Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Maimuna Waziri

12 Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies of Root Bark Extracts from Glossonema boveanum (Decne.)

Authors: Ahmed Jibrin Uttu, Maimuna Waziri


The root bark of Glossonema boveanum (Decne), a member of Apocynaceae family, is used by traditional medicine practitioner to treat urinary and respiratory tract infections, bacteremia, typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery, diarrhea and stomach pain. This present study aims to validate the medicinal claims ascribed to the root bark of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical study of the root bark extracts (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol extracts) showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids, triterpenes, cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Antimicrobial study of the extracts showed activities against Staphylococus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhii, Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Candida albicans while Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella Pneumoniae showed resistance to all the extracts. The inhibitory effect was compared with the standard drug ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. MIC and MBC for both extracts were also determined using the tube dilution method. This study concluded that the root bark of G. boveanum, used traditionally as a medicinal plant, has antimicrobial activities against some causative organisms.

Keywords: Glossonema boveanum (Decne.), phytochemical, antimicrobial, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration

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11 Geoelectric Survey for Groundwater Potential in Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria

Authors: Ibrahim Mohammed, Suleiman Taofiq, Muhammad Naziru Yahya


Geoelectrical measurements using Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method were carried out in Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria, with the aim of determining the groundwater potential in the area. Twelve (12) Vertical Electric Sounding (VES) data were collected using Terrameter (ABEM SAS 300c) and analyzed using computer software (IPI2win), which gives an automatic interpretation of the apparent resistivity. The results of the interpretation of VES data were used in the characterization of three to five geo-electric layers from which the aquifer units were delineated. Data analysis indicated that water bearing formation exists in the third and fourth layers having resistivity range of 312 to 767 Ωm and 9.51 to 681 Ωm, respectively. The thickness of the formation ranges from 14.7 to 41.8 m, while the depth is from 8.22 to 53.7 m. Based on the result obtained from the interpretation of the data, five (5) VES stations were recommended as the most viable locations for groundwater exploration in the study area. The VES stations include VES A4, A5, A6, B1, and B2. The VES results of the entire area indicated that the water bearing formation occurs at maximum depth of 53.7 m at the time of this survey.

Keywords: aquifer, depth, groundwater, resistivity, Schlumberger

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10 A Multistep Broyden’s-Type Method for Solving Systems of Nonlinear Equations

Authors: M. Y. Waziri, M. A. Aliyu


The paper proposes an approach to improve the performance of Broyden’s method for solving systems of nonlinear equations. In this work, we consider the information from two preceding iterates rather than a single preceding iterate to update the Broyden’s matrix that will produce a better approximation of the Jacobian matrix in each iteration. The numerical results verify that the proposed method has clearly enhanced the numerical performance of Broyden’s Method.

Keywords: mulit-step Broyden, nonlinear systems of equations, computational efficiency, iterate

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9 Analysis of Population and Growth Rate Methanotof Bateria as Reducers Methane Gases Emission in Rice Field

Authors: Maimuna Nontji


The life cycle of rice plant has three phases of growth; they are the vegetative, reproductive and maturation phase. They greatly affect the life of dynamics metanotrof bacterial as reducer methane emissions in the rice field, both of population and on the rate of growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the population and growth rate of methanotrof isolates which has been isolated in previous studies. Isolates were taken at all the life cycle of rice plant. Population of analysis was conducted by standard plate count method and growth rate was analysed by logarithmic calculation. The results showed that each isolate varied in population and growth rate. The highest population was obtained in the isolates Gowa Methanotrof Reproductive (GMR 8) about 7.06 x 10 11 cfu / ml on 3 days of incubation and the lowest population was obtained in the Gowa Methanotrof Maturation (GMP 5) about 0.27 x 10 11 cfu / ml on 7 day of incubation. Some isolate were demonstrated in long growth rate about 5 days of incubation and another are 3 days.

Keywords: emission, methanotrof, methane, population

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8 Big Data Analytics and Data Security in the Cloud via Fully Homomorphic Encryption

Authors: Waziri Victor Onomza, John K. Alhassan, Idris Ismaila, Noel Dogonyaro Moses


This paper describes the problem of building secure computational services for encrypted information in the Cloud Computing without decrypting the encrypted data; therefore, it meets the yearning of computational encryption algorithmic aspiration model that could enhance the security of big data for privacy, confidentiality, availability of the users. The cryptographic model applied for the computational process of the encrypted data is the Fully Homomorphic Encryption Scheme. We contribute theoretical presentations in high-level computational processes that are based on number theory and algebra that can easily be integrated and leveraged in the Cloud computing with detail theoretic mathematical concepts to the fully homomorphic encryption models. This contribution enhances the full implementation of big data analytics based cryptographic security algorithm.

