Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Search results for: flocculation

48 Treatment of Rice Industry Waste Water by Flotation-Flocculation Method

Authors: J. K. Kapoor, Shagufta Jabin, H. S. Bhatia


Polyamine flocculants were synthesized by poly-condensation of diphenylamine and epichlorohydrin using 1, 2-diaminoethane as modifying agent. The polyelectrolytes were prepared by taking epichlohydrin-diphenylamine in a molar ratio of 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1, and 2.5:1. The flocculation performance of these polyelectrolytes was evaluated with rice industry waste water. The polyelectrolytes have been used in conjunction with alum for coagulation- flocculation process. Prior to the coagulation- flocculation process, air flotation technique was used with the aim to remove oil and grease content from waste water. Significant improvement was observed in the removal of oil and grease content after the air flotation technique. It has been able to remove 91.7% oil and grease from rice industry waste water. After coagulation-flocculation method, it has been observed that polyelectrolyte with epichlohydrin-diphenylamine molar ratio of 1.5:1 showed best results for the removal of pollutants from rice industry waste water. The highest efficiency of turbidity and TSS removal with polyelectrolyte has been found to be 97.5% and 98.2%, respectively. Results of these evaluations also reveal 86.8% removal of COD and 87.5% removal of BOD from rice industry waste water. Thus, we demonstrate optimization of coagulation–flocculation technique which is appropriate for waste water treatment.

Keywords: coagulation, flocculation, air flotation technique, polyelectrolyte, turbidity

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47 Valorisation of a Bioflocculant and Hydroxyapatites as Coagulation-Flocculation Adjuvants in Wastewater Treatment of the Steppe in the Wilaya of Saida

Authors: Fatima Zohra Choumane, Belkacem Benguella, Bouhana Maachou, Nacera Saadi


Pollution caused by wastewater is a serious problem in Algeria. This pollution has certainly harmful effects on the environment. In order to reduce the bad effects of these pollutants, many wastewater treatment processes, mainly physicochemical, are implemented. This study consists in using two flocculants; the first one is a biodegradable natural bioflocculant, i.e. Cactaceaeou ficus-indica cactus juice, and the second is the synthetic hydroxyapatite, in a physico-chemical process through coagulation-flocculation, using two coagulants, i.e. ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate, to treat wastewater collected at the entrance of the treatment plant, in the town of Saida. The influence of various experimental parameters, such as the amounts of coagulants and flocculants used, pH, turbidity, COD and BOD5, was investigated. The coagulation - flocculation jar tests of wastewater reveal that ferric chloride, containing a mass of 0.3 g – hydroxyapatite, treated for 1 hour through calcination, is the most effective adjuvant in clarifying the wastewater, with turbidity equal to 98.16 %. In the presence of the two bioflocculants, Cactaceae juice and aluminum sulphate, with a dose of 0.2 g, flocculation is good, with turbidity equal to 95.61 %. Examination of the key reaction parameters, following the flocculation tests of wastewater, shows that the degree of pollution decreases. This is confirmed by the COD and turbidity values obtained. Examination of these results suggests the use of these flocculants in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: wastewater, cactus ficus-indica, hydroxyapatite, coagulation - flocculation

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46 Evaluation of Electro-Flocculation for Biomass Production of Marine Microalgae Phaodactylum tricornutum

Authors: Luciana C. Ramos, Leandro J. Sousa, Antônio Ferreira da Silva, Valéria Gomes Oliveira Falcão, Suzana T. Cunha Lima


The commercial production of biodiesel using microalgae demands a high-energy input for harvesting biomass, making production economically unfeasible. Methods currently used involve mechanical, chemical, and biological procedures. In this work, a flocculation system is presented as a cost and energy effective process to increase biomass production of Phaeodactylum tricornutum. This diatom is the only species of the genus that present fast growth and lipid accumulation ability that are of great interest for biofuel production. The algae, selected from the Bank of Microalgae, Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil), have been bred in tubular reactor with photoperiod of 12 h (clear/dark), providing luminance of about 35 μmol photons m-2s-1, and temperature of 22 °C. The medium used for growing cells was the Conway medium, with addition of silica. The seaweed growth curve was accompanied by cell count in Neubauer camera and by optical density in spectrophotometer, at 680 nm. The precipitation occurred at the end of the stationary phase of growth, 21 days after inoculation, using two methods: centrifugation at 5000 rpm for 5 min, and electro-flocculation at 19 EPD and 95 W. After precipitation, cells were frozen at -20 °C and, subsequently, lyophilized. Biomass obtained by electro-flocculation was approximately four times greater than the one achieved by centrifugation. The benefits of this method are that no addition of chemical flocculants is necessary and similar cultivation conditions can be used for the biodiesel production and pharmacological purposes. The results may contribute to improve biodiesel production costs using marine microalgae.

