Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2209

Search results for: sludge waste

2209 An Overview of Sludge Utilization into Fired Clay Brick

Authors: Aeslina Binti Abdul Kadir, Ahmad Shayuti Bin Abdul Rahim


Brick is one of the most common masonry units used as building material. Due to the demand, different types of waste have been investigated to be incorporated into the bricks. Many types of sludge have been incorporated in fired clay brick for example marble sludge, stone sludge, water sludge, sewage sludge, and ceramic sludge. The utilization of these waste materials in fired clay bricks usually has positive effects on the properties such as lightweight bricks with improved shrinkage, porosity, and strength. This paper reviews on utilization of different types of sludge wastes into fired clay bricks. Previous investigations have demonstrated positive effects on the physical and mechanical properties as well as less impact towards the environment. Thus, the utilizations of sludge waste could produce a good quality of brick and could be one of alternative disposal methods for the sludge wastes.

Keywords: fired clay brick, sludge waste, compressive strength, shrinkage, water absorption

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2208 Quantification of Biomethane Potential from Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste at Vaal University of Technology

Authors: Kgomotso Matobole, Pascal Mwenge, Tumisang Seodigeng


The global urbanisation and worldwide economic growth have caused a high rate of food waste generation, resulting in environmental pollution. Food waste disposed on landfills decomposes to produce methane (CH4), a greenhouse gas. Inadequate waste management practices contribute to food waste polluting the environment. Thus effective organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) management and treatment are attracting widespread attention in many countries. This problem can be minimised by the employment of anaerobic digestion process, since food waste is rich in organic matter and highly biodegradable, resulting in energy generation and waste volume reduction. The current study investigated the Biomethane Potential (BMP) of the Vaal University of Technology canteen food waste using anaerobic digestion. Tests were performed on canteen food waste, as a substrate, with total solids (TS) of 22%, volatile solids (VS) of 21% and moisture content of 78%. The tests were performed in batch reactors, at a mesophilic temperature of 37 °C, with two different types of inoculum, primary and digested sludge. The resulting CH4 yields for both food waste with digested sludge and primary sludge were equal, being 357 Nml/g VS. This indicated that food waste form this canteen is rich in organic and highly biodegradable. Hence it can be used as a substrate for the anaerobic digestion process. The food waste with digested sludge and primary sludge both fitted the first order kinetic model with k for primary sludge inoculated food waste being 0.278 day-1 with R2 of 0.98, whereas k for digested sludge inoculated food waste being 0.034 day-1, with R2 of 0.847.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, bio-methane potential, food waste

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2207 Dewatering of Brewery Sludge through the Use of Biopolymers

Authors: Audrey Smith, M. Saifur Rahaman


The waste crisis has become a global issue, forcing many industries to reconsider their disposal methods and environmental practices. Sludge is a form of waste created in many fields, which include water and wastewater, pulp and paper, as well as from breweries. The composition of this sludge differs between sources and can, therefore, have varying disposal methods or future applications. When looking at the brewery industry, it produces a significant amount of sludge with a high water content. In order to avoid landfilling, this waste can further be processed into a valuable material. Specifically, the sludge must undergo dewatering, a process which typically involves the addition of coagulants like aluminum sulfate or ferric chloride. These chemicals, however, limit the potential uses of the sludge since it will contain traces of metals. In this case, the desired outcome of the brewery sludge would be to produce animal feed; however, these conventional coagulants would add a toxic component to the sludge. The use of biopolymers like chitosan, which act as a coagulant, can be used to dewater brewery sludge while allowing it to be safe for animal consumption. Chitosan is also a by-product created by the shellfish processing industry and therefore reduces the environmental imprint since it involves using the waste from one industry to treat the waste from another. In order to prove the effectiveness of this biopolymer, experiments using jar-tests will be utilised to determine the optimal dosages and conditions, while variances of contaminants like ammonium will also be observed. The efficiency of chitosan can also be compared to other polysaccharides to determine which is best suited for this waste. Overall a significant separation has been achieved between the solid and liquid content of the waste during the coagulation-flocculation process when applying chitosan. This biopolymer can, therefore, be used to dewater brewery sludge such that it can be repurposed as animal feed. The use of biopolymers can also be applied to treat sludge from other industries, which can reduce the amount of waste produced and allow for more diverse options for reuse.

Keywords: animal feed, biopolymer, brewery sludge, chitosan

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2206 Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Duckweed (Lemna gibba) and Waste Activated Sludge in Batch Mode

Authors: Rubia Gaur, Surindra Suthar


The present study investigates the anaerobic co-digestion of duckweed (Lemna gibba) and waste activated sludge (WAS) of different proportions with acclimatized anaerobic granular sludge (AAGS) as inoculum in mesophilic conditions. Batch experiments were performed in 500 mL capacity reagent bottles at 300C temperature. Varied combinations of pre-treated duckweed biomass with constant volume of anaerobic inoculum (AAGS - 100 mL) and waste activated sludge (WAS - 22.5 mL) were devised into five batch tests. The highest methane generation was observed with batch study, T4. The Gompertz model fits well on the experimental data of the batch study, T4. The values of correlation coefficient were achieved relatively higher (R2 ≥ 0.99). The co-digestion without pre-treatment of both duckweed and WAS shows poor generation of methane gas.