Keywords: big data analytics, security, privacy, bootstrapping, homomorphic, homomorphic encryption scheme

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7 Big Data Analytics and Data Security in the Cloud via Fully Homomorphic Encyption Scheme

Authors: Victor Onomza Waziri, John K. Alhassan, Idris Ismaila, Noel Dogonyara


This paper describes the problem of building secure computational services for encrypted information in the Cloud. Computing without decrypting the encrypted data; therefore, it meets the yearning of computational encryption algorithmic aspiration model that could enhance the security of big data for privacy or confidentiality, availability and integrity of the data and user’s security. The cryptographic model applied for the computational process of the encrypted data is the Fully Homomorphic Encryption Scheme. We contribute a theoretical presentations in a high-level computational processes that are based on number theory that is derivable from abstract algebra which can easily be integrated and leveraged in the Cloud computing interface with detail theoretic mathematical concepts to the fully homomorphic encryption models. This contribution enhances the full implementation of big data analytics based on cryptographic security algorithm.

Keywords: big data analytics, security, privacy, bootstrapping, Fully Homomorphic Encryption Scheme

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6 Students' Perception of Their Reliable Alliance through Participation in Intramural Sports in Colleges of Education in Nigeria

Authors: Waziri Habsatu Dahiru


This research investigated students’ perception of their reliable alliance through participation in intramural sports in Colleges of Education in Nigeria. One research question and one null hypothesis were set to achieve this objective. Nine hundred (900) copies of structured questionnaire were distributed to 15 Colleges of Education based on stratified random sampling. One sample t test was used to determine positive perception of significant reliable alliance benefits. An alpha level of 0.05 was used to either retain or reject the hypothesis postulated. It was found that, students in Colleges of Education in Nigeria do not have significant positive perception of the reliable alliance benefits through their participation in intramural sport. However, the students perceived that participation in intramural sports help in increases trust and respect for peer groups and encouraging strong attachment with team members. The researcher recommended among others that awareness programs such as workshops and seminars on students' perception of the benefits of participation in intramural sport should be regularly organized in order to boost intellectual growth, personality development, social responsibility, and appreciation of diversity.

Keywords: benefits, intramural sports, reliable alliance, colleges of education

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5 Examining the Acceptability of Destination Local Food by Domestic Tourist Visiting Northern Nigeria

Authors: Eldah Ephraim Buba, Jamila Mohammed Waziri


There are challenges faced by tourist in respect of choosing food while in tourism destination. Food is very important in the choice of holiday of tourist. Many tourists choose a destination not only because of physical attraction but they choose destination where they will not encounter challenges in respect to food. The study is aimed at examining the acceptability of northern delicacies by tourists from other parts of Nigeria. Six delicacies were produced and presented to 50 tourists who are randomly picked from the south-east, south-west, south-south and the middle belt of Nigeria. The study found out that Danwake, Masa, and Kwadon zogale were generally accepted by majority of the respondents. Although, the respondents were not comfortable with the appearance of danwake, other aspect of the checklist was accepted. Tuwon shinkafa miyan taushe was accepted in terms of appearance but rejected in terms of taste and texture. ‘Yar Tsame and dindikolo were generally rejected. The study recommended that caterers, attraction owners and hoteliers should include such meals in their menu so that tourist will enjoy the gastronomy of the northern part of Nigeria.

Keywords: acceptability, examination, food, tourism

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4 Assessment of Sex Differences in Serum Urea and Creatinine Level in Response to Spinal Cord Injury Using Albino Rat Models

Authors: Waziri B. I., Elkhashab M. M.


Background: One of the most serious consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI) is progressive deterioration of renal function mostly as a result of urine stasis and ascending infection of the paralyzed bladder. This necessitates for investigation of early changes in serum urea and creatinine and associated sex related differences in response to SCI. Methods: A total of 24 adult albino rats weighing above 150g were divided equally into two groups, a control and experimental group (n = 12) each containing an equal number of male and female rats. The experimental group animals were paralyzed by complete transection of spinal cord below T4 level after deep anesthesia with ketamine 75mg/kg. Blood samples were collected from both groups five days post SCI for analysis. Mean values of serum urea (mmol/L) and creatinine (µmol/L) for both groups were compared. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results showed significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) of serum urea and creatinine in the male SCI models with mean values of 92.12 ± 0.98 and 2573 ± 70.97 respectively compared with their controls where the mean values for serum urea and creatinine were 6.31 ± 1.48 and 476. 95 ± 4.67 respectively. In the female SCI models, serum urea 13.11 ± 0.81 and creatinine 519.88 ± 31.13 were not significantly different from that of female controls with serum urea and creatinine levels of 11.71 ± 1.43 and 493.69 ± 17.10 respectively (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Spinal cord injury caused a significant increase in serum Urea and Creatinine levels in the male models compared to the females. This indicated that males might have higher risk of renal dysfunction following SCI.

