Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 58

Search results for: embankment

58 Effects of the Slope Embankment Variation on Influence Areas That Causes the Differential Settlement around of Embankment

Authors: Safitri W. Nur, Prathisto Panuntun L. Unggul, M. Ivan Adi Perdana, R. Dary Wira Mahadika

Abstract:

On soft soil areas, high embankment as a preloading needed to improve the bearing capacity of the soil. For sustainable development, the construction of embankment must not disturb the area around of them. So, the influence area must be known before the contractor applied their embankment design. For several cases in Indonesia, the area around of embankment construction is housing resident and other building. So that, the influence area must be identified to avoid the differential settlement occurs on the buildings around of them. Differential settlement causes the building crack. Each building has a limited tolerance for the differential settlement. For concrete buildings, the tolerance is 0,002 – 0,003 m and for steel buildings, the tolerance is 0,006 – 0,008 m. If the differential settlement stands on the range of that value, building crack can be avoided. In fact, the settlement around of embankment is assumed as zero. Because of that, so many problems happen when high embankment applied on soft soil area. This research used the superposition method combined with plaxis analysis to know the influences area around of embankment in some location with the differential characteristic of the soft soil. The undisturbed soil samples take on 55 locations with undisturbed soil samples at some soft soils location in Indonesia. Based on this research, it was concluded that the effects of embankment variation are if more gentle the slope, the influence area will be greater and vice versa. The largest of the influence area with h initial embankment equal to 2 - 6 m with slopes 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, 1:7, 1:8 is 32 m from the edge of the embankment.

Keywords: differential settlement, embankment, influence area, slope, soft soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
57 Numerical Analysis of Reinforced Embankment on Algeria Sabkha Subgrade

Authors: N. Benmebarek, F. Berrabah, S. Benmebarek

Abstract:

This paper is interested by numerical analysis using PLAXIS code of geosynthetic reinforced embankment crossing a section about 11 km on sabkha soil of Chott El Hodna in Algeria. The site observations indicated that the surface soil of this sabkha is very sensitive to moisture and complicated by the presence of locally weak zones. Therefore, serious difficulties were encountered during building the first embankment layer. This paper focuses on the use of geosynthetic to mitigate the difficulty encountered. Due to the absence of an accepted design methods, parametric studies are carried out to assess the effect of basal embankment reinforcement on both the bearing capacity and compaction conditions. The results showed the contribution conditions of geosynthetics to improve the bearing capacity of sabkha soil.

Keywords: reinforced embankment, numerical modelling, geosynthetics, weak bearing capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
56 Effect of Deep Mixing Columns and Geogrid on Embankment Settlement on the Soft Soil

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Saeideh Mohammadi

Abstract:

Embankment settlement on soft clays has always been problematic due to the high compaction and low shear strength of the soil. Deep soil mixing and geosynthetics are two soil improvement methods in such fields. Here, a numerical study is conducted on the embankment performance on the soft ground improved by deep soil mixing columns and geosynthetics based on the data of a real project. For this purpose, the finite element method is used in the Plaxis 2D software. The Soft Soil Creep model considers the creep phenomenon in the soft clay layer while the Mohr-Columb model simulates other soil layers. Results are verified using the data of an experimental embankment built on deep mixing columns. The effect of depth and diameter of deep mixing columns and the stiffness of geogrid on the vertical and horizontal movements of embankment on clay subsoil will be investigated in the following.

Keywords: PLAXIS 2D, embankment settlement, horizontal movement, deep soil mixing column, geogrid

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
55 A Solution to Analyze the Geosynthetic Reinforced Piled Embankments Considering Pile-Soil Interaction

Authors: Feicheng Liu, Weiming Liao, Jianjing Zhang

Abstract:

A pile-supported embankment with geosynthetic-reinforced mat (PSGR embankment) has been considered as an effective solution to reduce the total and differential settlement of the embankment constructed over soft soil. In this paper, a new simplified method proposed firstly incorporates the load transfer between piles and surrounding soil and the settlement of pile, and also considers arching effect in embankment fill, membrane effect of geosynthetic reinforcement, and subsoil resistance, to evaluate the behavior of PSGR embankment. Subsoil settlement is assumed to consist of two parts:(1) the settlement of subsoil surface between piles equivalent to that of pile caps assuming the geosynthetic reinforcement without deformation yet; (2) the subsoil subsiding along with the geosynthetic deforming, and the deflected geosynthetic being considered as centenary. The force equilibrium, including loads acting on the upper surface of geosynthetic, subsoil resistance, as well as the stress-strain relationship of the geosynthetic reinforcement at the edge of pile cap, is established, thus the expression of subsoil resistance is deduced, and subsequently the tension of geosynthetic and stress concentration ratio between piles can be calculated. The proposed method is validated through observed data from three field tests and also compared with other eight analytical solutions available in the literature. In addition, a sensitive analysis is provided to demonstrate the influence of with/without considering pile-soil interaction for evaluating the performance of PSGR embankment.

