration.

Keywords: innovation, manufacturing strategy, knowledge, diversity

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5549 Creating Knowledge Networks: Comparative Analysis of Reference Cases

Authors: Sylvia Villarreal, Edna Bravo


Knowledge management focuses on coordinating technologies, people, processes, and structures to generate a competitive advantage and considering that networks are perceived as mechanisms for knowledge creation and transfer, this research presents the stages and practices related to the creation of knowledge networks. The methodology started with a literature review adapted from the systematic literature review (SLR). The descriptive analysis includes variables such as approach (conceptual or practical), industry, knowledge management processes and mythologies (qualitative or quantitative), etc. The content analysis includes identification of reference cases. These cases were characterized based on variables as scope, creation goal, years, network approach, actors and creation methodology. It was possible to do a comparative analysis to determinate similarities and differences in these cases documented in knowledge network scientific literature. Consequently, it was shown that even the need and impact of knowledge networks in organizations, the initial guidelines for their creation are not documented, so there is not a guide of good practices and lessons learned. The reference cases are from industries as energy, education, creative, automotive and textile. Their common points are the human approach; it is oriented to interactions to facilitate the appropriation of knowledge, explicit and tacit. The stages of every case are analyzed to propose the main successful elements.

Keywords: creation, knowledge management, network, stages

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5548 Knowledge Management and Motivation Management: Important Constituents of Firm Performance

Authors: Yassir Mahmood, Nadia Ehsan


In current research stream, empirical work regarding knowledge and motivation management along their dimensions is sparse. This study partially filled this void by investigating the influence of knowledge management (tacit and explicit) and motivation management (intrinsic and extrinsic) on firm performance with the mediating effects of innovative performance. Based on the quantitative research method, data were collected through questionnaire from 284 employees working in 18 different firms across the citrus industry located in Sargodha region (Pakistan). The proposed relationships were tested through regression analysis while mediation relations were analyzed through Barron and Kenny (1986) technique. The results suggested that knowledge management (KM) and motivation management (MM) have significant positive impacts on innovative performance (IP). In addition, the role of IP as full mediator between KM and firm performance (FP) is confirmed. Also, IP proved to be a partial mediator between MM and FP. From the managerial perspective, the findings of the study are vital as some of the important constituents of FP have been highlighted. The study produced important underpinnings for managers. In last, implications for policymakers along with future research directions are discussed.

Keywords: innovative performance, firm performance, knowledge management, motivation management, Sargodha

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5547 Process Driven Architecture For The ‘Lessons Learnt’ Knowledge Sharing Framework: The Case Of A ‘Lessons Learnt’ Framework For KOC

Authors: Rima Al-Awadhi, Abdul Jaleel Tharayil


On a regular basis, KOC engages into various types of Projects. However, due to very nature and complexity involved, each project experience generates a lot of ‘learnings’ that need to be factored into while drafting a new contract and thus avoid repeating the same mistakes. But, many a time these learnings are localized and remain as tacit leading to scope re-work, larger cycle time, schedule overrun, adjustment orders and claims. Also, these experiences are not readily available to new employees leading to steep learning curve and longer time to competency. This is to share our experience in designing and implementing a process driven architecture for the ‘lessons learnt’ knowledge sharing framework in KOC. It high-lights the ‘lessons learnt’ sharing process adopted, integration with the organizational processes, governance framework, the challenges faced and learning from our experience in implementing a ‘lessons learnt’ framework.

Keywords: lessons learnt, knowledge transfer, knowledge sharing, successful practices, Lessons Learnt Workshop, governance framework

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5546 The Role of Knowledge Management in Global Software Engineering

Authors: Samina Khalid, Tehmina Khalil, Smeea Arshad


Knowledge management is essential ingredient of successful coordination in globally distributed software engineering. Various frameworks, KMSs, and tools have been proposed to foster coordination and communication between virtual teams but practical implementation of these solutions has not been found. Organizations have to face challenges to implement knowledge management system. For this purpose at first, a literature review is arranged to investigate about challenges that restrict organizations to implement KMS and then by taking in account these challenges a problem of need of integrated solution in the form of standardized KMS that can easily store tacit and explicit knowledge, has traced down to facilitate coordination and collaboration among virtual teams. Literature review has been already shown that knowledge is a complex perception with profound meanings, and one of the most important resources that contributes to the competitive advantage of an organization. In order to meet the different challenges caused by not properly managing knowledge related to projects among virtual teams in GSE, we suggest making use of the cloud computing model. In this research a distributed architecture to support KM storage is proposed called conceptual framework of KM as a service in cloud. Framework presented is enhanced and conceptual framework of KM is embedded into that framework to store projects related knowledge for future use.