Keywords: albino rats, creatinine, spinal cord injury (SCI), urea

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3 The Moment of the Optimal Average Length of the Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart for Equally Correlated Variables

Authors: Edokpa Idemudia Waziri, Salisu S. Umar


The Hotellng’s T^2 is a well-known statistic for detecting a shift in the mean vector of a multivariate normal distribution. Control charts based on T have been widely used in statistical process control for monitoring a multivariate process. Although it is a powerful tool, the T statistic is deficient when the shift to be detected in the mean vector of a multivariate process is small and consistent. The Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (MEWMA) control chart is one of the control statistics used to overcome the drawback of the Hotellng’s T statistic. In this paper, the probability distribution of the Average Run Length (ARL) of the MEWMA control chart when the quality characteristics exhibit substantial cross correlation and when the process is in-control and out-of-control was derived using the Markov Chain algorithm. The derivation of the probability functions and the moments of the run length distribution were also obtained and they were consistent with some existing results for the in-control and out-of-control situation. By simulation process, the procedure identified a class of ARL for the MEWMA control when the process is in-control and out-of-control. From our study, it was observed that the MEWMA scheme is quite adequate for detecting a small shift and a good way to improve the quality of goods and services in a multivariate situation. It was also observed that as the in-control average run length ARL0¬ or the number of variables (p) increases, the optimum value of the ARL0pt increases asymptotically and as the magnitude of the shift σ increases, the optimal ARLopt decreases. Finally, we use the example from the literature to illustrate our method and demonstrate its efficiency.

Keywords: average run length, markov chain, multivariate exponentially weighted moving average, optimal smoothing parameter

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2 Predictors of Ante-Natal Care and Health Facility Delivery Services Utilization in a Rural Area in Plateau State

Authors: Lilian A. Okeke, I. Okeke, N. Waziri, S. Balogun, P. Nguku, O. Fawole


Background: Access to ante-natal care services promotes safe motherhood and delivery with improved maternal and neonatal outcome. We conducted this study to identify factors influencing the utilization of antenatal care (ANC) and health delivery services. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study. Households were numbered and a one in three sample was selected using a systematic sampling method. One hundred and ninety eight women who were either pregnant or had previous deliveries were interviewed using pretested structured questionnaires to obtain information on their socio-demographic characteristics, and reasons for non-utilization of ANC and health delivery services. We performed univariate and bivariate analysis using Epi info version 3.5.3. Results: The age of respondents ranged from (17-55 years) with a median age of 29 years. One hundred and ninety two (97%) utilized antenatal care services. Ninety three (47.9%) attended ANC at second trimester. More than half (58.6%) had ≥ 4 visits to ANC. One hundred and thirty one (66.2%) had their last delivery at home by a traditional birth attendant. Factors associated with ANC and health facility delivery services utilization were: age group 45-55 (OR 0.01; 95% CI: 0.00-0.16) and > 55 years (OR 0.03; 95% CI: 0.00-0.60), wife’s educational status (OR 3.17; 95% CI: 1.66-8.30), husband’s permission (OR 11.8; 95% CI 2.19-63.62), and distance ≥ 5km (OR 0.33; 95% CI: 0.16-0.60). Conclusion: ANC services were well utilized. Most women did not book early and had their last delivery at home. Predictors of ANC use and health facility delivery were age, wife’s educational status, husband's permission and long distance from health facility. A one-day health sensitization of the benefits of ANC utilization and the dangers of delivering at home was implemented.

Keywords: ante natal care, health facility, delivery services, rural area, Plateau state

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1 Assessment of Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Percentage Oxygen Saturation in Young Habitual Shisha Smokers in Kano, Nigeria

Authors: B. I. Waziri, M. A. Yahaya


Background: Practice of shisha smoking involves the use of a multi-stemmed instrument to smoke tobacco or non-tobacco herbal mixture where the smoke is designed to pass through water or other liquid before reaching the smoker. The presence of tobacco content and the use of charcoal when burning the ingredients in this popular practice necessitate for investigation of many physiological parameters of habitual shisha smokers in our environment. Methods: 103 young shisha smokers, regular in the practice for more than three years living in Nasarawa, Kano state, Nigeria, were recruited for the study. The controls were 100 university students (nonsmokers) match for age (18 - 30 years), sex and BMI (20 - 24) with the smokers. Participants with known history of cigarette smoking, cardiovascular or respiratory diseases were excluded. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ministry of Health, Kano Nigeria. Hear rate, blood pressure and percentage oxygen saturation (SPO₂) were measured using stethoscope, sphygmomanometer and pulse oximeter respectively. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20 and mean values of the measured parameters were compared between the smokers and controls using independent sample t-test. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The mean Heart rate was found to be significantly higher (p = 0.01) in the shisha smokers (91.32 ± 0.84) compared to controls (79.19 ± 1.18). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also higher (p = 0.00) in the shisha smokers (128.75 ± 1.11 and 85.85 ± 0.78 respectively) compared to controls with the systolic and diastolic pressure of 116.64 ± 0.82 and 80.39 ± 0.83 respectively. SPO₂ was significantly lower (p = 0.00) in the shisha smokers (91.98% ± 0.42%) compared to the controls (97.98 ± 0.18). Conclusion: Habitual Shisha Smoking caused a significant increase in Heart rate, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and a significant decrease in SPO2 among youth in Kano State, Nigeria.

Keywords: blood pressure, heart rate, shisha, youth

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