Keywords: pile-supported embankment, geosynthetic, analytical solution, soil arching effect, the settlement of pile, sensitive analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
54 Model Tests on Geogrid-Reinforced Sand-Filled Embankments with a Cover Layer under Cyclic Loading

Authors: Ma Yuan, Zhang Mengxi, Akbar Javadi, Chen Longqing

Abstract:

The structure of sand-filled embankment with cover layer is treated with tipping clay modified with lime on the outside of the packing, and the geotextile is placed between the stuffing and the clay. The packing is usually river sand, and the improved clay protects the sand core against rainwater erosion. The sand-filled embankment with cover layer has practical problems such as high filling embankment, construction restriction, and steep slope. The reinforcement can be applied to the sand-filled embankment with cover layer to solve the complicated problems such as irregular settlement caused by poor stability of the embankment. At present, the research on the sand-filled embankment with cover layer mainly focuses on the sand properties, construction technology, and slope stability, and there are few studies in the experimental field, the deformation characteristics and stability of reinforced sand-filled embankment need further study. In addition, experimental research is relatively rare when the cyclic load is considered in tests. A subgrade structure of geogrid-reinforced sand-filled embankment with cover layer was proposed. The mechanical characteristics, the deformation properties, reinforced behavior and the ultimate bearing capacity of the embankment structure under cyclic loading were studied. For this structure, the geogrids in the sand and the tipping soil are through the geotextile which is arranged in sections continuously so that the geogrids can cross horizontally. Then, the Unsaturated/saturated Soil Triaxial Test System of Geotechnical Consulting and Testing Systems (GCTS), USA was modified to form the loading device of this test, and strain collector was used to measuring deformation and earth pressure of the embankment. A series of cyclic loading model tests were conducted on the geogrid-reinforced sand-filled embankment with a cover layer under a different number of reinforcement layers, the length of reinforcement and thickness of the cover layer. The settlement of the embankment, the normal cumulative deformation of the slope and the earth pressure were studied under different conditions. Besides cyclic loading model tests, model experiments of embankment subjected cyclic-static loading was carried out to analyze ultimate bearing capacity with different loading. The experiment results showed that the vertical cumulative settlement under long-term cyclic loading increases with the decrease of the number of reinforcement layers, length of the reinforcement arrangement and thickness of the tipping soil. Meanwhile, these three factors also have an influence on the decrease of the normal deformation of the embankment slope. The earth pressure around the loading point is significantly affected by putting geogrid in a model embankment. After cyclic loading, the decline of ultimate bearing capacity of the reinforced embankment can be effectively reduced, which is contrary to the unreinforced embankment.

Keywords: cyclic load; geogrid; reinforcement behavior; cumulative deformation; earth pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
53 Effect of Prefabricated Vertical Drain System Properties on Embankment Behavior

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Ali Namaei

Abstract:

This study presents the effect of prefabricated vertical drain system properties on embankment behavior by calculating the settlement, lateral displacement and induced excess pore pressure by numerical method. In order to investigate this behavior, three different prefabricated vertical drains have been simulated under an embankment. The finite element software PLAXIS has been carried out for analyzing the displacements and excess pore pressures. The results showed that the consolidation time and induced excess pore pressure are highly depended to the discharge capacity of the prefabricated vertical drain. The increase in the discharge capacity leads to decrease the consolidation process and the induced excess pore pressure. Moreover, it was seen that the vertical drains spacing does not have any significant effect on the consolidation time. However, the increase in the drains spacing would decrease the system stiffness.

Keywords: vertical drain, prefabricated, consolidation, embankment

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
52 Finite Difference Method of the Seismic Analysis of Earth Dam

Authors: Alaoua Bouaicha, Fahim Kahlouche, Abdelhamid Benouali

Abstract:

Many embankment dams have suffered failures during earthquakes due to the increase of pore water pressure under seismic loading. After analyzing of the behavior of embankment dams under severe earthquakes, major advances have been attained in the understanding of the seismic action on dams. The present study concerns numerical analysis of the seismic response of earth dams. The procedure uses a nonlinear stress-strain relation incorporated into the code FLAC2D based on the finite difference method. This analysis provides the variation of the pore water pressure and horizontal displacement.

Keywords: Earthquake, Numerical Analysis, FLAC2D, Displacement, Embankment Dam, Pore Water Pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
51 Comparative Settlement Analysis on the under of Embankment with Empirical Formulas and Settlement Plate Measurement for Reducing Building Crack around of Embankments

Authors: Safitri Nur Wulandari, M. Ivan Adi Perdana, Prathisto L. Panuntun Unggul, R. Dary Wira Mahadika

Abstract:

In road construction on the soft soil, we need a soil improvement method to improve the soil bearing capacity of the land base so that the soil can withstand the traffic loads. Most of the land in Indonesia has a soft soil, where soft soil is a type of clay that has the consistency of very soft to medium stiff, undrained shear strength, Cu <0:25 kg/cm2, or the estimated value of NSPT <5 blows/ft. This study focuses on the analysis of the effect on preloading load (embarkment) to the amount of settlement ratio on the under of embarkment that will impact on the building cracks around of embarkment. The method used in this research is a superposition method for embarkment distribution on 27 locations with undisturbed soil samples at some borehole point in Java and Kalimantan, Indonesia. Then correlating the results of settlement plate monitoring on the field with Asaoka method. The results of settlement plate monitoring taken from an embarkment of Ahmad Yani airport in Semarang on 32 points. Where the value of Cc (index compressible) soil data based on some laboratory test results, while the value of Cc is not tested obtained from empirical formula Ardhana and Mochtar, 1999. From this research, the results of the field monitoring showed almost the same results with an empirical formulation with the standard deviation of 4% where the formulation of the empirical results of this analysis obtained by linear formula. Value empirical linear formula is to determine the effect of compression heap area as high as 4,25 m is 3,1209x + y = 0.0026 for the slope of the embankment 1: 8 for the same analysis with an initial height of embankment on the field. Provided that at the edge of the embankment settlement worth is not equal to 0 but at a quarter of embankment has a settlement ratio average 0.951 and at the edge of embankment has a settlement ratio 0,049. The influence areas around of embankment are approximately 1 meter for slope 1:8 and 7 meters for slope 1:2. So, it can cause the building cracks, to build in sustainable development.

Keywords: building cracks, influence area, settlement plate, soft soil, empirical formula, embankment

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
50 Full-Scale Test of a Causeway Embankment Supported by Raft-Aggregate Column Foundation on Soft Clay Deposit

Authors: Tri Harianto, Lawalenna Samang, St. Hijraini Nur, Arwin

Abstract:

Recently, a port development is constructed in Makassar city, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Makassar city is located in lowland area that dominated by soft marine clay deposit. A two kilometers causeway construction was built which is situated on the soft clay layer. In order to investigate the behavior of causeway embankment, a full-scale test was conducted of high embankment built on a soft clay deposit. The embankment with 3,5 m high was supported by two types of reinforcement such as raft and raft-aggregate column foundation. Since the ground was undergoing consolidation due to the preload, the raft and raft-aggregate column foundations were monitored in order to analyze the vertical ground movement by inducing the settlement of the foundation. In this study, two types of foundation (raft and raft-aggregate column) were tested to observe the effectiveness of raft-aggregate column compare to raft foundation in reducing the settlement. The settlement monitored during the construction stage by using the settlement plates, which is located in the center and toe of the embankment. Measurements were taken every day for each embankment construction stage (4 months). In addition, an analytical calculation was conducted in this study to compare the full-scale test result. The result shows that the raft-aggregate column foundation significantly reduces the settlement by 30% compared to the raft foundation. A raft-aggregate column foundation also reduced the time period of each loading stage. The Good agreement of analytical calculation compared to the full-scale test result also found in this study.

Keywords: full-scale, preloading, raft-aggregate column, soft clay

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
49 Measuring Flood Risk concerning with the Flood Protection Embankment in Big Flooding Events of Dhaka Metropolitan Zone

Authors: Marju Ben Sayed, Shigeko Haruyama

Abstract:

Among all kinds of natural disaster, the flood is a common feature in rapidly urbanizing Dhaka city. In this research, assessment of flood risk of Dhaka metropolitan area has been investigated by using an integrated approach of GIS, remote sensing and socio-economic data. The purpose of the study is to measure the flooding risk concerning with the flood protection embankment in big flooding events (1988, 1998 and 2004) and urbanization of Dhaka metropolitan zone. In this research, we considered the Dhaka city into two parts; East Dhaka (outside the flood protection embankment) and West Dhaka (inside the flood protection embankment). Using statistical data, we explored the socio-economic status of the study area population by comparing the density of population, land price and income level. We have drawn the cross section profile of the flood protection embankment into three different points for realizing the flooding risk in the study area, especially in the big flooding year (1988, 1998 and 2004). According to the physical condition of the study area, the land use/land cover map has been classified into five classes. Comparing with each land cover unit, historical weather station data and the socio-economic data, the flooding risk has been evaluated. Moreover, we compared between DEM data and each land cover units to find out the relationship with flood. It is expected that, this study could contribute to effective flood forecasting, relief and emergency management for a future flood event in Dhaka city.

Keywords: land use, land cover change, socio-economic, Dhaka city, GIS, flood

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
48 Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Geogrid-Reinforced Piled Embankments on Soft Clay

Authors: Mahmoud Y. Shokry, Rami M. El-Sherbiny

Abstract:

This paper aims to highlight the role of some parameters that may be of a noticeable impact on numerical analysis/design of embankments. It presents the results of a three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analysis of a monitored earth embankment that was constructed on soft clay formation stabilized by cast in-situ piles using software PLAXIS 3D. A comparison between the predicted and the monitored responses is presented to assess the adequacy of the adopted numerical model. The model was used in the targeted parametric study. Moreover, a comparison was performed between the results of the 3-D analyses and the analytical solutions. This paper concluded that the effect of using mono pile caps led to decrease both the total and differential settlement and increased the efficiency of the piled embankment system. The study of using geogrids revealed that it can contribute in decreasing the settlement and maximizing the part of the embankment load transferred to piles. Moreover, it was found that increasing the stiffness of the geogrids provides higher values of tensile forces and hence has more effective influence on embankment load carried by piles rather than using multi-number of layers with low values of geogrid stiffness. The efficiency of the piled embankments system was also found to be greater when higher embankments are used rather than the low height embankments. The comparison between the numerical 3-D model and the theoretical design methods revealed that many analytical solutions are conservative and non-accurate rather than the 3-D finite element numerical models.