Keywords: biomass, diatom, flocculation, microalgae

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45 Fungal Flocculation of Single Algae Species and Mixed Algal Communities

Authors: Digby Wrede, Stephen Gray, Syed Hussainy


Microalgae are extremely useful organisms but notoriously hard to harvest. The use of fungal pellets has been found to be an efficient way to flocculate numerous species of algae. However, only the flocculation of single species of algae has been investigated. Algae are generally found in complex communities in the environment comprising of numerous species of algae ranging from simple single cell algae such as Chlorella to more complex or communal algae such as Dictyosphaerium. This study investigated the flocculation capabilities of Aspergillus oryzae to flocculate four species of algae; Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Scenedesmus acuminatus and Dictyosphaerium sp., and the algal communities in four different types of domestic effluent from a lagoon-based treatment plant; primary effluent, secondary effluent and the high rate algal pond effluent at a natural and at a lowered pH level. Spectrophotometry was used to measure the changes in algal population. C. vulgaris, S. acuminatus and S. quadricauda, had over 90% reduction of algal in suspension after 24 hours. Dictyosphaerium sp. showed a little to no removal after 24 hours. The primary, secondary, and natural pH level HRAP had roughly a 50% removal after 24 hours, the HRAP which was grown at a lower pH level had over a 90% removal after 24 hours. pH has been shown previously to affect fungal flocculation. Fungal and algae pellets have been shown to be able to treat wastewater and can be converted to biofuels in a very similar method to how algae are currently converted. The mixture of both fungi and algae has also been shown to provide a higher yield of oils then separately and are able to more efficiently treat wastewater then algae or fungi by themselves.

Keywords: algae harvesting, Aspergillus oryzae, fungal flocculation, wastewater treatment

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44 Efficiency and Limits of Physicochemical Treatment of Dairy Wastewater: A Case Study of Dairy Industry in Western Algeria

Authors: Khedidja Benouis


Environmental issues in the food industry are related to the water because it consumes water and release large volumes of wastewater. The treatment of such discharges techniques can be adapted to different situations encountered. For dairy effluents, it is necessary and very effective to use a treatment that eliminates much of the pollutant load,thus, to drastically reduce the organic loading rate. This study aims to evaluate the Efficiency and limitations of physicochemical treatment by coagulation - flocculation of liquid effluent from this type of food industry in Algeria, to give an example of the type and the degree of pollution generated by this sector and in order to reduce pollution and minimize its environmental issues. Coagulation - flocculation-sedimentation was carried out using lime without addition of additive (flocculant), the processing efficiency is indicated by the concentration of pollutants in treated water. The results show that treatment is not sufficient to remove organic pollution, but it has significantly reduced the Total suspended solids (TSS), nitrate (NO3-N) and phosphate (PO4-P).

Keywords: Algeria, coagulation-flocculation, dairy effluent, treatment

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43 Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on the Suspension Stability, Zeta Potential and Contact Angle of Celestite

Authors: Kiraz Esmeli, Alper Ozkan


In this study, firstly, the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the stability of celestite suspension was investigated. In this context, the variations of the suspension stability with ultrasonic power, treatment time, immersion depth of ultrasonic probe, and treatment regime (batch and continuous) were determined. The experimental results showed that the suspension stability and zeta potential of celestite decreased with ultrasonic treatment. Also, the treatment time, immersion depth of probe, and treatment regime affected the stability of celestite suspension. Secondly, the effect of pre-treatment of the suspension with the ultrasonic process on the shear flocculation of celestite using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied and the variations of the flocculation, zeta potential, and contact angle of the mineral with SDS concentration were presented. It was found that the ultrasonic pre-treatment slightly improved the shear flocculation of celestite particles in accordance with the increase in the contact angles. In addition, the ultrasonic process again relatively reduced the magnitude of the negative potential of celestite particles in the presence of SDS.

Keywords: celestite, contact angle, suspension stability, ultrasonic treatment, zeta potential

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42 Mechanical Characterization and Impact Study on the Environment of Raw Sediments and Sediments Dehydrated by Addition of Polymer

Authors: A. Kasmi, N. E. Abriak, M. Benzerzour, I. Shahrour


Large volumes of river sediments are dredged each year in Europe in order to maintain harbour activities and prevent floods. The management of this sediment has become increasingly complex. Several European projects were implemented to find environmentally sound solutions for these materials. The main objective of this study is to show the ability of river sediment to be used in road. Since sediments contain a high amount of water, then a dehydrating treatment by addition of the flocculation aid has been used. Firstly, a lot of physical characteristics are measured and discussed for a better identification of the raw sediment and this dehydrated sediment by addition the flocculation aid. The identified parameters are, for example, the initial water content, the density, the organic matter content, the grain size distribution, the liquid limit and plastic limit and geotechnical parameters. The environmental impacts of the used material were evaluated. The results obtained show that there is a slight change on the physical-chemical and geotechnical characteristics of sediment after dehydration by the addition of polymer. However, these sediments cannot be used in road construction.

Keywords: rive sediment, dehydration, flocculation aid or polymer, characteristics, treatments, valorisation, road construction

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41 Flocculation on the Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater: Pre-Treatment

Authors: G. Hodaifa, J. A. Páez, C. Agabo, E. Ramos, J. C. Gutiérrez, A. Rosal


Currently, the continuous two-phase decanter process used for olive oil production is the more internationally widespread. The wastewaters generated from this industry (OMW) is a real environmental problem because of its high organic load. Among proposed treatments for these wastewaters, the advanced oxidation technologies (Fenton process, ozone, photoFenton, etc.) are the most favourable. The direct application of these processes is somewhat expensive. Therefore, the application of a previous stage based on a flocculation-sedimentation operation is of high importance. In this research five commercial flocculants (three cationic, and two anionic) have been used to achieve the separation of phases (liquid clarified-sludge). For each flocculant, different concentrations (0-1000 mg/L) have been studied. In these experiments, sludge volume formed over time and the final water quality were determined. The final removal percentages of total phenols (11.3-25.1%), COD (5.6-20.4%), total carbon (2.3-26.5%), total organic carbon (1.50-23.8%), total nitrogen (1.45-24.8%), and turbidity (27.9-61.4%) were obtained. Also, the variation on the electric conductivity reduction percentage (1-8%) was determined. Finally, the best flocculants with highest removal percentages have been determined (QG2001 and Flocudex CS49).