Keywords: aquatic weed, biogas, biomass, Gompertz equation, waste activated sludge

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2205 Experimental Studies on Fly Ash-Waste Sludge Mix Reinforced with Geofibres

Authors: Malik Shoeb Ahmad


The aim of the present study is to carry out investigations on Class F fly ash obtained from NTPC thermal power plant, Dadri, U.P. (India) and electroplating waste sludge from Aligarh, U.P. (India) along with geofibre for its subsequent utilization in various geotechnical and highway engineering applications. The experimental studies such as California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were carried out to evaluate the strength of plain fly ash as well as fly ash-waste sludge mix reinforced with geofibre, as the CBR value is the vital parameters used in the design of flexible and rigid pavements. Results of the study show that the strength of the mix is highly dependent on the curing period and the sludge and geofibre content. The CBR values were determined for mix containing fly ash (83.5-93.5%), waste sludge (5-15%) and 1-2% geofibre. However, out of the various combinations of mixes the CBR value of the mix 88.5%FA+10%S+1.5%GF at 28 days of curing was found to be 53.52% when compared with the strength of plain fly ash. It has been observed that the fibre inclusion increases the strength of the plain fly ash and fly ash-waste sludge specimens by changing their brittle to ductile behavior. The TCLP leaching test was also conducted to determine the heavy metal concentration in the optimized mix. The results of TCLP test show that the heavy metal concentration in the mix 88.5%FA+10%S+1.5%G at 28 days of curing reduced substantially from 24 to 98% when compared with the concentration of heavy metals in the waste sludge collected from source. It has also been observed that the pH of the leachate of this mix is between 9-11, which ensures the proper stabilization of the heavy metals present in the mix. Hence, this study will certainly help in mass scale utilization of two industrial wastes viz., electroplating waste and fly ash, which are causing pollution to the environment to a great extent.

Keywords: Dadri fly ash, geofibre, electroplating waste sludge, CBR, TCLP

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2204 Thermal Characteristics of Sewage Sludge to Develop an IDPG Technology

Authors: Young Nam Chun, Mun Sup Lim, Byeo Ri Jeong


Sewage sludge is regarded as the residue produced by the waste water treatment process, during which liquids and solids are being separated. Thermal treatments are interesting techniques to stabilize the sewage sludge for disposal. Among the thermal treatments, pyrolysis and/or gasification has been being applied to the sewage sludge. The final goal of our NRF research is to develop a microwave In-line Drying-Pyrolysis-Gasification (IDPG) technology for the dewatered sewage sludge for the bio-waste to energy conversion. As a first step, the pyrolysis characteristics in a bench scale electric furnace was investigated at 800℃ for the dewatered sludge and dried sludge samples of which moisture contents are almost 80% and 0%, respectively. Main components of producer gas are hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Particularly, higher hydrogen for the dewatered sludge is shown as 75%. The hydrogen production for the dewatered sludge and dried sludge are 56% and 32%, respectively. However, the pyrolysis for the dried sludge produces higher carbon dioxide and other gases, while higher methane and carbon dioxide are given to 74% and 53%, respectively. Tar also generates during the pyrolysis process, showing lower value for case of the dewatered sludge. Gravimetric tar is 195 g/m3, and selected light tar like benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, pyrene are 9.4 g/m3, 2.1 g/m3, 0.5 g/m3, 0.3 g/m3, respectively. After the pyrolysis process, residual char for the dewatered sludge and dried sludge remain 1g and 1.3g, showing weight reduction rate of 93% and 57%, respectively. Through the results, this could be known that the dewatered sludge can be used to produce a clean hydrogen-rich gas fuel without the drying process. Therefore, the IDPG technology can be applied effectively to the energy conversion for dewater sludge waste without a drying pretreatment. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MSIP) (No. 2015R1A2A2A03003044).

Keywords: pyrolysis, gasification, sewage sludge, tar generation, producer gas, sludge char, biomass energy

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2203 Lubricating Grease from Waste Cooking Oil and Waste Motor Sludge

Authors: Aseem Rajvanshi, Pankaj Kumar Pandey


Increase in population has increased the demand of energy to fulfill all its needs. This will result in burden on fossil fuels especially crude oil. Waste oil due to its disposal problem creates environmental degradation. In this context, this paper studies utilization of waste cooking oil and waste motor sludge for making lubricating grease. Experimental studies have been performed by variation in time and concentration of mixture of waste cooking oil and waste motor sludge. The samples were analyzed using penetration test (ASTM D-217), dropping point (ASTM D-566), work penetration (ASTM D-217) and copper strip test (ASTM D-408). Among 6 samples, sample 6 gives the best results with a good drop point and a fine penetration value. The dropping point and penetration test values were found to be 205 °C and 315, respectively. The penetration value falls under the category of NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) consistency number 1.

Keywords: crude oil, copper strip corrosion test, dropping point, penetration test

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2202 Biogas Production Improve From Waste Activated Sludge Using Fenton Oxidation

Authors: A. Hassiba Zemmouri, B. Nabil Mameri, C. Hakim Lounici


In this study, the effect of Fenton technology pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of excess waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated. The variation of physicochemical characteristics (TOC, DS, VSS, VS) and biogas volume (as form of value added products) were also evaluated. The preselected operator conditions of Fenton pretreatment were 0.01ml H2O2/g SS, 150 [H2O2]/[Fe2+], 25g/l TS, at 25 °C and 30, 60 and120 min as treatment duration. The main results show a Maximum solubilization and biodegradability (70%) obtained at 120 min of Fenton pretreatment duration. An increasing of TOC in soluble phase related obviously by releasing organic substances of sludge flocs was contested. Improving in biogas volume was also, increased. Fenton oxidation pretreatment may be a promising chemical pre-treatment for a benefic digestion, stabilization and volume reduction.

