Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Siegfried Vlaeminck

9 Mitigating Nitrous Oxide Production from Nitritation/Denitritation: Treatment of Centrate from Pig Manure Co-Digestion as a Model

Authors: Lai Peng, Cristina Pintucci, Dries Seuntjens, José Carvajal-Arroyo, Siegfried Vlaeminck

Abstract:

Economic incentives drive the implementation of short-cut nitrogen removal processes such as nitritation/denitritation (Nit/DNit) to manage nitrogen in waste streams devoid of biodegradable organic carbon. However, as any biological nitrogen removal process, the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) could be emitted from Nit/DNit. Challenges remain in understanding the fundamental mechanisms and development of engineered mitigation strategies for N2O production. To provide answers, this work focuses on manure as a model, the biggest wasted nitrogen mass flow through our economies. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR; 4.5 L) was used treating the centrate (centrifuge supernatant; 2.0 ± 0.11 g N/L of ammonium) from an anaerobic digester processing mainly pig manure, supplemented with a co-substrate. Glycerin was used as external carbon source, a by-product of vegetable oil. Out-selection of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was targeted using a combination of low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels (down to 0.5 mg O2/L), high temperature (35ºC) and relatively high free ammonia (FA) (initially 10 mg NH3-N/L). After reaching steady state, the process was able to remove 100% of ammonium with minimum nitrite and nitrate in the effluent, at a reasonably high nitrogen loading rate (0.4 g N/L/d). Substantial N2O emissions (over 15% of the nitrogen loading) were observed at the baseline operational condition, which were even increased under nitrite accumulation and a low organic carbon to nitrogen ratio. Yet, higher DO (~2.2 mg O2/L) lowered aerobic N2O emissions and weakened the dependency of N2O on nitrite concentration, suggesting a shift of N2O production pathway at elevated DO levels. Limiting the greenhouse gas emissions (environmental protection) from such a system could be substantially minimized by increasing the external carbon dosage (a cost factor), but also through the implementation of an intermittent aeration and feeding strategy. Promising steps forward have been presented in this abstract, yet at the conference the insights of ongoing experiments will also be shared.

Keywords: Mitigation, Nitrous Oxide, nitritation/denitritation, pig manure

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8 Household Level Determinants of Rural-Urban Migration in Bangladesh

Authors: Shamima Akhter, Siegfried Bauer

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyze the migration process of the rural population of Bangladesh. Heckman Probit model with sample selection was applied in this paper to explore the determinants of migration and intensity of migration at farm household level. The farm survey was conducted in the central part of Bangladesh on 160 farm households with migrant and on 154 farm households without migrant including a total of 316 farm households. The results from the applied model revealed that main determinants of migration at farm household level are household age, economically active males and females, number of young and old dependent members in the household and agricultural land holding. On the other hand, the main determinants of intensity of migration are availability of economically adult male in the household, number of young dependents and agricultural land holding.

Keywords: Migration, determinants, Heckman Probit model, rural-urban

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7 Ethno-Botanical of Seaweeds and Sea Grass in Eastern Indonesia

Authors: Siegfried Berhimpon, Jein Dangeubun, Sandra Baulu, Rene Ch. Kepel

Abstract:

In Indonesia, macro-alga is known as seaweeds or rumput laut and sea grass or lamun, and have been used as vegetables and medicine since long time ago. This studies have been done, to collect data about utilization of seaweed and sea grass as food or medicine in Eastern Indonesia. Six regencies in two provinces have been chosen as sampling areas i.e. South-East Maluku, West-East Maluku, and Aru in province of Maluku; and Sangihe, Sitaro, and Minahasa in province of North Sulawesi. The results shown that in the pass, seaweeds and sea grass have been widely used as food and medicine, and there are similarity between one area and other areas in species and in the way to prepare or to cook the food. Ten species of alga and 2 species of sea grass were consumed as vegetables and desert, and one species of sea grass was used for traditional medicine. Nowadays, because of easier to get terrestrial vegetables, the people in the coastal area rarely consumed marine vegetables, and if there are no attempt to promote and to socialize the custom, the habits trend to disappear. Environmental degradation was another caused has been identified. Seaweed contained high content of Iodine and dietary fiber, therefore, this food can overcomes the problem of iodine deficiency, and to supply an exotic high-fiber foods. In addition, by consuming seaweeds, marine culture industry will be developed, especially in the number of species seaweeds to be cultivated.

