Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4725

Search results for: children care

4725 Evidence Based Practice for Oral Care in Children

Authors: T. Turan, Ç. Erdoğan

Abstract:

As far as is known, general nursing care practices do not include specific evidence-based practices related to oral care in children. This study aimed to evaluate the evidence based nursing practice for oral care in children. This article is planned as a review article by searching the literature in this field. According to all age groups and the oral care in various specific situations located evidence in the literature were examined. It has been determined that the methods and frequency used in oral care practices performed by nurses in clinics differ from one hospital to another. In addition, it is seen that different solutions are used in basic oral care, oral care practices to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia and evidence-based practice in mucositis management in children. As a result, a standard should be established in oral care practices for children and education for children is recommended.

Keywords: evidence-based practice, oral care, nursing, children

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
4724 Protective Custody in Child Protection: Reflection of Residential Care Workers in the Philippines

Authors: Hazel S. Cometa-Lamberte

Abstract:

This paper presents the residential care workers reflections in working with children who were under protective custody and placed in a residential care facility for children. Key informant interviews and focus group discussion were employed in this study to analyze the views of residential care workers on the programs and services and case management system in residential care for children. Results suggest that working in a residential care facility for children needs the interplay of both the worker’s personal and professional values, knowledge and skills in working with children. Analyzing the residential care workers experiences in handling children in residential care facilities is vital for the improvement of the policies, programs and services, the repertoire of techniques and facilitate the creation of a new social work practice framework/model in child protection specifically in residential care facilities.

Keywords: child protection, residential care, residential care workers, social workers

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4723 Prevalence and Determinants of Depression among Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Child Care Homes in Nepal

Authors: Kumari Bandana Bhatt, Navin Bhatt

Abstract:

Background: Orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) are high risk of physical, mental, sexual and emotional abuse and face social stigma and discrimination which significantly increase the risk of mental and behavioral disorders such as anxiety, depression or emotional problems even they stay in well run child care homes. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of depression and determine the determinants among OVC in child care homes in Nepal. Methods: An institutional-based analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in twenty orphanages of five districts of Nepal. Six hundred two children were recruited into the study. After the informed consent form obtaining, the guardian and assent were interviewed by a semi-structured questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Logistic regression was used for detecting the association between variables at the significant level of =0.05. Results: The study revealed that 33.20% of OVC had depression. Among them 66.80% of children experienced minimal depression, 17.40% had mild depression, 11.30% had moderate depression 4.50% had severe depression. Sex, alcohol drinking, congenital problem, social support and bully were the main variables associated with depression among OVC of the child care homes in Nepal. Conclusion: Prevalence of depression was high among the orphans and vulnerable children living in child care homes especially among the female children in Nepal. Therefore, early identification and instituting of preventive measures of depression are essential to reduce this problem in this special group of children living in child care homes.

Keywords: Mental health, Depression, Orphans and vulnerable children, child care homes

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4722 The Influence of Married Women's Adult Children Care Burden and Stress on Depression: Testing the Moderated Mediating Effect of Satisfaction with Husbands’ Sharing of the Care

Authors: Soo-Bi Lee, Jun Young Jeong, Zehgn Lin, Chenminxi

Abstract:

Background: In South Korea, a problematic phenomenon has recently arisen whereby adult children continue to receive parentalcaregivingin some cases. These phenomena has been shown to affect the mental health of mothers. Study Goals: The purposes of this study are to verify whether the mediating effects of stress on the relationship between a woman’s care burden for their adult children and depression are moderated by their satisfaction about their husbands’ sharing of the caregiving. Methodology: This study analyzed 3,053 married women with adult children using the most recent data from the “Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women & Families 7th(2018)" conducted at the national level. The analysis was conducted using the SPSS Process Macro Model 7 to verify the moderated mediating effects and subsequently confirm their significance based on the bootstrapping method. Results and Implications: (1) Stress was identified a mediating factor in the relationship between the care burden for adult children and depression; and (2) the mediating effects of stress on depression from the burden of caring for adult children are modulated by the woman's satisfaction with her husband’s sharing of the care burden. In other words, the higher the caring burden of adult children, the higher the mother's stress, which increases depression. At this time, the higher the their satisfaction with the husband's share of care in the path of mother's care burden and stress, the lower the mother's stress and, ultimately, the depression be alleviated. Conclusion: Programs that promote the mental health of married women heavily with the caring burden for their adult children, as well as those that improve social awareness regarding husbands' sharing of the care burden, should be implemented. Also, social welfare policy alternatives are needed at the national level to reduce the caring burden caused by adult children.

Keywords: married women, adult children care burden, stress, depression, satisfaction with husbands sharing of the care

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4721 Child Care Policy in Kazakhstan: A New Model

Authors: Dina Maratovna Aikenova

Abstract:

Child care policy must be a priority area of public authorities in any country. This study investigates child care policy in Kazakhstan in accordance with the current position of children and laws. The results show that Kazakhstan policy in this sphere needs more systematic model including state economic and social measures, parental involvement and role of non-government organizations.