Keywords: flocculants, flocculation, olive oil mill wastewater, water quality

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40 Performance Assessment of Recycled Alum Sludge in the Treatment of Textile Industry Effluent in South Africa

Authors: Tony Ngoy Mbodi, Christophe Muanda


Textile industry is considered as one of the most polluting sectors in terms of effluent volume of discharge and wastewater composition, such as dye, which represents an environmental hazard when discharged without any proper treatment. A study was conducted to investigate the capability of the use of recycled alum sludge (RAS) as an alternative treatment for the reduction of colour, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and pH adjustment from dye based synthetic textile industry wastewater. The coagulation/flocculation process was studied for coagulants of Alum:RAS ratio of, 1:1, 2:1, 1:2 and 0:1. Experiments on treating the synthetic wastewater using membrane filtration and adsorption with corn cobs were also conducted. Results from the coagulation experiment were compared to those from adsorption with corn cobs and membrane filtration experiments conducted on the same synthetic wastewater. The results of the RAS experiments were also evaluated against standard guidelines for industrial effluents treated for discharge purposes in order to establish its level of compliance. Based on current results, it can be concluded that reusing the alum sludge as a low-cost material pretreatment method into the coagulation/flocculation process can offer some advantages such as high removal efficiency for disperse dye and economic savings on overall treatment of the industry wastewater.

Keywords: alum, coagulation/flocculation, dye, recycled alum sludge, textile wastewater

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39 Coagulation-flocculation Process with Metal Salts, Synthetic Polymers and Biopolymers for the Removal of Trace Metals (Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn) from Wastewater

Authors: Andrew Hargreaves, Peter Vale, Jonathan Whelan, Carlos Constantino, Gabriela Dotro, Pablo Campo


As a consequence of their potential to cause harm, there are strong regulatory drivers that require metals to be removed as part of the wastewater treatment process. Bioavailability-based standards have recently been specified for copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) and are expected to reduce acceptable metal concentrations. In order to comply with these standards, wastewater treatment works may require new treatment types to enhance metal removal and it is, therefore, important to examine potential treatment options. A substantial proportion of Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn in effluent is adsorbed to and/or complexed with macromolecules (eg. proteins, polysaccharides, aminosugars etc.) that are present in the colloidal size fraction. Therefore, technologies such as coagulation-flocculation (CF) that are capable of removing colloidal particles have good potential to enhance metals removal from wastewater. The present study investigated the effectiveness of CF at removing trace metals from humus effluent using the following coagulants; ferric chloride (FeCl3), the synthetic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI), and the biopolymers chitosan and Tanfloc. Effluent samples were collected from a trickling filter treatment works operating in the UK. Using jar tests, the influence of coagulant dosage and the velocity and time of the slow mixing stage were studied. Chitosan and PEI had a limited effect on the removal of trace metals (<35%). FeCl3 removed 48% Cu, 56% Pb and 41% Zn at the recommended dose of 0.10 mg/L. At the recommended dose of 0.25 mg/L Tanfloc removed 77% Cu, 68% Pb, 18% Ni and 42% Zn. The dominant mechanism for particle removal by FeCl3 was enmeshment in the precipitates (i.e. sweep flocculation) whereas, for Tanfloc, inter-particle bridging was the dominant removal mechanism. Overall, FeCl3 and Tanfloc were found to be most effective at removing trace metals from wastewater.

Keywords: coagulation-flocculation, jar test, trace metals, wastewater

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38 A Comparative Study of Simple and Pre-polymerized Fe Coagulants for Surface Water Treatment

Authors: Petros Gkotsis, Giorgos Stratidis, Manassis Mitrakas, Anastasios Zouboulis


This study investigates the use of original and pre-polymerized iron (Fe) reagents compared to the commonly applied polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulant for surface water treatment. Applicable coagulants included both ferric chloride (FeCl₃) and ferric sulfate (Fe₂(SO₄)₃) and their pre-polymerized Fe reagents, such as polyferric sulfate (PFS) and polyferric chloride (PFCl). The efficiency of coagulants was evaluated by the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) and suspended solids (SS), which were determined in terms of reducing the UV absorption at 254 nm and turbidity, respectively. The residual metal concentration (Fe and Al) was also measured. Coagulants were added at five concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg/L) and three pH values (7.0, 7.3 and 7.6). Experiments were conducted in a jar-test device, with two types of synthetic surface water (i.e., of high and low organic strength) which consisted of humic acid (HA) and kaolin at different concentrations (5 mg/L and 50 mg/L). After the coagulation/flocculation process, clean water was separated with filters of pore size 0.45 μm. Filtration was also conducted before the addition of coagulants in order to compare the ‘net’ effect of the coagulation/flocculation process on the examined parameters (UV at 254 nm, turbidity, and residual metal concentration). Results showed that the use of PACl resulted in the highest removal of humics for both types of surface water. For the surface water of high organic strength (humic acid-kaolin, 50 mg/L-50 mg/L), the highest removal of humics was observed at the highest coagulant dosage of 5 mg/L and at pH=7. On the contrary, turbidity was not significantly affected by the coagulant dosage. However, the use of PACl decreased turbidity the most, especially when the surface water of high organic strength was employed. As expected, the application of coagulation/flocculation prior to filtration improved NOM removal but slightly affected turbidity. Finally, the residual Fe concentration (0.01-0.1 mg/L) was much lower than the residual Al concentration (0.1-0.25 mg/L).