Keywords: efficiency, embankment, geogrids, soft clay

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
47 Design of Raw Water Reservoir on Sandy Soil

Authors: Venkata Ramana Pamu

Abstract:

This paper is a case study of a 5310 ML capacity Raw Water Reservoir (RWR), situated in Indian state Rajasthan, which is a part of Rajasthan Rural Water Supply & Fluorosis Mitigation Project. This RWR embankment was constructed by locally available material on natural ground profile. Height of the embankment was varying from 2m to 10m.This is due to existing ground level was varying. Reservoir depth 9m including 1.5m free board and 1V:3H slopes were provided both upstream and downstream side. Proper soil investigation, tests were done and it was confirmed that the existing soil is sandy silt. The existing excavated earth was used as filling material for embankment construction, due to this controlling seepage from upstream to downstream be a challenging task. Slope stability and Seismic analysis of the embankment done by Conventional method for both full reservoir condition and rapid drawdown. Horizontal filter at toe level was provided along with upstream side PCC (Plain Cement Concrete) block and HDPE (High Density poly ethylene) lining as a remedy to control seepage. HDPE lining was also provided at storage area of the reservoir bed level. Mulching was done for downstream side slope protection.

Keywords: raw water reservoir, seepage, seismic analysis, slope stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
46 Numerical Study on the Cavity-Induced Piping Failure of Embankment

Authors: H. J. Kim, G. C. Park, K. C. Kim, J. H. Shin

Abstract:

Cavities are frequently found beneath conduits on pile foundations in old embankments. Cavity reduces seepage length significantly and consequently causes piping failure of embankments. Case studies of embankment failures indicate that the relative settlement between ground and pile supported-concrete conduit was the main reason of the cavity. In this paper, an attempt to simulate the cavity-induced piping failure mechanism was made using finite element numerical method. Piping potential is examined by carrying out parametric study for influencing factors such as cavity length, water level, and flow conditions. The concentration of hydraulic gradient adjacent to cavity was found. It is found that the hydraulic gradient close to the cavity exceeds considerably the critical hydraulic gradient causing piping. Piping failure potential due to the existence of cavity is evaluated and contour map for the potential risk of an embankment for piping failure is proposed.

Keywords: cavity, hydraulic gradient, levee, piping

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
45 Relationship between Blow Count Number (N) and Shear Wave Velocity (Vs30) from the Specified Embankment Material: A Case Study on Three Selected Earthen Dams

Authors: Tanapon Suklim, Prachaya Intaphrom, Noppadol Poomvises, Anchalee Kongsuk

Abstract:

The relationship between shear wave velocity (Vs30) and blow count Number from Standard Penetration Tests (NSPT) was investigated on specified embankment dam to find the solution which can be used to estimate the value of N. Shear wave velocity, Vs30 and blow count number, NSPT were performed at three specified dam sites. At each site, Vs30 measurement was recorded by using seismic survey of MASW technique and NSPT were measured by field Standard Penetration Test. Regression analysis was used to derive statistical relation. The relation is giving a final solution to applicable calculated N-value with other earthen dam. Dam engineer can use the statistical relation to convert field Vs30 to estimated N-value instead of absolute N-value from field Standard Penetration Test. It can be noted that the formulae can be applied only in the earthen dam of specified material.

Keywords: blow count number, earthen dam, embankment, shear wave velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
44 Use of Short Piles for Stabilizing the Side Slope of the Road Embankment along the Canal

Authors: Monapat Sasingha, Suttisak Soralump

Abstract:

This research presents the behavior of slope of the road along the canal stabilized by short piles. In this investigation, the centrifuge machine was used, modelling the condition of the water levels in the canal. The centrifuge tests were performed at 35 g. To observe the movement of the soil, visual analysis was performed to evaluate the failure behavior. Conclusively, the use of short piles to stabilize the canal slope proved to be an effective solution. However, the certain amount of settlement was found behind the short pile rows.

