Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5564

Search results for: public choice

5564 A Comparative Study of School Choice: China and the United States

Authors: Huizi Zeng

Abstract:

This paper delineates the historical retrospective and current status of school choice in China. Focusing on analyzing the similarities and differences in origin, evolution, public dispute, policy dynamics between China and the United States, the article depicts a panorama and explores possible causes. Both China and the United States continue to learn from historical legacy and invent new programs to perfect school choice policy but the outcomes are so different. On the one hand, the percentage of public schools in China remains high all along, while there is a considerably significant reduction in the United States. On the other hand, there is more governmental intervention in the United States with continuous and constant policy updates and adjustment. Finally, this article adopts public-private partnerships (PPP) to seek to provide insights into differences between the two countries and argue that school choice is not only the production of education marketization and corporation but also driven by political mechanism.

Keywords: China, United States, school choice, comparative analysis, policy, public private partnerships

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
5563 Evaluation of Neighbourhood Characteristics and Active Transport Mode Choice

Authors: Tayebeh Saghapour, Sara Moridpour, Russell George Thompson

Abstract:

One of the common aims of transport policy makers is to switch people’s travel to active transport. For this purpose, a variety of transport goals and investments should be programmed to increase the propensity towards active transport mode choice. This paper aims to investigate whether built environment features in neighbourhoods could enhance the odds of active transportation. The present study introduces an index measuring public transport accessibility (PTAI), and a walkability index along with socioeconomic variables to investigate mode choice behaviour. Using travel behaviour data, an ordered logit regression model is applied to examine the impacts of explanatory variables on walking trips. The findings indicated that high rates of active travel are consistently associated with higher levels of walking and public transport accessibility.

Keywords: active transport, public transport accessibility, walkability, ordered logit model

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
5562 Evidence of Conditional and Unconditional Cooperation in a Public Goods Game: Experimental Evidence from Mali

Authors: Maria Laura Alzua, Maria Adelaida Lopera

Abstract:

This paper measures the relative importance of conditional cooperation and unconditional cooperation in a large public goods experiment conducted in Mali. We use expectations about total public goods provision to estimate a structural choice model with heterogeneous preferences. While unconditional cooperation can be captured by common preferences shared by all participants, conditional cooperation is much more heterogeneous and depends on unobserved individual factors. This structural model, in combination with two experimental treatments, suggests that leadership and group communication incentivize public goods provision through different channels. First, We find that participation of local leaders effectively changes individual choices through unconditional cooperation. A simulation exercise predicts that even in the most pessimistic scenario in which all participants expect zero public good provision, 60% would still choose to cooperate. Second, allowing participants to communicate fosters conditional cooperation. The simulations suggest that expectations are responsible for around 24% of the observed public good provision and that group communication does not necessarily ameliorate public good provision. In fact, communication may even worsen the outcome when expectations are low.

Keywords: conditional cooperation, discrete choice model, expectations, public goods game, random coefficients model

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
5561 The Exercise of Choice by Children and Young People in the British Public Care System

Authors: Siobhan Laird

Abstract:

Under article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which extends human rights in their application to those under the age of 18 years, children must be consulted ‘in all matters affecting the child’. The Office of the Children’s Commissioner for England is responsible for improving the welfare of children and young people by ensuring that their Convention rights are respected and realised and their views taken seriously. In 2014 the Children’s Commissioner engaged a team of researchers at the Centre for Social Work, University of Nottingham to develop and roll out an online survey to gather information from children and young people about their exercise of choice within the public care system. Approximately 3,000 children responded to this survey, which comprised both closed and open-ended questions. SPSS was used to analyse the numerical data and a thematic analysis of textual data was conducted on answers to open-ended questions. Findings revealed that children exercised considerable choice over personal space and their spare time, but had much less choice in relation to contact with their birth families, where they lived, or the timings of moves from one placement into another. The majority of children described how they were supported to express their opinions and believed that these were taken seriously. However, a significant number reported problems and explained how specific behaviours by professionals and carers made it difficult for them to express their opinion or to feel that they had influenced decisions which affected them. In open-ended questions eliciting information about their experiences, children and young people were asked to describe how they could be better supported to make choices and what changes would assist for these to be better acknowledged and acted upon by professionals and carers. This paper concludes by presenting the ideas and suggestions of children and young people for improving the public care system in Britain in relation to their exercise of choice.