Keywords: children, Kazakhstan, policy, vulnerability

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4720 A Comparative Research on the Development Level of Left-Behind and Non-Left-Behind Children in Rural Areas of Henan Province

Authors: Yuying Zhu

Abstract:

Left-behind children in rural areas are vulnerable groups with the course of our country’s urbanization. Left-behind young children in rural area separate from their parents in their early childhood, vicegerent guardian’s care are less sensitive and careful than children’s parents; they give less concern to children’s verbal development, this makes the verbal problem of the left-behind children to be ubiquitous problem. This study chooses four kindergartens from the east the middle and the west of the Henan Province, explore the verbal development differences between the left-behind young children and the non-left-behind young rural children through the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) and self-made questionnaires. The study shows that there is no significant difference between the left-behind young children and the non-left-behind young rural children in the verbal development, though the marks in primary class and middle class the non-left-behind young rural children is higher, but, the top class in the kindergarten is not. What’s more, the emergent reading and the economy have significant influence on young children’s verbal ability.

Keywords: left-behind children, non-left-behind children, regional difference, verbal development

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4719 Nurse Practitioner Led Pediatric Primary Care Clinic in a Tertiary Care Setting: Improving Access and Health Outcomes

Authors: Minna K. Miller, Chantel. E. Canessa, Suzanna V. McRae, Susan Shumay, Alissa Collingridge

Abstract:

Primary care provides the first point of contact and access to health care services. For the pediatric population, the goal is to help healthy children stay healthy and to help those that are sick get better. Primary care facilitates regular well baby/child visits; health promotion and disease prevention; investigation, diagnosis and management of acute and chronic illnesses; health education; both consultation and collaboration with, and referral to other health care professionals. There is a protective association between regular well-child visit care and preventable hospitalization. Further, low adherence to well-child care and poor continuity of care are independently associated with increased risk of hospitalization. With a declining number of family physicians caring for children, and only a portion of pediatricians providing primary care services, it is becoming increasingly difficult for children and their families to access primary care. Nurse practitioners are in a unique position to improve access to primary care and improve health outcomes for children. Limited literature is available on the nurse practitioner role in primary care pediatrics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development, implementation and evaluation of a Nurse Practitioner-led pediatric primary care clinic in a tertiary care setting. Utilizing the participatory, evidence-based, patient-focused process for advanced practice nursing (PEPPA framework), this paper highlights the results of the initial needs assessment/gap analysis, the new service delivery model, populations served, and outcome measures.

Keywords: access, health outcomes, nurse practitioner, pediatric primary care, PEPPA framework

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4718 A Mixed Method Systematic Review of the Experience of Communication in the Care of Children with Palliative Care Needs

Authors: Maha Atout, Pippa Hemingway, Jane Seymour

Abstract:

Background: A mixed method systematic review was undertaken in order to explore issues related to the experiences of health care providers and parents in the care of children with palliative care needs. The aims of this systematic review were to identify existing evidence about the experiences of communication in the care of children with palliative care needs, to appraise the research conducted in this area and to identify gaps in the literature in order to recommend for future related studies. Method: A mixed method systematic review of research on the experience of communication in the care of children with palliative care needs, conducted with parents and health professionals was undertaken. The electronic databases of CINAHL, Cochrane, PubMed, OVID, Social Care Online, Web of Science, Scopus, and ProQuest were searched for the period of 2000-2016. Inclusion was limited to studies of communication experience in the care of children with palliative care needs. Result: Thirty-eight studies were found. The studies were conducted in a variety of countries: Uganda, Jordan, USA, UK, Taiwan, Turkey, Ireland, Poland, Brazil, Australia, Switzerland, Sweden, Netherland, Lebanon, Spain, Greece, and China. The current review shows that parents tend to protect their children when they are discussing their illnesses with them, particularly where they have a life-threatening or life-limiting condition. The approach of parents towards the discussion of sensitive issues concerning death with their children is significantly affected by the cultural background of the families. Conservative cultures encourage collusion behaviours which tend to keep children unaware of the incurable nature of the disease. The major communication challenges reported by health professionals are facing difficulties in judging how much information should be given to parents, responding to difficult questions, conflicts with families and inadequate skills to support grieving families. Conclusion: It is probably significant for the future studies to consider the change of parent-child communication experience over time in order to understand how the parents could change their interaction styles with their children according to the different stages of their children’s disease. Moreover, further studies are required to investigate the experience of communication of parents of children with non-malignant life-threatening and life-limiting illnesses.

Keywords: children with life-threatening or life- limiting illnesses, end of life, experience of communication, healthcare care providers, paediatric palliative care

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4717 Unaccompanied Children: An Overview on National and European Law

Authors: Cinzia Valente

Abstract:

Over the last few years, national legislators have been forced to deal with social changes that have had important repercussions in family law and children’s law. This growing focus on minors has provoked important reforms, specifically on issues relating to the welfare and protection of children. My presentation focuses on the issue of migrant children in particular I refer to unaccompanied children, or ‘children on the move’, or separate children or any other term defining migrant minors who cross national borders seeking protection or better opportunities. They arrive often illegally, on the European territory without a responsible adult who take care of them. There is a common assumption that migrants are running away from conflicts, poverty and human rights abuse and they arrive in a foreign country hoping a better life; children without persons who takes care of them encounter some difficulties in their integration in the host country. The migration flows recorded in recent decades towards EU countries, and Italy in particular, have imposed an intense pressure to modernize institutions, services and specific legal frameworks, with the aim of responding adequately to the needs of foreign individuals, as well as ensuring a good level of living standards and facilitating integration, especially for migrant children. The object of my paper is the analysis of the Italian rules, practices and services existing in favor of unaccompanied children (foster care, reunification, acquisition of citizenship and other) in comparison with other European legal systems on the same thematic with a comparative method. Highlighting European standards to find common principles for the best solution to children's problems is the conclusive aim of my presentation.

