Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 89

Search results for: sands

89 Comparing the Durability of Saudi Silica Sands for Use in Foundry Processing

Authors: Mahdi Alsagour, Sam Ramrattan


This paper was developed to investigate two types of sands from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) for potential use in the global metal casting industry. Four types of sands were selected for study, two of the sand systems investigated are natural sands from the KSA. The third sand sample is a heat processed synthetic sand and the last sample is commercially available US silica sand that is used as a control in the study. The purpose of this study is to define the durability of the four sand systems selected for foundry usage. Additionally, chemical analysis of the sand systems is presented before and after elevated temperature exposure. Results show that Saudi silica sands are durable and can be used in foundry processing.

Keywords: alternative molding media, foundry sand, reclamation, silica sand, specialty sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
88 Effect of Low Plastic Clay Quantity on Behavioral Characteristics of Loose Sand

Authors: Roza Rahbari


After the Nigatta earthquake in Japan, in 1960, the liquefaction and its related hazards, moved to the thick of matter. Most of the research have been carried out on clean sands and silty sands so far, in order to study the effect of fine particles, confinement pressures, density and so on. However, because of this delusion that adhesiveness of clay prevents the liquefaction in sand, studies on clayey sands have not been taken seriously. However, several liquefactions happened in clayey sands in recent years, and lead to the necessity of more studies in this field. The studies which were carried out so far focused on high plastic clays. In this paper, the effect of low plasticity clays on the behavioral characteristics of sands is discussed. Thus, some triaxial tests were carried out on clean sands and clayey sands with different percentages of added clay. Specimens were compacted in various densities to study the effect of quantity of clay on various densities, too. Based on the findings, the amount of clay affects the behavior of sand greatly and leads to substantial changes in peak bearing capacity and steady state values.

Keywords: liquefaction, clay, sand, triaxial, monotonic, failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
87 Inhibiting Effects of Zwitterionic Surfactant on the Erosion-Corrosion of API X52 Steel in Oil Sands Slurry

Authors: M. A. Deyab


The effect of zwitterionic surfactant (ZS) on erosion-corrosion of API X52 steel in oil sands slurry was studied using Tafel polarization and anodic polarization measurements. The surface morphology of API X52 steel was examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). ZS inhibited the erosion-corrosion of API X52 steel in oil sands' slurry, and the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing ZS concentration but decreased with increasing temperature. Polarization curves indicate that ZS act as a mixed type of inhibitor. Inhibition efficiencies of ZS in the dynamic condition are not as effective as that obtained in the static condition.

Keywords: corrosion, surfactant, oil sands slurry, erosion-corrosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
86 Effect of Plastic Fines on Undrained Behavior of Clayey Sands

Authors: Saeed Talamkhani, Seyed Abolhassan Naeini


In recent years, the occurrence of several liquefactions in sandy soils containing various values of clay content has shown that in addition to silty sands, clayey sands are also susceptible to liquefaction. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the properties of these soil compositions and their behavioral characteristics. This paper presents the effect of clay fines on the undrained shear strength of sands at various confining pressures. For this purpose, a series of unconsolidated undrained triaxial shear tests were carried out on clean sand and sand mixed with 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 percent of clay fines. It was found that the presence of clay particle in sandy specimens change the dilative behavior to contraction. The result also showed that increasing the clay fines up to 10 percent causes to increase the potential for liquefaction, and decreases it at higher values fine content. These results reveal the important role of clay particles in changing the undrained strength of the sandy soil.

Keywords: clayey sand, liquefaction, triaxial test, undrained shear strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
85 The Influence of Water Content on the Shear Resistance of Silty Sands

Authors: Mohamed Boualem Salah


This work involves an experimental study of the behavior of chlef sand under effect of various parameters influencing on shear strength. Because of their distinct nature, sands, silts and clays exhibit completely different behavior (shear strength, the contracting and dilatancy, the angle of internal friction and cohesion etc.). By cons when these materials are mixed, their behavior will become different from each considered alone. The behavior of these mixtures (silty sands etc.) is currently the state of several studies to better use. We studied in this work: The influence of the following factors on the shear strength: (The density, the fines content, the water content). The apparatus used for the tests is the shear box casagrande. This device, although one may have some disadvantages and modern instrumentation is appropriate used to study the shear strength of soils.

Keywords: behavior, shear strength, sand, silt, friction angle, cohesion, fines content, moisture content

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
84 Valorization of Mining Waste (Sand of Djemi Djema) from the Djbel Onk Mine (Eastern Algeria)

Authors: Rachida Malaoui, Leila Arabet , Asma Benbouza


The use of mining waste rock as a material for construction is one of the biggest concerns grabbing the attention of many mining countries. As these materials are abandoned, more effective solutions have been made to offset some of the building materials, and to avoid environmental pollution. The sands of the Djemi Djema deposit mines of the Djebel Onk mines are sedimentary materials of several varieties of layers with varying thicknesses and are worth far more than 300m deep. The sands from the Djemi Djema business area are medium to coarse and are discharged and accumulated, generating a huge estimated quantity of more than 77424250 tonnes. This state of "resource" is of great importance so as to be oriented towards the fields of public works and civil engineering after having reached the acceptable properties of this resource

