Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 61

Search results for: propaganda

61 Hot Face of Cold War: 007 James Bond

Authors: Günevi Uslu Evren


Propaganda is one of the most effective methods for changing individual and mass opinions. Propaganda tries to get the message across to people or masses to effect rather than to provide objective information. There are many types of propaganda. Especially, political propaganda is a very powerful method that is used by states during in both war and peace. The aim of this method is to create a reaction against them by showing within the framework of internal and external enemies. Propaganda can be practiced by many different methods. Especially during the Cold War Era, the US and USSR have tried to create an ideological effect by using the mass media intensively. Cinema, which is located at the beginning of these methods, is the most powerful weapon to influence the masses. In this study, the historical process of the Cold War is examined. Especially, these propagandas that had been used by United States and The Soviet Union were investigated. The purposes of propaganda and construction methods were presented. Cold War events and relations between the US and the USSR during the Cold War will be discussed. Outlooks of two countries to each other during the Cold War, propaganda techniques used defectively during Cold War and how to use the cinema as a propaganda tool will be examined. The film "From Russia with Love, James Bond 007" that was filmed in Cold War were examined to explain how cinema was used as a propaganda tool in this context.

Keywords: cinema, cold war, James Bond, propaganda

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60 An Analysis of Illocutioary Act in Martin Luther King Jr.'s Propaganda Speech Entitled 'I Have a Dream'

Authors: Mahgfirah Firdaus Soberatta


Language cannot be separated from human life. Humans use language to convey ideas, thoughts, and feelings. We can use words for different things for example like asserted, advising, promise, give opinions, hopes, etc. Propaganda is an attempt which seeks to obtain stable behavior to adopt everyone to his everyday life. It also controls the thoughts and attitudes of individuals in social settings permanent. In this research, the writer will discuss about the speech act in a propaganda speech delivered by Martin Luther King Jr. in Washington at Lincoln Memorial on August 28, 1963. 'I Have a Dream' is a public speech delivered by American civil rights activist MLK, he calls from an end to racism in USA. In this research, the writer uses Searle theory to analyze the types of illocutionary speech act that used by Martin Luther King Jr. in his propaganda speech. In this research, the writer uses a qualitative method described in descriptive, because the research wants to describe and explain the types of illocutionary speech acts used by Martin Luther King Jr. in his propaganda speech. The findings indicate that there are five types of speech acts in Martin Luther King Jr. speech. MLK also used direct speech and indirect speech in his propaganda speech. However, direct speech is the dominant speech act that MLK used in his propaganda speech. It is hoped that this research is useful for the readers to enrich their knowledge in a particular field of pragmatic speech acts.

Keywords: speech act, propaganda, Martin Luther King Jr., speech

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59 Rethinking Propaganda Discourse: Convergence and Divergence Unveiled

Authors: Mandy Tao Benec


Propaganda, understood as a ‘deliberate attempt to persuade people to think and behave in a desired way’, contributes to the fabric of mass media discourse as an important component, albeit often under various alternative expressions except ‘propaganda’. When the word ‘propaganda’ does appear in the mainstream media of the West, it is often selectively applied upon undesiring parties such as China, the North Korea, Russia’s Putin, or terrorists, etc.. This attitude reveals an ‘us verse them’ mentality; and a presupposition that propaganda is something only ‘they’ do whilst ‘we’ do not. This phenomenon not only runs in danger of generating political naivety, but also calls for the necessity of re-examining propaganda which will benefit from analysing it in contrasting social and political environments. Therefore, this paper aims to compare how propaganda has been understood and put in practice both in the Anglo-American context and by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). By revealing the convergence and divergence of the propaganda discourses between China and the West, it will help clarify the misconception and misunderstanding of the term. Historical narrative analysis and critical discourse analysis are the main methodologies. By carefully examining data from academic research on propaganda in both English and Chinese, the landscape of how propaganda is defined throughout different eras is mapped, with special attention paid to analysing the parallelism and/or correspondence between China and the West when applicable. Meanwhile, critically analysing the official documents such as speeches and guidelines for propaganda administration given by top-rank CCP leaders will help reveal that in contrast to the West’s ‘us-them’ mentality, China sees oneself in no difference with the Western democracies when propaganda is concerned. Major findings of this study will identify a series of convergence and divergence between Chinese and Western propaganda discourses, and the relationship between propaganda the ‘signified’ (its essence) and propaganda the ‘signifier’ (the term itself), including (yet not limited to): 1) convergence in China catching up with the West, acknowledging the perceived pejorative connotation of the term 2) divergence in propaganda activities disassociated from the term in the West; and convergence in adopting such practice when China following suit in its external propaganda towards the West 3) convergence in utilising alternative notions to replace ‘propaganda’, first by the West, then imported and incorporated enthusiastically by China into its propaganda discourse 4) divergence between China’s internal and external propaganda and the subsequent differentiation between in which contexts the CCP sees fit to utilise the concept 5) convergence between China and the West in their English language propaganda discourses, whilst simultaneous divergence in their presuppositions: ‘usthem’ by the West and ‘we are the same’ by China. To conclude, this paper will contribute to the study of propaganda and its discourse by analysing how propaganda is understood and utilised in both worlds, and hence to uncover the discourse power struggle between the two, which contributes to the propaganda discourse itself. Hence, to untie the misconception of propaganda.

