Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Chetna Jaswal

7 On-Screen Disability Delineation and Social Representation: An Evaluation

Authors: Chetna Jaswal, Nishi Srivastava, Ahammedul Kabeer AP, Puja Prasad

Abstract:

We are a culture of mass media consumers and cinema as its integral part has high visibility and potential influence on public attitude towards disability which maintains no sociocultural boundaries but experiences substantial social marginalization. Given the lack of awareness and direct experience with disability, on-screen or film representations can give powerful and memorable definitions for the public that can contribute to framing the perception and attitude change. Social representation refers to common ways of thinking, conceiving about and evaluating social reality. It is a product of collective cognition, common sense and thought system. This study aims at analyzing the representations and narratives of disability in Indian cinema and Hollywood with the help of a conceptual understanding of social representation and its theoretical framework.

Keywords: disability, social representation, mainstream cinema, diversity

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6 Structural Changes Induced in Graphene Oxide Film by Low Energy Ion Beam Irradiation

Authors: Chetna Tyagi, Ambuj Tripathi, Devesh Avasthi

Abstract:

Graphene oxide consists of sp³ hybridization along with sp² hybridization due to the presence of different oxygen-containing functional groups on its edges and basal planes. However, its sp³ / sp² hybridization can be tuned by various methods to utilize it in different applications, like transistors, solar cells and biosensors. Ion beam irradiation can also be one of the methods to optimize sp² and sp³ hybridization ratio for its desirable properties. In this work, graphene oxide films were irradiated with 100 keV Argon ions at different fluences varying from 10¹³ to 10¹⁶ ions/cm². Synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements showed an increase in crystallinity at the low fluence of 10¹³ ions/cm². Raman spectroscopy performed on irradiated samples determined the defects induced by the ion beam qualitatively. Also, identification of different groups and their removal with different fluences was done using Fourier infrared spectroscopy technique.

Keywords: graphene oxide, ion beam irradiation, spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction

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5 Comparative Electrochemical Studies of Enzyme-Based and Enzyme-less Graphene Oxide-Based Nanocomposite as Glucose Biosensor

Authors: Chetna Tyagi. G. B. V. S. Lakshmi, Ambuj Tripathi, D. K. Avasthi

Abstract:

Graphene oxide provides a good host matrix for preparing nanocomposites due to the different functional groups attached to its edges and planes. Being biocompatible, it is used in therapeutic applications. As enzyme-based biosensor requires complicated enzyme purification procedure, high fabrication cost and special storage conditions, we need enzyme-less biosensors for use even in a harsh environment like high temperature, varying pH, etc. In this work, we have prepared both enzyme-based and enzyme-less graphene oxide-based biosensors for glucose detection using glucose-oxidase as enzyme and gold nanoparticles, respectively. These samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy to confirm the successful synthesis of the working electrodes. Electrochemical measurements were performed for both the working electrodes using a 3-electrode electrochemical cell. Cyclic voltammetry curves showed the homogeneous transfer of electron on the electrodes in the scan range between -0.2V to 0.6V. The sensing measurements were performed using differential pulse voltammetry for the glucose concentration varying from 0.01 mM to 20 mM, and sensing was improved towards glucose in the presence of gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles in graphene oxide nanocomposite played an important role in sensing glucose in the absence of enzyme, glucose oxidase, as evident from these measurements. The selectivity was tested by measuring the current response of the working electrode towards glucose in the presence of the other common interfering agents like cholesterol, ascorbic acid, citric acid, and urea. The enzyme-less working electrode also showed storage stability for up to 15 weeks, making it a suitable glucose biosensor.

Keywords: electrochemical, enzyme-less, glucose, gold nanoparticles, graphene oxide, nanocomposite

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4 Bioconversion of Kitchen Waste to Bio-Ethanol for Energy Security and Solid Waste Management

Authors: Sanjiv Kumar Soni, Chetna Janveja

Abstract:

The approach of utilizing zero cost kitchen waste residues for growing suitable strains of fungi for the induction of a cocktail of hydrolytic enzymes and ethanol generation has been validated in the present study with the objective of developing an indigenous biorefinery for low cost bioethanol production with the generation of zero waste. Solid state fermentation has been carried out to evaluate the potential of various steam pretreated kitchen waste residues as substrates for the co-production of multiple carbohydrases including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinase and amylases by a locally isolated strain of Aspergillus niger C-5. Of all the residues, potato peels induced the maximum yields of all the enzyme components corresponding to 64.0±1.92 IU of CMCase, 17.0±0.54 IU of FPase , 42.8±1.28 IU of β-glucosidase, 990.0±28.90 IU of xylanase, 53.2±2.12 IU of mannanase, 126.0±3.72 IU of pectinase, 31500.0±375.78 IU of α-amylase and 488.8±9.82 IU of glucoamylase/g dry substrate respectively. Saccharification of various kitchen refuse residues using inhouse produced crude enzyme cocktail resulted in the release of 610±10.56, 570±8.89, 435±6.54, 475±4.56, 445±4.27, 385±4.49, 370±6.89, 490±10.45 mg of total reducing sugars/g of dried potato peels, orange peels, pineapple peels, mausami peels, onion peels, banana stalks, pea pods and composite mixture respectively revealing carbohydrate conversion efficiencies in the range of 97.0-99.4%. After fermentation of released hexoses by Saccharomyces cerevisae, ethanol yields ranging from 80-262 mL/ kg of dry residues were obtained. The study has successfully evaluated the valorization of kitchen garbage, a highly biodegradable component in Municipal Solid Waste by using it as a substrate for the in-house co-production of multiple carbohydrases and employing the steam treated residues as a feed stock for bioethanol production. Such valorization of kitchen garbage may reduce the level of Municipal Solid Waste going into land-fills thus lowering the emissions of greenhouse gases. Moreover, the solid residue left after the bioconversion may be used as a biofertilizer for improving the fertility of the soils.

Keywords: kitchen waste, bioethanol, solid waste, bioconversion, waste management

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3 Technologies of Factory Farming: An Exploration of Ongoing Confrontations with Farm Animal Sanctuaries

Authors: Chetna Khandelwal

Abstract:

This research aims to study the contentions that Farm Animal Sanctuaries pose to human-animal relationships in modernity, which have developed as a result of globalisation of the meat industry and advancements in technology. The sociological history of human-animal relationships in farming is contextualised in order to set a foundation for the follow-up examination of challenges to existing human-(farm)animal relationships by Farm Animal Sanctuaries. The methodology was influenced by relativism, and the method involved three semi-structured small-group interviews, conducted at locations of sanctuaries. The sample was chosen through purposive sampling and varied by location and size of the sanctuary. Data collected were transcribed and qualitatively coded to generate themes. Findings revealed that sanctuary contentions to established human-animal relationships by factory farming could be divided into 4 broad categories – Revealing horrors of factory farming (involving uncovering power relations in agribusiness); transforming relationships with animals (including letting them emotionally heal in accordance with their individual personalities and treating them as partial-pets); educating the public regarding welfare conditions in factory farms as well as animal sentience through practical experience or positive imagery of farm animals, and addressing retaliation made by agribusiness in the form of technologies or discursive strategies. Hence, this research concludes that The human-animal relationship in current times has been characterised by – (ideological and physical) distance from farm animals, commodification due to increased chasing of profits over welfare and exploitation using technological advancements, creating unequal power dynamics that rid animals of any agency. Challenges to this relationship can be influenced by local populations around the sanctuary but not so dependent upon the size of it. This research can benefit from further academic exploration into farm animal sanctuaries and their role in feminist animal rights activism to enrich the ongoing fight against intensive farming.

Keywords: animal rights, factory farming, farm animal sanctuaries, human-animal relationships

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2 Optimizing Hydrogen Production from Biomass Pyro-Gasification in a Multi-Staged Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Chetna Mohabeer, Luis Reyes, Lokmane Abdelouahed, Bechara Taouk

Abstract:

In the transition to sustainability and the increasing use of renewable energy, hydrogen will play a key role as an energy carrier. Biomass has the potential to accelerate the realization of hydrogen as a major fuel of the future. Pyro-gasification allows the conversion of organic matter mainly into synthesis gas, or “syngas”, majorly constituted by CO, H2, CH4, and CO2. A second, condensable fraction of biomass pyro-gasification products are “tars”. Under certain conditions, tars may decompose into hydrogen and other light hydrocarbons. These conditions include two types of cracking: homogeneous cracking, where tars decompose under the effect of temperature ( > 1000 °C), and heterogeneous cracking, where catalysts such as olivine, dolomite or biochar are used. The latter process favors cracking of tars at temperatures close to pyro-gasification temperatures (~ 850 °C). Pyro-gasification of biomass coupled with water-gas shift is the most widely practiced process route for biomass to hydrogen today. In this work, an innovating solution will be proposed for this conversion route, in that all the pyro-gasification products, not only methane, will undergo processes that aim to optimize hydrogen production. First, a heterogeneous cracking step was included in the reaction scheme, using biochar (remaining solid from the pyro-gasification reaction) as catalyst and CO2 and H2O as gasifying agents. This process was followed by a catalytic steam methane reforming (SMR) step. For this, a Ni-based catalyst was tested under different reaction conditions to optimize H2 yield. Finally, a water-gas shift (WGS) reaction step with a Fe-based catalyst was added to optimize the H2 yield from CO. The reactor used for cracking was a fluidized bed reactor, and the one used for SMR and WGS was a fixed bed reactor. The gaseous products were analyzed continuously using a µ-GC (Fusion PN 074-594-P1F). With biochar as bed material, it was seen that more H2 was obtained with steam as a gasifying agent (32 mol. % vs. 15 mol. % with CO2 at 900 °C). CO and CH4 productions were also higher with steam than with CO2. Steam as gasifying agent and biochar as bed material were hence deemed efficient parameters for the first step. Among all parameters tested, CH4 conversions approaching 100 % were obtained from SMR reactions using Ni/γ-Al2O3 as a catalyst, 800 °C, and a steam/methane ratio of 5. This gave rise to about 45 mol % H2. Experiments about WGS reaction are currently being conducted. At the end of this phase, the four reactions are performed consecutively, and the results analyzed. The final aim is the development of a global kinetic model of the whole system in a multi-stage fluidized bed reactor that can be transferred on ASPEN PlusTM.

Keywords: multi-staged fluidized bed reactor, pyro-gasification, steam methane reforming, water-gas shift

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1 Exploring Bio-Inspired Catecholamine Chemistry to Design Durable Anti-Fungal Wound Dressings

Authors: Chetna Dhand, Venkatesh Mayandi, Silvia Marrero Diaz, Roger W. Beuerman, Seeram Ramakrishna, Rajamani Lakshminarayanan

Abstract:

Sturdy Insect Cuticle Sclerotization, Incredible Substrate independent Mussel’s bioadhesion, Tanning of Leather are some of catechol(amine)s mediated natural processes. Chemical contemplation spots toward a mechanism instigated with the formation of the quinone moieties from the respective catechol(amine)s, via oxidation, followed by the nucleophilic addition of the amino acids/proteins/peptides to this quinone leads to the development of highly strong, cross-linked and water-resistant proteinacious structures. Inspired with this remarkable catechol(amine)s chemistry towards amino acids/proteins/peptides, we attempted to design highly stable and water-resistant antifungal wound dressing mats with exceptional durability using collagen (protein), dopamine (catecholamine) and antifungal drugs (Amphotericin B and Caspofungin) as the key materials. Electrospinning technique has been used to fabricate desired nanofibrous mat including Collagen (COLL), COLL/Dopamine (COLL/DP) and calcium incorporated COLL/DP (COLL-DP-Ca2+). The prepared protein-based scaffolds have been studied for their microscopic investigations (SEM, TEM, and AFM), structural analysis (FT-IR), mechanical properties, water wettability characteristics and aqueous stability. Biocompatibility of these scaffolds has been analyzed for dermal fibroblast cells using MTS assay, Cell TrackerTM Green CMFDA and confocal imaging. Being the winner sample, COLL-DP-Ca2+ scaffold has been selected for incorporating two antifungal drugs namely Caspofungin (Peptide based) and Amphotericin B (Non-Peptide based). Antifungal efficiency of the designed mats has been evaluated for eight diverse fungal strains employing different microbial assays including disc diffusion, cell-viability assay, time kill kinetics etc. To confirm the durability of these mats, in term of their antifungal activity, drug leaching studies has been performed and monitored using disc diffusion assay each day. Ex-vivo fungal infection model has also been developed and utilized to validate the antifungal efficacy of the designed wound dressings. Results clearly reveal dopamine mediated crosslinking within COLL-antifungal scaffolds that leads to the generation of highly stable, mechanical tough, biocompatible wound dressings having the zone of inhabitation of ≥ 2 cm for almost all the investigated fungal strains. Leaching studies and Ex-vivo model has confirmed the durability of these wound dressing for more than 3 weeks and certified their suitability for commercialization. A model has also been proposed to enlighten the chemical mechanism involved for the development of these antifungal wound dressings with exceptional robustness.

Keywords: catecholamine chemistry, electrospinning technique, antifungals, wound dressings, collagen

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