Keywords: reuse, sands, shear tests, waste rock

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
83 On Erosion-Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in Oil Sands Slurry: Electrochemical Studies

Authors: M. Deyab, A. Al-Sabagh, S. Keera


The effects of flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature on erosion-corrosion of carbon steel in oil sands slurry were studied by electrochemical polarization measurements. It was found that the anodic excursion spans of carbon steel in oil sands slurry are characterized by the occurrence of a well-defined anodic peak, followed by a passive region. The data reveal that increasing flow velocity, sand concentration and temperature enhances the anodic peak current density (jAP) and shifts pitting potential (Epit) towards more negative values. The variation of sand particle size does not have apparent effect on polarization behavior of carbon steel. The ratios of the erosion rate to corrosion rate (E/C) were calculated and discussed. The ratio of erosion to corrosion rates E/C increased with increasing the flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature indicating that an increasing slurry flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature resulted in an enhancement of the erosion effect.

Keywords: erosion-corrosion, steel, oil sands slurry, polarization

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
82 Effect of Mica Content in Sand on Site Response Analyses

Authors: Volkan Isbuga, Joman M. Mahmood, Ali Firat Cabalar


This study presents the site response analysis of mica-sand mixtures available in certain parts of the world including Izmir, a highly populated city and located in a seismically active region in western part of Turkey. We performed site response analyses by employing SHAKE, an equivalent linear approach, for the micaceous soil deposits consisting of layers with different amount of mica contents and thicknesses. Dynamic behavior of micaceous sands such as shear modulus reduction and damping ratio curves are input for the ground response analyses. Micaceous sands exhibit a unique dynamic response under a scenario earthquake with a magnitude of Mw=6. Results showed that higher amount of mica caused higher spectral accelerations.

Keywords: micaceous sands, site response, equivalent linear approach, SHAKE

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
81 Collapse Surface Definition of Clayey Sands

Authors: Omid Naeemifar, Ibrahim Naeimifar, Roza Rahbari


It has been shown that a certain collapse surface may be defined for loose sands in the three dimensional space in which the sample sand experiences collapse and instability leading to an unsteady and strain-softening behaviour. The unsteady state due to collapse surface may lead to such phenomena in the sand as liquefaction and flow behaviour during undrained loading. Investigating the existence of the collapse surface in Firoozkooh 161 sand and its different clay mixtures with various plasticities, the present study aims to carry out an in-depth investigation of the effects of clay percent and its plasticity on the clayey sand behaviours. The results obtained indicate that collapse surface characteristics largely depend on fine percent and its plasticity. Interesting findings are also reported in this paper on the effects of fine sand percent and its plasticity on the behavioural characteristics and liquefaction potential of clayey sands.

Keywords: critical state, collapse surface, liquefaction, clayey sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
80 Development of a Framework for Assessment of Market Penetration of Oil Sands Energy Technologies in Mining Sector

Authors: Saeidreza Radpour, Md. Ahiduzzaman, Amit Kumar


Alberta’s mining sector consumed 871.3 PJ in 2012, which is 67.1% of the energy consumed in the industry sector and about 40% of all the energy consumed in the province of Alberta. Natural gas, petroleum products, and electricity supplied 55.9%, 20.8%, and 7.7%, respectively, of the total energy use in this sector. Oil sands mining and upgrading to crude oil make up most of the mining energy sector activities in Alberta. Crude oil is produced from the oil sands either by in situ methods or by the mining and extraction of bitumen from oil sands ore. In this research, the factors affecting oil sands production have been assessed and a framework has been developed for market penetration of new efficient technologies in this sector. Oil sands production amount is a complex function of many different factors, broadly categorized into technical, economic, political, and global clusters. The results of developed and implemented statistical analysis in this research show that the importance of key factors affecting on oil sands production in Alberta is ranked as: Global energy consumption (94% consistency), Global crude oil price (86% consistency), and Crude oil export (80% consistency). A framework for modeling oil sands energy technologies’ market penetration (OSETMP) has been developed to cover related technical, economic and environmental factors in this sector. It has been assumed that the impact of political and social constraints is reflected in the model by changes of global oil price or crude oil price in Canada. The market share of novel in situ mining technologies with low energy and water use are assessed and calculated in the market penetration framework include: 1) Partial upgrading, 2) Liquid addition to steam to enhance recovery (LASER), 3) Solvent-assisted process (SAP), also called solvent-cyclic steam-assisted gravity drainage (SC-SAGD), 4) Cyclic solvent, 5) Heated solvent, 6) Wedge well, 7) Enhanced modified steam and Gas push (emsagp), 8) Electro-thermal dynamic stripping process (ET-DSP), 9) Harris electro-magnetic heating applications (EMHA), 10) Paraffin froth separation. The results of the study will show the penetration profile of these technologies over a long term planning horizon.