Keywords: waste activated sludge, fenton pre-treatment, biodegradability, biogas

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2201 Investigation on Strength Properties of Concrete Using Industrial Waste as Supplementary Cementitious Material

Authors: Ravi Prasad Darapureddi


The use of industrial waste in making concrete reduce the consumption of natural resources and pollution of the environment. These materials possess problems of disposal and health hazards. An attempt has been made to use paper and thermal industrial wastes such as lime sludge and flyash. Present investigation is aimed at the utilization of Lime Sludge and Flyash as Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM) and influence of these materials on strength properties of concrete. Thermal industry waste fly ash is mixed with lime sludge and used as a replacement to cement at different proportions to obtain the strength properties and compared with ordinary concrete prepared without any additives. Grade of concrete prepared was M₂₅ designed according to Indian standard method. Cement has been replaced by paper industry waste and fly ash in different proportions such as 0% (normal concrete), 10%, 20%, and 30% by weight. Mechanical properties such as compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength were assessed. Test results indicated that the use of lime sludge and Fly ash in concrete had improved the properties of concrete. Better results were observed at 20% replacement of cement with these additives.

Keywords: supplementary cementitious materials, lime sludge, fly ash, strength properties

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2200 Municipal Sewage Sludge as Co-Substrate in Anaerobic Digestion of Vegetable Waste and Biogas Yield

Authors: J. V. Thanikal, M. Torrijos, Philipe Sousbie, S. M. Rizwan, R. Senthil Kumar, Hatem Yezdi


Co-digestion is one of the advantages of anaerobic digestion process because; several wastes having complimentary characteristics can be treated in a single process. The anaerobic co-digestion process, which can be defined as the simultaneous treatment of two –or more – organic biodegradable waste streams by anaerobic digestion offers great potential for the proper disposal of the organic fraction of solid waste coming from source or separate collection systems. The results of biogas production for sewage sludge, when used as a single substrate, were low (350ml/d), and also the biodegradation rate was slow. Sewage sludge as a co-substrate did not show much effect on biogas yield. The vegetable substrates (Potato, Carrot, Spinach) with a total charge of 27–36 g VS, with a HRT starting from 3 days and ending with 1 day, shown a considerable increase in biogas yield 3.5-5 l/d.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, vegetable substrate, sewage sludge

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2199 Sludge and Compost Amendments in Tropical Soils: Impact on Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) Nutrient Content

Authors: M. López-Moreno, L. Lugo Avilés, F. Román, J. Lugo Rosas, J. Hernández-Viezcas Jr., Peralta-Videa, J. Gardea-Torresdey


Degradation of agricultural soils has increased rapidly during the last 20 years due to the indiscriminate use of pesticides and other anthropogenic activities. Currently, there is an urgent need of soil restoration to increase agricultural production. Utilization of sewage sludge or municipal solid waste is an important way to recycle nutrient elements and improve soil quality. With these amendments, nutrient availability in the aqueous phase might be increased and production of healthier crops can be accomplished. This research project aimed to achieve sustainable management of tropical agricultural soils, specifically in Puerto Rico, through the amendment of water treatment plant sludge’s. This practice avoids landfill disposal of sewage sludge and at the same time results cost-effective practice for recycling solid waste residues. Coriander sativum was cultivated in a compost-soil-sludge mixture at different proportions. Results showed that Coriander grown in a mixture of 25% compost+50% Voladora soi+25% sludge had the best growth and development. High chlorophyll content (33.01 ± 0.8) was observed in Coriander plants cultivated in 25% compost+62.5% Coloso soil+ 12.5% sludge compared to plants grown with no sludge (32.59 ± 0.7). ICP-OES analysis showed variations in mineral element contents (macro and micronutrients) in coriander plant grown I soil amended with sludge and compost.

Keywords: compost, Coriandrum sativum, nutrients, waste sludge

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2198 Wastewater from the Food Industry: Characteristics and Possibilities of Sediments on the Basis of the Dairy Industry

Authors: Monika Gałwa-Widera, Anna Kwarciak–Kozłowska, Lucyna Sławik-Dembiczak


Issues relating to management of sewage sludge from small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants is a vital issue, which deal with such scholars as well as those directly involved in the issue of wastewater treatment and management of sedimentary. According to the Law on Waste generating waste is responsible for such processing to the product obtained impacted on the environment minimally. In small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants have to deal with the technology of sludge management technology is far from drying and incineration of sewage sludge. So here you can use other technologies. One of them is the composting of sewage sludge. It is a process of processing and disposal of sewage sludge that effectively their disposal. By composting, we can obtain a product that contains significant amounts of organic matter to assess the fertilizing qualities. Modifications to the ongoing process in biological reactors allow for more rapid receipt of a wholesome product. The research presented and discussed in this publication relate to assist the composting process of sewage sludge and biomass structural material in the shares of rates: 35% biomass, 55% sludge, 10% structural material using a method which involves the re-spawning batch composting physical methods leachate from the composting process.