Keywords: Children , Family Law, Migration , Uniform Law

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4716 Assessment of Ocular Morbidity, Knowledge and Barriers to Access Eye Care Services among the Children Live in Offshore Island, Bangladesh

Authors: Abir Dey, Shams Noman

Abstract:

Introduction: Offshore Island is the remote and isolated area from the terrestrial mainland. They are deprived of their needs. The children from an offshore island are usually underserved in the case of health care because it is a remote area where the health care systems are quite poor compared to mainland. So, the proper information is required for appropriate planning to reduce underlying causes behind visual deprivation among the surviving children of the Offshore Island. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine ocular morbidities, knowledge, and barriers of eye care services among children in an Offshore Island. Methods: The study team visited, and all data were collected from different rural communities at Sandwip Upazila, Chittagong district for screening the children aged 5-16 years old by doing spot examination. The whole study was conducted in both qualitative and quantitative methods. To determine ocular status of children, examinations were done under skilled Ophthalmologists and Optometrists. A focus group discussion was held. The sample size was 490. It was a community based descriptive study and the sampling method was purposive sampling. Results: In total 490 children, about 56.90% were female and 43.10% were male. Among them 456 were school-going children (93.1%) and 34 were non-school going children (6.9%). In this study the most common ocular morbidity was Allergic Conjunctivitis (35.2%). Other mentionable ocular morbidities were Refractive error (27.7%), Blepharitis (13.8%), Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (7.5%), Strabismus (6.3%) and Amblyopia (6.3%). Most of the non-school going children were involved in different types of domestic work like farming, fishing, etc. About 90.04% children who had different ocular abnormalities could not attend to the doctor due to various reasons. Conclusions: The ocular morbidity was high in rate on the offshore island. Eye health care facility was also not well established there. Awareness should be raised about necessity of maintaining hygiene and eye healthcare among the island people. Timely intervention through available eye care facilities and management can reduce the ocular morbidity rate in that area.

Keywords: morbidities, screening, barriers, offshore island, knowledge

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4715 Investigating Unplanned Applications and Admissions to Hospitals of Children with Cancer

Authors: Hacer Kobya Bulut, Ilknur Kahriman, Birsel C. Demirbag

Abstract:

Introduction and Purpose: The lives of children with cancer are affected by long term hospitalizations in a negative way due to complications arising from diagnosis or treatment. However, the children's parents are known to have difficulties in meeting their children’s needs and providing home care after cancer treatment or during remission process. Supporting these children and their parents by giving a planned discharge training starting from the hospital and home care leads to reducing hospital applications, hospitalizations, hospital costs, shortening the length of hospital stay and increasing the satisfaction of the children with cancer and their families. This study was conducted to investigate the status of children and their parents' unplanned application to hospital and re-hospitalization. Methods: The study was carried out with 65 children with hematological malignancy in 0-17 age group and their families in a hematology clinic and polyclinic of a university hospital in Trabzon. Data were collected with survey methodology between August-November, 2015 through face to face interview using numbers, percentage and chi-square test in the evaluation. Findings: Most of the children were leukemia (90.8%) and 49.2% had been ill over 13 months. Few of the parents (32.3%) stated that they had received discharge and home care training (24.6%) but most of them (69.2%) found themselves enough in providing home care. Very few parents (6.2%) received home care training after their children being discharged and the majority of parents (61.5%) faced difficulties in home care and had no one to call around them. The parents expressed that in providing care to their children with hematological malignance, they faced difficulty in feeding them (74.6%), explaining their disease (50.0%), giving their oral medication (47.5%), providing hygiene (43.5%) and providing oral care (39.3%). The question ‘What are the emergency situations in which you have to bring your children to a doctor immediately?' was replied as fever (89.2%), severe nausea and vomiting (87.7%), hemorrhage (86.2%) and pain (81.5%). The study showed that 50.8% of the children had unplanned applications to hospitals and 33.8% of them identified as unplanned hospitalization and the first causes of this were fever and pain. The study showed that the frequency of applications (%78.8) and hospitalizations (%81.8) was higher for boys and a statistically significant difference was found between gender and unplanned applications (X=4.779; p=0.02). Applications (48.5%) and hospitalizations (40.9%) were found lower for the parents who had received hospital discharge training, and a significant difference was determined between receiving training and unplanned hospitalizations (X=8.021; p=0.00). Similarly, applications (30.3%) and hospitalizations (40.9%) was found lower for the ones who had received home care training, and a significant difference was determined between receiving home care training and unplanned hospitalizations (X=4.758; p=0.02). Conclusion: It was found out that caregivers of children with cancer did not receive training related to home care and complications about treatment after discharging from hospital, so they faced difficulties in providing home care and this led to an increase in unplanned hospital applications and hospitalizations.