Keywords: appliances efficiency improvement, diffusion models, market penetration, residential sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
79 An Experimental Study of the Influence of Particle Breakage on the Interface Friction Angle and Shear Strength of Carbonate Sands

Authors: Ruben Dario Tovar-Valencia, Eshan Ganju, Fei Han, Monica Prezzi, Rodrigo Salgado


Particle breakage occurs even in strong silica sand particles. There is compelling evidence that suggests that particle breakage causes changes in several properties such as permeability, peak strength, dilatancy and critical state friction angle. Current pile design methods that are based on soil properties do not account for particle breakage that occurs during driving or jacking of displacement piles. This may lead to significant overestimation of pile capacity in sands dominated by particles susceptible to breakage, such as carbonate sands. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of shear displacement on particle breakage and friction angle of carbonate sands, and to furthermore quantify the change in friction angle observed with different levels of particle breakage. To study the phenomenon of particle breakage, multiple ring shear tests have been performed at different levels of vertical confinement on a thoroughly characterized carbonate sand to find i) the shear displacement necessary to reach stable friction angles and ii) the effect of particle breakage on the mobilized friction angle of the tested sand. The findings of this study can potentially be used to update the current pile design methods by developing a friction angle which is a function of shear displacement and breakage characteristics of the sand instead of being a constant value.

Keywords: breakage, carbonate sand, friction angle, pile design, ring shear test

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
78 Aquatic and Marshy Flora from Fresh Water Wetlands on Quartz Sands in Pinar Del Río, Cuba

Authors: Vidal Pérez Hernández, Enrique González Pendás


The most of the aquatic and marshy flora in Cuba, is located on quartzitic sands ecosystems and they are represented by a wide variety of freshwater wetlands, which are spread in the whole south and south-western plain of Pinar del Río. The survey carried out in these ecosystems offers an updated inventory of these species, showing up their biological type, habit, distribution, and the threat grade to which are subjected, taking into account categories granted by UICN. A remarkable decrease is evidenced, in the total of these species respect to this area; due to deposit processes and deforestation, which are taken place by the human activity and the climatic change. It is linked to others threats like, limitless use of their water reserves for irrigating groves, the cattle raising and intensive fishing. Added to it, its sand with 99% pure crystal quartz, are used for the mining. The combination of all factors has a negative influence on a flora that stores more than 250 species, most of them herbaceous and hydrophytes. In these particular ecosystems were found a 40% endemism from total flora, and more than 80%, are evaluated inside the most sensitive threat categories, and already some of them have been declared as extinct.

Keywords: aquatic flora, marshy flora, quartzitic sands, wetlands

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
77 Synergistic Erosion–Corrosion Behavior of Petroleum Pipelines at Various Conditions

Authors: M. A. Deyab, A. Al-Sabagh, S. Keera


The effects of flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature on erosion-corrosion of petroleum pipelines (carbon steel) in the oil sands slurry were studied by electrochemical polarization measurements. It was found that the anodic excursion spans of carbon steel in the oil sands slurry are characterized by the occurrence of a well-defined anodic peak, followed by a passive region. The data reveal that increasing flow velocity, sand concentration and temperature enhances the anodic peak current density (jAP) and shifts pitting potential (Epit) towards more negative values. The variation of sand particle size does not have apparent effect on polarization behavior of carbon steel. The ratios of the erosion rate to corrosion rate (E/C) were calculated and discussed. The ratio of erosion to corrosion rates E/C increased with increasing the flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size, and temperature indicating that an increasing slurry flow velocity, sand concentration, sand size and temperature resulted in an enhancement of the erosion effect.

Keywords: erosion-corrosion, oil sands slurry, polarization, steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
76 Finite Element Simulation of an Offshore Monopile Subjected to Cyclic Loading Using Hypoplasticity with Intergranular Strain Anisotropy (ISA) for the Soil

Authors: William Fuentes, Melany Gil


Numerical simulations of offshore wind turbines (OWTs) in shallow waters demand sophisticated models considering the cyclic nature of the environmental loads. For the case of an OWT founded on sands, rapid loading may cause a reduction of the effective stress of the soil surrounding the structure. This eventually leads to its settlement, tilting, or other issues affecting its serviceability. In this work, a 3D FE model of an OWT founded on sand is constructed and analyzed. Cyclic loading with different histories is applied at certain points of the tower to simulate some environmental forces. The mechanical behavior of the soil is simulated through the recently proposed ISA-hypoplastic model for sands. The Intergranular Strain Anisotropy ISA can be interpreted as an enhancement of the intergranular strain theory, often used to extend hypoplastic formulations for the simulation of cyclic loading. In contrast to previous formulations, the proposed constitutive model introduces an elastic range for small strain amplitudes, includes the cyclic mobility effect and is able to capture the cyclic behavior of sands under a larger number of cycles. The model performance is carefully evaluated on the FE dynamic analysis of the OWT.