Keywords: centrifuge test, slope failure, embankment, stability of slope

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
43 Finite Element Simulation of Embankment Bumps at Bridge Approaches, Comparison Study

Authors: F. A. Hassona, M. D. Hashem, R. I. Melek, B. M. Hakeem

Abstract:

A differential settlement at the end of a bridge near the interface between the abutment and the embankment is a persistent problem for highway agencies. The differential settlement produces the common ‘bump at the end of the bridge’. Reduction in steering response, distraction to the driver, added risk and expense to maintenance operation, and reduction in a transportation agency’s public image are all undesirable effects of these uneven and irregular transitions. This paper attempts to simulate the bump at the end of the bridge using PLAXIS finite element 2D program. PLAXIS was used to simulate a laboratory model called Bridge to Embankment Simulator of Transition (B.E.S.T.) device which was built by others to investigate this problem. A total of six numerical simulations were conducted using hardening- soil model with rational assumptions of missing soil parameters to estimate the bump at the end of the bridge. The results show good agreements between the numerical and the laboratory models. Important factors influencing bumps at bridge ends were also addressed in light of the model results.

Keywords: bridge approach slabs, bridge bump, hardening-soil, PLAXIS 2D, settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
42 Numerical Investigation of Embankment Settlement Improved by Method of Preloading by Vertical Drains

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Saeideh Mohammadi

Abstract:

Time dependent settlement due to loading on soft saturated soils produces many problems such as high consolidation settlements and low consolidation rates. Also, long term consolidation settlement of soft soil underlying the embankment leads to unpredicted settlements and cracks on soil surface. Preloading method is an effective improvement method to solve this problem. Using vertical drains in preloading method is an effective method for improving soft soils. Applying deep soil mixing method on soft soils is another effective method for improving soft soils. There are little studies on using two methods of preloading and deep soil mixing simultaneously. In this paper, the concurrent effect of preloading with deep soil mixing by vertical drains is investigated through a finite element code, Plaxis2D. The influence of parameters such as deep soil mixing columns spacing, existence of vertical drains and distance between them, on settlement and stability factor of safety of embankment embedded on soft soil is investigated in this research.

Keywords: preloading, soft soil, vertical drains, deep soil mixing, consolidation settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
41 Design and Construction Demeanor of a Very High Embankment Using Geosynthetics

Authors: Mariya Dayana, Budhmal Jain

Abstract:

Kannur International Airport Ltd. (KIAL) is a new Greenfield airport project with airside development on an undulating terrain with an average height of 90m above Mean Sea Level (MSL) and a maximum height of 142m. To accommodate the desired Runway length and Runway End Safety Area (RESA) at both the ends along the proposed alignment, it resulted in 45.5 million cubic meters in cutting and filling. The insufficient availability of land for the construction of free slope embankment at RESA 07 end resulted in the design and construction of Reinforced Soil Slope (RSS) with a maximum slope of 65 degrees. An embankment fill of average 70m height with steep slopes located in high rainfall area is a unique feature of this project. The design and construction was challenging being asymmetrical with curves and bends. The fill was reinforced with high strength Uniaxial geogrids laid perpendicular to the slope. Weld mesh wrapped with coir mat acted as the facia units to protect it against surface failure. Face anchorage were also provided by wrapping the geogrids along the facia units where the slope angle was steeper than 45 degrees. Considering high rainfall received on this table top airport site, extensive drainage system was designed for the high embankment fill. Gabion wall up to 10m height were also designed and constructed along the boundary to accommodate the toe of the RSS fill beside the jeepable track at the base level. The design of RSS fill was done using ReSSA software and verified in PLAXIS 2D modeling. Both slip surface failure and wedge failure cases were considered in static and seismic analysis for local and global failure cases. The site won excavated laterite soil was used as the fill material for the construction. Extensive field and laboratory tests were conducted during the construction of RSS system for quality assurance. This paper represents a case study detailing the design and construction of a very high embankment using geosynthetics for the provision of Runway length and RESA area.

Keywords: airport, embankment, gabion, high strength uniaxial geogrid, kial, laterite soil, plaxis 2d

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
40 Taleghan Dam Break Numerical Modeling

Authors: Hamid Goharnejad, Milad Sadeghpoor Moalem, Mahmood Zakeri Niri, Leili Sadeghi Khalegh Abadi

Abstract:

While there are many benefits to using reservoir dams, their break leads to destructive effects. From the viewpoint of International Committee of Large Dams (ICOLD), dam break means the collapse of whole or some parts of a dam; thereby the dam will be unable to hold water. Therefore, studying dam break phenomenon and prediction of its behavior and effects reduces losses and damages of the mentioned phenomenon. One of the most common types of reservoir dams is embankment dam. Overtopping in embankment dams occurs because of flood discharge system inability in release inflows to reservoir. One of the most important issues among managers and engineers to evaluate the performance of the reservoir dam rim when sliding into the storage, creating waves is large and long. In this study, the effects of floods which caused the overtopping of the dam have been investigated. It was assumed that spillway is unable to release the inflow. To determine outflow hydrograph resulting from dam break, numerical model using Flow-3D software and empirical equations was used. Results of numerical models and their comparison with empirical equations show that numerical model and empirical equations can be used to study the flood resulting from dam break.

