Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: calculator

29 Horizontal Circular Curve Computations Using a Developed Calculator

Authors: Adil Hassabo

Abstract:

In this paper, a horizontal circular curve computations calculator is developed in Microsoft Windows. The developed calculator can be used for determining the necessary information required for setting out horizontal curves. Three methods are applied in the developed program namely: incremental chord method, total chord method, and the coordinates method. Computations of horizontal curves by the developed calculator is faster, easier, accurate, and less subject to errors comparable to the traditional method of calculations. Finally, the results obtained by the traditional method and by the developed calculator are presented for checking the behavior of the developed calculator.

Keywords: calculator, circular, computations, curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
28 An Application-Based Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Calculator for Residential Buildings

Authors: Kwok W. Mui, Ling T. Wong, Chin T. Cheung, Ho C. Yu

Abstract:

Based on an indoor environmental quality (IEQ) index established by previous work that indicates the overall IEQ acceptance from the prospect of an occupant in residential buildings in terms of four IEQ factors - thermal comfort, indoor air quality, visual and aural comforts, this study develops a user-friendly IEQ calculator for iOS and Android users to calculate the occupant acceptance and compare the relative performance of IEQ in apartments. The calculator allows the prediction of the best IEQ scenario on a quantitative scale. Any indoor environments under the specific IEQ conditions can be benchmarked against the predicted IEQ acceptance range. This calculator can also suggest how to achieve the best IEQ acceptance among a group of residents.

Keywords: calculator, indoor environmental quality (IEQ), residential buildings, 5-star benchmarks

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
27 Overcoming Usability Challenges of Educational Math Apps: Designing and Testing a Mobile Graphing Calculator

Authors: M. Tomaschko

Abstract:

The integration of technology in educational settings has gained a lot of interest. Especially the use of mobile devices and accompanying mobile applications can offer great potentials to complement traditional education with new technologies and enrich students’ learning in various ways. Nevertheless, the usability of the deployed mathematics application is an indicative factor to exploit the full potential of technology enhanced learning because directing cognitive load toward using an application will likely inhibit effective learning. For this reason, the purpose of this research study is the identification of possible usability issues of the mobile GeoGebra Graphing Calculator application. Therefore, eye tracking in combination with task scenarios, think aloud method, and a SUS questionnaire were used. Based on the revealed usability issues, the mobile application was iteratively redesigned and assessed in order to verify the success of the usability improvements. In this paper, the identified usability issues are presented, and recommendations on how to overcome these concerns are provided. The main findings relate to the conception of a mathematics keyboard and the interaction design in relation to an equation editor, as well as the representation of geometrical construction tools. In total, 12 recommendations were formed to improve the usability of a mobile graphing calculator application. The benefit to be gained from this research study is not only the improvement of the usability of the existing GeoGebra Graphing Calculator application but also to provide helpful hints that could be considered from designers and developers of mobile math applications.

Keywords: GeoGebra, graphing calculator, math education, smartphone, usability

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
26 Graphic Calculator Effectiveness in Biology Teaching and Learning

Authors: Nik Azmah Nik Yusuff, Faridah Hassan Basri, Rosnidar Mansor

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The purpose of the study is to find out the effectiveness of using Graphic calculators (GC) with Calculator Based Laboratory 2 (CBL2) in teaching and learning of form four biology for these topics: Nutrition, Respiration and Dynamic Ecosystem. Sixty form four science stream students were the participants of this study. The participants were divided equally into the treatment and control groups. The treatment group used GC with CBL2 during experiments while the control group used the ordinary conventional laboratory apparatus without using GC with CBL2. Instruments in this study were a set of pre-test and post-test and a questionnaire. T-Test was used to compare the student’s biology achievement while a descriptive statistic was used to analyze the outcome of the questionnaire. The findings of this study indicated the use of GC with CBL2 in biology had significant positive effect. The highest mean was 4.43 for item stating the use of GC with CBL2 had saved collecting experiment result’s time. The second highest mean was 4.10 for item stating GC with CBL2 had saved drawing and labelling graphs. The outcome from the questionnaire also showed that GC with CBL2 were easy to use and save time. Thus, teachers should use GC with CBL2 in support of efforts by Malaysia Ministry of Education in encouraging technology-enhanced lessons.