Keywords: biomass, composting, industry, sewage sludge

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2197 Concentrations of Some Metallic Trace Elements in Twelve Sludge Incineration Ashes

Authors: Lotfi Khiari, Antoine Karam, Claude-Alla Joseph, Marc Hébert


The main objective of incineration of sludge generated from municipal or agri-food waste treatment plant is to reduce the volume of sludge to be disposed of as a solid or liquid waste, whilst concentrating or destroying potentially harmful volatile substances. In some cities in Canada and United States of America (USA), a large amount of sludge is incinerated, which entails a loss of organic matter and water leading to phosphorus, potassium and some metallic trace element (MTE) accumulation in ashes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concentration of potentially hazardous MTE such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in twelve sludge incineration ash samples obtained from municipal wastewater and other food processing waste treatments from Canada and USA. The average, maximum, and minimum values of MTE in ashes were calculated for each city individually and all together. The trace metal concentration values were compared to the literature reported values. The concentrations of MTE in ashes vary widely depending on the sludge origins and treatment options. The concentrations of MTE in ashes were found the range of 0.1-6.4 mg/kg for Cd; 13-286 mg/kg for Pb and 0.1-0.5 mg/kg for Hg. On average, the following order of metal concentration in ashes was observed: Pb > Cd > Hg. Results show that metal contents in most ashes were similar to MTE levels in synthetic inorganic fertilizers and many fertilizing residual materials. Consequently, the environmental effects of MTE content of these ashes would be low.

Keywords: biosolids, heavy metals, recycling, sewage sludge

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2196 Investigations on Utilization of Chrome Sludge, Chemical Industry Waste, in Cement Manufacturing and Its Effect on Clinker Mineralogy

Authors: Suresh Vanguri, Suresh Palla, Prasad G., Ramaswamy V., Kalyani K. V., Chaturvedi S. K., Mohapatra B. N., Sunder Rao TBVN


The utilization of industrial waste materials and by-products in the cement industry helps in the conservation of natural resources besides avoiding the problems arising due to waste dumping. The use of non-carbonated materials as raw mix components in clinker manufacturing is identified as one of the key areas to reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions. Chrome sludge is a waste material generated from the manufacturing process of sodium dichromate. This paper aims to present studies on the use of chrome sludge in clinker manufacturing, its impact on the development of clinker mineral phases and on the cement properties. Chrome sludge was found to contain substantial amounts of CaO, Fe2O3 and Al2O3 and therefore was used to replace some conventional sources of alumina and iron in the raw mix. Different mixes were prepared by varying the chrome sludge content from 0 to 5 % and the mixes were evaluated for burnability. Laboratory prepared clinker samples were evaluated for qualitative and quantitative mineralogy using X-ray Diffraction Studies (XRD). Optical microscopy was employed to study the distribution of clinker phases, their granulometry and mineralogy. Since chrome sludge also contains considerable amounts of chromium, studies were conducted on the leachability of heavy elements in the chrome sludge as well as in the resultant cement samples. Estimation of heavy elements, including chromium was carried out using ICP-OES. Further, the state of chromium valence, Cr (III) & Cr (VI), was studied using conventional chemical analysis methods coupled with UV-VIS spectroscopy. Assimilation of chromium in the clinker phases was investigated using SEM-EDXA studies. Bulk cement was prepared from the clinker to study the effect of chromium sludge on the cement properties such as setting time, soundness, strength development against the control cement. Studies indicated that chrome sludge can be successfully utilized and its content needs to be optimized based on raw material characteristics.

Keywords: chrome sludge, leaching, mineralogy, non-carbonate materials

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2195 Recycling of Sewage Sludge Ash (SSA) as Construction Material

Authors: Z. Chen, C. S. Poon


In Hong Kong, about 1,000 tonnes of sewage sludge were produced every day in 2014 representing a major fraction of the total solid municipal waste. Traditionally, sewage sludge is disposed of at landfills. This disposal method causes environmental issues and uses up precious space in landfills which are becoming saturated one by one. To tackle the disposal problem, Hong Kong government has just built a sewage sludge incinerator. Through incineration the volume of waste can be reduced up to 90% by converting sewage sludge into ash. Whilst sewage sludge ash (SSA) still needs to be disposed of at landfills, research has been conducted at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University on using SSA to substitute cement for the production of construction materials. Results demonstrated that SSA contained many open and isolated pores and thus can reduce the cement dilution effect resulting in only slight decrease in the flexural and compressive strengths of cement mortar. The incorporation of SSA in cement mortar can be up to 20% of the binder, without too much worry about adverse effect on strength development of mortar. There was some enhancement in strength using ground SSA in comparison to the original SSA. The original SSA shortened the relative initial setting time of cement paste but ground SSA caused slight delay in the setting of cement paste. The research also found that increasing the percentage of SSA lead to decreasing workability of cement mortar with the same water/binder ratio, and ground SSA was beneficial to workability although grinding increased the surface area of SSA. This paper summarizes the major findings of the research.