Keywords: children, choice, participation, public care

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
5560 The Potential of On-Demand Shuttle Services to Reduce Private Car Use

Authors: B. Mack, K. Tampe-Mai, E. Diesch

Abstract:

Findings of an ongoing discrete choice study of future transport mode choice will be presented. Many urban centers face the triple challenge of having to cope with ever increasing traffic congestion, environmental pollution, and greenhouse gas emission brought about by private car use. In principle, private car use may be diminished by extending public transport systems like bus lines, trams, tubes, and trains. However, there are limits to increasing the (perceived) spatial and temporal flexibility and reducing peak-time crowding of classical public transport systems. An emerging new type of system, publicly or privately operated on-demand shuttle bus services, seem suitable to ameliorate the situation. A fleet of on-demand shuttle busses operates without fixed stops and schedules. It may be deployed efficiently in that each bus picks up passengers whose itineraries may be combined into an optimized route. Crowding may be minimized by limiting the number of seats and the inter-seat distance for each bus. The study is conducted as a discrete choice experiment. The choice between private car, public transport, and shuttle service is registered as a function of several push and pull factors (financial costs, travel time, walking distances, mobility tax/congestion charge, and waiting time/parking space search time). After the completion of the discrete choice items, the study participant is asked to rate the three modes of transport with regard to the pull factors of comfort, safety, privacy, and opportunity to engage in activities like reading or surfing the internet. These ratings are entered as additional predictors into the discrete choice experiment regression model. The study is conducted in the region of Stuttgart in southern Germany. N=1000 participants are being recruited. Participants are between 18 and 69 years of age, hold a driver’s license, and live in the city or the surrounding region of Stuttgart. In the discrete choice experiment, participants are asked to assume they lived within the Stuttgart region, but outside of the city, and were planning the journey from their apartment to their place of work, training, or education during the peak traffic time in the morning. Then, for each item of the discrete choice experiment, they are asked to choose between the transport modes of private car, public transport, and on-demand shuttle in the light of particular values of the push and pull factors studied. The study will provide valuable information on the potential of switching from private car use to the use of on-demand shuttles, but also on the less desirable potential of switching from public transport to on-demand shuttle services. Furthermore, information will be provided on the modulation of these switching potentials by pull and push factors.

Keywords: determinants of travel mode choice, on-demand shuttle services, private car use, public transport

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
5559 Modeling Route Selection Using Real-Time Information and GPS Data

Authors: William Albeiro Alvarez, Gloria Patricia Jaramillo, Ivan Reinaldo Sarmiento

Abstract:

Understanding the behavior of individuals and the different human factors that influence the choice when faced with a complex system such as transportation is one of the most complicated aspects of measuring in the components that constitute the modeling of route choice due to that various behaviors and driving mode directly or indirectly affect the choice. During the last two decades, with the development of information and communications technologies, new data collection techniques have emerged such as GPS, geolocation with mobile phones, apps for choosing the route between origin and destination, individual service transport applications among others, where an interest has been generated to improve discrete choice models when considering the incorporation of these developments as well as psychological factors that affect decision making. This paper implements a discrete choice model that proposes and estimates a hybrid model that integrates route choice models and latent variables based on the observation on the route of a sample of public taxi drivers from the city of Medellín, Colombia in relation to its behavior, personality, socioeconomic characteristics, and driving mode. The set of choice options includes the routes generated by the individual service transport applications versus the driver's choice. The hybrid model consists of measurement equations that relate latent variables with measurement indicators and utilities with choice indicators along with structural equations that link the observable characteristics of drivers with latent variables and explanatory variables with utilities.

Keywords: behavior choice model, human factors, hybrid model, real time data

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
5558 Public Interest Law for Gender Equality: An Exploratory Study of the 'Single Woman Reproductive Rights' Movement in China

Authors: Xiaofei Zhu

Abstract:

As a 'weapon of the weak', the Public Interest Law can provide a better perspective for the cause of gender justice. In recent years, the legal practice of single female reproductive rights in China has already possessed the elements of public interest law activities and the possibility of public interest law operation. Through the general operating procedures of public interest law practice, that is, from the choice of subject, the planning of the case, the operation of the strategy and the later development, the paper analyzes the gains and losses of the legal practice of single female reproductive rights in China, and puts forward some ideas on its possible operation path. On this basis, it is believed that the cause of women's rights should be carried out under the broad human rights perspective; it is necessary to realize the particularity of different types of women's rights protection practice; the practice of public interest law needs to accurately grasp the constituent elements of all aspects of the case, and strive to find the opportunities of institutional and social change; the practice of public welfare law of gender justice should be carried out from a long-term perspective.

Keywords: single women’s reproductive rights, public interest law, gender justice, legal strategies, legal change

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
5557 Public Preferences for Lung Cancer Screening in China: A Discrete Choice Experiment

Authors: Zixuan Zhao, Lingbin Du, Le Wang, Youqing Wang, Yi Yang, Jingjun Chen, Hengjin Dong

Abstract:

Objectives: Few results from public attitudes for lung cancer screening are available both in China and abroad. This study aimed to identify preferred lung cancer screening modalities in a Chinese population and predict uptake rates of different modalities. Materials and Methods: A discrete choice experiment questionnaire was administered to 392 Chinese individuals aged 50–74 years who were at high risk for lung cancer. Each choice set had two lung screening options and an option to opt-out, and respondents were asked to choose the most preferred one. Both mixed logit analysis and stepwise logistic analysis were conducted to explore whether preferences were related to respondent characteristics and identify which kinds of respondents were more likely to opt out of any screening. Results: On mixed logit analysis, attributes that were predictive of choice at 1% level of statistical significance included the screening interval, screening venue, and out-of-pocket costs. The preferred screening modality seemed to be screening by low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) + blood test once a year in a general hospital at a cost of RMB 50; this could increase the uptake rate by 0.40 compared to the baseline setting. On stepwise logistic regression, those with no endowment insurance were more likely to opt out; those who were older and housewives/househusbands, and those with a health check habit and with commercial endowment insurance were less likely to opt out from a screening programme. Conclusions: There was considerable variance between real risk and self-perceived risk of lung cancer among respondents, and further research is required in this area. Lung cancer screening uptake can be increased by offering various screening modalities, so as to help policymakers further design the screening modality.