Keywords: biology experiments, Calculator-Based Laboratory 2 (CBL2), graphic calculators, Malaysia Secondary School, teaching/learning

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25 Technology in the Calculation of People Health Level: Design of a Computational Tool

Authors: Sara Herrero Jaén, José María Santamaría García, María Lourdes Jiménez Rodríguez, Jorge Luis Gómez González, Adriana Cercas Duque, Alexandra González Aguna

Abstract:

Background: Health concept has evolved throughout history. The health level is determined by the own individual perception. It is a dynamic process over time so that you can see variations from one moment to the next. In this way, knowing the health of the patients you care for, will facilitate decision making in the treatment of care. Objective: To design a technological tool that calculates the people health level in a sequential way over time. Material and Methods: Deductive methodology through text analysis, extraction and logical knowledge formalization and education with expert group. Studying time: September 2015- actually. Results: A computational tool for the use of health personnel has been designed. It has 11 variables. Each variable can be given a value from 1 to 5, with 1 being the minimum value and 5 being the maximum value. By adding the result of the 11 variables we obtain a magnitude in a certain time, the health level of the person. The health calculator allows to represent people health level at a time, establishing temporal cuts being useful to determine the evolution of the individual over time. Conclusion: The Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) allow training and help in various disciplinary areas. It is important to highlight their relevance in the field of health. Based on the health formalization, care acts can be directed towards some of the propositional elements of the concept above. The care acts will modify the people health level. The health calculator allows the prioritization and prediction of different strategies of health care in hospital units.

Keywords: calculator, care, eHealth, health

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
24 Analyzing Safety Incidents using the Fatigue Risk Index Calculator as an Indicator of Fatigue within a UK Rail Franchise

Authors: Michael Scott Evans, Andrew Smith

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The feeling of fatigue at work could potentially have devastating consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the well-established objective indicator of fatigue – the Fatigue Risk Index (FRI) calculator used by the rail industry is an effective indicator to the number of safety incidents, in which fatigue could have been a contributing factor. The study received ethics approval from Cardiff University’s Ethics Committee (EC.16.06.14.4547). A total of 901 safety incidents were recorded from a single British rail franchise between 1st June 2010 – 31st December 2016, into the Safety Management Information System (SMIS). The safety incident types identified that fatigue could have been a contributing factor were: Signal Passed at Danger (SPAD), Train Protection & Warning System (TPWS) activation, Automatic Warning System (AWS) slow to cancel, failed to call, and station overrun. From the 901 recorded safety incidents, the scheduling system CrewPlan was used to extract the Fatigue Index (FI) score and Risk Index (RI) score of all train drivers on the day of the safety incident. Only the working rosters of 64.2% (N = 578) (550 men and 28 female) ranging in age from 24 – 65 years old (M = 47.13, SD = 7.30) were accessible for analyses. Analysis from all 578 train drivers who were involved in safety incidents revealed that 99.8% (N = 577) of Fatigue Index (FI) scores fell within or below the identified guideline threshold of 45 as well as 97.9% (N = 566) of Risk Index (RI) scores falling below the 1.6 threshold range. Their scores represent good practice within the rail industry. These findings seem to indicate that the current objective indicator, i.e. the FRI calculator used in this study by the British rail franchise was not an effective predictor of train driver’s FI scores and RI scores, as safety incidents in which fatigue could have been a contributing factor represented only 0.2% of FI scores and 2.1% of RI scores. Further research is needed to determine whether there are other contributing factors that could provide a better indication as to why there is such a significantly large proportion of train drivers who are involved in safety incidents, in which fatigue could have been a contributing factor have such low FI and RI scores.