Keywords: cement replacement, construction material, sewage sludge ash, waste recycling

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2194 Characteristics of Domestic Sewage in Small Urban Communities

Authors: Shohreh Azizi, Memory Tekere, Wag Nel


An evaluation of the characteristics of wastewater generated from small communities was carried out in relation to decentralized approach for domestic sewage treatment plant and design of biological nutrient removal system. The study included the survey of the waste from various individual communities such as a hotel, a residential complex, an office premise, and an educational institute. The results indicate that the concentration of organic pollutant in wastewater from the residential complex is higher than the waste from all the other communities with COD 664 mg/l, BOD 370.2 mg/l and TSS 248.8 mg/l. And the waste water from office premise indicates low organic load with COD428 mg/l, BOD 232mg/l and TSS 157mg/l. The wastewater from residential complex was studied under activated sludge process to evaluate this technology for decentralized wastewater treatment. The Activated sludge process was operated at different 12to 4 hrs hydraulic retention times and the optimum 6 hrs HRT was selected, therefore the average reduction of COD (85.92%) and BOD (91.28 %) was achieved. The issue of sludge recycling, maintenance of biomass concentration and high HRT reactor (10 L) volume are making the system non-practical for smaller communities.

Keywords: wastewater, small communities, activated sludge process, decentralized system

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2193 Ingenious Use of Hypo Sludge in M25 Concrete

Authors: Abhinandan Singh Gill


Paper mill sludge is one of the major economic and environmental problems for paper and board industry, million tonnes quantity of sludge is produced in the world. It is essential to dispose these wastes safely without affecting health of human being, environment, fertile land; sources of water bodies, economy as it adversely affect the strength, durability and other properties of building materials based on them. Moreover, in developing countries like India where there is low availability of non-renewable resources and large need of building material like cement therefore it is essential to develop eco-efficient utilization of paper sludge. Primarily in functional terms paper sludge comprises of cellulose fibers, calcium carbonate, china clay, low silica, residual chemical bonds with water. The material is sticky and full of moisture content which is hard to dry. The manufacturing of paper usually produce loads of solid waste. These paper fibers are recycled in paper mills to limited number of times till they become weak to produce high quality paper. Thereafter, these left out small and weak pieces called as low quality paper fibers are detached out to become paper sludge. The material is by-product of de-inking and re-pulping of paper. This hypo sludge includes all kinds of inks, dyes, coating etc inscribed on the paper. This paper presents an overview of the published work on the use of hypo sludge in M25 concrete formulations as a supplementary cementitious material exploring its properties such as compressive strength, splitting and parameters like modulus of elasticity, density, applications and most importantly investigation of low cost concrete by using hypo sludge are presented.

Keywords: concrete, sludge waste, hypo sludge, supplementary cementitious material

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2192 Industrial Wastewater Sludge Treatment in Chongqing, China

Authors: Victor Emery David Jr., Jiang Wenchao, Yasinta John, Md. Sahadat Hossain


Sludge originates from the process of treatment of wastewater. It is the byproduct of wastewater treatment containing concentrated heavy metals and poorly biodegradable trace organic compounds, as well as potentially pathogenic organisms (viruses, bacteria, etc.) which are usually difficult to treat or dispose of. China, like other countries, is no stranger to the challenges posed by an increase of wastewater. Treatment and disposal of sludge have been a problem for most cities in China. However, this problem has been exacerbated by other issues such as lack of technology, funding, and other factors. Suitable methods for such climatic conditions are still unavailable for modern cities in China. Against this background, this paper seeks to describe the methods used for treatment and disposal of sludge from industries and suggest a suitable method for treatment and disposal in Chongqing/China. From the research conducted, it was discovered that the highest treatment rate of sludge in Chongqing was 10.08%. The industrial waste piping system is not separated from the domestic system. Considering the proliferation of industry and urbanization, there is a likelihood that the production of sludge in Chongqing will increase. If the sludge produced is not properly managed, this may lead to adverse health and environmental effects. Disposal costs and methods for Chongqing were also included in this paper’s analysis. Research showed that incineration is the most expensive method of sludge disposal in China/Chongqing. Subsequent research, therefore, considered optional alternatives such as composting. Composting represents a relatively cheap waste disposal method considering the vast population, current technology and economic conditions of Chongqing, as well as China at large.

Keywords: Chongqing/China, disposal, industrial, sludge, treatment

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2191 Use of Waste Active Sludge for Reducing Fe₂O₃

Authors: A. Parra Parra, M. Vlasova, P. A. Marquez, M. Kakazey, M. C. Resendiz Gonzalez


The work of water treatment plants from various sources of pollution includes a biological treatment stage using activated sludge. Due to the large volume of toxic activated sludge waste (WAS) generated and soil contamination during its storage, WAS disposal technologies are being continuously developed. The most common is the carbonization of WAS. The carbonization products are various forms of ordered and disordered carbon material having different reactivity. The aim of this work was to study the reduction process of Fe₂O₃ mixed with activated sludge waste (WAS). It could be assumed that the simultaneous action of the WAS thermal decomposition process, accompanied by the formation of reactive nano-carbon, with carbothermal reduction of the Fe₂O₃, will permit intensify reduction of metal oxide up to stage of metal and iron carbide formation. The studies showed that the temperature treatment in the region of (800-1000) °C for 1 hour under conditions of oxygen deficiency is accompanied by the occurrence of reactions: Fe₂O₃ → Fe₃O₄ → FeO → Fe, which are typical for the metallurgical process of iron smelting, but less energy-intensive. Depending on the ratio of the WAS - Fe₂O₃ components and the temperature-time regime of reduction of iron oxide, it is possible to distinguish the stages of the predominant formation of ferromagnetic compounds, cast iron, and iron carbide. The results indicated the promise of using WAS as a metals oxide reducing agent and obtaining of ceramic-based on metal carbides.