Keywords: cancer, children, unplanned application, unplanned hospitalization

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4714 The Exercise of Choice by Children and Young People in the British Public Care System

Authors: Siobhan Laird

Abstract:

Under article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which extends human rights in their application to those under the age of 18 years, children must be consulted ‘in all matters affecting the child’. The Office of the Children’s Commissioner for England is responsible for improving the welfare of children and young people by ensuring that their Convention rights are respected and realised and their views taken seriously. In 2014 the Children’s Commissioner engaged a team of researchers at the Centre for Social Work, University of Nottingham to develop and roll out an online survey to gather information from children and young people about their exercise of choice within the public care system. Approximately 3,000 children responded to this survey, which comprised both closed and open-ended questions. SPSS was used to analyse the numerical data and a thematic analysis of textual data was conducted on answers to open-ended questions. Findings revealed that children exercised considerable choice over personal space and their spare time, but had much less choice in relation to contact with their birth families, where they lived, or the timings of moves from one placement into another. The majority of children described how they were supported to express their opinions and believed that these were taken seriously. However, a significant number reported problems and explained how specific behaviours by professionals and carers made it difficult for them to express their opinion or to feel that they had influenced decisions which affected them. In open-ended questions eliciting information about their experiences, children and young people were asked to describe how they could be better supported to make choices and what changes would assist for these to be better acknowledged and acted upon by professionals and carers. This paper concludes by presenting the ideas and suggestions of children and young people for improving the public care system in Britain in relation to their exercise of choice.

Keywords: children, choice, participation, public care

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4713 Ambulatory Care Utilization of Individuals with Cerebral Palsy in Taiwan- A Country with Universal Coverage and No Gatekeeper Regulation

Authors: Ming-Juei Chang, Hui-Ing Ma, Tsung-Hsueh Lu

Abstract:

Introduction: Because of the advance of medical care (e.g., ventilation techniques and gastrostomy feeding), more and more children with CP can live to adulthood. However, little is known about the use of health care services from children to adults who have CP. The patterns of utilization of ambulatory care are heavily influenced by insurance coverage and primary care gatekeeper regulation. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of ambulatory care utilization among individuals with CP in Taiwan, a country with universal coverage and no gatekeeper regulation. Methods: A representative sample of one million patients (about 1/23 of total population) covered by Taiwan’s National Health Insurance was used to analyze the ambulatory care utilization in individuals with CP. Data were analyzed by 3 different age groups (children, youth and adults) during 2000 to 2003. Participants were identified by the presence of CP diagnosis made by pediatricians or physicians of physical and rehabilitation medicine and stated at least three times in claims data. Results: Annual rates of outpatient physician visits were 31680 for children, 16492 for youth, and 28617 for adults with CP (per 1000 persons). Individuals with CP received over 50% of their outpatient care from hospital outpatient department. Higher use of specialist physician services was found in children (54.7%) than in the other two age groups (28.4% in youth and 18.8% in adults). Diseases of respiratory system were the most frequent diagnoses for visits in both children and youth with CP. Diseases of the circulatory system were the main reasons (24.3%) that adults with CP visited hospital outpatient care department or clinics. Conclusion: This study showed different patterns of ambulatory care utilization among different age groups. It appears that youth and adults with CP continue to have complex health issues and rely heavily on the health care system. Additional studies are needed to determine the factors which influence ambulatory care utilization among individuals with CP.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, health services, lifespan, universal coverage

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4712 Health Status and Psychology Wellbeing of Street Children in Kuala Lumpur

Authors: Sabri Sulaiman, Siti Hajar Abu Bakar Ah, Haris Abd Wahab

Abstract:

Street children is a global phenomenon and declared as a social problem by social researcher and scholars across the world. The insecure street environment exposes street children into various risk factors. One of them is the health and psychological problem. The objective of this study is to assess the health problem and psychological wellbeing of street children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The cross-sectional study involved 303 street children in Chow Kit, Kuala Lumpur. The study confirmed that the majority (95.7%) of street children who participated in the study have a health problem. The findings also demonstrated that the majority of them have issues related to their psychological wellbeing. The inputs from this study are instrumental for the suggestion of specific intervention to improve the health and psychology wellbeing of street children in Malaysia. Agencies which are responsible for the street children well-being can utilise the inputs to framing and improving the social care programmes for the children.

Keywords: street children, health status, psychology wellbeing, homeless

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4711 Electromyography Controlled Robotic Toys for Autistic Children

Authors: Uvais Qidwai, Mohamed Shakir

Abstract:

This paper presents an initial study related to the use of robotic toys as teaching and therapeutic aid tools for teachers and care-givers as well as parents of children with various levels of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some of the most common features related to the behavior of a child with ASD are his/her social isolation, living in their own world, not being physically active, and not willing to learn new things. While the teachers, parents, and all other related care-givers do their best to improve the condition of these kids, it is usually quite an uphill task. However, one remarkable observation that has been reported by several teachers dealing with ASD children is the fact that the same children do get attracted to toys with lights and sounds. Hence, this project targets the development/modifications of such existing toys into appropriate behavior training tools which the care-givers can use as they would desire. Initially, the remote control is in hand of the trainer, but after some time, the child is entrusted with the control of the robotic toy to test for the level of interest. It has been found during the course of this study that children with quite low learning activity got extremely interested in the robot and even advanced to controlling the robot with the Electromyography (EMG). It has been observed that the children did show some hesitation in the beginning 5 minutes of the very first sessions of such interaction but were very comfortable afterwards which has been considered as a very strong indicator of the potential of this technique in teaching and rehabilitation of children with ASD or similar brain disorders.

Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), robotic toys, IR control, electromyography, LabVIEW based remote control

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4710 Exploring 'Attachment Theory' in the Context of Early Childhood Education

Authors: Wendy Lee

Abstract:

From the mid-twentieth century onward, the notion of ‘attachment’ has been used to define the optimum relationship between young children and their carers; first applied to parents and young children and more recently with early childhood educators and children in their care. However, it is seldom, if ever, asked whether the notion of ‘attachment’ and more especially so-called Attachment Theory, as propounded by John Bowlby and others, provides a sound basis for conceptualising child-adult relationships in early years. Even if appropriate in the context of family, the use of the term raises a number of questions when used in early childhood education. Research has shown that our youngest children (infants) in early childhood centre based care settings, are given the utmost priority to build 'attachments' with their educators. But exactly when, how and why does this priority diminish - and should it (for preschoolers)? This presentation will elaborate on such issues and will argue that there is a need to reconceptualise and redefine how 'quality relationships' should be measured and implemented in the daily practices and pedagogical methods adopted by early childhood educators. Moreover, this presentation will include data collected from the empirical study conducted, that observed various early childhood educators and children in Australian early childhood centres. Lastly, the thoughts, feelings and desires of parents of children in early childhood centre-based care, regarding the term 'attachment' and 'quality relationships' will be shared in the hope that we can take one step closer in bridging the needs of families, children, early childhood centres, educators, and the wider community.

Keywords: attachment, early childhood education, pedagogy, relationships

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4709 An Audit of the Diagnosis of Asthma in Children in Primary Care and the Emergency Department

Authors: Abhishek Oswal

Abstract:

Background: Inconsistencies between the guidelines for childhood asthma can pose a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. NICE guidelines are the most commonly followed guidelines in primary care in the UK; they state that to be diagnosed with asthma, a child must be more than 5 years old and must have objective evidence of the disease. When diagnoses are coded in general practice (GP), these guidelines may be superseded by communications from secondary care. Hence it is imperative that diagnoses are correct, as per up to date guidelines and evidence, as this affects follow up and management both in primary and secondary care. Methods: A snapshot audit at a general practice surgery was undertaken of children (less than 16 years old) with a coded diagnosis of 'asthma', to review the age at diagnosis and whether any objective evidence of asthma was documented at diagnosis. 50 cases of asthma in children presenting to the emergency department (ED) were then audited to review the age at presentation, whether there was evidence of previous asthma diagnosis and whether the patient was discharged from ED. A repeat audit is planned in ED this winter. Results: In a GP surgery, there were 83 coded cases of asthma in children. 51 children (61%) were diagnosed under 5, with 9 children (11%) who had objective evidence of asthma documented at diagnosis. In ED, 50 cases were collected, of which 4 were excluded as they were referred to the other services, or for incorrect coding. Of the 46 remaining, 27 diagnoses confirmed to NICE guidelines (59%). 33 children (72%) were discharged from ED. Discussion: The most likely reason for the apparent low rate of a correct diagnosis is the significant challenge of obtaining objective evidence of asthma in children. There were a number of patients who were diagnosed from secondary care services and then coded as 'asthma' in GP, without having objective documented evidence. The electronic patient record (EPR) system used in our emergency department (ED) did not allow coding of 'suspected diagnosis' or of 'viral induced wheeze'. This may have led to incorrect diagnoses coded in primary care, of children who had no confirmed diagnosis of asthma. We look forward to the re-audit, as the EPR system has been updated to allow suspected diagnoses. In contrast to the NICE guidelines used here, British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines allow for a trial of treatment and subsequent confirmation of diagnosis without objective evidence. It is possible that some of the cases which have been classified as incorrect in this audit may still meet other guidelines. Conclusion: The diagnosis of asthma in children is challenging. Incorrect diagnoses may be related to clinical pressures and the provision of services to allow compliance with NICE guidelines. Consensus statements between the various groups would also aid the decision-making process and diagnostic dilemmas that clinicians face, to allow more consistent care of the patient.

Keywords: asthma, diagnosis, primary care, emergency department, guidelines, audit

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4708 Poisoning Admission in Pediatrics Benghazi Hospital in Libya: Three Years Review of Medical Record

Authors: Mudafara Bengleil

Abstract:

Estimation of the magnitude and causes of poisoning was the objective of the current study. A retrospective study of medical records of all poisoning children admitted to Benghazi Children Hospital in Libya from January 2008 up to December 2010. Number of children admitted was 244; the age ranged from less than one to 13 years old. Most of cases were admitted with mild symptom and the majority of them were boys. Only few cases admitted to intensive care unit and there was no mortality recorded through the period of study. Age group 1 to 3 years (50.8%) had the highest frequency of admission and the peak of admission was during summer. The most common cause of admission was due to ingestion of medication (53.69%), House hold product exposure (26.64%) was the second causes of admission while, 19.67% of admissions were due to Food poisoning. Almost all admitted cases were accidental and medicines were the most consumed substances in addition, improper storage of toxic agents were the first risk factor of poisoning. Present results indicated that, children poisoning seems to be a common pediatric care problem which need to control and prevent.