Keywords: fatigue risk index calculator, objective indicator of fatigue, rail industry, safety incident

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
23 Basin Professor, Petroleum Geology Assessor in Indonesia Basin

Authors: Arditya Nugraha, Herry Gunawan, Agung P. Widodo

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The various possible strategies to find hydrocarbon are explored within a wide ranging of efforts. It started to identify petroleum concept in the basin. The main objectives of this paper are to integrate and develop information, knowledge, and evaluation from Indonesia’s sedimentary basins system in terms of their suitability for exploration activity and estimate the hydrocarbon potential available. The system which compiled data information and knowledge and comprised exploration and production data of all basins in Indonesia called as Basin Professor which stands for Basin Professional and Processor. Basin Professor is a website application using Geography Information System which consists of all information about basin montage, basin summary, petroleum system, stratigraphy, development play, risk factor, exploration history, working area, regional cross section, well correlation, prospect & lead inventory and infrastructure spatial. From 82 identified sedimentary basins, North Sumatra, Central Sumatra, South Sumatera, East Java, Kutai, and Tarakan basins are respectively positioned of the Indonesia’ s mature basin and the most productive basin. The Eastern of Indonesia also have many hydrocarbon potential and discovered several fields in Papua and East Abadi. Basin Professor compiled the well data in all of the basin in Indonesia from mature basin to frontier basin. Well known geological data, subsurface mapping, prospect and lead, resources and established infrastructures are the main factors make these basins have higher suitability beside another potential basin. The hydrocarbon potential resulted from this paper based on the degree of geological data, petroleum, and economic evaluation. Basin Professor has provided by a calculator tool in lead and prospect for estimate the hydrocarbon reserves, recoverable in place and geological risk. Furthermore, the calculator also defines the preliminary economic evaluation such as investment, POT IRR and infrastructures in each basin. From this Basin Professor, petroleum companies are able to estimate that Indonesia has a huge potential of hydrocarbon oil and gas reservoirs and still interesting for hydrocarbon exploration and production activity.

Keywords: basin summary, petroleum system, resources, economic evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
22 A Mathematical Equation to Calculate Stock Price of Different Growth Model

Authors: Weiping Liu

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This paper presents an equation to calculate stock prices of different growth model. This equation is mathematically derived by using discounted cash flow method. It has the advantages of being very easy to use and very accurate. It can still be used even when the first stage is lengthy. This equation is more generalized because it can be used for all the three popular stock price models. It can be programmed into financial calculator or electronic spreadsheets. In addition, it can be extended to a multistage model. It is more versatile and efficient than the traditional methods.

Keywords: stock price, multistage model, different growth model, discounted cash flow method

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
21 User-Centered Design in the Development of Patient Decision Aids

Authors: Ariane Plaisance, Holly O. Witteman, Patrick Michel Archambault

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Upon admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), all patients should discuss their wishes concerning life-sustaining interventions (e.g., cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)). Without such discussions, interventions that prolong life at the cost of decreasing its quality may be used without appropriate guidance from patients. We employed user-centered design to adapt an existing decision aid (DA) about CPR to create a novel wiki-based DA adapted to the context of a single ICU and tailored to individual patient’s risk factors. During Phase 1, we conducted three weeks of ethnography of the decision-making context in our ICU to identify clinician and patient needs for a decision aid. During this time, we observed five dyads of intensivists and patients discussing their wishes concerning life-sustaining interventions. We also conducted semi-structured interviews with the attending intensivists in this ICU. During Phase 2, we conducted three rounds of rapid prototyping involving 15 patients and 11 other allied health professionals. We recorded discussions between intensivists and patients and used a standardized observation grid to collect patients’ comments and sociodemographic data. We applied content analysis to field notes, verbatim transcripts and the completed observation grids. Each round of observations and rapid prototyping iteratively informed the design of the next prototype. We also used the programming architecture of a wiki platform to embed the GO-FAR prediction rule programming code that we linked to a risk graphics software to better illustrate outcome risks calculated. During Phase I, we identified the need to add a section in our DA concerning invasive mechanical ventilation in addition to CPR because both life-sustaining interventions were often discussed together by physicians. During Phase II, we produced a context-adapted decision aid about CPR and mechanical ventilation that includes a values clarification section, questions about the patient’s functional autonomy prior to admission to the ICU and the functional decline that they would judge acceptable upon hospital discharge, risks and benefits of CPR and invasive mechanical ventilation, population-level statistics about CPR, a synthesis section to help patients come to a final decision and an online calculator based on the GO-FAR prediction rule. Even though the three rounds of rapid prototyping led to simplifying the information in our DA, 60% (n= 3/5) of the patients involved in the last cycle still did not understand the purpose of the DA. We also identified gaps in the discussion and documentation of patients’ preferences concerning life-sustaining interventions (e.g.,. CPR, invasive mechanical ventilation). The final version of our DA and our online wiki-based GO-FAR risk calculator using the IconArray.com risk graphics software are available online at www.wikidecision.org and are ready to be adapted to other contexts. Our results inform producers of decision aids on the use of wikis and user-centered design to develop DAs that are better adapted to users’ needs. Further work is needed on the creation of a video version of our DA. Physicians will also need the training to use our DA and to develop shared decision-making skills about goals of care.