Keywords: coagulation/flocculation, iron and aluminum coagulants, metal salts, pre-polymerized coagulants, surface water treatment

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37 Constitutive Flo1p Expression on Strains Bearing Deletions in Genes Involved in Cell Wall Biogenesis

Authors: Lethukuthula Ngobese, Abin Gupthar, Patrick Govender


The ability of yeast cell wall-derived mannoproteins (glycoproteins) to positively contribute to oenological properties has been a key factor that stimulates research initiatives into these industrially important glycoproteins. In addition, and from a fundamental research perspective, yeast cell wall glycoproteins are involved in a wide range of biological interactions. To date, and to the best of our knowledge, our understanding of the fine molecular structure of these mannoproteins is fairly limited. Generally, the amino acid sequences of their protein moieties have been established from structural and functional analysis of the genomic sequence of these yeasts whilst far less information is available on the glycosyl moieties of these mannoproteins. A novel strategy was devised in this study that entails the genetic engineering of yeast strains that over-express and release cell wall-associated glycoproteins into the liquid growth medium. To this end, the Flo1p mannoprotein was overexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strains bearing a specific deletion in KNR4 and GPI7 genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis that have been previously shown to extracellularly hyper-secrete cell wall-associated glycoproteins. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) -based cloning strategy was employed to generate transgenic yeast strains in which the native cell wall FLO1 glycoprotein-encoding gene is brought under transcriptional control of the constitutive PGK1 promoter. The modified Helm’s flocculation assay was employed to assess flocculation intensities of a Flo1p over-expressing wild type and deletion mutant as an indirect measure of their abilities to release the desired mannoprotein. The flocculation intensities of the transformed strains were assessed and all the strains showed similar intensities (>98% flocculation). To assess if mannoproteins were released into the growth medium, the supernatant of each strain was subjected to the BCA protein assay and the transformed Δknr4 strain showed a considerable increase in protein levels. This study has the potential to produce mannoproteins in sufficient quantities that may be employed in future investigations to understand their molecular structures and mechanisms of interaction to the benefit of both fundamental and industrial applications.

Keywords: glycoproteins, genetic engineering, flocculation, over-expression

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36 Coagulation-Flocculation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent from Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Johor, Malaysia

Authors: A. H. Jagaba, Musa Babayo, Ab Aziz Abdul Latiff, Sule Abubakar, I. M. Lawal, Isa Zubairu, M. A. Nasara


Wastewater containing heavy metals is of extreme importance globally because of its potential threat to both the aquatic ecosystem and the soil environment. Heavy metal is hazardous even at low concentration and thereby causing various forms of diseases. One method which has been tested and found to be effective for heavy metals removal is coagulation-flocculation. For the coagulation process of POME obtained from Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Johor (PPNJ), Oil Palm Mill Company located in Kahang area of Kluang, Johor Darul Takzim, Malaysia, diffèrent coagulants would be used to absorb and then separate the metals from wastewater. The determination of heavy metals concentration in POME was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). Results of the study showed that alum coagulant was successful in effectively reducing Cu, Cd, and Mn from 0.840 mg/l, 0.00509 mg/l and 8.191 mg/l to as low as 0.107 mg/l, 0.000270 mg/l and 0.612 mg/l respectively. All were obtained at a dose of 1000 mg/l. 1000 mg/l dose of ferric chloride reduced Pb concentration from 0.0248 mg/l to 0.00151 mg/l. Chitosan was best at reducing Fe and Zn from 62.91 mg/l and 3.616 mg/l to 6.003 mg/l and 0.595 mg/l all at a dose of 400 mg/l.

Keywords: palm oil mill effluent, coagulation, heavy metals, Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Johor, Malaysia

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35 Application of Moringa Oleifer Seed in Removing Colloids from Turbid Wastewater

Authors: Zemmouri Hassiba, Lounici Hakim, Mameri Nabil


Dried crushed seeds of Moringa oleifera contain an effective soluble protein; a natural cationic polyelectrolyte which causes coagulation. The present study aims to investigate the performance of Moringa oleifera seed extract as natural coagulant in clarification of secondary wastewater treatment highly charged in colloidal. A series of Jar tests was undertaken using raw wastewater providing from secondary decanter of Reghaia municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP) located in East of Algiers, Algeria. Coagulation flocculation performance of Moringa oleifera was evaluated through supernatant residual turbidity. Various influence parameters namely Moringa oleifera dosage and pH have been considered. Tests on Reghaia wastewater, having 129 NTU of initial turbidity, showed a removal of 69.45% of residual turbidity with only 1.5 mg/l of Moringa oleifera. This sufficient removal capability encourages the use of this bioflocculant for treatment of turbid waters. Based on this result, the coagulant seed extract of Moringa oleifera is better suited to clarify municipal wastewater by removing turbidity. Indeed, Moringa oleifera which is a natural resource available locally (South of Algeria) coupled to the non-toxicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability, may be a very interesting alternative to the conventional coagulants used so far.