Keywords: lung cancer, screening, China., discrete choice experiment

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
5556 Classroom Incivility Behaviours among Medical Students: A Comparative Study in Pakistan

Authors: Manal Rauf

Abstract:

Trained medical practitioners are produced from medical colleges serving in public and private sectors. Prime responsibility of teaching faculty is to inculcate required work ethic among the students by serving as role models for them. It is an observed fact that classroom incivility behaviours are providing a friction in achieving these targets. Present study aimed at identification of classroom incivility behaviours observed by teachers and students of public and private medical colleges as per Glasser’s Choice Theory, making a comparison and investigating the strategies being adopted by teachers of both sectors to control undesired class room behaviours. Findings revealed that a significant difference occurs between teacher and student incivility behaviours. Public sector teacher focussed on survival as a strong factor behind in civil behaviours whereas private sector teachers considered power as the precedent for incivility. Teachers of both sectors are required to use verbal as well as non-verbal immediacy to reach a healthy leaning environment.

Keywords: classroom incivility behaviour, glasser choice theory, Mehrabian immediacy theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
5555 An Application of Contingent Valuation Method in Valuing Protected Area: A Case Study of Pulau Kukup National Parks

Authors: A. Mukrimah, M. Mohd Parid, H. F. Lim

Abstract:

Wetland ecosystem has valuable resources that contribute to national income generation and public well-being, either directly by resources that have a market value or indirectly by resources that have no market value. Economic approach is used to evaluate the resources to determine the best use of wetland resources and should be emphasized in policy development planning. This approach is to prevent imbalance in the allocation of resources and welfare benefits. A case study was conducted in 2016 to assess the economic value of wetland ecosystem services at Pulau Kukup National Parks (PKNP). This study has applied dichotomous choice survey design Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) to investigate empirically the willingness-to-pay (WTP) by the public. The study interviewed 400 household respondents at Pontian, Johor. Analysis showed 81% of household interviewed were willing to contribute to the Wetland Conservation Trust Fund. The results also indicated that on average a household was willing to pay RM87 annually. By taking into account 21,664 households in Pontian district in 2016, public’s contribution to conserves wetland ecosystem at PKNP was calculated to be RM1, 884,334. From the public’s interest to contribute to the conservation of wetland ecosystem services at PKNP, it indicates that more concerted effort is needed by both the federal and state governments to conserve and rehabilitate the mangrove ecosystem in Malaysia.

Keywords: environmental economy, economic valuation, choice experiment, Pulau Kukup national parks

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
5554 Impact on Cost of Equity of Accounting and Disclosures

Authors: Abhishek Ranga

Abstract:

The study examined the effect of accounting choice and level of disclosure on the firm’s implied cost of equity in Indian environment. For the study accounting choice was classified as aggressive or conservative depending upon the firm’s choice of accounting methods, accounting policies and accounting estimates. Level of disclosure is the quantum of financial and non-financial information disclosed in firm’s annual report, essentially in note to accounts section, schedules forming part of financial statements and Management Discussion and Analysis report. Regression models were developed with cost of equity as a dependent variable and accounting choice, level of disclosure as an independent variable along with selected control variables. Cost of equity was measured using Edward-Bell-Ohlson (EBO) valuation model, to measure accounting choice Modified-Jones-Model (MJM) was used and level of disclosure was measured using a disclosure index essentially drawn from Botosan study. Results indicated a negative association between the implied cost of equity and conservative accounting choice and also between level of disclosure and cost of equity.

Keywords: aggressive accounting choice, conservative accounting choice, disclosure, implied cost of equity

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
5553 The Effect of Fast Food Globalisation on Students’ Food Choice

Authors: Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu

Abstract:

This research seeks to investigate how the globalisation of fast food has affected students’ food choice. A mixed method approach was used in this research; basically involving quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative method uses a self-completion questionnaire to randomly sample one hundred and four students; while the qualitative method uses a semi structured interview technique to survey four students on their knowledge and choice to consume fast food. A cross tabulation of variables and the Kruskal Wallis nonparametric test were used to analyse the quantitative data; while the qualitative data was analysed through deduction of themes, and trends from the interview transcribe. The findings revealed that globalisation has amplified the evolution of fast food, popularising it among students. Its global presence has affected students’ food choice and preference. Price, convenience, taste, and peer influence are some of the major factors affecting students’ choice of fast food. Though, students are familiar with the health effect of fast food and the significance of using food information labels for healthy choice making, their preference of fast food is more than homemade food.