Keywords: ethnography, intensive care units, life-sustaining therapies, user-centered design

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
20 Calculation of Detection Efficiency of Horizontal Large Volume Source Using Exvol Code

Authors: M. Y. Kang, Euntaek Yoon, H. D. Choi

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To calculate the full energy (FE) absorption peak efficiency for arbitrary volume sample, we developed and verified the EXVol (Efficiency calculator for EXtended Voluminous source) code which is based on effective solid angle method. EXVol is possible to describe the source area as a non-uniform three-dimensional (x, y, z) source. And decompose and set it into several sets of volume units. Users can equally divide (x, y, z) coordinate system to calculate the detection efficiency at a specific position of a cylindrical volume source. By determining the detection efficiency for differential volume units, the total radiative absolute distribution and the correction factor of the detection efficiency can be obtained from the nondestructive measurement of the source. In order to check the performance of the EXVol code, Si ingot of 20 cm in diameter and 50 cm in height were used as a source. The detector was moved at the collimation geometry to calculate the detection efficiency at a specific position and compared with the experimental values. In this study, the performance of the EXVol code was extended to obtain the detection efficiency distribution at a specific position in a large volume source.

Keywords: attenuation, EXVol, detection efficiency, volume source

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
19 Nutrition of Preschool Children in the Aspect of Nutritional Status

Authors: Klaudia Tomala, Elzbieta Grochowska-Niedworok, Katarzyna Brukalo, Marek Kardas, Beata Calyniuk, Renata Polaniak

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Background. Nutrition plays an important role in the psychophysical growth of children and has effects on their health. Providing children with the appropriate supply of macro- and micro-nutrients requires dietary diversity across every food group. Meals in kindergartens should provide 70-75% of their daily food requirement. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the vitamin content in the food rations of children attending kindergarten in the wider aspect of nutritional status. Material and Methods. Kindergarten menus from the spring and autumn seasons of 2015 were analyzed. In these meals, fat content and levels of water-soluble vitamins were estimated. The vitamin content was evaluated using the diet calculator “Aliant”. Statistical analysis was done in MS Office Excel 2007. Results. Vitamin content in the analyzed menus in many cases is too high with reference to dietary intake, with only vitamin D intake being insufficient. Vitamin E intake was closest to the dietary reference intake. Conclusion. The results show that vitamin intake is usually too high, and menus should, therefore, be modified. Also, nutrition education among kindergarten staff is needed. The identified errors in the composition of meals will affect the nutritional status of children and their proper composition in the body.

Keywords: children, nutrition status, vitamins, preschool

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
18 Relationship Between Quetelet Equation and Skin Fold Teckniques in Determining Obesity Among Adolescents in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

Authors: A. Kaidal, M. M. Abdllahi, O. L. Badaki

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The study was conducted to determine the relationship between Quetelet Equation and Skin fold measurement in determining obesity among adolescent male students of University of Maiduguri Demonstration Secondary School, Borno State, Nigeria. A total of 66 students participated in the study, their age ranges from 15-18 years. The ex-post-facto research design was used for this study. Anthropometric measurements were taken at three sites (thigh, abdomen and chest) using accu–measure Skin fold caliper. The values of the three measurements were used to determine the percentage body fat of the participants using the 3-Point Skin Fold Bodyfat calculator of Jackson-Pollock. Body mass index (BMI) was determined using weight (kg) divided by height in (m2). The data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics of Pearson product moment correlation coefficient to determine the relationship between the two techniques. The result showed a significant positive relationship r=0.673 p<0.05 between body mass index and skin fold measurement techniques. It was however observed that BMI techniques of determining body fat tend to overestimate the actual percent body fat of adolescents studied. Based on this result, it is recommended that the use of BMI as a technique for determining obesity should be used with caution.