Keywords: offshore wind turbine, monopile, ISA, hypoplasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
75 Application of Decline Curve Analysis to Depleted Wells in a Cluster and then Predicting the Performance of Currently Flowing Wells

Authors: Satish Kumar Pappu


The most common questions which are frequently asked in oil and gas industry are how much is the current production rate from a particular well and what is the approximate predicted life of that well. These questions can be answered through forecasting of important realistic data like flowing tubing hole pressures FTHP, Production decline curves which are used predict the future performance of a well in a reservoir. With the advent of directional drilling, cluster well drilling has gained much importance and in-fact has even revolutionized the whole world of oil and gas industry. An oil or gas reservoir can generally be described as a collection of several overlying, producing and potentially producing sands in to which a number of wells are drilled depending upon the in-place volume and several other important factors both technical and economical in nature, in some sands only one well is drilled and in some, more than one. The aim of this study is to derive important information from the data collected over a period of time at regular intervals on a depleted well in a reservoir sand and apply this information to predict the performance of other wells in that reservoir sand. The depleted wells are the most common observations when an oil or gas field is being visited, w the application of this study more realistic in nature.

Keywords: decline curve analysis, estimation of future gas reserves, reservoir sands, reservoir risk profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
74 The Environmental Conflict over the Trans Mountain Pipeline Expansion in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada

Authors: Emiliano Castillo


The aim of this research is to analyze the origins, the development and possible outcomes of the environmental conflict between grassroots organizations, indigenous communities, Kinder Morgan Corporation, and the Canadian government over the Trans Mountain pipeline expansion in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. Building on the political ecology and the environmental justice theoretical framework, this research examines the impacts and risks of tar sands extraction, production, and transportation on climate change, public health, the environment, and indigenous people´s rights over their lands. This study is relevant to the environmental justice and political ecology literature because it discusses the unequal distribution of environmental costs and economic benefits of tar sands development; and focuses on the competing interests, needs, values, and claims of the actors involved in the conflict. Furthermore, it will shed light on the context, conditions, and processes that lead to the organization and mobilization of a grassroots movement- comprised of indigenous communities, citizens, scientists, and non-governmental organizations- that draw significant media attention by opposing the Trans Mountain pipeline expansion. Similarly, the research will explain the differences and dynamics within the grassroots movement. This research seeks to address the global context of the conflict by studying the links between the decline of conventional oil production, the rise of unconventional fossil fuels (e.g. tar sands), climate change, and the struggles of low-income, ethnic, and racial minorities over the territorial expansion of extractive industries. Data will be collected from legislative documents, policy and technical reports, scientific journals, newspapers articles, participant observation, and semi-structured interviews with representatives and members of the grassroots organizations, indigenous communities, and Burnaby citizens that oppose the Trans Mountain pipeline. These interviews will focus on their perceptions of the risks of the Trans Mountain pipeline expansion; the roots of the anti-tar sands movement; the differences and dynamics within the movement; and the strategies to defend the livelihoods of local communities and the environment against tar sands development. This research will contribute to the understanding of the underlying causes of the environmental conflict between the Canadian government, Kinder Morgan, and grassroots organizations over tar sands extraction, production, and transportation in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. Moreover, this work will elucidate the transformations of society-nature relationships brought by tar sands development. Research findings will provide scientific information about how the resistance movement in British Columbia can challenge the dominant narrative on tar sands, exert greater influence in environmental politics, and efficiently defend Indigenous people´s rights to lands. Furthermore, this research will shed light into how grassroots movements can contribute towards the building of more inclusive and sustainable societies.

Keywords: environmental conflict, environmental justice, extractive industry, indigenous communities, political ecology, tar sands

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
73 Parameters Adjustment of the Modified UBCSand Constitutive Model for the Potentially Liquefiable Sands of Santiago de Cali-Colombia

Authors: Daniel Rosero, Johan S. Arana, Sebastian Arango, Alejandro Cruz, Isabel Gomez-Gutierrez, Peter Thomson


Santiago de Cali is located in the southwestern Colombia in a high seismic hazard zone. About 50% of the city is on the banks of the Cauca River, which is the second most important hydric affluent in the country and whose alluvial deposits contain potentially liquefiable sands. Among the methods used to study a site's liquefaction potential is the finite elements method which use constitutive models to simulate the soil response for different load types. Among the different constitutive models, the Modified UBCSand stands out to study the seismic behavior of sands, and especially the liquefaction phenomenon. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of a potentially liquefiable sand of Santiago de Cali is studied by cyclic triaxial and CPTu tests. Subsequently, the behavior of the sand is simulated using the Modified UBCSand constitutive model, whose parameters are calibrated using the results of cyclic triaxial and CPTu tests. The above with the aim of analyze the constitutive model applicability for studying the geotechnical problems associated to liquefaction in the city.