Keywords: fast food, food choice, globalisation, students

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
5552 Modelling Mode Choice Behaviour Using Cloud Theory

Authors: Leah Wright, Trevor Townsend

Abstract:

Mode choice models are crucial instruments in the analysis of travel behaviour. These models show the relationship between an individual’s choice of transportation mode for a given O-D pair and the individual’s socioeconomic characteristics such as household size and income level, age and/or gender, and the features of the transportation system. The most popular functional forms of these models are based on Utility-Based Choice Theory, which addresses the uncertainty in the decision-making process with the use of an error term. However, with the development of artificial intelligence, many researchers have started to take a different approach to travel demand modelling. In recent times, researchers have looked at using neural networks, fuzzy logic and rough set theory to develop improved mode choice formulas. The concept of cloud theory has recently been introduced to model decision-making under uncertainty. Unlike the previously mentioned theories, cloud theory recognises a relationship between randomness and fuzziness, two of the most common types of uncertainty. This research aims to investigate the use of cloud theory in mode choice models. This paper highlights the conceptual framework of the mode choice model using cloud theory. Merging decision-making under uncertainty and mode choice models is state of the art. The cloud theory model is expected to address the issues and concerns with the nested logit and improve the design of mode choice models and their use in travel demand.

Keywords: Cloud theory, decision-making, mode choice models, travel behaviour, uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
5551 The Value of Store Choice Criteria on Perceived Patronage Intentions

Authors: Susana Marques

Abstract:

Research on how store environment cues influence consumers’ store choice decision criteria, such as store operations, product quality, monetary price, store image and sales promotion, is sparse. Especially absent research on the simultaneous impact of multiple store environment cues. The authors propose a comprehensive store choice model that includes: three types of store environment cues as exogenous constructs; various store choice criteria as possible mediating constructs, and store patronage intentions as an endogenous construct. On the basis of testing with a sample of 561 customers of hypermarkets, the model is partially supported. This study used structural equation modelling to test the proposed model.

Keywords: store choice, store patronage, structural equation modelling, retailing

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
5550 The Recognition of Exclusive Choice of Court Agreements: United Arab Emirates Perspective and the 2005 Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements

Authors: Hasan Alrashid

Abstract:

The 2005 Hague Convention seeks to ensure legal certainty and predictability between parties in international business transactions. It harmonies exclusive choice of court agreements at the international level between parties to commercial transactions and to govern the recognition and enforcement of judgments resulting from proceedings based on such agreements to promote international trade and investment. Although the choice of court agreements is significant in international business transactions, the United Arab Emirates refuse to recognise it by Article 24 of the Federal Law No. 11 of 1992 of the Civil Procedure Code. A review of judicial judgments in United Arab Emirates up to the present day has revealed that several cases appeared before the Court in different states of United Arab Emirates regarding the recognition of exclusive choice of court agreements. In all the cases, the courts regarded the exclusive choice of court agreements as a direct assault on state authority and sovereignty and refused categorically to recognize choice of court agreements by refusing to stay proceedings in favor of the foreign chosen court. This has created uncertainty and unpredictability in international business transaction in the United Arab Emirates. In June 2011, the first Gulf Judicial Seminar on Cross-Frontier Legal Cooperation in Civil and Commercial Matters was held in Doha, Qatar. The Permanent Bureau of the Hague Conference attended the conference and invited the states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) namely, The United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and Kuwait to adopt some of the Hague Conventions, one of which was the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements. One of the recommendations of the conference was that the GCC states should research ‘the benefits of predictability and legal certainty provided by the 2005 Convention on Choice of Court Agreements and its resulting advantages for cross-border trade and investment’ for possible adoption of the Hague Convention. Up to today, no further step has been taken by the any of the GCC states to adapt the Hague Convention nor did they conduct research on the benefits of predictability and legal certainty in international business transactions. This paper will argue that the approach regarding the recognition of choice of court agreements in United Arab Emirates states can be improved in order to help the parties in international business transactions avoid parallel litigation and ensure legal certainty and predictability. The focus will be the uncertainty and gaps regarding the choice of court agreements in the United Arab Emirates states. The Hague Convention on choice of court agreements and the importance of harmonisation of the rules of choice of court agreements at international level will also be discussed. Finally, The feasibility and desirability of recognizing choice of court agreements in United Arab Emirates legal system by becoming a party to the Hague Convention will be evaluated.