Keywords: body max index, skin fold, quetelet, techniques

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17 The Determinants of Trade Flow and Potential between Ethiopia and Group of Twenty

Authors: Terefe Alemu

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This study is intended to examine Ethiopia’s trade flow determinants and trade potential with G20 countries whether it was overtraded or there is/are trade potential by using trade gravity model. The sources of panel data used were IMF, WDI, United Nations population division, The Heritage Foundation, Washington's No. 1 think tank online website database, online distance calculator, and others for the duration of 2010 to 2019 for 10 consecutive years. The empirical data analyzing tool used was Random effect model (REM), which is effective in estimation of time-invariant data. The empirical data analyzed using STATA software result indicates that Ethiopia has a trade potential with seven countries of G20, whereas Ethiopia overtrade with 12 countries and EU region. The Ethiopia’s and G20 countries/region bilateral trade flow statistically significant/ p<0.05/determinants were the population of G20 countries, growth domestic products of G20 countries, growth domestic products of Ethiopia, geographical distance between Ethiopia and G20 countries. The top five G20 countries exported to Ethiopia were china, United State of America, European Union, India, and South Africa, whereas the top five G20 countries imported from Ethiopia were EU, China, United State of America, Saudi Arabia, and Germany, respectively. Finally, the policy implication were Ethiopia has to Keep the consistence of trade flow with overtraded countries and improve with under traded countries through trade policy revision, and secondly, focusing on the trade determinants to improve trade flow is recommended.

Keywords: trade gravity model, trade determinants, G20, international trade, trade potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
16 Pregnancy Rhinitis Prevalence among Saudi Women

Authors: Mohammed G. Alotaibi, Sameer Albahkaly, Salwa M. Bahkali, Abdullah M. Alghamdi, Raseel S. Alswidan, Maha Bin Shafi, Sarah Almaiman

Abstract:

Introduction: Rhinitis is common in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, our study was designed to evaluate the prevalence, triggering factors, severity and progression of rhinitis during pregnancy. Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in eight governmental and private medical centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during June and July 2014. Validated Arabic language self-administered questionnaire was used. Sample size of 260 Saudi pregnant women was calculated by Raosoft sample size calculator. Random sampling was achieved by choosing one and skipping every five patients in the clinic list. Data were coded and entered manually into spreadsheets then transferred to SPSS statistical package version 16.0 for Windows. Consent, Privacy and confidentiality of information were assured. Results: Pregnancy rhinitis was reported 31.2% (CI 25.6 - 37.2%). Symptoms arising in first trimester appeared in 79.2% of PR cases and mostly worsen. The most prevalent symptoms were nasal pruritis (67.5%), followed by sneezing (57.1%), congestion (50.6%), and post nasal drip (46.7%). The major triggering factor was dust (71.4%), followed by Tobacco/Shisha smoke (57.6%) and perfume(47%). Preexisting allergic diseases were markedly associated with developing pregnancy rhinitis. Conclusion: Rhinitis during pregnancy manifested in one third of Saudi pregnant ladies. Nasal pruritus was the most common symptom and dust was the widespread triggering factor.