Keywords: coagulation flocculation, colloids, moringa oleifera, secondary wastewater

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34 Aggregation of Fractal Aggregates Inside Fractal Cages in Irreversible Diffusion Limited Cluster Aggregation Binary Systems

Authors: Zakiya Shireen, Sujin B. Babu


Irreversible diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) of binary sticky spheres was simulated by modifying the Brownian Cluster Dynamics (BCD). We randomly distribute N spheres in a 3D box of size L, the volume fraction is given by Φtot = (π/6)N/L³. We identify NA and NB number of spheres as species A and B in our system both having identical size. In these systems, both A and B particles undergo Brownian motion. Irreversible bond formation happens only between intra-species particles and inter-species interact only through hard-core repulsions. As we perform simulation using BCD we start to observe binary gels. In our study, we have observed that species B always percolate (cluster size equal to L) as expected for the monomeric case and species A does not percolate below a critical ratio which is different for different volume fractions. We will also show that the accessible volume of the system increases when compared to the monomeric case, which means that species A is aggregating inside the cage created by B. We have also observed that for moderate Φtot the system undergoes a transition from flocculation region to percolation region indicated by the change in fractal dimension from 1.8 to 2.5. For smaller ratio of A, it stays in the flocculation regime even though B have already crossed over to the percolation regime. Thus, we observe two fractal dimension in the same system.

Keywords: BCD, fractals, percolation, sticky spheres

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33 Bioflocculation Using the Purified Wild Strain of P. aeruginosa Culture in Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Mohammad Hajjartabar, Tahereh Kermani Ranjbar


P. aeruginosa EF2 was isolated and identified from human infection sources before in our previous study. The present study was performed to determine the characteristics and activity role of bioflocculant produced by the bacterium in flocculation of the wastewater active sludge treatment. The bacterium was inoculated and then was grown in an orbital shaker at 250 rpm for 5 days at 35 °C under TSB and peptone water media. After incubation period, culture broths of the bacterial strain was collected and washed. The concentration of the bacteria was adjusted. For the extraction of the bacterial bioflocculant, culture was centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 20 min at 4 °C to remove bacterial cells. Supernatant was decanted and pellet containing bioflocculant was dried at 105 °C to a constant weight according to APHA, 2005. The chemical composition of the extracted bioflocculant from the bacterial sample was then analyzed. Wastewater active sludge sample obtained from aeration tank from one of wastewater treatment plants in Tehran, was first mixed thoroughly. After addition of bioflocculant, improvements in floc density were observed with an increase in bioflocculant. The results of this study strongly suggested that the extracted bioflucculant played a significant role in flocculation of the wastewater sample. The use of wild bacteria and nutrient regulation techniques instead of genetic manipulation opens wide investigation area in the future to improve wastewater treatment processes. Also this may put a new path in front of us to attain and improve the more effective bioflocculant using the purified microbial culture in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, P. aeruginosa, sludge treatment

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32 Flocculation and Settling Rate Studies of Clean Coal Fines at Different Flocculants Dosage, pH Values, Bulk Density and Particle Size

Authors: Patel Himeshkumar Ashokbhai, Suchit Sharma, Arvind Kumar Garg


The results obtained from settling test of coal fines are used as an important tool to select the dewatering equipment such as thickeners, centrifuges and filters. Coal being hydrophobic in nature does not easily settle when mixed with water. Coal slurry that takes longer time to release water is highly undesirable because it poses additional challenge during sedimentation, centrifuge and filtration. If filter cake has higher than permitted moisture content then it not only creates handling problems but inflated freight costs and reduction in input and productivity for coke oven charges. It is to be noted that coal fines drastically increase moisture percentage in filter cake hence are to be minimized. To increase settling rate of coal fines in slurry chemical substances called flocculants or coagulants are added that cause coal particles to flocculate or coalesce into larger particles. These larger particles settle at faster rate and have higher settling velocity. Other important factors affecting settling rate are flocculent dosage, slurry or pulp density and particle size. Hence in this paper we tried to study the settling characteristic of clean coal fines by varying one of the four factors namely 1. Flocculant Dosage (acryl-amide) 2. pH of the water 3. Bulk density 4. Particle size of clean coal fines in settling experiment and drew important conclusions. Result of this paper will be much useful not only for coal beneficiation plant design but also for cost reduction of coke production facilities.

Keywords: bulk density, coal fines, flocculants, flocculation, settling velocity, pH

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31 Single and Sequential Extraction for Potassium Fractionation and Nano-Clay Flocculation Structure