Keywords: China, discourse, power, propaganda

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58 The National Socialist and Communist Propaganda Activities in the Turkish Press during the World War II

Authors: Asuman Tezcan Mirer


This proposed paper discusses nationalist socialist and communist propaganda struggles in the Turkish press during World War II. The paper aspires to analyze how government agencies directed and organized the Turkish press to prevent the "5th column" from influencing public opinion. During the Second World War, one of the most emphasized issues was propaganda and how Turkish citizens would be protected from the effects of disinformation. Istanbul became a significant headquarters for belligerent countries' intelligence services, and these services were involved in gathering intelligence and disseminating propaganda. The main motive of national socialist propaganda was "anti-communism" in Turkey. Subsidizing certain magazines, controlling German companies' advertisements and paper trade, spreading rumors, printing propaganda brochures, and showing German propaganda films are some tactics that the nationalist socialists applied before and during the Second World War. On the other hand, the communists targeted Turkish racist/ultra-nationalist groups and their publications, which were influenced by the Nazi regime. They were also involved in distributing Marxist publications, printing brochures, and broadcasting radio programs. This study composes of three parts. The first part describes the nationalist socialist and communist propaganda activities in Turkey during the Second World War. The second part addresses the debates over propaganda among selected newspapers representing different ideologies. Finally, the last part analyzes the Turkish government's press policy. It explains why the government allowed ideological debates in the press despite its authoritarian press policy and "active neutrality" stance in the international arena.

Keywords: propaganda, press, 5th column, World War II, Turkey

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57 Analyzing Environmental Emotive Triggers in Terrorist Propaganda

Authors: Travis Morris


The purpose of this study is to measure the intersection of environmental security entities in terrorist propaganda. To the best of author’s knowledge, this is the first study of its kind to examine this intersection within terrorist propaganda. Rosoka, natural language processing software and frame analysis are used to advance our understanding of how environmental frames function as emotive triggers. Violent jihadi demagogues use frames to suggest violent and non-violent solutions to their grievances. Emotive triggers are framed in a way to leverage individual and collective attitudes in psychological warfare. A comparative research design is used because of the differences and similarities that exist between two variants of violent jihadi propaganda that target western audiences. Analysis is based on salience and network text analysis, which generates violent jihadi semantic networks. Findings indicate that environmental frames are used as emotive triggers across both data sets, but also as tactical and information data points. A significant finding is that certain core environmental emotive triggers like “water,” “soil,” and “trees” are significantly salient at the aggregate level across both data sets. All environmental entities can be classified into two categories, symbolic and literal. Importantly, this research illustrates how demagogues use environmental emotive triggers in cyber space from a subcultural perspective to mobilize target audiences to their ideology and praxis. Understanding the anatomy of propaganda construction is necessary in order to generate effective counter narratives in information operations. This research advances an additional method to inform practitioners and policy makers of how environmental security and propaganda intersect.

Keywords: propaganda analysis, emotive triggers environmental security, frames

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56 Women in the Soviet Press during the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945)

Authors: Nani Manvelishvili


Soviet propaganda tried to shape common public opinion through Soviet Press. The activation of propaganda gained special importance to increase the fighting ability of the military and people behind the front During the Great Patriotic war (1941-1945). The state propaganda used unnecessary intervention in Press and created characters who were supposed to be role models for society. The new female role models were identified, which were supported by the authorities. The representation of the mother, warrior woman, working woman, victim, feminine woman, etc., in the works aimed to raise the fighting ability of the Soviet citizen and incite patriotism. This paper analyzes the soviet Press (The newspaper “Komunisti”) that was written and published during the Great Patriotic war in Soviet Georgia. The study aims to find propagandistic content in Press that used Soviet ideology during the Great Patriotic war. We analyzed the Soviet Newspaper "Komunisti," published during wartime. Soviet Press had the most significant impact on the formation of public opinion. The Soviet government actively used this resource to increase combat capability. While at the beginning of the war, women were supposed to replace men, propaganda by the end of the war moved to reassert conservative gender politics. Women returned to their traditional roles.

Keywords: Great Patriotic War, Soviet Georgia, women in war, women's history, Soviet press

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55 The Hallmarks of War Propaganda: The Case of Russia-Ukraine Conflict

Authors: Veronika Solopova, Oana-Iuliana Popescu, Tim Landgraf, Christoph Benzmüller


Beginning in 2014, slowly building geopolitical tensions in Eastern Europe led to a full-blown conflict between the Russian Federation and Ukraine that generated an unprecedented amount of news articles and data from social media data, reflecting the opposing ideologies and narratives as a background and the essence of the ongoing war. These polarized informational campaigns have led to countless mutual accusations of misinformation and fake news, shaping an atmosphere of confusion and mistrust for many readers all over the world. In this study, we analyzed scraped news articles from Ukrainian, Russian, Romanian and English-speaking news outlets, on the eve of 24th of February 2022, compared to day five of the conflict (28th of February), to see how the media influenced and mirrored the changes in public opinion. We also contrast the sources opposing and supporting the stands of the Russian government in Ukrainian, Russian and Romanian media spaces. In a data-driven way, we describe how the narratives are spread throughout Eastern and Central Europe. We present predictive linguistic features surrounding war propaganda. Our results indicate that there are strong similarities in terms of rhetoric strategies in the pro-Kremlin media in both Ukraine and Russia, which, while being relatively neutral according to surface structure, use aggressive vocabulary. This suggests that automatic propaganda identification systems have to be tailored for each new case, as they have to rely on situationally specific words. Both Ukrainian and Russian outlets lean towards strongly opinionated news, pointing towards the use of war propaganda in order to achieve strategic goals.