Keywords: embankment dam break, empirical equations, Taleghan dam, Flow-3D numerical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
39 Development of Risk-Based Decision-Making Framework for Batu Dam, Malaysia

Authors: Wan Noorul Hafilah Wan Ariffin, Lariyah Sidek, Marufuzzaman Mohammad , Hidayah Basri, Nor Hisham M. Ghazali, Md. Nasir Md. Noh, Mohd Azmi Ismai, Adrian M. Torres

Abstract:

The dam safety management is the crucial infrastructure as the dam failure has a catastrophic effect on the community. The dam safety management is the effective framework of key actions and activities to the dam owner to manage the safety of the dam for its entire life cycle. However, maintaining dam safety is a challenging task as there are changes in current dam states. These changes introduce new risks to the dam safety which have not been considered when the dam was designed. A new framework has to be developed to adapt to the changes in the dam risk and make the dams resilient. This study proposes a risk-based decision-making adaptation framework for dam safety management. The research focuses on climate change's impact on hydrological situations as it causes floods and damages the dam structure. The risk analysis framework is adopted to improve the dam management strategies. The proposed study encompasses four phases. To start with, measuring the effect by assessing the impact of climate change on embankment dams, the second phase is to analyze the potential embankment dam failures. The third is analyzing the different components of risks related to the dam, and finally, develop a robust decision-making framework.

Keywords: climate change, embankment dam, failure, risk-Informed decision-making

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
38 Effect of Change in Angle of Slope and Height of an Embankment on Safety Factor during Rapid Drawdown

Authors: Seyed Abolhassan Naeini, Azam Kouhpeyma

Abstract:

Reduction of water level at which a slope is submerged with it is called drawdown. Draw down can took place rapidly or slowly and in both situations, it can affect slope stability. Using coupled analysis (seepage and stability analysis) causes more accurate results. In this study, the stability of homogeneous embankment is investigated numerically. Slope safety factor changes due to changes in three factors of height, slope and drawdown rate have been investigated and compared. It was found that with increasing height and slope, the safety factor decreases, and with increasing the discharge rate, the safety factor increases.

Keywords: drawdown, slope stability, coupled seepage and stability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
37 Characterization of Copper Slag and Jarofix Waste Materials for Road Construction

Authors: V. K. Arora, V. G. Havanagi, A. K. Sinha

Abstract:

Copper slag and Jarofix are waste materials, generated during the manufacture of copper and zinc respectively, which have potential for utility in embankment and road construction. Accordingly, a research project was carried out to study the characteristics of copper slag and Jarofix to utilize in the construction of road. In this study, copper slag and Jarofix were collected from Tuticorin, State of Tamil Nadu and Hindustan Zinc Ltd., Chittorgarh, Rajasthan state, India respectively. These materials were investigated for their physical, chemical, and geotechnical characteristics. The materials were collected from the disposal area and laboratory investigations were carried out to study its feasibility for use in the construction of embankment and sub grade layers of road pavement. This paper presents the results of physical, chemical and geotechnical characteristics of copper slag and Jarofix. It was concluded that copper slag and Jarofix may be utilized in the construction of road.

Keywords: copper slag, Jarofix waste, material, road construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
36 Seepage Analysis through Earth Dam Embankment: Case Study of Batu Dam

Authors: Larifah Mohd Sidik, Anuar Kasa

Abstract:

In recent years, the demands for raw water are increasing along with the growth of the economy and population. Hence, the need for the construction and operation of dams is one of the solutions for the management of water resources problems. The stability of the embankment should be taken into consideration to evaluate the safety of retaining water. The safety of the dam is mostly based on numerous measurable components, for instance, seepage flowrate, pore water pressure and deformation of the embankment. Seepage and slope stability is the primary and most important reason to ascertain the overall safety behavior of the dams. This research study was conducted to evaluate static condition seepage and slope stability performances of Batu dam which is located in Kuala Lumpur capital city. The numerical solution Geostudio-2012 software was employed to analyse the seepage using finite element method, SEEP/W and slope stability using limit equilibrium method, SLOPE/W for three different cases of reservoir level operations; normal and flooded condition. Results of seepage analysis using SEEP/W were utilized as parental input for the analysis of SLOPE/W. Sensitivity analysis on hydraulic conductivity of material was done and calibrated to minimize the relative error of simulation SEEP/W, where the comparison observed field data and predicted value were also carried out. In seepage analysis, such as leakage flow rate, pore water distribution and location of a phreatic line are determined using the SEEP/W. The result of seepage analysis shows the clay core effectively lowered the phreatic surface and no piping failure is shown in the result. Hence, the total seepage flux was acceptable and within the permissible limit.