Keywords: Seaweed, sea grass, ethno-botany, exotic food

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6 Consumer’ Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior on Food Safety Issues Related to Pesticide Residues in Cabbage

Authors: Dekie Rawung, Abdul L. Abadi, Toto Himawan, Siegfried Berhimpon

Abstract:

A case study on consumer' knowledge, attitude, and behavior on food safety issue related to pesticide residues in cabbage was conducted in the area of Manado and Tomohon city, North Sulawesi. A sample of 150 consumers were selected randomly on location (open market and supermarket) while they were purchasing vegetables. The data on consumers’ perception, knowledge, attitude and behavior on food safety issue regarding pesticide residues were collected using a 5-point, two-section Likert-Scale questionnaire, and the relationship of knowledge, attitude, and behavior on food safety issues were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). It was found that, among many food safety issues, the illegal, non-food chemical preservatives were considered the most important one (by more than 35% respondents), followed by high cholesterol content and textile coloring chemical (> 27% respondents). The pesticide residues issue was only in the 4th place. The same results were seen on the issue of quality factors that determine the product selection during purchasing. The pesticide-free and organic products labels were considered much less important quality factors as compared with freshness and nutrition value which were considered the most and the second most important quality factors (almost 65% of respondents). SEM analysis showed that only knowledge and attitude on food safety that had the significant relation (coefficient value of 0.38), whereas those with behaviors were not significant.

Keywords: Food Safety, Consumer, pesticide residues, cabbage

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5 Microbiological Assessment of Fish Sausages Coated with Smoked-Edible Film, and Stored in Room and Refrigerator Temperatures

Authors: Henny A. Dien, Roike I. Montolalu, Feny Mentang, Jupni Keno, Reynerd S. Burdam, Siegfried Berhimpon

Abstract:

Fish Sausages became popular nowadays, because of high nutritious and low in cholesterol. However, this food is also highly perishable and often contaminated by pathogen bacteria. Edible film was made from myofibril of Black Marlin (Makaira indica) waste, with addition of liquid smoke 0.8%. The aim of this study were to determine the TPC, total coliform and Escherichia coli in fish sausages coated with smoked edible film, and stored in room temperature (26-29oC), and refrigerator (5-10oC). Results shown that TPC in fish sausages coated with smoked edible film were lower than that of without coated, both for storage in room temperature and in refrigerator. Total coliform in coated with smoked edible film and stored in room temperature ranged between 7-120 MPN/g (1-4 days), while stored in refrigerator ranged between 7-93 MPN/g (1-6 days); while fish sausages coated with edible film without liquid smoke were 7-240 MPN/g (1-4 days) in room temperature, and 7-150 MPN/g in refrigerator. Total E. coli of fish sausages coated with smoked edible film and stored in room temperature ranged between 3-4 MPN/g (1-4 days), while stored in refrigerator ranged were 3 MPN/g (1-6 days); while fish sausages coated with edible film without smoked both stored in room temperature and in refrigerator, shown total E. coli 3 MPN/g during 4 days in room temperature, and 6 days in refrigerator. Total E. coli of sausages without coated stored in room temperature ranged between 7-24 MPN/g, and that of stored in refrigerator ranged between 3-4 MPN/g.