Keywords: constitutive model, cyclic triaxial test, dynamic behavior, liquefiable sand, modified ubcsand

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
72 Understanding Natural Resources Governance in Canada: The Role of Institutions, Interests, and Ideas in Alberta's Oil Sands Policy

Authors: Justine Salam


As a federal state, Canada’s constitutional arrangements regarding the management of natural resources is unique because it gives complete ownership and control of natural resources to the provinces (subnational level). However, the province of Alberta—home to the third largest oil reserves in the world—lags behind comparable jurisdictions in levying royalties on oil corporations, especially oil sands royalties. While Albertans own the oil sands, scholars have argued that natural resource exploitation in Alberta benefits corporations and industry more than it does Albertans. This study provides a systematic understanding of the causal factors affecting royalties in Alberta to map dynamics of power and how they manifest themselves during policy-making. Mounting domestic and global public pressure led Alberta to review its oil sands royalties twice in less than a decade through public-commissioned Royalty Review Panels, first in 2007 and again in 2015. The Panels’ task was to research best practices and to provide policy recommendations to the Government through public consultations with Albertans, industry, non-governmental organizations, and First Nations peoples. Both times, the Panels recommended a relative increase to oil sands royalties. However, irrespective of the Reviews’ recommendations, neither the right-wing 2007 Progressive Conservative Party (PC) nor the left-wing 2015 New Democratic Party (NDP) government—both committed to increase oil sands royalties—increased royalty intake. Why did two consecutive political parties at opposite ends of the political spectrum fail to account for the recommendations put forward by the Panel? Through a qualitative case-study analysis, this study assesses domestic and global causal factors for Alberta’s inability to raise oil sands royalties significantly after the two Reviews through an institutions, interests, and ideas framework. Indeed, causal factors can be global (e.g. market and price fluctuation) or domestic (e.g. oil companies’ influence on the Alberta government). The institutions, interests, and ideas framework is at the intersection of public policy, comparative studies, and political economy literatures, and therefore draws multi-faceted insights into the analysis. To account for institutions, the study proposes to review international trade agreements documents such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) because they have embedded Alberta’s oil sands into American energy security policy and tied Canadian and Albertan oil policy in legal international nods. To account for interests, such as how the oil lobby or the environment lobby can penetrate governmental decision-making spheres, the study draws on the Oil Sands Oral History project, a database of interviews from government officials and oil industry leaders at a pivotal time in Alberta’s oil industry, 2011-2013. Finally, to account for ideas, such as how narratives of Canada as a global ‘energy superpower’ and the importance of ‘energy security’ have dominated and polarized public discourse, the study relies on content analysis of Alberta-based pro-industry newspapers to trace the prevalence of these narratives. By mapping systematically the nods and dynamics of power at play in Alberta, the study sheds light on the factors that influence royalty policy-making in one of the largest industries in Canada.

Keywords: Alberta Canada, natural resources governance, oil sands, political economy

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
71 Use of Electrokinetic Technology to Enhance Chemical and Biological Remediation of Contaminated Sands and Soils

Authors: Brian Wartell, Michel Boufadel


Contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds present in crude and petroleum oils and are known to be toxic and often carcinogenic. Therefore, a major effort is placed on tracking their subsurface soil concentrations following an oil spill. The PAHs can persist for years in the subsurface especially if there is a lack of oxygen. Both aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs encounter the difficulties of both nutrient transport and bioavailability (proximal access) to the organisms of the contaminants. A technology, known as electrokinetics (EK or EK-BIO for ‘electrokinetic bioremediation’) has been found to transport efficiently nutrients or other chemicals in the subsurface. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate migration patterns in both sands and clay for both ionic and nonionic compounds and aerobic biodegradation studies were conducted with soil spiked with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons yielding interesting results. In one set of experiment, Self-designed electrokinetic setups were constructed to examine the differences in electromigration and electroosmotic rates. Anionic and non-ionic dyes were used to visualize these phenomena, respectively. In another experiment, a silt-clay soil was spiked with three low-molecular-weight compounds (fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene) and placed within self-designed electrokinetic setups and monitored for aerobic degradation. Plans for additional studies are in progress including the transport of peroxide through anaerobic sands.

Keywords: bioavailability, bioremediation, electrokinetics, subsurface transport

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
70 Geochemistry of Silt Size Fraction of the Beach Sands Along the Coast Between Al Kuwifia and Tolmeita, NE Libya

Authors: Basem A. El Werfalli, Osama R. Shaltamiab, Ragab M. Al Alwany


The present work aims to characterize the geochemistry of the beach sands along the Mediterranean Coast from Al Kuwifia to Tolmeita, NE Libya. The major oxides CaO and MgO are the main constituents of the carbonate minerals; calcite and aragonite. SiO₂ is mainly in the form of quartz. Sometimes a high quotient of SiO₂ together with the oxides; Al₂O₃, K₂O and partly of Na₂O, TiO₂ and Fe₂O₃ are essentially allocated within the structure of the feldspars. Part of Na₂O and the content of Cl belong mainly to halite. Part of Fe₂O₃ and TiO₂ may be accommodated as iron oxyhydroxides. Part of CaO and the content of SO₃ are allotted within the gypsum structure. Ba, Sr, Th, U and REE are basically controlled by the carbonate fraction, while Cu, Zn, V and Cr are strongly correlated with Al₂O₃.