Keywords: linguistic, news, propaganda, Russia, ukraine

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
54 Distinguishing Substance from Spectacle in Violent Extremist Propaganda through Frame Analysis

Authors: John Hardy


Over the last decade, the world has witnessed an unprecedented rise in the quality and availability of violent extremist propaganda. This phenomenon has been fueled primarily by three interrelated trends: rapid adoption of online content mediums by creators of violent extremist propaganda, increasing sophistication of violent extremist content production, and greater coordination of content and action across violent extremist organizations. In particular, the self-styled ‘Islamic State’ attracted widespread attention from its supporters and detractors alike by mixing shocking video and imagery content in with substantive ideological and political content. Although this practice was widely condemned for its brutality, it proved to be effective at engaging with a variety of international audiences and encouraging potential supporters to seek further information. The reasons for the noteworthy success of this kind of shock-value propaganda content remain unclear, despite many governments’ attempts to produce counterpropaganda. This study examines violent extremist propaganda distributed by five terrorist organizations between 2010 and 2016, using material released by the ‎Al Hayat Media Center of the Islamic State, Boko Haram, Al Qaeda, Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, and Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. The time period covers all issues of the infamous publications Inspire and Dabiq, as well as the most shocking video content released by the Islamic State and its affiliates. The study uses frame analysis to distinguish thematic from symbolic content in violent extremist propaganda by contrasting the ways that substantive ideology issues were framed against the use of symbols and violence to garner attention and to stylize propaganda. The results demonstrate that thematic content focuses significantly on diagnostic frames, which explain violent extremist groups’ causes, and prognostic frames, which propose solutions to addressing or rectifying the cause shared by groups and their sympathizers. Conversely, symbolic violence is primarily stylistic and rarely linked to thematic issues or motivational framing. Frame analysis provides a useful preliminary tool in disentangling substantive ideological and political content from stylistic brutality in violent extremist propaganda. This provides governments and researchers a method for better understanding the framing and content used to design narratives and propaganda materials used to promote violent extremism around the world. Increased capacity to process and understand violent extremist narratives will further enable governments and non-governmental organizations to develop effective counternarratives which promote non-violent solutions to extremists’ grievances.

Keywords: countering violent extremism, counternarratives, frame analysis, propaganda, terrorism, violent extremism

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53 Nazi Propaganda and the 1930 Berlin Film Premiere of “All Quiet on the Western Front”

Authors: Edward C. Smith


Historical narration in literature and film is an act that necessarily develops and deforms history, whether consciously or unconsciously. Such “translation” suffers or thrives depending on its historical context and on the ability of the artist/artists to make choices that enhance or diminish social and political reality. This “translation” and its challenges is examined from within the historical and political context of the 1930 Berlin film premiere of “All Quiet on the Western Front,” a film based on Erich Maria Remarque’s 1928 best-selling novel. Both the film and the novel appeared during a period in which the “aestheticization” of reality predominated. This was an era in early 20th-century European society in which life was conceived of as innately artistic and structured like an art form. The emergence of this modern consciousness, one in which memory and history surrendered their former authority, enabled conservative propaganda of the period to denounce all art that did not adhere conceptually to its political tenets, with “All Quiet” becoming yet another of its “victims.”

Keywords: documentary and propaganda film, film and TV audiences, international literature in film studies, popular culture and film

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52 Newspaper Headlines as Tool for Political Propaganda in Nigeria: Trend Analysis of Implications on Four Presidential Elections

Authors: Muhammed Jamiu Mustapha, Jamiu Folarin, Stephen Obiri Agyei, Rasheed Ademola Adebiyi, Mutiu Iyanda Lasisi


The role of the media in political discourse cannot be overemphasized as they form an important part of societal development. The media institution is considered the fourth estate of the realm because it serves as a check and balance to the arms of government (Executive, Legislature and Judiciary) especially in a democratic setup, and makes public office holders accountable to the people. They scrutinize the political candidates and conduct a holistic analysis of the achievement of the government in order to make the people’s representative accountable to the electorates. The media in Nigeria play a seminal role in shaping how people vote during elections. Newspaper headlines are catchy phrases that easily capture the attention of the audience and call them (audience) to action. Research conducted on newspaper headlines looks at the linguistic aspect and how the tenses used has a resultant effect on peoples’ attitude and behaviour. Communication scholars have also conducted studies that interrogate whether newspaper headlines influence peoples' voting patterns and decisions. Propaganda and negative stories about political opponents are stapling features in electioneering campaigns. Nigerian newspaper readers have the characteristic of scanning newspaper headlines. And the question is whether politicians effectively have played into this tendency to brand opponents negatively, based on half-truths and inadequate information. This study illustrates major trends in the Nigerian political landscape looking at the past four presidential elections and frames the progress of the research in the extant body of political propaganda research in Africa. The study will use the quantitative content analysis of newspaper headlines from 2007 to 2019 to be able to ascertain whether newspaper headlines had any effect on the election results of the presidential elections during these years. This will be supplemented by Key Informant Interviews of political scientists or experts to draw further inferences from the quantitative data. Drawing on newspaper headlines of selected newspapers in Nigeria that have a political propaganda angle for the presidential elections, the analysis will correspond to and complements extant descriptions of how the field of political propaganda has been developed in Nigeria, providing evidence of four presidential elections that have shaped Nigerian politics. Understanding the development of the behavioural change of the electorates provide useful context for trend analysis in political propaganda communication. The findings will contribute to how newspaper headlines are used partly or wholly to decide the outcome of presidential elections in Nigeria.