Keywords: choice of court agreements, party autonomy, public authority, sovereignty

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
5549 Change in Food Choice Behavior: Trend and Challenges

Authors: Gargi S. Kumar, Mrinmoyi Kulkarni

Abstract:

Food choice behavior is complex and determined by biological, psychological, socio-cultural, and economic factors. The past two decades, have seen dramatic changes in food consumption patterns among urban Indian consumers. The objective of the current study was to evaluate perceptions about changes with respect to food choice behavior. Ten participants [urban men and women] ranging in age from 40 to 65 were selected and in-depth interviews were conducted with a set of open ended questions. The recorded interviews were transcribed and thematically analyzed using inductive, open and axial coding. The results identified themes that act as drivers and consequences of change in food choice behavior. Drivers such as globalization [sub themes of urbanization, education, income, and work environment], media and advertising, changing gender roles, women in the workforce, and change in family structure have influenced food choice, both at an individual and national level. The consequences of changes in food choice were health implications, processed food consumption, food decisions driven by children and eating out among others. The study reveals that, over time, food choices change and evolve. However it is interesting to note how market forces and culture interact to influence individual behavior and the overall food environment which subsequently affects food choice and the health of the people.

Keywords: change, consequences, drivers, food choice, globalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
5548 Impact of Proposed Modal Shift from Private Users to Bus Rapid Transit System: An Indian City Case Study

Authors: Rakesh Kumar, Fatima Electricwala

Abstract:

One of the major thrusts of the Bus Rapid Transit System is to reduce the commuter’s dependency on private vehicles and increase the shares of public transport to make urban transportation system environmentally sustainable. In this study, commuter mode choice analysis is performed that examines behavioral responses to the proposed Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) in Surat, with estimation of the probable shift from private mode to public mode. Further, evaluation of the BRTS scenarios, using Surat’s transportation ecological footprint was done. A multi-modal simulation model was developed in Biogeme environment to explicitly consider private users behaviors and non-linear environmental impact. The data of the different factors (variables) and its impact that might cause modal shift of private mode users to proposed BRTS were collected through home-interview survey using revealed and stated preference approach. A multi modal logit model of mode-choice was then calibrated using the collected data and validated using proposed sample. From this study, a set of perception factors, with reliable and predictable data base, to explain the variation in modal shift behaviour and their impact on Surat’s ecological environment has been identified. A case study of the proposed BRTS connecting the Surat Industrial Hub to the coastal area is provided to illustrate the approach.

Keywords: BRTS, private modes, mode choice models, ecological footprint

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
5547 Factors Influencing Student's Decision to Pursue a Hospitality and Tourism Program

Authors: Zeenath Solih

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to analyze the factors that influence the decision to pursue a hospitality and tourism program for students of Maldives when pursuing higher education options. This research would further explore the implications and relationship between the universities and students. Quantitative research method will be used to demonstrate the hypothesis and achieve the objectives of this research, a questionnaire consisting of 30 closed questions will be used which will be analyzed based on SPSS18 software to handle and extract the data.10 public school and 3 private schools with secondary education and 3 universities with higher education facilities and a total of 500 students participated in the survey. The findings include selection criteria for decision making for higher studies being the university’s reputation, excellence and quality of educational program, the preference of pursuing further studies from a public over private universities and the academic, cultural and socio demographic factors that influence the students choice of program and university. Finally the study will provide valuable insight to how universities need to market their programs to attract the right students.

Keywords: choice criteria, higher education, hospitality and tourism studies, information sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
5546 Analysis of the Introduction of Carsharing in the Context of Developing Countries: A Case Study Based on On-Board Carsharing Survey in Kabul, Afghanistan

Authors: Mustafa Rezazada, Takuya Maruyama

Abstract:

Cars have a strong integration with the human being since its introduction, and this interaction is more evident in the urban context. Therefore, shifting city residents from driving private vehicles to public transits has been a big challenge. Accordingly, carsharing as an innovative, environmentally friendly transport alternative had a significant contribution to this transition so far. It helped to reduce the numbers of household car ownership, declining demand for on-street parking, dropping the numbers of kilometers traveled by car, and affects the future of mobility by decreasing the Green House Gases (GHS) emissions’ and the numbers of new cars to be purchased otherwise. However, majorities of carsharing researches were conducted in highly developed cities, and less attention has been paid to the cities of developing countries. This study is conducted in the Capital of Afghanistan, Kabul to investigate the current transport pattern, user behavior, and to examine the possibility of introducing the carsharing system. This study established a new survey method called Onboard Carsharing Survey OCS. In this survey, the carpooling passengers aboard are interviewed following the Onboard Transit Survey OTS guideline with a few refinements. The survey focuses on respondents’ daily travel behavior and hypothetical stated choice of carsharing opportunities. Moreover, it followed by an aggregate analysis at the end. The survey results indicate the following: two-thirds of the respondents 62% have been carpooling every day since 5 years or more, more than half of the respondents are not satisfied with current modes, besides other attributes the Traffic Congestion, Environment and Insufficient Public Transport were ranked the most critical in daily transportation by survey participants. Moreover, 68.24% of the respondent chose Carsharing over carpooling under different choice game scenarios. Overall, the findings in this research show that Kabul City is a potential underground for the introduction of Carsharing in the future. Taken together, insufficient public transit, dissatisfaction with current modes, and their stated interest will affect the future of carsharing positively in Kabul City. The modal choice in this study is limited to carpooling and carsharing; more choice sets, including bus, cycling, and walking, will have to be added to evaluate further.