Keywords: geochemistry, major oxides, Al Kuwifia, Tolmeita

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
69 The Effect of the Water and Fines Content on Shear Strength of Soils

Authors: Ouledja Abdessalam


This work Contains an experimental study of the behavior of Chlef sand under the effect of various parameters influencing on shear strength. Because of their distinct nature, sands, silts, and clays exhibit completely different behavior (shear strength, the Contracting and dilatancy, the angle of internal friction and cohesion...). By cons when these materials are mixed, their behavior will become different from each considered alone. The behavior of these mixtures (silty sands...) is currently the state of several studies to better use. We have studied in this work: The influence of the following factors on the shear strength: The density (loose and dense), the fines content (silt), The water content. The apparatus used for the tests is the casagrande shear box. This device, although one may have some disadvantages and modern instrumentation is appropriately used to study the shear strength of soils.

Keywords: shear strength, sand, silt, contractancy, dilatancy, friction angle, cohesion, fines content

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
68 Characterization of Lahar Sands for Reclamation Projects in the Manila Bay, Philippines

Authors: Julian Sandoval, Philipp Schober


Lahar sand (lahars) is a material that originates from volcanic debris flows. During and after a volcano eruption, the lahars can move at speeds up to 22 meters per hour or more, so they can easily cover extensive areas and destroy any structure in their path. Mount Pinatubo eruption (1991) brought lahars to its vicinities, and its use has been a matter of research ever since. Lahars are often disposed of for land reclamation projects in the Manila Bay, Philippines. After reclamation, some deep loss deposits may still present and they are prone to liquefaction. To mitigate the risk of liquefaction of such deposits, Vibro compaction has been proposed and used as a ground improvement technique. Cone penetration testing (CPT) campaigns are usually initiated to monitor the effectiveness of the ground improvement works by vibro compaction. The CPT cone resistance is used to analyses the in-situ relative density of the reclaimed sand before and after compaction. Available correlations between the CPT cone resistance and the relative density are only valid for non-crushable sands. Due to the partially crushable nature of lahars, the CPT data requires to be adjusted to allow for a correct interpretation of the CPT data. The objective of this paper is to characterize the chemical and mechanical properties of the lahar sands used for an ongoing project in the Port of Manila, which comprises reclamation activities using lahars from the east of Mount Pinatubo, it investigates their effect in the proposed correction factor. Additionally, numerous CPTs were carried out in a test trial and during the execution of the project. Based on this data, the influence of the grid spacing, compaction steps and the holding time on the compaction results are analyzed. Moreover, the so-called “aging effect” of the lahars is studied by comparing the results of the CPT testing campaign at different times after the vibro compaction activities. A considerable increase in the tip resistance of the CPT was observed over time.

Keywords: vibro compaction, CPT, lahar sands, correction factor, chemical composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
67 The Effect of Water and Fines Content on Shear Strength of Silty Soils

Authors: Dellal Seyyid Ali


This work Contains an experimental study of the behavior of Chlef sand under effect of various parameters influencing on shear strength. Because of their distinct nature, sands, silts and clays exhibit completely different behavior (shear strength, the Contracting and dilatancy, the angle of internal friction and cohesion ...). By cons when these materials are mixed, their behavior will become different from each considered alone. The behavior of these mixtures (silty sands ...) is currently the state of several studies to better use. We have studied in this work: The influence of the following factors on the shear strength: The density (loose and dense), the fines content (silt), the water content. The apparatus used for the tests is the casagrande shear box. This device, although one may have some disadvantages and modern instrumentation is appropriate used to study the shear strength of soils.

Keywords: shear strength, sand, silt, contractanct, dilatancy, friction angle, cohesion, fines content

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
66 Experimental Evaluation of Compressive Strength of Concrete with Several Local Sand Exposed to Freeze-Thaw Cycles

Authors: Mlk. Khouadjia, B. Mezghiche


The environment protection has led to a growing interest in the use of crushed sand, which is not correctly exploited due to the high rate of fine particles that it contains and which affect concrete properties. This study will examine the variation of the compressive strength of concrete with several local areas of sand exposed to freeze-thaw cycles and chemical solutions. The experiments have been realized on crushed, river, and dune sands. We use software (MATLAB) to find the coefficient of particle shape. Finally, we have found a relationship between the reference concrete without modification and concrete modified with river and dune sands to predict the variations of resistance after curing in different environments. The results showed that the behavior of concrete is different according to the types of sand and the environment of exposition.