Keywords: newspaper headlines, political propaganda, presidential elections, trend analysis

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51 The Use of the Social Media as a Propaganda Tool from the Political Parties in Europe against the Immigrants

Authors: Gülbuğ Erol, Caner Çakı


In Europe, it is seen that the immigrant population has increased in recent years. The rapid increase in the immigrant population has led to that some extreme right-wing parties increased their harsh discourse against the immigrants in Europe. In particular, it is seen that some right-wing parties in some European countries have demanded that the immigrant population could be controlled in the countries they are in, and even those immigrants should be removed from their countries. In this process, it is seen that these parties have effectively used social media platforms in the propaganda activities carried out for immigrants in recent years. In particular, the social media has great advantages in that these parties can address to the entire population in the country, apart from the limited masses that political parties address. How these political parties benefit from these advantages has great importance for the political parties to demonstrate their influence in political arena. In this study, it was tried to investigate how and why the extreme right-wing parties in Europe have used social media in their propaganda activities towards immigrant populations in Europe. For this purpose, the political parties of the three German-speaking countries in Europe were elected; Die Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (NPD) from Germany, Die Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs (FPÖ) from Austria, Die Schweizerische Volkspartei (SVP) from Switzerland. As social media platform, only their Facebook accounts were analyzed in this study. Accounts The political parties selected were examined with content analysis, and that social media was effectively used by extreme right-wing parties for propaganda purposes towards immigrants in Europe revealed.In this process, it is seen that these parties have effectively used social media platforms in the propaganda activities carried out for immigrants in recent years. In particular, the social media has great advantages in that these parties can address to the entire population in the country, apart from the limited masses that political parties address. How these political parties benefit from these advantages has great importance for the political parties to demonstrate their influence in political arena. In Europe, it is seen that the immigrant population has increased in recent years. The rapid increase in the immigrant population has led to that some extreme right-wing parties increased their harsh discourse against the immigrants in Europe. In particular, it is seen that some right-wing parties in some European countries have demanded that the immigrant population should be controlled in the countries they are in, and even those immigrants should be removed from their countries. In this process, it is seen that these parties have effectively used social media platforms in the propaganda activities carried out for immigrants in recent years. In particular, the social media has great advantages in that these parties can address to the entire population in the country, apart from the limited masses that political parties address. How these political parties benefit from these advantages has great importance for the political parties to demonstrate their influence in political arena. In this study, it was tried to investigate how and why the extreme right-wing parties in Europe have used social media in their propaganda activities towards immigrant populations in Europe. For this purpose, the political parties of the three German-speaking countries in Europe were elected; Die Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (NPD) from Germany, Die Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs (FPÖ) from Austria, Die Schweizerische Volkspartei (SVP) from Switzerland. As social media platform, only their Facebook accounts were analyzed in this study. Accounts The political parties selected were examined with content analysis and that social media was effectively used by extreme right-wing parties for propaganda purposes towards immigrants in Europe revealed.

Keywords: content analysis, political parties, propaganda, social media

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50 Colonial Racism and the Benin Bronze Artefacts, 1862-1960

Authors: Idahosa Osagie Ojo


This research is on colonial racism and the Benin bronze artefacts between 1862 and 1960. It analyses the British racial sentiments against the Benin people that heralded colonial rule and how they influenced the perceptions of the artworks during the period. The aim is to contribute to the knowledge of colonial rule in Benin by bringing to the fore its impacts on the perception and interpretation of the Benin bronze artefacts during the period. Primary and secondary sources were utilised and the historical method was adopted. The findings reveal that the first British racial propaganda against the Benin people started in 1862 and that it was consciously orchestrated to manoeuvre public opinion for the ill-conceived colonial project. The research also reveals that the Benin people were not alone in this, as other peoples of Africa that were targeted for British colonial domination suffered the same fate. Findings also show that racial propaganda was actually used to rationalised colonial rule in Benin and that it later influenced the interpretations and perception of the Benin bronze artefacts throughout the colonial period and beyond.

Keywords: Benin, Bronzes, colonial, racism

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
49 'Propaganda by the Deed', 'Armed Propaganda' and Mass Mobilization: The Missing Link in the Left-Wing Terrorist Thinking

Authors: Ersun N. Kurtulus


One of the strategic goals of left-wing terrorism, both in its Anarchist and Marxist-Leninist forms, was mobilization of masses as a first step in launching a revolution. However, in the canonical texts of left-wing terrorist literature (such as the works of Brousse, Nachaev, Bakunin, Kropotkin, Most, Heinzen, Guevara and Marighella) it is not clear how resort to terrorist tactics such as assassinations or bomb attacks will lead to mobilization of masses. This link is usually presumed and taken for granted. However, in other, less known terrorist texts, where there is some elaboration upon this link, two conflicting views emerge: (i) terrorist attacks are supposed to cause state repression which in turn radicalizes masses and opens up the way for recruitment and mobilization versus (ii) terrorist attacks are supposed to demonstrate the hollowness of the already existent state repression and thereby encourage mobilization of masses that are already radicalized but inactive due fear caused by state repression. The paper argues that terrorism studies have largely overemphasized the former while the latter has remained more or less unnoticed.

Keywords: terrorism, repression, radical left, mobilization of masses

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48 Process of the Emergence and Evolution of Socio-Cultural Ideas about the "Asian States" In the Context of the Development of US Cinema in 1941-1945

Authors: Selifontova Darya Yurievna


The study of the process of the emergence and evolution of socio-cultural ideas about the "Asian states" in the context of the development of US cinema in 1941-1945 will contribute both to the approbation of a new approach to the classical subject and will allow using the methodological tools of history, political science, philology, sociology for understanding modern military-political, historical, ideological, socio-cultural processes on a concrete example. This is especially important for understanding the process of constructing the image of the Japanese Empire in the USA. Assessments and images of China and Japan in World War II, created in American cinema, had an immediate impact on the media, public sentiment, and opinions. During the war, the US cinema created new myths and actively exploited old ones, combining them with traditional Hollywood cliches - all this served as a basis for creating the image of China and the Japanese Empire on the screen, which were necessary to solve many foreign policy and domestic political tasks related to the construction of two completely different, but at the same time, similar images of Asia (China and the Japanese Empire). In modern studies devoted to the history of wars, the study of the specifics of the information confrontation of the parties is in demand. A special role in this confrontation is played by propaganda through cinema, which uses images, historical symbols, and stable metaphors, the appeal to which can form a certain public reaction. Soviet documentaries of the war years are proof of this. The relevance of the topic is due to the fact that cinema as a means of propaganda was very popular and in demand during the Second World War. This period was the time of creation of real masterpieces in the field of propaganda films, in the documentary space of the cinema of 1941 – 1945. The traditions of depicting the Second World War were laid down. The study of the peculiarities of visualization and mythologization of the Second World War in Soviet cinema is the most important stage for studying the development of the specifics of propaganda methods since the methods and techniques of depicting the war formed in 1941-1945 are also significant at the present stage of the study of society.