Authors: Chakkrit Poonpakdee, Jing-Hua Tzen, Ya-Zhen Huang, Yao-Tung Lin


Potassium (K) is a known macro nutrient and essential element for plant growth. Single leaching and modified sequential extraction schemes have been developed to estimate the relative phase associations of soil samples. The sequential extraction process is a step in analyzing the partitioning of metals affected by environmental conditions, but it is not a tool for estimation of K bioavailability. While, traditional single leaching method has been used to classify K speciation for a long time, it depend on its availability to the plants and use for potash fertilizer recommendation rate. Clay mineral in soil is a factor for controlling soil fertility. The change of the micro-structure of clay minerals during various environment (i.e. swelling or shrinking) is characterized using Transmission X-Ray Microscopy (TXM). The objective of this study are to 1) compare the distribution of K speciation between single leaching and sequential extraction process 2) determined clay particle flocculation structure before/after suspension with K+ using TXM. Four tropical soil samples: farming without K fertilizer (10 years), long term applied K fertilizer (10 years; 168-240 kg K2O ha-1 year-1), red soil (450-500 kg K2O ha-1 year-1) and forest soil were selected. The results showed that the amount of K speciation by single leaching method were high in mineral K, HNO3 K, Non-exchangeable K, NH4OAc K, exchangeable K and water soluble K respectively. Sequential extraction process indicated that most K speciations in soil were associated with residual, organic matter, Fe or Mn oxide and exchangeable fractions and K associate fraction with carbonate was not detected in tropical soil samples. In farming long term applied K fertilizer and red soil were higher exchangeable K than farming long term without K fertilizer and forest soil. The results indicated that one way to increase the available K (water soluble K and exchangeable K) should apply K fertilizer and organic fertilizer for providing available K. The two-dimension of TXM image of clay particles suspension with K+ shows that the aggregation structure of clay mineral closed-void cellular networks. The porous cellular structure of soil aggregates in 1 M KCl solution had large and very larger empty voids than in 0.025 M KCl and deionized water respectively. TXM nanotomography is a new technique can be useful in the field as a tool for better understanding of clay mineral micro-structure.

Keywords: potassium, sequential extraction process, clay mineral, TXM

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30 Development of an Integrated Methodology for Fouling Control in Membrane Bioreactors

Authors: Petros Gkotsis, Anastasios Zouboulis, Manasis Mitrakas, Dimitrios Zamboulis, E. Peleka


The most serious drawback in wastewater treatment using membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is membrane fouling which gradually leads to membrane permeability decrease and efficiency deterioration. This work is part of a research project that aims to develop an integrated methodology for membrane fouling control, using specific chemicals which will enhance the coagulation and flocculation of compounds responsible for fouling, hence reducing biofilm formation on the membrane surface and limiting the fouling rate acting as a pre-treatment step. For this purpose, a pilot-scale plant with fully automatic operation achieved by means of programmable logic controller (PLC) has been constructed and tested. The experimental set-up consists of four units: wastewater feed unit, bioreactor, membrane (side-stream) filtration unit and permeate collection unit. Synthetic wastewater was fed as the substrate for the activated sludge. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the aerobic tank was maintained in the range of 2-3 mg/L during the entire operation by using an aerator below the membrane module. The membranes were operated at a flux of 18 LMH while membrane relaxation steps of 1 min were performed every 10 min. Both commercial and composite coagulants are added in different concentrations in the pilot-scale plant and their effect on the overall performance of the ΜΒR system is presented. Membrane fouling was assessed in terms of TMP, membrane permeability, sludge filterability tests, total resistance and the unified modified fouling index (UMFI). Preliminary tests showed that particular attention should be paid to the addition of the coagulant solution, indicating that pipe flocculation effectively increases hydraulic retention time and leads to voluminous sludge flocs. The most serious drawback in wastewater treatment using MBRs is membrane fouling, which gradually leads to membrane permeability decrease and efficiency deterioration. This results in increased treatment cost, due to high energy consumption and the need for frequent membrane cleaning and replacement. Due to the widespread application of MBR technology over the past few years, it becomes clear that the development of a methodology to mitigate membrane fouling is of paramount importance. The present work aims to develop an integrated technique for membrane fouling control in MBR systems and, thus, contribute to sustainable wastewater treatment.

Keywords: coagulation, membrane bioreactor, membrane fouling, pilot plant

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29 Adsoption Tests of Two Industrial Dyes by Hydroxyds of Metals

Authors: R. Berrached, H. Ait Mahamed, A. Iddou


Water pollution is nowadays a serious problem, due to the increasing scarcity of water and thus to the impact induced by such pollution on the human health. Various techniques are made use of to deal with water pollution. Among the most used ones, some can be enumerated: the bacterian bed, the activated sludge, lagoons as biological processes and coagulation-flocculation as a physic-chemical process. These processes are very expensive and a decreasing in efficiency treatment with the increase of the initial pollutants concentration. This is the reason why research has been reoriented towards the use of adsorption process as an alternative solution instead of the other traditional processes. In our study, we have tempted to explore the characteristics of hydroxides of Al and Fe to purify contaminated water by two industrial dyes SBL blue and SRL-150 orange. Results have shown the efficiency of the two materials on the blue SBL dye.

Keywords: metallic hydroxydes, dyes, purification, adsorption

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28 Preparation and Performance Evaluation of Green Chlorine-Free Coagulants

Authors: Huihui Zhang, Zhongzhi Zhang


Coagulation/flocculation is regarded a simple and effective wastewater treatment technology. Chlorine-containing coagulants may release chloride ions into the wastewater, causing corrosion. A green chlorine-free coagulant of polyaluminum ferric silicate (PSAF) was prepared by the copolymerization method to treat oily refractory wastewaters. Results showed that the highest removal efficiency of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) achieved 97.4% and 93.0% at a dosage of 700 mg/L, respectively. After PSAF coagulation, the chloride ion concentration was also almost the same as that in the raw wastewater. Thus, the chlorine-free coagulant is highly efficient and does not introduce additional chloride ions into the wastewater, avoiding corrosion.