Keywords: poisoning, children, hospital, medical

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4707 The Role and Tasks of a Social Worker in the Care of a Terminally Ill Child with Regard to the Malopolska Hospice for Children

Authors: Ewelina Zdebska

Abstract:

A social worker is an integral part of an interdisciplinary team working with the child and his family in a terminal state. Social support is an integral part of the medical procedure in the care of hospice. This is the basis and prerequisite of full treatment and good care of the child - patient, whose illness often finds at least the expected period of his life when his personal and legal issues are not regulated, and the family burdened with the problem requires care and support specialists - professionals. Hospice for Children in Krakow: a palliative care team operating in the province of Krakow and Malopolska, conducts specialized care for terminally ill children in place of their residence from the time when parents and doctors decided to end of treatment in hospital, allows parents to carry out medical care at home, provides parents social and legal assistance and provides care, psychological support and friendship to families throughout the life of the child's illness and after his death, as long as it is needed. The social worker in a hospice does not bear the burden of solving social problems, which is the responsibility of other authorities, but provides support possible and necessary at the moment. The most common form of assistance is to provide information on benefits, which for the child and his family may be subject to any treatment and fight for the life and health of a child. Employee assists in the preparation and completion of documents, requests to increase the degree of disability because of progressive disease or Allowance care because of the inability to live independently. It works in settling all the issues with the Department of Social Security, as well as with the Municipal and District Team Affairs of disability. Seeking help and support using multi-faceted childcare. With the Centres for Social Welfare contacts are also often on the organization of additional respite care for the sick at home (care), especially in the work of the other members of the family or if the family can not cope with the care and needs extra help. Hospice for Children in Cracow completing construction of Poland's first Respite Care Centre for chronically and terminally ill children, will be an open house where children suffering from chronic and incurable diseases and their families can get professional help, whenever - when they need it. The social worker has to pick up a very important role in caring for a terminally ill child. His presence gives a little patient and family the opportunity to be at this difficult time together while organizing assistance and support.

Keywords: social worker, care, terminal care, hospice

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4706 Identification of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Day-Care Centres

Authors: Kenneth Larsen, Astrid Aasland, Synnve Schjølberg, Trond Diseth

Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders emerging in early development characterized by impairment in social communication skills and a restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior and interests. Early identification and interventions potentially improve development and quality of life of children with ASD. Symptoms of ASD are apparent through the second year of life, yet diagnostic age are still around 4 years of age. This study explored whether symptoms associated with ASD are possible to identify in typical Norwegian day-care centers in the second year of life. Results of this study clearly indicates that most described symptoms also are identifiable by day-care staff, and that a short observation list of 5 symptoms clearly identify children with ASD from a sample of normal developing peers.

Keywords: autism, early identification, day-care, screening

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4705 Clinical Characteristics of Children Presenting with History of Child Sexual Abuse to a Tertiary Care Centre in India

Authors: T. S. Sowmya Bhaskaran, Shekhar Seshadri

Abstract:

This study aims to study the clinical features of with a history of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA). A chart review of 40 children (<16 years) with history of CSA evaluated at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of NIMHANS during a two year period was performed. Results:The most common form of abuse was contact penetrative abuse (65%) followed by non-contact penetrative abuse (32.5%). 75% (N=30) had a psychiatric diagnosis at baseline. 50% of these children had one or more psychiatric comorbidities. Anxiety disorder was the most common diagnosis (27.5%) which included PTSD (11%) followed by Depressive disorder (25.2%). Children abused by multiple perpetrators were found to be more likely to have depression, to having a comorbid psychiatric disorder and more prone to exhibit sexualized behaviour. Children who also experienced physical violence at home were more likely to develop psychiatric illness following child sexual abuse. Psychiatric morbidity is high in clinic population of children with history of CSA. It is important to increase the awareness regarding the consequences of CSA in order to increase help seeking.

Keywords: child sexual abuse, India, tertiary care centre, clinical characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
4704 Fathers’ Rights to Contact and Care: Moving Beyond the Adversarial Approach

Authors: Wesahl Domingo, Prinslean Mahery

Abstract:

Our paper focuses on the rights’ to contact and care of fathers in the heterosexual context, despite the reality of same sex parenting in South Africa. We argue that despite the new South African Children’s Act framework creating a shift from the idea of parental power over a child to the notion that parents have parental responsibilities and rights in respect of a child. This shift has however not fundamentally changed the constant battle that parents and other interested parties have over children. In most cases it is fathers who must battle to either maintain contact with their child/ren or fight to have care (which includes custody) of their child/ren. This is the case whether or not the father was married to the mother of the child in question. In part one of the paper, we deal with the historical development of rights to care and contact and describe the current system in the context of case law and legislation in South Africa. Part two provides a critical analysis of a few anthologies of “what fathers are complaining about.” In conclusion, in part three, we outline the way forward –“moving beyond the adversarial approach” through the “care of ethics approach.” So what is the care perspective? The care perspective is a relational ethic which views the primary moral concern as of creating and sustaining responsive connection to others. We apply the care of ethics approach to parenting plans and family law mediation in the context of fathers’ rights to care and contact. We argue by avoiding the adversarial system and engaging in a problem solving process focused on finding solutions for the future, divorcing parents can turn their attention to their children rather than battling each other.

