Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: Glossonema boveanum (Decne.)

5 Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies of Root Bark Extracts from Glossonema boveanum (Decne.)

Authors: Ahmed Jibrin Uttu, Maimuna Waziri

Abstract:

The root bark of Glossonema boveanum (Decne), a member of Apocynaceae family, is used by traditional medicine practitioner to treat urinary and respiratory tract infections, bacteremia, typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery, diarrhea and stomach pain. This present study aims to validate the medicinal claims ascribed to the root bark of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical study of the root bark extracts (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol extracts) showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids, triterpenes, cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Antimicrobial study of the extracts showed activities against Staphylococus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhii, Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Candida albicans while Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella Pneumoniae showed resistance to all the extracts. The inhibitory effect was compared with the standard drug ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. MIC and MBC for both extracts were also determined using the tube dilution method. This study concluded that the root bark of G. boveanum, used traditionally as a medicinal plant, has antimicrobial activities against some causative organisms.

Keywords: Glossonema boveanum (Decne.), phytochemical, antimicrobial, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration

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4 Chemical Profiling of Farsetia Aegyptia Turra and Farsetia Longisiliqua Decne. and Their Chemosystematic Significance

Authors: Mona M. Marzouk, Ahmed Elkhateeb, Mona Elshabrawy, Mai M. Farid, Salwa A. Kawashty, EL-Sayed S. Abdel-Hameed, Sameh R. Hussein

Abstract:

The genus Farsetia Turra belongs to the family Brassicaceae and has approximately 30 accepted species distributed worldwide. Amongst them, Farsetia aegyptia Turra and Farsetia longisiliqua Decne. are two common species characteristic to the Egyptian flora. The present study considers the first characterization of the chemical constituents of F. longisiliqua, aiming to compare with those identified from the medicinal species (F. aegyptia). Additionally, the chemosystematic relationships between the two studied species were evaluated and highlight the medicinal importance for F. longisiliqua. The chemical profiling of their aqueous methanol extracts were carried out using the LC-ESI-MS technique and afforded 54 compounds belonging to different chemical groups. Flavonoids are the major constituents and are represented by 32 compounds (two C-glycosyl flavone, four flavones, and 26 flavonols). Their structural variations and common constituents confirmed the chemosystematic significance of the two species. Moreover, the flavonoid profiles showed major common constituents between the two investigated species, which predicted the medicinal importance of F. longisiliqua.

Keywords: brassicaceae, chemosystematics, farsetia, flavonoids, glucosinolates, LC-ESI-MS

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3 Comparative Growth Rates of Treculia africana Decne: Embryo in Varied Strengths of Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium

Authors: Okafor C. Uche, Agbo P. Ejiofor, Okezie C. Eziuche

Abstract:

This study provides a regeneration protocol for Treculia africana Decne (an endangered plant) through embryo culture. Mature zygotic embryos of T. africana were excised from the seeds aseptically and cultured on varied strengths (full, half and quarter) of Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented. All treatments experienced 100±0.00 percent sprouting except for half and quarter strengths. Plantlets in MS full strength had the highest fresh weight, leaf area, and longest shoot length when compared to other treatments. All explants in full, half, quarter strengths and control had the same number of leaves and sprout rate. Between the treatments, there was a significant difference (P>0.05) in their effect on the length of shoot and root, number of adventitious root, leaf area, and fresh weight. Full strength had the highest mean value in all the above-mentioned parameters and differed significantly (P>0.05) from others except in shoot length, number of adventitious roots, and root length where it did not differ (P<0.05) from half strength. The result of this study indicates that full strength MS basal medium offers a better option for the optimum growth for Treculia africana regeneration in vitro.

Keywords: medium strengths, Murashige and Skoog, Treculia africana, zygotic embryos

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2 Determination of Phytostearol in Serial Grains

Authors: Sumonthip Kongtun Janphuk

Abstract:

Ten cereal grains that usually used as ingredients in healthy products were studied for phytosteryl glucoside contents. β-sitosteryl glucoside in 10 cereal grains, including Phasecolus vulgaris L. (kidney bean), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick), Nelumbo nucifera (lotus), Vigna radiate L. (mung bean), Coix lacrymajobi (job’tears), Oryza sativa. (red rice), Glycine max L. Merrill. (soybean),Cucurbita maschata Decne (pumpkin) and Helianthas annuus (sunflower seeds), were analyzed using Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and High-Performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All grains were extracted with methanol before analysis. Red bean showed the maximum phytosteryl glucoside content of 0.42% w/w. The content of others were as follows: pumpkin seed 0.173%, mung bean 0.099 %, soybean 0.07%, dried moringa seed 0.067%, lotus seed 0.044%, sorghum 0.032%, sunflower seed 0.016%, Job's tears 0.012%, and brown rice 0.006%.

Keywords: cereal grains, phytosterol, β-sitosteryl glucoside, food analysis.

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1 Nectariferous Plant Genetic Resources for Apicultural Entrepreneurship in Nigeria: Prerequisite for Conservation, Sustainable Management and Policy

Authors: C. V. Nnamani, O. L. Adedeji

Abstract:

The contemporary global economic meltdown has devastating effect on the Nigerian’s economy and its frantic search for alternative source of national revenue aside from oil and gas has become imperative for economic emancipation for Nigerians. Apicultural entrepreneurship could provide a source of livelihood if the basic knowledge of those plant genetic resources needed by bees is made available. A palynological evaluation of those palynotaxa which honey bees forage for pollen and nectar was carried out after standard acetolysis method. Results showed that the honey samples were highly diversified and rich in honey plants. A total of 9544.3 honey pollen, consisting of 39 honey plants belonging to 21 plant families and distributed within 38 genera were identified excluding 238 unidentified pollen grains. Data from the analysis equally revealed that Elaeis guineensis Jacq, Anacardium occidentale L, Diospyros mespiliformis Hochist xe ADC, Alchornea cordifolia Muell, Arg, Daniella oliveri (Rolfe) Hutch & Dalz, Irvingia wombolu Okafor ex Baill, Treculia africana Decne, Nauclea latifolia Smith and Crossopteryx febrifuga Afzil ex Benth were the predominant honey plants. It provided a guide to the optimal utilization of floral resources by honeybees in these regions, showing the opportunity and amazing potentials for apiculture entrepreneurship of these palytaxa. Most of these plants are rare, threatened and endangered. It calls for urgent conservation techniques and step by all players. Critical awareness creation to ensure farmers knowledge of these palynotaxa to ensure proper understanding and attendance boost from them as economic empowerment is needed.

Keywords: palynotaxa, acetolysis, enterprise, livelihood, Nigeria

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