Keywords: carbothermal reduction, Fe₂O₃, FeₓOᵧ-C, waste activated sludge

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2190 Utilization of Sludge in the Manufacturing of Fired Clay Bricks

Authors: Anjali G. Pillai, S. Chadrakaran


The extensive amount of sludge generated throughout the world, as a part of water treatment works, have caused various social and economic issues, such as a demand on landfill spaces, increase in environmental pollution and raising the waste management cost. With growing social awareness about toxic incinerator emissions and the increasing concern over the disposal of sludge on the agricultural land, the recovery of sewage sludge as a building and construction raw material can be considered as an innovative approach to tackle the sludge disposal problem. The proposed work aims at studying the recycling ability of the sludge, generated from the water treatment process, by incorporating it into the fired clay brick units. The work involves initial study of the geotechnical characteristics of the brick-clay and the sludge. Chemical compatibility of both the materials will be analyzed by X-ray fluorescence technique. The variation in the strength aspects with varying proportions of sludge i.e. 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% in the sludge-clay mix will also be determined by the proctor density test. Based on the optimum moisture content, the sludge-clay bricks will be manufactured in a brick manufacturing plant and the modified brick units will be tested to determine the variation in compressive strength, bulk density, firing shrinkage, shrinkage loss and initial water absorption rate with respect to the conventional clay bricks. The results will be compared with the specifications given in Indian Standards to arrive at the potential use of the new bricks. The durability aspect will be studied by conducting the leachate analysis test using atomic adsorption spectrometry. The lightweight characteristics of the sludge modified bricks will be ascertained with the scanning electron microscope technique which will be indicative of the variation in pore structure with the increase in sludge content within the bricks. The work will determine the suitable proportion of the sludge – clay mix in the brick which can then be effectively implemented. The feasibility aspect of the work will be determined for commercial production of the units. The work involves providing a strategy for conversion of waste to resource. Moreover, it provides an alternative solution to the problem of growing scarcity of brick-clay for the manufacturing of fired clay bricks.

Keywords: eco-bricks, green construction material, sludge amended bricks, sludge disposal, waste management

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2189 Waste Derived from Refinery and Petrochemical Plants Activities: Processing of Oil Sludge through Thermal Desorption

Authors: Anna Bohers, Emília Hroncová, Juraj Ladomerský


Oil sludge with its main characteristic of high acidity is a waste product generated from the operation of refinery and petrochemical plants. Former refinery and petrochemical plant - Petrochema Dubová is present in Slovakia as well. Its activities was to process the crude oil through sulfonation and adsorption technology for production of lubricating and special oils, synthetic detergents and special white oils for cosmetic and medical purposes. Seventy years ago – period, when this historical acid sludge burden has been created – comparing to the environmental awareness the production was in preference. That is the reason why, as in many countries, also in Slovakia a historical environmental burden is present until now – 229 211 m3 of oil sludge in the middle of the National Park of Nízke Tatry mountain chain. Neither one of tried treatment methods – bio or non-biologic one - was proved as suitable for processing or for recovery in the reason of different factors admission: i.e. strong aggressivity, difficulty with handling because of its sludgy and liquid state et sim. As a potential solution, also incineration was tested, but it was not proven as a suitable method, as the concentration of SO2 in combustion gases was too high, and it was not possible to decrease it under the acceptable value of 2000 That is the reason why the operation of incineration plant has been terminated, and the acid sludge landfills are present until nowadays. The objective of this paper is to present a new possibility of processing and valorization of acid sludgy-waste. The processing of oil sludge was performed through the effective separation - thermal desorption technology, through which it is possible to split the sludgy material into the matrix (soil, sediments) and organic contaminants. In order to boost the efficiency in the processing of acid sludge through thermal desorption, the work will present the possibility of application of an original technology – Method of Blowing Decomposition for recovering of organic matter into technological lubricating oil.

Keywords: hazardous waste, oil sludge, remediation, thermal desorption

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2188 Agronomic Value of Wastewater and Sugar Beet Lime Sludge Compost on Radish Crop

Authors: S. Rida, O. Saadani Hassani, Q. R’zina, N. Saadaoui, K. Fares


Wastewater treatment stations create large quantities of sludge, whose treatment is poorly underestimated in the draft installation. However, chemical analysis of sludge reveals their important concentration in fertilizer elements including nitrogen and phosphorus. The direct application of sludge can reveal contamination of the food chain because of their chemical and organic micropollutants load. Therefore, there is a need of treatment process before use. The treatment by composting of this sludge mixed with three different proportions of sugar beet lime sludge (0%, 20%,30%) and green waste permits to obtain a stable compost rich in mineral elements, having a pleasant smell and relatively hygienic. In addition, the use of compost in agriculture positively affects the plant-soil system. Thus, this study shows that the supply of compost improves the physical properties of the soil and its agronomic quality, which results in an increase in the biomass of cultivated radish plants and a larger crop.