Keywords: fathers' right to care, contact, custody, family law

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4703 Experiences and Perceptions of Parents Raising Children with Autism

Authors: Tamene Keneni, Tibebu Yohannes

Abstract:

The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in general and autism in particular is on the rise globally, and the need for evidence-based intervention and care for children with autism has grown, too. However, evidence on autism is scanty in developing countries, including Ethiopia. With the aim to help fill the gap and paucity in research into the issue, the main purpose of this study is to explore, better understand, and document the experiences and perceptions of parents of children with autism. To this end, we used a qualitative survey to collect data from a convenient sample of parents raising a child with autism. The data collected were subjected to qualitative analysis that yielded several themes and subthemes, including late diagnosis, parents’ reactions to diagnosis, sources of information during and after diagnosis, differing reactions to having a child with autism from siblings, extended family members, and the larger community, attribution of autism to several causes by the community, lack of recognition and open discussion of autism and lack of appropriated public educational and health care services for children with autism and their parents. The themes and subthemes identified were discussed in light of existing literature, and implications for practice were drawn.

Keywords: ASD, autism, children with autism, raising children with autism

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4702 Care and Support for Infants and Toddlers with Special Needs

Authors: Florence A. Undiyaundeye, Aniashie Akpanke

Abstract:

Early identification of developmental disorders in infants and toddlers is critical for the well being of children. It is also an integral function of the primary care medical provider and the early care given in the home or crèche. This paper is focused at providing information on special need infants and toddlers and strategies to support them in developmental concern to cope with the challenges in and out of the classroom and to interact with their peers without stigmatization and inferiority complex. The target children are from birth through three years of age. There is a strong recommendation for developmental surveillance to be incorporated at every well child preventive care program in training and practical stage of formal school settings. The paper posits that any concerns raised during surveillance should be promptly addressed with standardized developmental screening by appropriate health service providers. In addition screening tests should be administered regularly at age 9+, 19+ and 30 months of these infants. The paper also establishes that the early identification of these developmental challenges of the infants and toddlers should lead to further developmental and medical evaluation, diagnosis and treatment, including early developmental school intervention, control and teaching and learning integration and inclusion for proper career build up. Children diagnosed with developmental disorders should be identified as children with special needs so that management is initiated and its underlying etiology may also drive a range of treatment of the child, to parents. Conselling and school integration as applicable to the child’s specific need and care for sustenance in societal functioning.

Keywords: care, special need, support, infants and toddlers, management and developmental disorders

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4701 Developing and Standardizing Individual Care Plan for Children in Conflict with Law in the State of Kerala

Authors: Kavitha Puthanveedu, Kasi Sekar, Preeti Jacob, Kavita Jangam

Abstract:

In India, The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015, the law related to children alleged and found to be in conflict with law, proposes to address to the rehabilitation of children in conflict with law by catering to the basic rights by providing care and protection, development, treatment, and social re-integration. A major concern in addressing the issues of children in conflict with law in Kerala the southernmost state in India identified were: 1. Lack of psychological assessment for children in conflict with law, 2. Poor psychosocial intervention for children in conflict with law on bail, 3. Lack of psychosocial intervention or proper care and protection of CCL residing at observation and special home, 4. Lack convergence with systems related with mental health care. Aim: To develop individual care plan for children in conflict with law. Methodology: NIMHANS a premier Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, collaborated with Social Justice Department, Govt. of Kerala to address this issue by developing a participatory methodology to implement psychosocial care in the existing services by integrating the activities through multidisciplinary and multisectoral approach as per the Sec. 18 of JJAct 2015. Developing individual care plan: Key informant interviews, focus group discussion with multiple stakeholders consisting of legal officers, police, child protection officials, counselors, and home staff were conducted. Case studies were conducted among children in conflict with law. A checklist on 80 psychosocial problems among children in conflict with law was prepared with eight major issues identified through the quantitative process such as family and parental characteristic, family interactions and relationships, stressful life event, social and environmental factors, child’s individual characteristics, education, child labour and high-risk behavior. Standardised scales were used to identify the anxiety, caseness, suicidality and substance use among the children. This provided a background data understand the psychosocial problems experienced by children in conflict with law. In the second stage, a detailed plan of action was developed involving multiple stakeholders that include Special juvenile police unit, DCPO, JJB, and NGOs. The individual care plan was reviewed by a panel of 4 experts working in the area of children, followed by the review by multiple stakeholders in juvenile justice system such as Magistrates, JJB members, legal cum probation officers, district child protection officers, social workers and counselors. Necessary changes were made in the individual care plan in each stage which was pilot tested with 45 children for a period of one month and standardized for administering among children in conflict with law. Result: The individual care plan developed through scientific process was standardized and currently administered among children in conflict with law in the state of Kerala in the 3 districts that will be further implemented in other 14 districts. The program was successful in developing a systematic approach for the psychosocial intervention of children in conflict with law that can be a forerunner for other states in India.

Keywords: psychosocial care, individual care plan, multidisciplinary, multisectoral

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4700 Comprehensive Care and the Right to Autonomy of Children and Adolescents with Cancer

Authors: Sandra Soca Lozano, Teresa Isabel Lozano Pérez, Germain Weber

Abstract:

Cancer is a chronic disease of high prevalence in children and adolescents. Medical care in Cuba is carried out by a multidisciplinary team and family is the mediator between this team and the patient. Around this disease, there are interwoven many stereotypes and taboos by its relation to death. In this research report, we describe the work paradigm of psychological care to patients suffering from these diseases in the University Pediatric Hospital Juan Manuel Márquez of Havana, Cuba. We present the psychosocial factors that must be taken into account to provide comprehensive care and ensuring the quality of life of patients and their families. We also present the factors related to the health team and the management of information done with the patient. This is a descriptive proposal from the working experience accumulated in the named institution and in the review of the literature. As a result of this report we make a proposal of teamwork and the aspects in which psychological intervention should be continue performing in terms of increasing the quality of the care made by the health team. We conclude that it is necessary to continue improving the information management of children and adolescents with theses health problems and took into account their right to autonomy.