Keywords: allergy, pregnancy, Rhinitis, sneezing

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
15 High Accuracy Analytic Approximations for Modified Bessel Functions I₀(x)

Authors: Pablo Martin, Jorge Olivares, Fernando Maass

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A method to obtain analytic approximations for special function of interest in engineering and physics is described here. Each approximate function will be valid for every positive value of the variable and accuracy will be high and increasing with the number of parameters to determine. The general technique will be shown through an application to the modified Bessel function of order zero, I₀(x). The form and the calculation of the parameters are performed with the simultaneous use of the power series and asymptotic expansion. As in Padé method rational functions are used, but now they are combined with other elementary functions as; fractional powers, hyperbolic, trigonometric and exponential functions, and others. The elementary function is determined, considering that the approximate function should be a bridge between the power series and the asymptotic expansion. In the case of the I₀(x) function two analytic approximations have been already determined. The simplest one is (1+x²/4)⁻¹/⁴(1+0.24273x²) cosh(x)/(1+0.43023x²). The parameters of I₀(x) were determined using the leading term of the asymptotic expansion and two coefficients of the power series, and the maximum relative error is 0.05. In a second case, two terms of the asymptotic expansion were used and 4 of the power series and the maximum relative error is 0.001 at x≈9.5. Approximations with much higher accuracy will be also shown. In conclusion a new technique is described to obtain analytic approximations to some functions of interest in sciences, such that they have a high accuracy, they are valid for every positive value of the variable, they can be integrated and differentiated as the usual, functions, and furthermore they can be calculated easily even with a regular pocket calculator.

Keywords: analytic approximations, mathematical-physics applications, quasi-rational functions, special functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
14 Survey Study of Integrative and Instrumental Motivation in English Language Learning of First Year Students at Naresuan University International College (NUIC), Thailand

Authors: Don August G. Delgado

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Foreign Language acquisition without enough motivation is tough because it is the force that drives students’ interest or enthusiasm to achieve learning. In addition, it also serves as the students’ beacon to achieve their goals, desires, dreams, and aspirations in life. Since it plays an integral factor in language learning acquisition, this study focuses on the integrative and instrumental motivation levels of all the first year students of Naresuan University International College. The identification of their motivation level and inclination in learning the English language will greatly help all NUIC lecturers and administrators to create a project or activities that they will truly enjoy and find worth doing. However, if the findings of this study will say otherwise, this study can also show to NUIC lecturers and administrators how they can help and transform NUIC freshmen on becoming motivated learners to enhance their English proficiency levels. All respondents in this study received an adopted and developed questionnaire from different researches in the same perspective. The questionnaire has 24 questions that were randomly arranged; 12 for integrative motivation and 12 for instrumental motivation. The questionnaire employed the five-point Likert scale. The tabulated data were analyzed according to its means and standard deviations using the Standard Deviation Calculator. In order to interpret the motivation level of the respondents, the Interpretation of Mean Scores was utilized. Thus, this study concludes that majority of the NUIC freshmen are neither integratively motivated nor instrumentally motivated students.

Keywords: motivation, integrative, foreign language acquisition, instrumental

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
13 The Impact of Regulatory Changes on the Development of Mobile Medical Apps

Authors: M. McHugh, D. Lillis

Abstract:

Mobile applications are being used to perform a wide variety of tasks in day-to-day life, ranging from checking email to controlling your home heating. Application developers have recognized the potential to transform a smart device into a medical device, by using a mobile medical application i.e. a mobile phone or a tablet. When initially conceived these mobile medical applications performed basic functions e.g. BMI calculator, accessing reference material etc.; however, increasing complexity offers clinicians and patients a range of functionality. As this complexity and functionality increases, so too does the potential risk associated with using such an application. Examples include any applications that provide the ability to inflate and deflate blood pressure cuffs, as well as applications that use patient-specific parameters and calculate dosage or create a dosage plan for radiation therapy. If an unapproved mobile medical application is marketed by a medical device organization, then they face significant penalties such as receiving an FDA warning letter to cease the prohibited activity, fines and possibility of facing a criminal conviction. Regulatory bodies have finalized guidance intended for mobile application developers to establish if their applications are subject to regulatory scrutiny. However, regulatory controls appear contradictory with the approaches taken by mobile application developers who generally work with short development cycles and very little documentation and as such, there is the potential to stifle further improvements due to these regulations. The research presented as part of this paper details how by adopting development techniques, such as agile software development, mobile medical application developers can meet regulatory requirements whilst still fostering innovation.