Keywords: carsharing, developing countries, Kabul Afghanistan, onboard carsharing survey, transportation, urban planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
5545 Analysis of Residents’ Travel Characteristics and Policy Improving Strategies

Authors: Zhenzhen Xu, Chunfu Shao, Shengyou Wang, Chunjiao Dong

Abstract:

To improve the satisfaction of residents' travel, this paper analyzes the characteristics and influencing factors of urban residents' travel behavior. First, a Multinominal Logit Model (MNL) model is built to analyze the characteristics of residents' travel behavior, reveal the influence of individual attributes, family attributes and travel characteristics on the choice of travel mode, and identify the significant factors. Then put forward suggestions for policy improvement. Finally, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) models are introduced to evaluate the policy effect. This paper selects Futian Street in Futian District, Shenzhen City for investigation and research. The results show that gender, age, education, income, number of cars owned, travel purpose, departure time, journey time, travel distance and times all have a significant influence on residents' choice of travel mode. Based on the above results, two policy improvement suggestions are put forward from reducing public transportation and non-motor vehicle travel time, and the policy effect is evaluated. Before the evaluation, the prediction effect of MNL, SVM and MLP models was evaluated. After parameter optimization, it was found that the prediction accuracy of the three models was 72.80%, 71.42%, and 76.42%, respectively. The MLP model with the highest prediction accuracy was selected to evaluate the effect of policy improvement. The results showed that after the implementation of the policy, the proportion of public transportation in plan 1 and plan 2 increased by 14.04% and 9.86%, respectively, while the proportion of private cars decreased by 3.47% and 2.54%, respectively. The proportion of car trips decreased obviously, while the proportion of public transport trips increased. It can be considered that the measures have a positive effect on promoting green trips and improving the satisfaction of urban residents, and can provide a reference for relevant departments to formulate transportation policies.

Keywords: neural network, travel characteristics analysis, transportation choice, travel sharing rate, traffic resource allocation

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
5544 Disaggregate Travel Behavior and Transit Shift Analysis for a Transit Deficient Metropolitan City

Authors: Sultan Ahmad Azizi, Gaurang J. Joshi

Abstract:

Urban transportation has come to lime light in recent times due to deteriorating travel quality. The economic growth of India has boosted significant rise in private vehicle ownership in cities, whereas public transport systems have largely been ignored in metropolitan cities. Even though there is latent demand for public transport systems like organized bus services, most of the metropolitan cities have unsustainably low share of public transport. Unfortunately, Indian metropolitan cities have failed to maintain balance in mode share of various travel modes in absence of timely introduction of mass transit system of required capacity and quality. As a result, personalized travel modes like two wheelers have become principal modes of travel, which cause significant environmental, safety and health hazard to the citizens. Of late, the policy makers have realized the need to improve public transport system in metro cities for sustaining the development. However, the challenge to the transit planning authorities is to design a transit system for cities that may attract people to switch over from their existing and rather convenient mode of travel to the transit system under the influence of household socio-economic characteristics and the given travel pattern. In this context, the fast-growing industrial city of Surat is taken up as a case for the study of likely shift to bus transit. Deterioration of public transport system of bus after 1998, has led to tremendous growth in two-wheeler traffic on city roads. The inadequate and poor service quality of present bus transit has failed to attract the riders and correct the mode use balance in the city. The disaggregate travel behavior for trip generations and the travel mode choice has been studied for the West Adajan residential sector of city. Mode specific utility functions are calibrated under multi-nominal logit environment for two-wheeler, cars and auto rickshaws with respect to bus transit using SPSS. Estimation of shift to bus transit is carried indicate an average 30% of auto rickshaw users and nearly 5% of 2W users are likely to shift to bus transit if service quality is improved. However, car users are not expected to shift to bus transit system.

Keywords: bus transit, disaggregate travel nehavior, mode choice Behavior, public transport

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
5543 Issues and Influences in Academic Choices among Communication Students in Oman

Authors: Bernard Nnamdi Emenyeonu

Abstract:

The study of communication as a fully-fledged discipline in institutions of higher education in the Sultanate of Oman is relatively young. Its evolution is associated with Oman's Renaissance beginning from 1970, which ushered in an era of modernization in which education, industrialization, expansion, and liberalization of the mass media, provision of infrastructure, and promotion of multilateral commercial ventures were considered among the top priorities of national development plans. Communication studies were pioneered by the sole government university, Sultan Qaboos University, in the 1990s, but so far, the program is taught in Arabic only. In recognition of the need to produce professionals suitably equipped to fit into the expanding media establishments in the Sultanate as well as the widening global market, the government decided to establish programs in which communication would be taught in English language. Under the supervision of the Ministry of Higher Education, six Colleges of Applied Sciences were established in Oman in 2007. These colleges offer a 4-year Bachelor degree program in communication studies that comprises six areas of specialization: Advertising, Digital Media, International Communication, Journalism, Media Management and Public Relations. Over the years, a trend has emerged where students tend to flock to particular specializations such as Public Relations and Digital Media, while others, such as Advertising and Journalism, continue to draw the least number of students. In some instances, some specializations have had to be frozen due to the dire lack of interest among new students. It has also been observed that female students are more likely to be more biased in choice of specializations. It was therefore the task of this paper to establish, through a survey and focus group interviews, the factors that influence choice of communication studies as well as particular specializations, among Omani Communication Studies undergraduates. Results of the study show that prior to entering into the communication studies program, the majority of students had no idea of what the field entailed. Whatever information they had about communication studies was sourced from friends and relatives rather than more reliable sources such as career fairs or guidance counselors. For the most part, the choice of communication studies as a major was also influenced by factors such as family, friends and prospects for jobs. Another significant finding is the strong association between gender and choice of specializations within the program, with females flocking to digital media while males tended to prefer public relations. Reasons for specialization preferences dwelt strongly on expectations of a good GPA and the promise of a good salary after graduation. Regardless of gender, most students identified careers in news reporting, public relations and advertising as unsuitable for females. Teaching and program presentation were identified as the most suitable for females. Based on these and other results, the paper not only examined the social and cultural factors that are likely to have influenced the respondent's attitude to communication studies, but also discussed the implication for curriculum development and career development in a developing society such as Oman.

Keywords: career choice, communication specialization, media education, Oman

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
5542 Friendly Public Spaces in Iran

Authors: Bibi Somayeh Aliakbari, Niknaz Kachooei, Fatemeh Amiri Najafabadi

Abstract:

According to the results of contemporary urbanism, social living moved into buildings and the quality of urban space has been declining. But still, there are life in open public space and it is one of reason attendance and activities of people in open public spaces.The purpose of this research is finding reason creation friendly public space in urban spaces and also use these in new urban spaces.The research methodology consisted of a qualitative model based on observation and graphical analysis. In this paper case study is public space historical, moderns in urban scales and local scales in Iran.This paper shows that Existence of friendly public space in cities cause is attendance and activities of people in open public spaces that it is reason the revitalization of public open spaces in cities.

Keywords: public space, public open space, friendly public space, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
5541 Correlates of Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Rating Scale and Psycho-Productive Multiple Choice Test for Assessing Students' Performance in Rice Production in Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Authors: Ogbonnaya Elom, Francis N. Azunku, Ogochukwu Onah

Abstract:

This study was carried out to determine the correlates of cost effectiveness analysis of rating scale and psycho-productive multiple choice test for assessing students’ performance in rice production. Four research questions were developed and answered, while one hypothesis was formulated and tested. Survey and correlation designs were adopted. The population of the study was 20,783 made up of 20,511 senior secondary (SSII) students and 272 teachers of agricultural science from 221 public secondary schools. Two schools with one intact class of 30 students each was purposely selected as sample based on certain criteria. Four sets of instruments were used for data collection. One of the instruments-the rating scale, was subjected to face and content validation while the other three were subjected to face validation only. Cronbach alpha technique was utilized to determine the internal consistency of the rating scale items which yielded a coefficient of 0.82 while the Kudder-Richardson (K-R 20) formula was involved in determining the stability of the psycho-productive multiple choice test items which yielded a coefficient of 0.80. Method of data collection involved a step-by-step approach in collecting data. Data collected were analyzed using percentage, weighted mean and sign test to answer the research questions while the hypothesis was tested using Spearman rank-order of correlation and t-test statistic. Findings of the study revealed among others, that psycho-productive multiple choice test is more effective than rating scale when the former is applied on the two groups of students. It was recommended among others, that the external examination bodies should integrate the use of psycho- productive multiple choice test into their examination policy and direct secondary schools to comply with it.

Keywords: correlates, cost-effectiveness, psycho-productive multiple-choice scale, rating scale

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
5540 Modeling User Departure Time Choice for Trips in Urban Streets

Authors: Saeed Sayyad Hagh Shomar

Abstract:

Modeling users’ decisions on departure time choice is the main motivation for this research. In particular, it examines the impact of social-demographic features, household, job characteristics and trip qualities on individuals’ departure time choice. Departure time alternatives are presented as adjacent discrete time periods. The choice between these alternatives is done using a discrete choice model. Since a great deal of early morning trips and traffic congestion at that time of the day comprise work trips, the focus of this study is on the work trip over the entire day. Therefore, this study by using questionnaire of stated preference models users’ departure time choice affected by congestion pricing plan in downtown Tehran. Experimental results demonstrate efficient social-demographic impact on work trips’ departure time. These findings have substantial outcomes for the analysis of transportation planning. Particularly, the analysis shows that ignoring the effects of these variables could result in erroneous information and consequently decisions in the field of transportation planning and air quality would fail and cause financial resources loss.