Keywords: asian countries, politics, sociology, domestic politics, USA, cinema

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47 Guided Information Campaigns for Counter-Terrorism: Behavioral Approach to Interventions Regarding Polarized Societal Network

Authors: Joshua Midha


The basis for information campaigns and behavioral interventions has long reigned as a tactic. From the Soviet-era propaganda machines to the opinion hijacks in Iran, these measures are now commonplace and are used for dissemination and disassembly. However, the use of these tools for strategic diffusion, specifically in a counter-terrorism setting, has only been explored on the surface. This paper aims to introduce a larger conceptual portion of guided information campaigns into preexisting terror cells and situations. It provides an alternative, low-risk intervention platform for future military strategy. This paper highlights a theoretical framework to lay out the foundationary details and explanations for behavioral interventions and moves into using a case study to highlight the possibility of implementation. It details strategies, resources, circumstances, and risk factors for intervention. It also sets an expanding foundation for offensive PsyOps and argues for tactical diffusion of information to battle extremist sentiment. The two larger frameworks touch on the internal spread of information within terror cells and external political sway, thus charting a larger holistic purpose of strategic operations.

Keywords: terrorism, behavioral intervention, propaganda, SNA, extremism

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46 The Image of Saddam Hussein and Collective Memory: The Semiotics of Ba'ath Regime's Mural in Iraq (1980-2003)

Authors: Maryam Pirdehghan


During the Ba'ath Party's rule in Iraq, propaganda was utilized to justify and to promote Saddam Hussein's image in the collective memory as the greatest Arab leader. Consequently, urban walls were routinely covered with images of Saddam. Relying on these images, the regime aimed to provide a basis for evoking meanings in the public opinion, which would supposedly strengthen Saddam’s power and reconstruct facts to legitimize his political ideology. Nonetheless, Saddam was not always portrayed with common and explicit elements but in certain periods of his rule, the paintings depicted him in an unusual context, where various historical and contemporary elements were combined in a narrative background. Therefore, an understanding of the implied socio-political references of these elements is required to fully elucidate the impact of these images on forming the memory and collective unconscious of the Iraqi people. To obtain such understanding, one needs to address the following questions: a) How Saddam Hussein is portrayed in mural during his rule? b) What of elements and mythical-historical narratives are found in the paintings? c) Which Saddam's political views were subject to the collective memory through mural? Employing visual semiotics, this study reveals that during Saddam Hussein's regime, the paintings were initially simple portraits but gradually transformed into narrative images, characterized by a complex network of historical, mythical and religious elements. These elements demonstrate the transformation of a secular-nationalist politician into a Muslim ruler who tried to instill three major policies in domestic and international relations i.e. the arabization of Iraq, as well as the propagation of pan-arabism ideology (first period), the implementation of anti-Israel policy (second period) and the implementation of anti-American-British policy (last period).

Keywords: Ba'ath Party, Saddam Hussein, mural, Iraq, propaganda, collective memory

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45 Women's Religiosity as a Factor in the Persistence of Religious Traditions: Kazakhstan, the XX Century

Authors: G. Nadirova, B. Aktaulova


The main question of the research is- how did the Kazakhs manage to keep their religious thinking in the period of active propaganda of Soviet atheism, for seventy years of struggle against religion with the involvement of the scientific worldview as the primary means of proving the absence of the divine nature and materiality of the world? Our hypothesis is that In case of Kazakhstan the conservative female religious consciousness seems to have been a factor that helped to preserve the “everyday” religiousness of Kazakhs, which was far from deep theological contents of Islam, but able to revive in a short time after the decennia of proclaimed atheism.

Keywords: woman, religious thinking, Kazakhstan, soviet ideology, rituals, family

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44 Language in Court: Ideology, Power and Cognition

Authors: Mehdi Damaliamiri


Undoubtedly, the power of language is hardly a new topic; indeed, the persuasive power of language accompanied by ideology has long been recognized in different aspects of life. The two and a half thousand-year-old Bisitun inscriptions in Iran, proclaiming the victories of the Persian King, Darius, are considered by some historians to have been an early example of the use of propaganda. Added to this, the modern age is the true cradle of fully-fledged ideologies and the ongoing process of centrifugal ideologization. The most visible work on ideology today within the field of linguistics is “Critical Discourse Analysis” (CDA). The focus of CDA is on “uncovering injustice, inequality, taking sides with the powerless and suppressed” and making “mechanisms of manipulation, discrimination, demagogy, and propaganda explicit and transparent.” possible way of relating language to ideology is to propose that ideology and language are inextricably intertwined. From this perspective, language is always ideological, and ideology depends on the language. All language use involves ideology, and so ideology is ubiquitous – in our everyday encounters, as much as in the business of the struggle for power within and between the nation-states and social statuses. At the same time, ideology requires language. Its key characteristics – its power and pervasiveness, its mechanisms for continuity and for change – all come out of the inner organization of language. The two phenomena are homologous: they share the same evolutionary trajectory. To get a more robust portrait of the power and ideology, we need to examine its potential place in the structure, and consider how such structures pattern in terms of the functional elements which organize meanings in the clause. This is based on the belief that all grammatical, including syntactic, knowledge is stored mentally as constructions have become immensely popular. When the structure of the clause is taken into account, the power and ideology have a preference for Complement over Subject and Adjunct. The subject is a central interpersonal element in discourse: it is one of two elements that form the central interactive nub of a proposition. Conceptually, there are countless ways of construing a given event and linguistically, a variety of grammatical devices that are usually available as alternate means of coding a given conception, such as political crime and corruption. In the theory of construal, then, which, like transitivity in Halliday, makes options available, Cognitive Linguistics can offer a cognitive account of ideology in language, where ideology is made possible by the choices a language allows for representing the same material situation in different ways. The possibility of promoting alternative construals of the same reality means that any particular choice in representation is always ideologically constrained or motivated and indicates the perspective and interests of the text-producer.