Keywords: Coating, edible film, smoke liquid, sausages

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4 Affectivity of Smoked Edible Sachet in Preventing Oxidation of Natural Condiment Stored in Ambient Temperature

Authors: Feny Mentang, Roike Iwan Montolalu, Henny Adeleida Dien, Kristhina P. Rahael, Tomy Moga, Ayub Meko, Siegfried Berhimpon

Abstract:

Smoked fish is one of the famous fish products in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Research in producing smoked fish using smoke liquid, and the use of that product as main taste for a new “natural condiment” have been done, including a series of researches to find materials for sachet. Research aims are to determine the effectiveness of smoked edible sachets, in preventing oxidation of natural condiment, stored in ambient temperature. Two kinds of natural condiment flavors were used, i.e. smoked Skipjack flavor, and Sea Food flavor. Three variables of edible sachets were used for the natural condiments, i.e. non-sachet, edible sachet without smoke liquid, and edible sachet with smoke liquid. The natural condiments were then stored in ambient temperature, for 0, 10, 20, and 30 days. To determine the effectiveness of edible sachets in preventing oxidation, analysis of TBA, water content, and pH were conducted. The results shown that natural condiment with smoked seafood taste had TBA values higher than that of smoked Skipjack. Edible sachet gave a highly significant effect (P > 0.01) on TBA. Natural condiment in smoked edible sachet has a lower TBA than natural condiment non-sachet, and with sachet without smoke liquid. The longer storing time, the higher TBA, especially for non-sachet and with sachet without smoke liquid. There were no significant effect (P > 0.05) of edible sachet on water content and pH.

Keywords: Oxidation, smoke liquid, edible sachet, natural condiment

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3 Cytolethal Distending Toxins in Intestinal and Extraintestinal E. coli

Authors: Katarína Čurová, Leonard Siegfried, Radka Vargová, Marta Kmeťová, Vladimír Hrabovský

Abstract:

Introduction: Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) represent intracellular acting proteins which interfere with cell cycle of eukaryotic cells. They are produced by Gram-negative bacteria with afinity to mucocutaneous surfaces and could play a role in the pathogenesis of various diseases. CDTs induce DNA damage probably through DNAse activity, which causes cell cycle arrest and leads to further changes (cell distension and death, apoptosis) depending on the cell type. Five subtypes of CDT (I to V) were reported in E. coli. Methods: We examined 252 E. coli strains belonging to four different groups. Of these strains, 57 were isolated from patients with diarrhea, 65 from patients with urinary tract infections (UTI), 65 from patients with sepsis and 65 from patients with other extraintestinal infections (mostly surgical wounds, decubitus ulcers and respiratory tract infections). Identification of these strains was performed by MALDI-TOF analysis and detection of genes encoding CDTs and determination of the phylogenetic group was performed by PCR. Results: In this study, we detected presence of cdt genes in 11 of 252 E. coli strains tested (4,4 %). Four cdt positive E. coli strains were confirmed in group of UTI (6,15 %), three cdt positive E. coli strains in groups of diarrhea (5,3 %) and other extraintestinal infections (4,6 %). The lowest incidence, one cdt positive E. coli strain, was observed in group of sepsis (1,5 %). All cdt positive E. coli strains belonged to phylogenetic group B2. Conclusion: CDT-producing E. coli are isolated in a low percentage from patients with intestinal and extraintestinal infections, including sepsis and our results correspond with these studies. A weak prevalence of cdt genes suggests that CDTs are not major virulence factors but in combination with other virulence factors may increase virulence potential of E. coli. We suppose that all 11 cdt positive E. coli strains represent real pathogens because they belong to the phylogenetic group B2 which is pathogenic lineage for bacteria E. coli.

Keywords: Diarrhea, E. coli, cytolethal distending toxin, phylogenetic group, extraintestinal infection

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2 Characteristics of Smoked Edible Film Made from Myofibril, Collagen and Carrageenan

Authors: Roike Iwan Montolalu, Henny Adeleida Dien, Feny Mentang, Kristhina P. Rahael, Tomy Moga, Ayub Meko, Siegfried Berhimpon

Abstract:

In the last 20 years, packaging materials derived from petrochemicals polymers were widely used as packaging materials. This due to various advantages such as flexible, strong, transparent, and the price is relatively cheap. However, the plastic polymer also has various disadvantages, such as the transmission monomer contamination into the material to be packed, and waste is non-biodegradable. Edible film (EF) is an up to date materials, generated after the biodegradable packaging materials. The advantages of the EF materials, is the materials can be eat together with food, and the materials can be applied as a coating materials for a widely kind of foods especially snack foods. The aims of this research are to produce and to analyze the characteristics of smoked EF made from carrageenan, myofibril and collagen of Black Marlin (Makaira indica) industrial waste. Smoked EF made with an addition of 0.8 % smoke liquid. Three biopolymers i.e. carrageenan, myofibril, and collagen were used as treatments, and homogenate for 1 hours at speed of 1500 rpm. The analysis carried out on the pH and physical properties i.e. thickness, solubility, tensile strength, % elongation, and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), as well as on the sensory characteristics of texture i.e. wateriness, firmness, elasticity, hardness, and juiciness of the coated products. The result shown that the higher the concentration the higher the thickness of EF, where as for myofibril proteins appeared higher than carrageenan and collagen. Both of collagen and myofibril shown that concentration of 6% was most soluble, while for carrageenan were in concentration of 2 to 2.5%. For tensile strength, carrageenan was significantly higher than myofibril and collagen; while for elongation, collagen film more elastic than carragenan and myofibril protein. Water vapor transmission rate, shown that myofibril protein film lower than carrageenan and collagen film. From sensory assessment of texture, carrageenan has a high elasticity and juiciness, while collagen and myofibril have a high in firmness and hardness.

Keywords: collagen, carrageenan, edible film, myofibril

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1 Developing a High Performance Cement Based Material: The Influence of Silica Fume and Organosilane

Authors: Andrea Cretu, Calin Cadar, Maria Miclaus, Lucian Barbu-Tudoran, Siegfried Stapf, Ioan Ardelean

Abstract:

Additives and mineral admixtures have become an integral part of cement-based materials. It is common practice to add silica fume to cement based mixes in order to produce high-performance concrete. There is still a lack of scientific understanding regarding the effects that silica fume has on the microstructure of hydrated cement paste. The aim of the current study is to develop high-performance materials with low permeability and high resistance to flexural stress using silica fume and an organosilane. Organosilane bonds with cement grains and silica fume, influencing both the workability and the final properties of the mix, especially the pore size distributions and pore connectivity. Silica fume is a known pozzolanic agent which reacts with the calcium hydroxide in hydrated cement paste, producing more C-S-H and improving the mechanical properties of the mix. It is believed that particles of silica fume act as capillary pore fillers and nucleation centers for C-S-H and other hydration products. In order to be able to design cement-based materials with added silica fume and organosilane, it is necessary first to understand the formation of the porous network during hydration and to observe the distribution of pores and their connectivity. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods in low-fields are non-destructive and allow the study of cement-based materials from the standpoint of their porous structure. Other methods, such as XRD and SEM-EDS, help create a comprehensive picture of the samples, along with the classic mechanical tests (compressive and flexural strength measurements). The transverse relaxation time (T₂) was measured during the hydration of 16 samples prepared with two water/cement ratios (0.3 and 0.4) and different concentrations or organosilane (APTES, up to 2% by mass of cement) and silica fume (up to 6%). After their hydration, the pore size distribution was assessed using the same NMR approach on the samples filled with cyclohexane. The SEM-EDS and XRD measurements were applied on pieces and powders prepared from the samples that were used in mechanical testing, which were kept under water for 28 days. Adding silica fume does not influence the hydration dynamics of cement paste, while the addition of organosilane extends the dormancy stage up to 10 hours. The size distribution of the capillary pores is not influenced by the addition of silica fume or organosilane, while the connectivity of capillary pores is decreased only when there is organosilane in the mix. No filling effect is observed even at the highest concentration of silica fume. There is an apparent increase in flexural strength of samples prepared only with silica fume and a decrease for those prepared with organosilane, with a few exceptions. XRD reveals that the pozzolanic reactivity of silica fume can only be observed when there is no organosilane present and the SEM-EDS method reveals the pore distribution, as well as hydration products and the presence or absence of calcium hydroxide. The current work was funded by the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNCS – UEFISCDI, through project PN-III-P2-2.1-PED-2016-0719.

Keywords: NMR, Concrete Admixtures, Cement Hydration, silica fume, porosity, organosilane

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