Keywords: coagulation, chloride-free coagulant, oily refractory wastewater, coagulation performance

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27 Modeling of Coagulation Process for the Removal of Carbofuran in Aqueous Solution

Authors: Roli Saini, Pradeep Kumar


A coagulation/flocculation process was adopted for the reduction of carbamate insecticide (carbofuran) from aqueous solution. Ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used as a coagulant to treat the carbofuran. To exploit the reduction efficiency of pesticide concentration and COD, the jar-test experiments were carried out and process was optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of two independent factors; i.e., FeCl3 dosage and pH on the reduction efficiency were estimated by using central composite design (CCD). The initial COD of the 30 mg/L concentrated solution was found to be 510 mg/L. Results exposed that the maximum reduction occurred at an optimal condition of FeCl3 = 80 mg/L, and pH = 5.0, from which the reduction of concentration and COD 75.13% and 65.34%, respectively. The present study also predicted that the obtained regression equations could be helpful as the theoretical basis for the coagulation process of pesticide wastewater.

Keywords: carbofuran, coagulation, optimization, response surface methodology

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26 Review on Optimization of Drinking Water Treatment Process

Authors: M. Farhaoui, M. Derraz


In the drinking water treatment processes, the optimization of the treatment is an issue of particular concern. In general, the process consists of many units as settling, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. The optimization of the process consists of some measures to decrease the managing and monitoring expenses and improve the quality of the produced water. The objective of this study is to provide water treatment operators with methods and practices that enable to attain the most effective use of the facility and, in consequence, optimize the of the cubic meter price of the treated water. This paper proposes a review on optimization of drinking water treatment process by analyzing all of the water treatment units and gives some solutions in order to maximize the water treatment performances without compromising the water quality standards. Some solutions and methods are performed in the water treatment plant located in the middle of Morocco (Meknes).

Keywords: coagulation process, optimization, turbidity removal, water treatment

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25 Mixed Treatment (Physical-Chemical and Biological) of Ouled Fayet Landfill Leachates

Authors: O. Balamane-Zizi, L. M. Rouidi, A. Boukhrissa, N. Daas, H. Ait-amar


The objective of this study was to test the possibility of a mixed treatment (physical-chemical and biological) of Ouled Fayet leachates which date of 10 years and has a large fraction of hard COD that can be reduced by coagulation-flocculation. Previous batch tests showed the possibility of applying the physical-chemical and biological treatments separately; the removal efficiencies obtained in this case were not interesting. We propose, therefore, to test the possibility of a combined treatment, in order to improve the quality of the leachates. Estimation of the treatment’s effectiveness was done by analysis of some pollution parameters such as COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals (particularly iron and nickel). The main results obtained after the combination of treatments, show reduction rate of about 63% for COD, 73% for suspended solids and 80% for iron and nickel. We also noted an improvement in the turbidity of treated leachates.

Keywords: landfill leachates, COD, physical-chemical treatment, biological treatment

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24 Municipal Leachate Treatment by Using Polyaluminium Chloride as a Coagulant

Authors: Syeda Azeem Unnisa


The present study was undertaken at Jawaharnagar Solid Waste Municipal Dumpsite, Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation, Telangana State, India in 2017 which generates 90,000 litres of leachate per day. The main objective of the leachate treatment was to remove organic compounds like color, suspended solids, ammonia and COD by coagulation-flocculation using polyaluminum chloride (PAC) as coagulant which has higher coagulant efficiency and relative low cost compared to the conventional coagulants. Jar test apparatus was used to conduct experiments for pH 7, rapid mixing speed 150 rpm for 3 minute, slow mixing speed 30 rpm for 20 minute and the settling time of 30 minute for different dosage of PAC (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5 and 5.0 g/L). The highest percentage of removal of suspended solids, color, COD and ammonical nitrogen are 97%, 96%, 60% and 37% with PAC optimum dose of 2.0 g/l. The results indicate that the PAC was effective in leachate treatment which is very much suitable for high toxicity of waste and economically feasible for Indian conditions. The treated water can be utilized for other purpose apart from drinking.

Keywords: coagulant, leachate, polyaluminium chloride, treatment

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23 A Review of Recent Studies on Advanced Technologies for Water Treatment

Authors: Deniz Sahin


Growing concern for the presence and contamination of heavy metals in our water supplies has steadily increased over the last few years. A number of specialized technologies including precipitation, coagulation/flocculation, ion exchange, cementation, electrochemical operations, have been developed for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. However, these technologies have many limitations in the application, such as high cost, low separation efficiency, Recently, numerous approaches have been investigated to overcome these difficulties and membrane filtration, advanced oxidation technologies (AOPs), and UV irradiation etc. are sufficiently developed to be considered as alternative treatments. Many factors come into play when selecting wastewater treatment technology, such as type of wastewater, operating conditions, economics etc. This study describes these various treatment technologies employed for heavy metal removal. Advantages and disadvantages of these technologies are also compared to highlight their current limitations and future research needs. For example, we investigated the applicability of the ultrafiltration technology for treating of heavy metal ions (e.g., Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II)) from synthetic wastewater solutions. Results shown that complete removal of metal ions, could be achieved.