Keywords: power, ideology, court, discourse

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43 Analyzing and Determining the Ideal Response Force for Combatting Terrorist Groups

Authors: Erhan Turgut, Salih Ergün, Abdülkadir Öz


Terror is a modern war strategy which uses violence as a means of communication in order to achieve political objectives. In today’s security environment narrowing the propaganda field of terrorist organization is the primary goal for the security forces. In this sense, providing and maintaining public support is the most necessary ability for security units. Rather than enemy and threat-oriented approach, homeland security oriented approach is essential to ensure public support. In this study, terror assumed as a homeland security issue and assigning the law enforcement forces with military status is analyzed.

Keywords: terrorism, counter-terrorism, military status law-enforcement, terrorist groups

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42 4P-Model of Information Terrorism

Authors: Nataliya Venelinova


The paper proposes a new interdisciplinary model of reconsidering the role of mass communication effects by coverage of terrorism. The idea of 4P model is based on the synergy, created by the information strategy of threat, predominantly used by terrorist groups, the effects of mediating the symbolic action of the terrorist attacks or the taking of responsibility of any attacks, and the reshaped public perception for security after the attacks being mass communicated. The paper defines the mass communication cycle of terrorism, which leads not only to re-agenda setting of the societies, but also spirally amplifying the effect of propagating fears by over-informing on terrorism attacks. This finally results in the outlining of the so called 4P-model of information terrorism: mass propaganda, panic, paranoia and pandemic.

Keywords: information terrorism, mass communication cycle, public perception, security

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41 The Rite of Jihadification in ISIS Modified Video Games: Mass Deception and Dialectic of Religious Regression in Technological Progression

Authors: Venus Torabi


ISIS, the terrorist organization, modified two videogames, ARMA III and Grand Theft Auto 5 (2013) as means of online recruitment and ideological propaganda. The urge to study the mechanism at work, whether it has been successful or not, derives (Digital) Humanities experts to explore how codes of terror, Islamic ideology and recruitment strategies are incorporated into the ludic mechanics of videogames. Another aspect of the significance lies in the fact that this is a latent problem that has not been fully addressed in an interdisciplinary framework prior to this study, to the best of the researcher’s knowledge. Therefore, due to the complexity of the subject, the present paper entangles with game studies, philosophical and religious poles to form the methodology of conducting the research. As a contextualized epistemology of such exploitation of videogames, the core argument is building on the notion of “Culture Industry” proposed by Theodore W. Adorno and Max Horkheimer in Dialectic of Enlightenment (2002). This article posits that the ideological underpinnings of ISIS’s cause corroborated by the action-bound mechanics of the videogames are in line with adhering to the Islamic Eschatology as a furnishing ground and an excuse in exercising terrorism. It is an account of ISIS’s modification of the videogames, a tool of technological progression to practice online radicalization. Dialectically, this practice is packed up in rhetoric for recognizing a religious myth (the advent of a savior), as a hallmark of regression. The study puts forth that ISIS’s wreaking havoc on the world, both in reality and within action videogames, is negotiating the process of self-assertion in the players of such videogames (by assuming one’s self a member of terrorists) that leads to self-annihilation. It tries to unfold how ludic Mod videogames are misused as tools of mass deception towards ethnic cleansing in reality and line with the distorted Eschatological myth. To conclude, this study posits videogames to be a new avenue of mass deception in the framework of the Culture Industry. Yet, this emerges as a two-edged sword of mass deception in ISIS’s modification of videogames. It shows that ISIS is not only trying to hijack the minds through online/ludic recruitment, it potentially deceives the Muslim communities or those prone to radicalization into believing that it's terrorist practices are preparing the world for the advent of a religious savior based on Islamic Eschatology. This is to claim that the harsh actions of the videogames are potentially breeding minds by seeds of terrorist propaganda and numbing them to violence. The real world becomes an extension of that harsh virtual environment in a ludic/actual continuum, the extension that is contributing to the mass deception mechanism of the terrorists, in a clandestine trend.

Keywords: culture industry, dialectic, ISIS, islamic eschatology, mass deception, video games

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40 Manipulation of the Public Sphere to Win Cultural Hegemony: The Process by Which Islamic State Uses the Principles of the Overton Window to Engineer Extremism

Authors: A. Brigitte Coles


In order to be successful in a campaign against terror and maintain a favorable world order, we must recognize the effects of priming, framing, and agenda setting on the public sphere, and address how terrorist organizations are able to manipulate language and symbols to shift public opinion and increase recruitment success. Because of their unprecedented activity in the region and foreign recruitment success, this study specifically addresses how the Islamic State (IS/ISIS/ISIL) manipulates the public sphere to amplify support and increase western recruitment. By following a grounded theory methodology and coding triangulated data from IS propaganda, a model for the process of terrorist recruitment has emerged, concerning both environments and personalities susceptible to recruitment, and the steps by which an extremist can be created. This has resulted in the ability to reverse engineer a method by which counter recruitment operations can be facilitated in an effort to lessen the vulnerability of areas and individuals, as well as create dissent among current extremists.