Keywords: agriculture, composting, soil, sugar beet lime, wastewater

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2187 Alternative Fuel Production from Sewage Sludge

Authors: Jaroslav Knapek, Kamila Vavrova, Tomas Kralik, Tereza Humesova


The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge is one of the most important and critical problems of waste water treatment plants. Currently, 180 thousand tonnes of sludge dry matter are produced in the Czech Republic, which corresponds to approximately 17.8 kg of stabilized sludge dry matter / year per inhabitant of the Czech Republic. Due to the fact that sewage sludge contains a large amount of substances that are not beneficial for human health, the conditions for sludge management will be significantly tightened in the Czech Republic since 2023. One of the tested methods of sludge liquidation is the production of alternative fuel from sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper production. The paper presents an analysis of economic efficiency of alternative fuel production from sludge and its use for fluidized bed boiler with nominal consumption of 5 t of fuel per hour. The evaluation methodology includes the entire logistics chain from sludge extraction, through mechanical moisture reduction to about 40%, transport to the pelletizing line, moisture drying for pelleting and pelleting itself. For economic analysis of sludge pellet production, a time horizon of 10 years corresponding to the expected lifetime of the critical components of the pelletizing line is chosen. The economic analysis of pelleting projects is based on a detailed analysis of reference pelleting technologies suitable for sludge pelleting. The analysis of the economic efficiency of pellet is based on the simulation of cash flows associated with the implementation of the project over the life of the project. For the entered value of return on the invested capital, the price of the resulting product (in EUR / GJ or in EUR / t) is searched to ensure that the net present value of the project is zero over the project lifetime. The investor then realizes the return on the investment in the amount of the discount used to calculate the net present value. The calculations take place in a real business environment (taxes, tax depreciation, inflation, etc.) and the inputs work with market prices. At the same time, the opportunity cost principle is respected; waste disposal for alternative fuels includes the saved costs of waste disposal. The methodology also respects the emission allowances saved due to the displacement of coal by alternative (bio) fuel. Preliminary results of testing of pellet production from sludge show that after suitable modifications of the pelletizer it is possible to produce sufficiently high quality pellets from sludge. A mixture of sludge and paper waste has proved to be a more suitable material for pelleting. At the same time, preliminary results of the analysis of the economic efficiency of this sludge disposal method show that, despite the relatively low calorific value of the fuel produced (about 10-11 MJ / kg), this sludge disposal method is economically competitive. This work has been supported by the Czech Technology Agency within the project TN01000048 Biorefining as circulation technology.

Keywords: Alternative fuel, Economic analysis, Pelleting, Sewage sludge

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2186 Reduction of Content of Lead and Zinc from Wastewater by Using of Metallurgical Waste

Authors: L. Rozumová, J. Seidlerová


The aim of this paper was to study the sorption properties of a blast furnace sludge used as the sorbent. The sorbent was utilized for reduction of content of lead and zinc ions. Sorbent utilized in this work was obtained from metallurgical industry from process of wet gas treatment in iron production. The blast furnace sludge was characterized by X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and XRFS spectroscopy. Sorption experiments were conducted in batch mode. The sorption of metal ions in the sludge was determined by correlation of adsorption isotherm models. The adsorption of lead and zinc ions was best fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity of lead and zinc ions was 53.8 mg.g-1 and 10.7 mg.g-1, respectively. The results indicated that blast furnace sludge could be effectively used as secondary material and could be also employed as a low-cost alternative for the removal of heavy metals ions from wastewater.

Keywords: blast furnace sludge, lead, zinc, sorption

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2185 Removal of Heavy Metals Pb, Zn and Cu from Sludge Waste of Paper Industries Using Biosurfactant

Authors: Nurul Hidayati


Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as metals. Sludge waste of paper industries as toxic and hazardous material from specific source contains Pb, Zn, and Cu metal from waste soluble ink. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. Soil washing is among the methods available to remove heavy metal from sediments. The purpose of this research is to study effectiveness of biosurfactant with concentration = CMC for the removal of heavy metals, lead, zinc and copper in batch washing test under four different biosurfactant production by microbial origin. Pseudomonas putida T1(8), Bacillus subtilis 3K, Acinetobacter sp, and Actinobacillus sp was grown on mineral salt medium that had been already added with 2% concentration of molasses that it is a low cost application. The samples were kept in a shaker 120 rpm at room temperature for 3 days. Supernatants and sediments of sludge were separated by using a centrifuge and samples from supernatants were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The highest removal of Pb was up to 14,04% by Acinetobacter sp. Biosurfactant of Pseudomonas putida T1(8) have the highest removal for Zn and Cu up to 6,5% and 2,01% respectively. Biosurfactants have a role for removal process of the metals, including wetting, contact of biosurfactant to the surface of the sediments and detachment of the metals from the sediment. Biosurfactant has proven its ability as a washing agent in heavy metals removal from sediments, but more research is needed to optimize the process of removal heavy metals.

Keywords: biosurfactant, removal of heavy metals, sludge waste, paper industries

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2184 A Feasibility Study of Producing Biofuels from Textile Sludge by Torrefaction Technology

Authors: Hua-Shan Tai, Yu-Ting Zeng


In modern and industrial society, enormous amounts of sludge from various of industries are constantly produced; currently, most of the sludge are treated by landfill and incineration. However, both treatments are not ideal because of the limited land for landfill and the secondary pollution caused by incineration. Consequently, treating industrial sludge appropriately has become an urgent issue of environmental protection. In order to solve the problem of the massive sludge, this study uses textile sludge which is the major source of waste sludge in Taiwan as raw material for torrefaction treatments. To investigate the feasibility of producing biofuels from textile sludge by torrefaction, the experiments were conducted with temperatures at 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350°C, with heating rates of 15, 20, 25 and 30°C/min, and with residence time of 30 and 60 minutes. The results revealed that the mass yields after torrefaction were approximately in the range of 54.9 to 93.4%. The energy densification ratios were approximately in the range of 0.84 to 1.10, and the energy yields were approximately in the range of 45.9 to 98.3%. The volumetric densities were approximately in the range of 0.78 to 1.14, and the volumetric energy densities were approximately in the range of 0.65 to 1.18. To sum up, the optimum energy yield (98.3%) can be reached with terminal temperature at 150 °C, heating rate of 20°C/min, and residence time of 30 minutes, and the mass yield, energy densification ratio as well as volumetric energy density were 92.2%, 1.07, and 1.15, respectively. These results indicated that the solid products after torrefaction are easy to preserve, which not only enhance the quality of the product, but also achieve the purpose of developing the material into fuel.