Keywords: crushed sand, compressive strength, freeze-thaw, MATLAB, dune sand, river sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
65 Settlement Prediction in Cape Flats Sands Using Shear Wave Velocity – Penetration Resistance Correlations

Authors: Nanine Fouche


The Cape Flats is a low-lying sand-covered expanse of approximately 460 square kilometres, situated to the southeast of the central business district of Cape Town in the Western Cape of South Africa. The aeolian sands masking this area are often loose and compressible in the upper 1m to 1.5m of the surface, and there is a general exceedance of the maximum allowable settlement in these sands. The settlement of shallow foundations on Cape Flats sands is commonly predicted using the results of in-situ tests such as the SPT or DPSH due to the difficulty of retrieving undisturbed samples for laboratory testing. Varying degrees of accuracy and reliability are associated with these methods. More recently, shear wave velocity (Vs) profiles obtained from seismic testing, such as continuous surface wave tests (CSW), are being used for settlement prediction. Such predictions have the advantage of considering non-linear stress-strain behaviour of soil and the degradation of stiffness with increasing strain. CSW tests are rarely executed in the Cape Flats, whereas SPT’s are commonly performed. For this reason, and to facilitate better settlement predictions in Cape Flats sand, equations representing shear wave velocity (Vs) as a function of SPT blow count (N60) and vertical effective stress (v’) were generated by statistical regression of site investigation data. To reveal the most appropriate method of overburden correction, analyses were performed with a separate overburden term (Pa/σ’v) as well as using stress corrected shear wave velocity and SPT blow counts (correcting Vs. and N60 to Vs1and (N1)60respectively). Shear wave velocity profiles and SPT blow count data from three sites masked by Cape Flats sands were utilised to generate 80 Vs-SPT N data pairs for analysis. Investigated terrains included sites in the suburbs of Athlone, Muizenburg, and Atlantis, all underlain by windblown deposits comprising fine and medium sand with varying fines contents. Elastic settlement analysis was also undertaken for the Cape Flats sands, using a non-linear stepwise method based on small-strain stiffness estimates, which was obtained from the best Vs-N60 model and compared to settlement estimates using the general elastic solution with stiffness profiles determined using Stroud’s (1989) and Webb’s (1969) SPT N60-E transformation models. Stroud’s method considers strain level indirectly whereasWebb’smethod does not take account of the variation in elastic modulus with strain. The expression of Vs. in terms of N60 and Pa/σv’ derived from the Atlantis data set revealed the best fit with R2 = 0.83 and a standard error of 83.5m/s. Less accurate Vs-SPT N relations associated with the combined data set is presumably the result of inversion routines used in the analysis of the CSW results showcasing significant variation in relative density and stiffness with depth. The regression analyses revealed that the inclusion of a separate overburden term in the regression of Vs and N60, produces improved fits, as opposed to the stress corrected equations in which the R2 of the regression is notably lower. It is the correction of Vs and N60 to Vs1 and (N1)60 with empirical constants ‘n’ and ‘m’ prior to regression, that introduces bias with respect to overburden pressure. When comparing settlement prediction methods, both Stroud’s method (considering strain level indirectly) and the small strain stiffness method predict higher stiffnesses for medium dense and dense profiles than Webb’s method, which takes no account of strain level in the determination of soil stiffness. Webb’s method appears to be suitable for loose sands only. The Versak software appears to underestimate differences in settlement between square and strip footings of similar width. In conclusion, settlement analysis using small-strain stiffness data from the proposed Vs-N60 model for Cape Flats sands provides a way to take account of the non-linear stress-strain behaviour of the sands when calculating settlement.

Keywords: sands, settlement prediction, continuous surface wave test, small-strain stiffness, shear wave velocity, penetration resistance

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64 Analysis of Behaviors of Single and Group Helical Piles in Sands from Experiment Results

Authors: Jongho Park, Junwon Lee, Byeonghyun Choi, Kicheol Lee, Dongwook Kim


The typically-used oil sand plant foundations are driven pile or drilled shaft. With more strict environmental regulations world widely, it became more important to completely remove the foundation during the stage of plant demolition. However, it is difficult to remove driven piles or drilled shafts that are installed at a deeper and stronger depth to gain more bearing pile capacity. The helical pile can be easily removed after its use and recycled; therefore it is suitable for oil sand plant foundation. This study analyzes the behavior of helical piles in sands. Axial pile load tests were carried out the varying spacing of helix plates (helices), rotation speed and weight of axial loading during pile installation. From the experiments, optimal helix plate spacing, rotation speed, axial loading during installation were determined. In addition, the behavior of helical pile groups was examined varying pile spacing. Finally, the behavior of single helical piles and that of group helical piles were compared.

Keywords: oil sand plant, pile load test, helical pile, group helical pile, behavior

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63 Positive Interactions among Plants in Pinegroves over Quarzitic Sands

Authors: Enrique González Pendás, Vidal Pérez Hernández, Jorge Ferro Díaz, Nelson Careaga Pendás


The investigation is carried out on the Protected Area of San Ubaldo, toward the interior of an open pinegrove with palm trees in a dry plainness of quar zitic sands, belonging to the Floristic Managed Reservation San Ubaldo-Sabanalamar, Guane, Pinar del Río, Cuba. This area is characterized by drastic seasonal variations, high temperatures and water evaporation, strong solar radiation, with sandy soils of almost pure quartz, which are very acid and poor in nutrients. The objective of the present work is to determine evidence of facilitation and its relationship with the structure and composition of plant communities in these peculiar ecosystems. For this study six lineal parallel transepts of 100 m are traced, in those, a general recording of the flora is carried out. To establish which plants act as nurses, is taken into account a height over 1 meter, canopy over 1.5 meter and the occurrence of several species under it. Covering was recorded using the line intercept method; the medium values of species richness for the taxa under nurses is compared with those that are located in open spaces among them. Then, it is determined which plants are better recruiter of other species (better nurses). An experiment is made to measure and compare some parameters in pine seedlings under the canopy of the Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and in open spaces, also the number of individuals is counted by species to calculate the frequency and total abundance in the study area. As a result, it is offered an up-to-date floristic list, a phylogenetic tree of the plant community showing a high phylodiversity, it is proven that the medium values of species richness and abundance of species under the nurses, is significantly superior to those occurring in open spaces. Furthermore, by means of phylogenetic trees it is shown that the species which cohabit under the nurses are not phylogenetically related. The former results are cited evidences of facilitation among plants, as well as it is one more time shown the importance of the nurse effect in preserving plant diversity on extreme environments.