Keywords: earth dam, dam safety, seepage, slope stability, pore water pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
35 Ground Track Assessment Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography Application

Authors: Noryani Natasha Yahaya, Anas Ibrahim, Juraidah Ahmad, Azura Ahmad, Mohd Ikmal Fazlan Rosli, Zailan Ramli, Muhd Sidek Muhd Norhasri

Abstract:

The subgrade formation is an important element of the railway structure which holds overall track stability. Conventional track maintenance involves many substructure component replacements, as well as track re-ballasting on a regular basis is partially contributed to the embankment's long-term settlement problem. For subgrade long-term stability analysis, the geophysical method is commonly being used to diagnose those hidden sources/mechanisms of track deterioration problems that the normal visual method is unable to detect. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is one of the applicable geophysical tools that are helpful in railway subgrade inspection/track monitoring due to its flexibility and reliability of the analysis. The ERT was conducted at KM 23.0 of Pinang Tunggal track to investigate the subgrade of railway track through the characterization/mapping on track formation profiling which was directly generated using 2D analysis of Res2dinv software. The profiles will allow examination of the presence and spatial extent of a significant subgrade layer and screening of any poor contact of soil boundary. Based on the finding, there is a mix/interpretation/intermixing of an interlayer between the sub-ballast and the sand. Although the embankment track considered here is at no immediate risk of settlement effect or any failure, the regular monitoring of track’s location will allow early correction maintenance if necessary. The developed data of track formation clearly shows the similarity of the side view with the assessed track. The data visualization in the 2D section of the track embankment agreed well with the initial assumption based on the main element structure general side view.

Keywords: ground track, assessment, resistivity, geophysical railway, method

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34 Bamboo as the Frontier for Economically Sustainable Solution to Flood Control and Human Wildlife Conflict

Authors: Nirman Kumar Ojha

Abstract:

Bamboo plantation can be integrated for natural embankment against flood and live fencing against wild animals, at the same time provide economic opportunity for the poor farmers as a sustainable solution and adaptation alternative. 2010 flood in the Rui River completely inundated fields of four VDCs in Madi, Chitwan National Park with extensive bank erosion. The main aim of this action research was to identify an economically sustainable natural embankment against flood and also providing wildlife friendly fencing to reduce human-wildlife conflict. Community people especially poor farmers were trained for soil testing, land identification, plantation, and the harvesting regime, nursery set up and intercropping along with bamboo plantation on the edge of the river bank in order to reduce or minimize soil erosion. Results show that farmers are able to establish cost efficient and economically sustainable river embankment with bamboo plantation also creating a fence for wildlife which has also promoted bamboo cultivation and conservation. This action research has amalgamated flood control and wildlife control with the livelihood of the farmers which otherwise would cost huge resource. Another major impact of the bamboo plantation is its role in climate change and its adaptation process reducing degradation and improving vegetation cover contributing to landscape management. Based on this study, we conclude that bamboo plantation in Madi, Chitwan promoted the livelihood of the poor farmers providing a sustainable economic solution to reduce bank erosion, human-wildlife conflict and contributes to landscape management.

Keywords: climate change and conservation, economic opportunity, flood control, national park

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33 Geotechnical Investigation of Soil Foundation for Ramps of Dawar El-Tawheed Bridge in Jizan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ali H. Mahfouz, Hossam E. M. Sallam, Abdulwali Wazir, Hamod H. Kharezi

Abstract:

The soil profile at site of the bridge project includes soft fine grained soil layer located between 5.0 m to 11.0 m in depth, it has high water content, low SPT no., and low bearing capacity. The clay layer induces high settlement due to surcharge application of earth embankment at ramp T1, ramp T2, and ramp T3 especially at heights from 9m right 3m. Calculated settlement for embankment heights less than 3m may be accepted regarding Saudi Code for soil and foundation. The soil and groundwater at the project site comprise high contents of sulfates and chlorides of high aggressively on concrete and steel bars, respectively. Regarding results of the study, it has been recommended to use stone column piles or new technology named PCC piles as soil improvement to improve the bearing capacity of the weak layer. The new technology is cast in-situ thin wall concrete pipe piles (PCC piles), it has economically advantageous and high workability. The technology can save time of implementation and cost of application is almost 30% of other types of piles.

Keywords: soft foundation soil, bearing capacity, bridge ramps, soil improvement, geogrid, PCC piles

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
32 Methodology: A Review in Modelling and Predictability of Embankment in Soft Ground

Authors: Bhim Kumar Dahal

Abstract:

Transportation network development in the developing country is in rapid pace. The majority of the network belongs to railway and expressway which passes through diverse topography, landform and geological conditions despite the avoidance principle during route selection. Construction of such networks demand many low to high embankment which required improvement in the foundation soil. This paper is mainly focused on the various advanced ground improvement techniques used to improve the soft soil, modelling approach and its predictability for embankments construction. The ground improvement techniques can be broadly classified in to three groups i.e. densification group, drainage and consolidation group and reinforcement group which are discussed with some case studies.  Various methods were used in modelling of the embankments from simple 1-dimensional to complex 3-dimensional model using variety of constitutive models. However, the reliability of the predictions is not found systematically improved with the level of sophistication.  And sometimes the predictions are deviated more than 60% to the monitored value besides using same level of erudition. This deviation is found mainly due to the selection of constitutive model, assumptions made during different stages, deviation in the selection of model parameters and simplification during physical modelling of the ground condition. This deviation can be reduced by using optimization process, optimization tools and sensitivity analysis of the model parameters which will guide to select the appropriate model parameters.