Keywords: countering violent extremism, counter-terrorism, recruitment, overton window

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39 Linguoculturological Analysis of Advertising: An Overview of Previous Researches

Authors: Brankica Bojovic


Every study of advertising is intrinsically multidisciplinary, as the researcher must take into account the linguistic, social, psychological, economic, political and cultural factors that have all played a significant role in the history of advertising. A linguoculturological analysis of advertising aims to provide insight into the ideologies and archetypal structures that abide in the discourse of advertising messages, and give an overview of the academic research in the area of linguistics, and cultural and social studies that contributed to the demystification of the discourse of advertising. As the process of globalisation is gaining momentum, so is the expansion of businesses and economies, and migration of the population. Yet, the uniqueness of individual cultures prevails, and demonstrates that the process of communication and translation are not only matters of linguistic, but of cultural transferral as well. Therefore, even the world of business and advertising, the world of fast food, fast production, fast living, is programmed in accordance with the uniqueness of those cultures. The fact that culture, beliefs, ideologies, values and societal expectations permeate every sphere of advertising will be addressed through illustrative examples.

Keywords: culturology, ideology, linguistic analysis in advertising, linguistic and visual metaphors, propaganda, translation of advertisements

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38 Targeting Violent Extremist Narratives: Applying Network Targeting Techniques to the Communication Functions of Terrorist Groups

Authors: John Hardy


Over the last decade, the increasing utility of extremist narratives to the operational effectiveness of terrorist organizations has been evidenced by the proliferation of inspired or affiliated attacks across the world. Famous examples such as regional al-Qaeda affiliates and the self-styled “Islamic State” demonstrate the effectiveness of leveraging communication technologies to disseminate propaganda, recruit members, and orchestrate attacks. Terrorist organizations with the capacity to harness the communicative power offered by digital communication technologies and effective political narratives have held an advantage over their targets in recent years. Terrorists have leveraged the perceived legitimacy of grass-roots actors to appeal to a global audience of potential supporters and enemies alike, and have wielded a proficiency in profile-raising which remains unmatched by counter terrorism narratives around the world. In contrast, many attempts at propagating official counter-narratives have been received by target audiences as illegitimate, top-down and impersonally bureaucratic. However, the benefits provided by widespread communication and extremist narratives have come at an operational cost. Terrorist organizations now face a significant challenge in protecting their access to communications technologies and authority over the content they create and endorse. The dissemination of effective narratives has emerged as a core function of terrorist organizations with international reach via inspired or affiliated attacks. As such, it has become a critical function which can be targeted by intelligence and security forces. This study applies network targeting principles which have been used by coalition forces against a range of non-state actors in the Middle East and South Asia to the communicative function of terrorist organizations. This illustrates both a conceptual link between functional targeting and operational disruption in the abstract and a tangible impact on the operational effectiveness of terrorists by degrading communicative ability and legitimacy. Two case studies highlight the utility of applying functional targeting against terrorist organizations. The first case is the targeted killing of Anwar al-Awlaki, an al-Qaeda propagandist who crafted a permissive narrative and effective propaganda videos to attract recruits who committed inspired terrorist attacks in the US and overseas. The second is a series of operations against Islamic State propagandists in Syria, including the capture or deaths of a cadre of high profile Islamic State members, including Junaid Hussain, Abu Mohammad al-Adnani, Neil Prakash, and Rachid Kassim. The group of Islamic State propagandists were linked to a significant rise in affiliated and enabled terrorist attacks and were subsequently targeted by law enforcement and military agencies. In both cases, the disruption of communication between the terrorist organization and recruits degraded both communicative and operational functions. Effective functional targeting on member recruitment and operational tempo suggests that narratives are a critical function which can be leveraged against terrorist organizations. Further application of network targeting methods to terrorist narratives may enhance the efficacy of a range of counter terrorism techniques employed by security and intelligence agencies.

Keywords: countering violent extremism, counter terrorism, intelligence, terrorism, violent extremism

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37 Anthropology of Women and War (1979-1988) in Iran: The Role of Islamic Republic Media

Authors: Mina Dousti


Like many women worldwide, and especially those living in the Middle East, Iranian women are struggling to have equal rights as men. The Islamic Republic regime, established in 1979, made this path even more difficult for Iranian women. Media and the Islamic Republic's powerful propaganda are the main factors and advertisers in omitting women's social rights and civic activities. Also, the hijab (veil), which became obligatory immediately after the revolution based on the Qur'an and religious Hadiths, was another way of suppressing women. Since the Islamic Republic Revolution and the following Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988), the Iranian female community has been experiencing different social and legal challenges. Aside from the Islamic regime's role in ignoring women, their families have also contributed to this limitation via unreasonable zeals and religious prejudices. Subsequently, all these factors led to pushing Iranian women to the corner and public dormancy. During the eight-year war, many Iranian women directly participated in the war front line. Although they became martyred, the regime intentionally ignored their public presence employing Islamic justifications and Sharia as an excuse. The government did these actions to justify censorship and unfairness toward women.

Keywords: Iranian women, Islamic Republic Regime, hijab, revolution, Iran-Iraq war, Martyr

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36 Social Media as a Means of Participation in Democracies

Authors: C. Arslan, K. Yakar


Social media is one of the most important and effective means of social interaction among people in which they create, share and exchange their ideas via photos, videos or voice messages. Although there are lots of communication tools. Social media sites are the most prominent ones that allows the users articulate themselves in a matter of seconds all around the world with almost any expenses and thus, they became very popular and widespread after its emergence. As the usage of social media increases, it becomes an effective instrument in social matters. While it is possible to use social media to emphasize basic human rights and protest some failures of any government as in “Arab Spring”, it is also possible to spread propaganda and misinformation just to cause long lasting insurgency, upheaval, turmoil or disorder as an instrument of intervention to internal affairs and state sovereignty by some hostile groups or countries. It is certain that social media has positive effects on participation in democracies allowing people express themselves freely and limitlessly, but obviously, the misuse of it is very common and it is quite possible that even a five-minute-long video record can topple down a government or give a solid reason to a government to review its policies on some certain areas. As one of the most important and effective means of participation, social media presents some opportunities as well as risks. In this study, the place of social media for participation in democracies will be demonstrated under the light of opportunities and risks.