Keywords: comprehensive care, management of information, psychosocial factors, right to autonomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
4699 Maternal Care Practices on Nutritional Status of Pre School Children in Dass Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Adebusoye Michael, Okunola Olayinka, Owolabi Abdulateef, Jacob Anayo

Abstract:

Introduction: Child undernutrition remains one of Africa’s most fundamental challenges for improved human development because the time and capacities of caregivers are limited; far too many children are unable to access effectively amenities they need for a healthy life. Methods and procedures: This cross-sectional, descriptive study evaluated the maternal care practices on nutritional status of pre-school children, 150 mothers were selected by systematic random sampling in Dass L.G.A., Bauchi-State, Nigeria. Information on relevant parameters were collected by questionaire, analysed by various indices of descriptive statistics using SPSS version 16.0.Spearman’s rank correlation was used to test for associations between the variables. Results: Thirty-five (23.3%) of the respondents were aged 21-25 years. Thirty-three (28.0%) had secondary education, while forty-nine (32.7%) were full housewives. Majority 79(52.7) earned NI,000- N10,000 monthly versus 10(6.7%) who earned N11,000- N20,000.113(75.3%) married while 7(4.7%) of respondents were separated. Sixty-one (40.7%) practiced exclusive breastfeeding within six months. Only seventy-one (47.3%) initiated breastfeeding between 7 and 13 months. Five (3.3%) of children were mildly underweight while nine (6.0%) were severely stunted. Conclusion: The outcome suggested that working time of mothers is a major determinant on their child nutritional status. However, there is a significant relationship on the working time of mothers, income level and educational level of mothers to the nutritional status of their children (P<0.05). Recommendation: Good policy programmes should aim at eradicating poverty, better child care practices that would reduce malnutrition among under-five children.

Keywords: maternal care, nutritional status, preschool children, Dass L.G.A.

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4698 Looking Forward, Looking Back: A Critical Reflection on the Impact of the Special Needs Assistant Scheme on Inclusionary Practices for Children with Significant Care Needs in the Irish Education System

Authors: C. P. Griffin

Abstract:

This paper seeks to critically review special educational needs (SEN) policy in the Irish education system since the introduction of the Education Act in 1998. In particular, the author seeks to focus on the impact of SEN policy on inclusionary practices for children with significant care needs in light of the introduction on the Special Needs Assistant (SNA) scheme. Following a systematic review of the literature, the growth of the SNA scheme in Ireland will be critically reviewed. Strengths and weaknesses of the scheme will be forwarded and comparisons drawn between contrasting international models of teaching assistant support. Based on this review, avenues for future research will be forwarded, with the aim of supporting effective inclusionary practices for children with SEN based on evidence-based practice.

Keywords: care needs, inclusion, Ireland, special needs assistants

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
4697 Bluetooth Piconet System for Child Care Applications

Authors: Ching-Sung Wang, Teng-Wei Wang, Zhen-Ting Zheng

Abstract:

This study mainly concerns a safety device designed for child care. When children are out of sight or the caregivers cannot always pay attention to the situation, through the functions of this device, caregivers can immediately be informed to make sure that the children do not get lost or hurt, and thus, ensure their safety. Starting from this concept, a device is produced based on the relatively low-cost Bluetooth piconet system and a three-axis gyroscope sensor. This device can transmit data to a mobile phone app through Bluetooth, in order that the user can learn the situation at any time. By simply clipping the device in a pocket or on the waist, after switching on/starting the device, it will send data to the phone to detect the child’s fall and distance. Once the child is beyond the angle or distance set by the app, it will issue a warning to inform the phone owner.

Keywords: children care, piconet system, three-axis gyroscope, distance detection, falls detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
4696 The Important of Nutritional Status in Rehabilitation of Children with CP: Saudi Perspective

Authors: Reem Al-Garni

Abstract:

Malnutrition is a global epidemic, but the under-weight or Failure-To-Thrive risk is increasing in rehabilitation setting and considered one of the contribution factor for developmental delay. Beside the consequences of malnutrition on children growth and development, there are other side-effects that might delay or hold the progress of rehabilitation. The awareness for malnutrition must be raised and discussed by the rehabilitation team, to promote the treatment and to optimize the client care. The solution can start from food supplements intake and / or Enteral Nutrition plan, depending on the malnutrition level and to reach the goal, the medical team should to work together in order to provide comprehensive treatment and to help the family to be able to manage their child condition. We have explore the outcomes of rehabilitation between the children with CP whose diagnosed with malnutrition and children with normal body Wight Over a period of 4 months who received 4-6 weeks of rehabilitation two hours daily by using WeeFIM score to measure rehabilitation outcomes. WeeFIM measures and covers various domains, such as: self-care, mobility, locomotion, communication and other psycho-social aspects. Our findings reported that children with normal body Wight has better outcomes and improvement comparing with children with malnutrition for the entire study sample.

Keywords: Cerebral Palsy (CP), pediatric Functional Independent Measure (WeeFIM), rehabilitation, malnutrition

Procedia PDF Downloads 229