Keywords: management, Globsl software development, global software engineering

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5545 Learning from Flood: A Case Study of a Frequently Flooded Village in Hubei, China

Authors: Da Kuang


Resilience is a hotly debated topic in many research fields (e.g., engineering, ecology, society, psychology). In flood management studies, we are experiencing the paradigm shift from flood resistance to flood resilience. Flood resilience refers to tolerate flooding through adaptation or transformation. It is increasingly argued that our city as a social-ecological system holds the ability to learn from experience and adapt to flood rather than simply resist it. This research aims to investigate what kinds of adaptation knowledge the frequently flooded village learned from past experience and its advantages and limitations in coping with floods. The study area – Xinnongcun village, located in the west of Wuhan city, is a linear village and continuously suffered from both flash flood and drainage flood during the past 30 years. We have a field trip to the site in June 2017 and conducted semi-structured interviews with local residents. Our research summarizes two types of adaptation knowledge that people learned from the past floods. Firstly, at the village scale, it has formed a collective urban form which could help people live during both flood and dry season. All houses and front yards were elevated about 2m higher than the road. All the front yards in the village are linked and there is no barrier. During flooding time, people walk to neighbors through houses yards and boat to outside village on the lower road. Secondly, at individual scale, local people learned tacit knowledge of preparedness and emergency response to flood. Regarding the advantages and limitations, the adaptation knowledge could effectively help people to live with flood and reduce the chances of getting injuries. However, it cannot reduce local farmers’ losses on their agricultural land. After flood, it is impossible for local people to recover to the pre-disaster state as flood emerges during June and July will result in no harvest. Therefore, we argue that learning from past flood experience could increase people’s adaptive capacity. However, once the adaptive capacity cannot reduce people’s losses, it requires a transformation to a better regime.

Keywords: adaptation, flood resilience, tacit knowledge, transformation

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5544 Knowledge Sharing Practices in the Healthcare Sector: Evidences from Primary Health Care Organizations in Indonesia

Authors: Galih Imaduddin


Knowledge has been viewed as one of the most important resources in organizations, including those that operate in the healthcare sector. On that basis, Knowledge Management (KM) is crucial for healthcare organizations to improve their productivity and ensure effective utilization of their resources. Despite the growing interests to understand how KM might work for healthcare organizations, there is only a modest amount of empirical inquiries which have specifically focused on the tools and initiatives to share knowledge. Hence, the main purpose of this paper is to investigate the way healthcare organizations, particularly public sector ones, utilize knowledge sharing tools and initiatives for the benefit of patient-care. Employing a qualitative method, 13 (thirteen) Community Health Centers (CHCs) from a high-performing district health setting in Indonesia were observed. Data collection and analysis involved a repetition of document retrievals and interviews (n=41) with multidisciplinary health professionals who work in these CHCs. A single case study was cultivated reflecting on the means that were used to share knowledge, along with the factors that inhibited the exchange of knowledge among those health professionals. The study discovers that all of the thirteen CHCs exhibited and applied knowledge sharing means which included knowledge documents, virtual communication channels (i.e. emails and chatting applications), and social learning forums such as staff meetings, morning briefings, and communities of practices. However, the intensity of utilization was different among these CHCs, in which organizational culture, leadership, professional boundaries, and employees’ technological aptitude were presumed to be the factors that inhibit knowledge sharing processes. Making a distance with the KM literature of other sectors, this study denounces the primacy of technology-based tools, suggesting that socially-based initiatives could be more reliable for sharing knowledge. This suggestion is largely due to the nature of healthcare work which is still predominantly based on the tacit form of knowledge.

Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge sharing, knowledge sharing tools and initiatives, knowledge sharing inhibitors, primary health care organizations

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5543 Teaching the Tacit Nuances of Japanese Onomatopoeia through an E-Learning System: An Evaluation Approach of Narrative Interpretation

Authors: Xiao-Yan Li, Takashi Hashimoto, Guanhong Li, Shuo Yang


In Japanese, onomatopoeia is an important element in the lively expression of feelings and experiences. It is very difficult for students of Japanese to acquire onomatopoeia, especially, its nuances. In this paper, based on traditional L2 learning theories, we propose a new method to improve the efficiency of teaching the nuances – both explicit and tacit - to non-native speakers of Japanese. The method for teaching the tacit nuances of onomatopoeia consists of three elements. First is to teach the formal rules representing the explicit nuances of onomatopoeic words. Second is to have the students create new onomatopoeic words by utilizing those formal rules. The last element is to provide feedback by evaluating the onomatopoeias created. Our previous study used five-grade relative estimation. However students were confused about the five-grade system, because they could not understand the evaluation criteria only based on a figure. In this new system, then, we built an evaluation database through native speakers’ narrative interpretation. We asked Japanese native speakers to describe their awareness of the nuances of onomatopoeia in writing. Then they voted on site and defined priorities for showing to learners on the system. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method and the learning system, we conducted a preliminary experiment involving two groups of subjects. While Group A got feedback about the appropriateness of their onomatopoeic constructions from the native speakers’ narrative interpretation, Group B got feedback just in the form of the five-grade relative estimation. A questionnaire survey administered to all of the learners clarified our learning system availability and also identified areas that should be improved. Repetitive learning of word-formation rules, creating new onomatopoeias and gaining new awareness from narrative interpretation is the total process used to teach the explicit and tacit nuances of onomatopoeia.

Keywords: onomatopoeia, tacit nuance, narrative interpretation, e-learning system, second language teaching

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