Keywords: social media, democracy, participation, risks, opportunities

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35 The Representation of Anies Baswedan about the Issue of the Word 'Pribumi' in His DKI Jakarta Governor Inauguration Speech in Indonesian Media

Authors: Nizar Ibnus


The term 'pribumi' or indigenous people was originally coined in the colonisation era to differentiate between Dutch colonials and native Indonesian people. The term was also used to trigger nationalism among Indonesian people to liberate their country from any kind of colonialism which had seized their freedom for ages. However, after the war was over and the colonials had fled from the country, the usage began to be altered. It changed from nationalist propaganda term to somewhat racist term. Immigrants and half-blooded people were massively victimized. Then, in 1998 the government forbade the use of this term for public use. Apparently, this racial issue happens again. On 16th October 2017, Anies Baswedan as the new government of DKI Jakarta province mentioned this term in his inauguration speech. This indeed raises controversy among Indonesian people. Using critical discourse analysis, this paper examines how Indonesian media portray the figure of Anies Baswedan regarding the issue. The findings reveal that Indonesian media depict Anies Baswedan differently. Some view him guilty as he mentioned the controversial and forbidden term in public. While, the other media consider him as innocent as he used the term in different contexts. This various media point of view and framing is presumably emerged from their different ideologies.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, media framing, racism, pribumi

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34 Social Media as a Source of Radicalization; A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Manam Hanfi


Pakistan is a victim of terrorism since 9/11 attacks. Since then it is a home for violence and extremism. One of the major reasons behind rising violence and extremism in Pakistan is radicalization. Pakistan has seen and suffered from the modification of terrorism from old to new. In new terrorism, the terrorist organizations incorporated internet to disseminate propaganda, to recruit and train people. The study focuses on the relationship between Pakistan and new terrorism and examines how the internet is being used by terrorist organizations. The study investigates radicalization through social media by terrorist organizations in Pakistan with the help of case studies. The study suggests five ways to counter radicalization, including, counter narrative on social media, content analysis of the data on the internet, curriculum and madrassa reforms, teaching peace education in the educational institutions and use of technical software such as eGLYPH to quickly remove violent data from social media. Lastly, the research attempted to contribute in counter-radicalization by combining the media dependency model and ideas for counter-radicalization. The dependency model elaborates the impact of mass media content on the audience. If media dependency is high, it will cause cognitive, affective and behavioral changes. In order to counter radicalization through social media, it is important to make cognitive, affective and behavioral changes with the help of counter-radicalization suggestions.

Keywords: counter radicalization, extremism, social media, terrorism

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33 The Green Propaganda: Paradoxes of Costa Rica as the Poster Child for Sustainable Tourism

Authors: Maria Jose Ramos Villagra


Since the boom of tourism in the late 80s and 90s, Costa Rica is considered as one of the leading countries for tourism. The size and geography of its territory, its low population density, and its image of being one of the most stable Latin American democracies make Costa Rica an attractive and safe target for foreign investors. Land ownership by foreign investors has increased as the natural resources in rural communities have been exhausted. When nature becomes an instrument to increase profit, it loses its communal value contributing to local communities losing their sovereignty and access to basic resources. The rural regions in proximity to the most tourist areas are often the most marginalized. The purpose of this research is to use the case of the rural community Sardinal and its struggle to protect its aquifer to investigate the economic and cultural consequences of the tourism boom in Costa Rican rural communities. The process of reclaiming the access to and the preservation of the aquifer enabled individuals to redefine their political views and their political power. The case of Sardinal broke the stereotypes about rural individuals and their ability to politically educate themselves and organize. Sardinal´s conflict brought to light the necessity of questioning the role of modern tourism as part of Costa Rica’s national identity, and as a tool for development

Keywords: Costa Rica, tourism, rural development, economy, ecotourism, environment, water, Sardinal

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32 The Rise of Darknet: A Call for Understanding Online Communication of Terrorist Groups in Indonesia

Authors: Aulia Dwi Nastiti


A number of studies and reports on terrorism have continuously addressed the role of internet and online activism to support terrorist and extremist groups. In particular, they stress on social media’s usage that generally serves for the terrorist’s propaganda as well as justification of their causes. While those analyses are important to understand how social media is a vital tool for global network terrorism, they are inadequate to explain the online communication patterns that enable terrorism acts. Beyond apparent online narratives, there is a deep cyber sphere where the very vein of terrorism movement lies. That is a hidden space in the internet called ‘darknet’. Recent investigations, particularly in Middle Eastern context, have shed some lights that this invisible space in the internet is fundamental to maintain the terrorist activities. Despite that, limited number of research examines darknet within the issue of terrorist movements in Indonesian context—where the country is considered quite a hotbed for extremist groups. Therefore, this paper attempts to provide an insight of darknet operation in Indonesian cases. By exploring how the darknet is used by the Indonesian-based extremist groups, this paper maps out communication patterns of terrorist groups on the internet which appear as an intermingled network. It shows the usage of internet is differentiated in different level of anonymity for distinctive purposes. This paper further argues that the emerging terrorist communication network calls for a more comprehensive counterterrorism strategy on the Internet.

Keywords: communication pattern, counterterrorism, darknet, extremist groups, terrorism

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