Keywords: modeling, departure time, travel timing, time of the day, congestion pricing, transportation planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
5539 Non-Cooperative Game Theory Approach for Ensuring Community Satisfaction on Public-Private Partnership Projects

Authors: Jason Salim, Zhouyang Lu

Abstract:

Private sector involvement in Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects may raise public suspicion, as PPP is often mistaken as merely a partnership between private and government agencies without consideration for greater “public” (community). This public marginalization is crucial to be dealt with because undermining opinion of majority may cause problems such as protests and/ or low demand. Game theory approach applied in this paper shows that probability of public acceptance towards a project is affected by overall public’s perception on Private sectors’ possible profit accumulation from the project. On the contrary, goodwill of the government and private coalition alone is not enough to minimize the probability of public opposition towards a PPP project. Additionally, the threat of loss or damage raised from public opposition does not affect the profit-maximization behavior of Private sectors.

Keywords: community satisfaction, game theory, non-cooperative, PPP, public policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 572
5538 Public Service Ethics in Public Administration: An Empirical Investigation

Authors: Kalsoom Sumra

Abstract:

The increasing concern of public sector reforms brings new challenges to public service ethics in developing countries not only at central level but also at local level. This paper aims to identify perceptions on public service ethics of public officials and examines more generally the understanding of public servants in Pakistan towards public service ethics in local public organizations. The study uses an independently administered structured questionnaire to collect data to know the extent of the recognition of public service ethics in local organizations. A total of 150 completed questionnaires are analyzed received from public servants working at the local level in Pakistan. The analysis explores how traditional, social patterns and cultural ethics can provide us with a rounded picture of the main antecedents, moderators of public service ethics in Pakistan. Moreover, the findings of this study contribute in association of public service ethics which are crucial in ongoing political and administrative culture of Pakistan, the most crucial core for public organizational ethical climate. This study also has numerous implications for local public administration and it highlights the importance of expanding research agenda on public service ethics in developing settings with challenging institutional contexts with imperfect training and operating environments. This study may well be particularly important for practice of public service ethics in developing countries in public administration. To the best of author’s knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to provide an initial step in practical implications to emphasize relevant public service ethics in public administration in developing transparent and accountable organization.

Keywords: public service ethics, accountability and transparency, public service reforms, public administration, organizational ethical climate

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
5537 E-Consumers’ Attribute Non-Attendance Switching Behavior: Effect of Providing Information on Attributes

Authors: Leonard Maaya, Michel Meulders, Martina Vandebroek

Abstract:

Discrete Choice Experiments (DCE) are used to investigate how product attributes affect decision-makers’ choices. In DCEs, choice situations consisting of several alternatives are presented from which choice-makers select the preferred alternative. Standard multinomial logit models based on random utility theory can be used to estimate the utilities for the attributes. The overarching principle in these models is that respondents understand and use all the attributes when making choices. However, studies suggest that respondents sometimes ignore some attributes (commonly referred to as Attribute Non-Attendance/ANA). The choice modeling literature presents ANA as a static process, i.e., respondents’ ANA behavior does not change throughout the experiment. However, respondents may ignore attributes due to changing factors like availability of information on attributes, learning/fatigue in experiments, etc. We develop a dynamic mixture latent Markov model to model changes in ANA when information on attributes is provided. The model is illustrated on e-consumers’ webshop choices. The results indicate that the dynamic ANA model describes the behavioral changes better than modeling the impact of information using changes in parameters. Further, we find that providing information on attributes leads to an increase in the attendance probabilities for the investigated attributes.

Keywords: choice models, discrete choice experiments, dynamic models, e-commerce, statistical modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
5536 Consumer Choice Determinants in Context of Functional Food

Authors: E. Grochowska-Niedworok, K. Brukało, M. Kardas

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate the consumption of functional food by consumers by: age, sex, formal education level, place of residence and diagnosed diseases. The study employed an ad hoc questionnaire in a group of 300 inhabitants of Upper Silesia voivodship. Knowledge of functional food among the group covered in the study was far from satisfactory. The choice of functional food was of intuitive character. In addition, the group covered was more likely to choose pharmacotherapy instead of diet-related prevention then, which can be associated with presumption of too distant effects and a long period of treatment.

Keywords: consumer choice, functional food, healthy lifestyle, consumer knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
5535 Implementation of Total Quality Management in Public Sector: Case of Tunisia

Authors: Rafla Hchaichi

Abstract:

The public administration is currently experiencing in the field of quality unprecedented effervescence. However, in a globalized world more and more competitive, public services are confronted with the need to improve their performances which push public companies to implement quality approaches. Quality approaches have taken diverse forms such as service commitment, labels, certifications and the Common Assessment Framework. This paper provides an overview on the strategy for administrative development in Tunisia since the Carthaginian civilization until today. It outlines the evolution of quality management in the Tunisian public context while focusing on the National Referential of Quality of Administrative Services.

Keywords: quality approach, the common assessment framework, service commitment, label, certification, quality of public service, performance of public service, Tunisian Public Service

Procedia PDF Downloads 438