Keywords: cement, improvement, physical properties, strength

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31 The Behavior of Ordinary and Encased Stone Columns in Soft Clay Soil of Egypt: A Finite Element Study

Authors: Mahmoud F. Awad-Allah, Mohammed Rabeih, Eman Abdel Baseer

Abstract:

Soft to very soft soil deposits are widely speared in some areas of Egypt such as East Port Said, Damietta, Kafr El-Sheik, Alexandria, etc. The construction projects in these areas have faced the challenge of the presence of extended deep layers of soft and very soft clays which reach to depths of 40 to 60 m from the ground level. Stone columns are commonly used to support structures overlying soft ground soils and surcharged by embankment type loading. Therefore, this paper introduces a wide comparison numerical study between the ordinary stone columns (OSC) versus the geosynthetic encased stone columns (ESC) installed in soft clay soil deposit using finite element method (FEM). Parametric study of an embankment on soft soils reinforced with stone columns is performed using commercial computer program based on the finite element technique (PLAXIS 2D). The investigation will present the influence of the following parameters: diameter of stone columns, stiffness of geosynthetic encasement, embedded depth of stone column from ground level, and the length encasement of the stone column on the consolidation time, vertical settlement, and lateral displacement of soft clay soil formations.

Keywords: finite element method, geosynthetic, lateral displacement, settlement, soft clay

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30 Cover Layer Evaluation in Soil Organic Matter of Mixing and Compressed Unsaturated

Authors: Nayara Torres B. Acioli, José Fernando T. Jucá

Abstract:

The uncontrolled emission of gases in urban residues' embankment located near urban areas is a social and environmental problem, common in Brazilian cities. Several environmental impacts in the local and global scope may be generated by atmospheric air contamination by the biogas resulted from the decomposition of solid urban materials. In Brazil, the cities of small size figure mostly with 90% of all cities, with the population smaller than 50,000 inhabitants, according to the 2011 IBGE' census, most of the landfill covering layer is composed of clayey, pure soil. The embankments undertaken with pure soil may reach up to 60% of retention of methane, for the other 40% it may be dispersed into the atmosphere. In face of this figures the oxidative covering layer is granted some space of study, envisaging to reduce this perceptual available in the atmosphere, releasing, in spite of methane, carbonic gas which is almost 20 times as less polluting than Methane. This paper exposes the results of studies on the characteristics of the soil used for the oxidative coverage layer of the experimental embankment of Solid Urban Residues (SUR), built in Muribeca-PE, Brazil, supported of the Group of Solid Residues (GSR), located at Federal University of Pernambuco, through laboratory vacuum experiments (determining the characteristics curve), granularity, and permeability, that in soil with saturation over 85% offers dramatic drops in the test of permeability to the air, by little increments of water, based in the existing Brazilian norm for this procedure. The suction was studied, as in the other tests, from the division of prospection of an oxidative coverage layer of 60cm, in the upper half (0.1 m to 0.3 m) and lower half (0.4 m to 0.6 m). Therefore, the consequences to be presented from the lixiviation of the fine materials after 5 years of finalization of the embankment, what made its permeability increase. Concerning its humidity, it is most retained in the upper part, that comprises the compound, with a difference in the order of 8 percent the superior half to inferior half, retaining the least suction from the surface. These results reveal the efficiency of the oxidative coverage layer in retaining the rain water, it has a lower cost when compared to the other types of layer, offering larger availability of this layer as an alternative for a solution for the appropriate disposal of residues.

Keywords: oxidative coverage layer, permeability, suction, saturation

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
29 Strategy in Controlling Rice-Field Conversion in Pangkep Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors: Nurliani, Ida Rosada

Abstract:

The national rice consumption keeps increasing along with raising income of the households and the rapid growth of population. However, food availability, particularly rice, is limited. Impacts of rice-field conversion have run cumulatively, as we can see on potential losses of rice and crops production, as well as work opportunity that keeps increasing year-by-year. Therefore, it requires policy recommendation to control rice-field conversion through economic, social, and ecological approaches. The research was a survey method intended to: (1) Identify internal factors; quality and productivity of the land as the cause of land conversion, (2) Identify external factors of land conversion, value of the rice-field and the competitor’s land, workforce absorption, and regulation, as well as (3) Formulate strategies in controlling rice-field conversion. Population of the research was farmers who applied land conversion at Pangkep Regency, South Sulawesi. Samples were determined using the incidental sampling method. Data analysis used productivity analysis, land quality analysis, total economic value analysis, and SWOT analysis. Results of the research showed that the quality of rice-field was low as well as productivity of the grains (unhulled-rice). So that, average productivity of the grains and quality of rice-field were low as well. Total economic value of rice-field was lower than the economic value of the embankment. Workforce absorption value on rice-field was higher than on the embankment. Strategies in controlling such rice-field conversion can be done by increasing rice-field productivity, improving land quality, applying cultivation technique of specific location, improving the irrigation lines, and socializing regulation and sanction about the transfer of land use.

Keywords: land conversion, quality of rice-field, productivity, land economic value.

Procedia PDF Downloads 192