Keywords: biofuel, biomass energy, textile sludge, torrefaction

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2183 Dehydration of Residues from WTP for Application in Building Materials and Reuse of Water from the Waste Treatment: A Feasible Solution to Complete Treatment Systems

Authors: Marco Correa, Flavio Araujo, Paulo Scalize, Antonio Albuquerque


The increasing reduction of the volumes of surface water sources which supply most municipalities, as well as the continued rise of demand for treated water, combined with the disposal of effluents from washing of decanters and filters of the water treatment plants, generates a continuous search for correct environmentally solutions to these problems. The effluents generated by the water treatment industry need to be suitably processed for return to the environment or re-use. This article shows an alternative for the dehydration of sludge from the water treatment plants (WTP) and eventual disposal of sludge drained. Using the simple design methodology, we present a case study for a drainage in tanks geotextile, full-scale, which involve five sludge drainage tanks from WTP of the Rio Verde City. Aiming to the reutilization the water drained from the sludge and enabling its reuse both at the beginning of the treatment process at the WTP and in less noble services as for watering the gardens of the local town hall. The sludge will be used to production of building materials.

Keywords: re-use, residue, sustainable, water treatment plants, sludge

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2182 Waste from Drinking Water Treatment: The Feasibility for Application in Building Materials

Authors: Marco Correa


The increasing reduction of the volumes of surface water sources supplying most municipalities, as well as the rising demand for treated water, combined with the disposal of effluents from washing of decanters and filters of water treatment plants generates a continuous search for correct environmentally solutions to these problems. The effluents generated by the water treatment industry need to be suitably processed for return to the environment or re-use. This article shows alternatives for sludge dehydration from the water treatment plants (WTP) and eventual disposal of sludge drained. Using the simple design methodology, it is presented a case study for drainage in tanks geotextile, full-scale, which involve five sledge drainage tanks from WTP of the city of Rio Verde. Aiming to the reutilization of drained water from the sledge and enabling its reuse both at the beginning of the treatment process at the WTP and in less noble services as for watering the gardens of the local town hall. The sludge will be used to in the production of building materials.

Keywords: dehydration, effluent discharges, re-use, sludge, WTP sludge

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2181 Efficient of Technology Remediation Soil That Contaminated by Petroleum Based on Heat without Combustion

Authors: Gavin Hutama Farandiarta, Hegi Adi Prabowo, Istiara Rizqillah Hanifah, Millati Hanifah Saprudin, Raden Iqrafia Ashna


The increase of the petroleum’s consumption rate encourages industries to optimize and increase the activity in processing crude oil into petroleum. However, although the result gives a lot of benefits to humans worldwide, it also gives negative impact to the environment. One of the negative impacts of processing crude oil is the soil will be contaminated by petroleum sewage sludge. This petroleum sewage sludge, contains hydrocarbon compound and it can be calculated by Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH).Petroleum sludge waste is accounted as hazardous and toxic. The soil contamination caused by the petroleum sludge is very hard to get rid of. However, there is a way to manage the soil that is contaminated by petroleum sludge, which is by using heat (thermal desorption) in the process of remediation. There are several factors that affect the success rate of the remediation with the help of heat which are temperature, time, and air pressure in the desorption column. The remediation process using the help of heat is an alternative in soil recovery from the petroleum pollution which highly effective, cheap, and environmentally friendly that produces uncontaminated soil and the petroleum that can be used again.

Keywords: petroleum sewage sludge, remediation soil, thermal desorption, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)

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2180 Application of Crude Palm Oil Liquid Sludge Sewage On Maize (Zea mays. L) as Re-Cycle Possibility to Fertilizer

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin, Henni Rosneti, Agusnimar


Crude palm oil liquid sludge sewage was treated to maize with 400 cc/plant could be increased mean relative growth rates, net assimilation rate, leaf area and dry weight of seed. There are indicated that 400 cc / plant treated to maize significantly increase the average of mean relative growth rates into 0.32 Net assimilation rates increase from 13.5 into 34.5, leaf area at 50 days after planting increase from 1419 cm-2 into 2458 cm-2 and dry weight of seed from 38 g per plant into 43 g per plant. Crude palm oil liquid sludge waste chemical analysis indicated that, there are no exceed threshold content of dangerous metals and biology effects. Cadmium content as heavy metal is lower than threshold of human healthy tolerance. Therefore, it has no syndrome effect to human health. Biological oxygen demands and chemical oxygen demands as indicators for micro-organism activities, there are under the threshold of human healthy tolerance.

Keywords: crude-palm-oil, fertilizer, liquid-sludge, maize, pollutant, waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 408