Keywords: heavy metal, treatment methodologies, water, water treatment

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22 Studies on Dye Removal by Aspergillus niger Strain

Authors: M. S. Mahmoud, Samah A. Mohamed, Neama A. Sobhy


For color removal from wastewater containing organic contaminants, biological treatment systems have been widely used such as physical and chemical methods of flocculation, coagulation. Fungal decolorization of dye containing wastewater is one of important goal in industrial wastewater treatment. This work was aimed to characterize Aspergillus niger strain for dye removal from aqueous solution and from raw textile wastewater. Batch experiments were studied for removal of color using fungal isolate biomass under different conditions. Environmental conditions like pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial dye concentration were studied. Influence of the pH on the removal of azo dye by Aspergillus niger was carried out between pH 1.0 and pH 11.0. The optimum pH for red dye decolonization was 9.0. Results showed the decolorization of dye was decreased with the increase of its initial dye concentration. The adsorption data was analyzed based on the models of equilibrium isotherm (Freundlich model and Langmuir model). During the adsorption isotherm studies; dye removal was better fitted to Freundlich model. The isolated fungal biomass was characterized according to its surface area both pre and post the decolorization process by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. Results indicate that the isolated fungal biomass showed higher affinity for dye in decolorization process.

Keywords: biomass, biosorption, dye, isotherms

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21 The Clarification of Palm Oil Wastewater Treatment by Coagulant Composite from Palm Oil Ash

Authors: Rewadee Anuwattana, Narumol Soparatana, Pattamaphorn Phuangngamphan, Worapong Pattayawan, Atiporn Jinprayoon, Saroj Klangkongsap, Supinya Sutthima


In this work focus on clarification in palm oil wastewater treatment by using coagulant composite from palm oil ash. The design of this study was carried out by two steps; first, synthesis of new coagulant composite from palm oil ash which was fused by using Al source combined with Fe source and form to the crystal by the hydrothermal crystallization process. The characterization of coagulant composite from palm oil ash was analyzed by advanced instruments, and The pattern was analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), chemical composition by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRFS) and morphology characterized by SEM. The second step, the clarification wastewater treatment efficiency of synthetic coagulant composite, was evaluated by coagulation/flocculation process based on the COD, turbidity, phosphate and color removal of wastewater from palm oil factory by varying the coagulant dosage (1-8 %w/v) with no adjusted pH and commercial coagulants (Alum, Ferric Chloride and poly aluminum chloride) which adjusted the pH (6). The results found that the maximum removal of 6% w/v of synthetic coagulant from palm oil ash can remove COD, turbidity, phosphate and color was 88.44%, 93.32%, 93.32% and 93.32%, respectively. The experiments were compared using 6% w/v of commercial coagulants (Alum, Ferric Chloride and Polyaluminum Chloride) can remove COD of 74.29%, 71.43% and 57.14%, respectively.

Keywords: coagulation, coagulant, wastewater treatment, waste utilization, palm oil ash

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20 Sepiolite as a Processing Aid in Fibre Reinforced Cement Produced in Hatschek Machine

Authors: R. Pérez Castells, J. M. Carbajo


Sepiolite is used as a processing aid in the manufacture of fibre cement from the start of the replacement of asbestos in the 80s. Sepiolite increases the inter-laminar bond between cement layers and improves homogeneity of the slurries. A new type of sepiolite processed product, Wollatrop TF/C, has been checked as a retention agent for fine particles in the production of fibre cement in a Hatschek machine. The effect of Wollatrop T/FC on filtering and fine particle losses was studied as well as the interaction with anionic polyacrylamide and microsilica. The design of the experiments were factorial and the VDT equipment used for measuring retention and drainage was modified Rapid Köethen laboratory sheet former. Wollatrop TF/C increased the fine particle retention improving the economy of the process and reducing the accumulation of solids in recycled process water. At the same time, drainage time increased sharply at high concentration, however drainage time can be improved by adjusting APAM concentration. Wollatrop TF/C and microsilica are having very small interactions among them. Microsilica does not control fine particle losses while Wollatrop TF/C does efficiently. Further research on APAM type (molecular weight and anionic character) is advisable to improve drainage.

Keywords: drainage, fibre-reinforced cement, fine particle losses, flocculation, microsilica, sepiolite

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19 Effect of Polymer Residues for Wastewater Treatment from Petroleum Production

Authors: Chayonnat Thanamun, Kreangkrai Maneeintr


For petroleum industry, polymer flooding is the one of the main methods in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) that is used water-soluble polymer such as partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) to increase oil production. It is added to the flooding water to improve the mobility ratio in the flooding process. During the polymer flooding process, water is produced as a by-product along with oil and gas production. This produced water is a mixture of inorganic and organic compound. Moreover, produced water is more difficult to treat than that from water flooding. In this work, the effect of HPAM residue on the wastewater treatment from polymer flooding is studied. Polyaluminium chloride (PAC) is selected to use as a flocculant. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of polymer residues in produced water on the wastewater treatment by using PAC. The operating parameters of this study are flocculant dosage ranging from 300,400 and 500 mg/L temperature from 30-50 Celsius degree and HPAM concentrations from 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L. Furthermore, the turbidity, as well as total suspended solids (TSS), are also studied. The results indicated that with an increase in HPAM concentration, the TSS and turbidity increase gradually with the increasing of coagulant dosage under the same temperature. Also, the coagulation-flocculation performance is improved with the increasing temperature. This can be applied to use in the wastewater treatment from oil production before this water can be injected back to the reservoir.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, petroleum production, polyaluminium chloride, polyacrylamide

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