Keywords: facilitation, nurse plants, positive interactions, quarzitic sands

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62 Case Study; Drilled Shafts Installation in Difficult Site Conditions; Loose Sand and High Water Table

Authors: Anthony El Hachem, Hosam Salman


Selecting the most effective construction method for drilled shafts under the high phreatic surface can be a challenging task that requires effective communication between the design and construction teams. Slurry placement, temporary casing, and permanent casing are the three most commonly used installation techniques to ensure the stability of the drilled hole before casting the concrete. Each one of these methods has its implications on the installation and performance of the drilled piers. Drilled shafts were designed to support a fire wall for an Energy project in Central Texas. The subsurface consisted of interlayers of sands and clays of varying shear strengths. The design recommended that the shafts be installed with temporary casing or slurry displacement due to the anticipated groundwater seepage through granular soils. During the foundation construction, it was very difficult to maintain the stability of the hole, and the contractor requested to install the shafts using permanent casings. Therefore, the foundation design was modified to ensure that the cased shafts achieve the required load capacity. Effective and continuous communications between the owner, contractor and design team during field shaft installations to mitigate the unforeseen challenges helped the team to successfully complete the project.

Keywords: construction challenges, deep foundations, drilled shafts, loose sands underwater table, permanent casing

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61 Anisotropic Behavior of Sand Stabilized with Colloidal Silica

Authors: Eleni Maria Pavlopoulou, Vasiliki N. Georgiannou, Filippos C. Chortis


The response of M31 sand stabilized with colloidal silica (CS) aqueous gel is investigated in the laboratory. CS is introduced in the water regime, forming a hydrosol. The low viscosity hydrosol thickens in a controllable manner to form a stable, non-toxic gel; the gel fills the pore space, retains the pore water, and supports the grain structure. The role of colloidal silica on subsequent sand behavior is examined with the aid of direct shear, triaxial, and normal compression tests. Under the examined loading modes, while the strength of the treated sand is enhanced, its stiffness may reduce, and its compressibility increase. However, in most geotechnical problems, the loading conditions are complex, involving changes in both stress magnitude and direction. Rotation of principal stresses (σ1, σ2, σ3) in varying amounts expressed as angle α, (from α=0° to 90°) in concurrence with increasing shear stress loading is commonly encountered in soil structures such as foundations, embankments, underwater slopes. To assess the influence of anisotropy on the response of sands before and after their stabilization, hollow cylinder tests were performed. The behavior of stabilized sand is compared with the characteristic sand behavior, i.e., a reduction in peak stress ratio associated with a softer stress-strain response with the increasing angle a. The influence of the magnitude of the intermediate principal stress (σ2) on the mechanical response of treated and untreated sand is also examined.

Keywords: anisotropy, colloidal silica, laboratory tests, sands, soil stabilization

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60 The Effect of Grading Characteristics on the Shear Strength and Mechanical Behavior of Granular Classes of Sand-Silt

Authors: Youssouf Benmeriem


Shear strength of sandy soils has been considered as the important parameter to study the stability of different civil engineering structures when subjected to monotonic, cyclic and earthquake loading conditions. The proposed research investigated the effect of grading characteristics on the shear strength and mechanical behavior of granular classes of sands mixed with silt in loose and dense states (Dr = 15% and 90%). The laboratory investigation aimed at understanding the extent or degree at which shear strength of sand-silt mixture soil is affected by its gradation under static loading conditions. For the purpose of clarifying and evaluating the shear strength characteristics of sandy soils, a series of Casagrande shear box tests were carried out on different reconstituted samples of sand-silt mixtures with various gradations. The soil samples were tested under different normal stresses (100, 200 and 300 kPa). The results from this laboratory investigation were used to develop insight into the shear strength response of sand and sand-silt mixtures under monotonic loading conditions. The analysis of the obtained data revealed that the grading characteristics (D10, D50, Cu, ESR, and MGSR) have significant influence on the shear strength response. It was found that shear strength can be correlated to the grading characteristics for the sand-silt mixture. The effective size ratio (ESR) and mean grain size ratio (MGSR) appear as pertinent parameters to predict the shear strength response of the sand-silt mixtures for soil gradation under study.

Keywords: grading characteristics, granular classes of sands, mechanical behavior, sand-silt, shear strength

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