Keywords: agile, applications, FDA, medical, mobile, regulations, software engineering, standards

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
12 Estimation of Effective Radiation Dose Following Computed Tomography Urography at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano Nigeria

Authors: Idris Garba, Aisha Rabiu Abdullahi, Mansur Yahuza, Akintade Dare

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Background: CT urography (CTU) is efficient radiological examination for the evaluation of the urinary system disorders. However, patients are exposed to a significant radiation dose which is in a way associated with increased cancer risks. Objectives: To determine Computed Tomography Dose Index following CTU, and to evaluate organs equivalent doses. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was carried at a tertiary institution located in Kano northwestern. Ethical clearance was sought and obtained from the research ethics board of the institution. Demographic, scan parameters and CT radiation dose data were obtained from patients that had CTU procedure. Effective dose, organ equivalent doses, and cancer risks were estimated using SPSS statistical software version 16 and CT dose calculator software. Result: A total of 56 patients were included in the study, consisting of 29 males and 27 females. The common indication for CTU examination was found to be renal cyst seen commonly among young adults (15-44yrs). CT radiation dose values in DLP, CTDI and effective dose for CTU were 2320 mGy cm, CTDIw 9.67 mGy and 35.04 mSv respectively. The probability of cancer risks was estimated to be 600 per a million CTU examinations. Conclusion: In this study, the radiation dose for CTU is considered significantly high, with increase in cancer risks probability. Wide radiation dose variations between patient doses suggest that optimization is not fulfilled yet. Patient radiation dose estimate should be taken into consideration when imaging protocols are established for CT urography.

Keywords: CT urography, cancer risks, effective dose, radiation exposure

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
11 A Hybrid Simulation Approach to Evaluate Cooling Energy Consumption for Public Housings of Subtropics

Authors: Kwok W. Mui, Ling T. Wong, Chi T. Cheung

Abstract:

Cooling energy consumption in the residential sector, different from shopping mall, office or commercial buildings, is significantly subject to occupant decisions where in-depth investigations are found limited. It shows that energy consumptions could be associated with housing types. Surveys have been conducted in existing Hong Kong public housings to understand the housing characteristics, apartment electricity demands, occupant’s thermal expectations, and air–conditioning usage patterns for further cooling energy-saving assessments. The aim of this study is to develop a hybrid cooling energy prediction model, which integrated by EnergyPlus (EP) and artificial neural network (ANN) to estimate cooling energy consumption in public residential sector. Sensitivity tests are conducted to find out the energy impacts with changing building parameters regarding to external wall and window material selection, window size reduction, shading extension, building orientation and apartment size control respectively. Assessments are performed to investigate the relationships between cooling demands and occupant behavior on thermal environment criteria and air-conditioning operation patterns. The results are summarized into a cooling energy calculator for layman use to enhance the cooling energy saving awareness in their own living environment. The findings can be used as a directory framework for future cooling energy evaluation in residential buildings, especially focus on the occupant behavioral air–conditioning operation and criteria of energy-saving incentives.

Keywords: artificial neural network, cooling energy, occupant behavior, residential buildings, thermal environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
10 Analysis of Enhanced Built-up and Bare Land Index in the Urban Area of Yangon, Myanmar

Authors: Su Nandar Tin, Wutjanun Muttitanon

Abstract:

The availability of free global and historical satellite imagery provides a valuable opportunity for mapping and monitoring the year by year for the built-up area, constantly and effectively. Land distribution guidelines and identification of changes are important in preparing and reviewing changes in the ground overview data. This study utilizes Landsat images for thirty years of information to acquire significant, and land spread data that are extremely valuable for urban arranging. This paper is mainly introducing to focus the basic of extracting built-up area for the city development area from the satellite images of LANDSAT 5,7,8 and Sentinel 2A from USGS in every five years. The purpose analyses the changing of the urban built-up area according to the year by year and to get the accuracy of mapping built-up and bare land areas in studying the trend of urban built-up changes the periods from 1990 to 2020. The GIS tools such as raster calculator and built-up area modelling are using in this study and then calculating the indices, which include enhanced built-up and bareness index (EBBI), Normalized difference Built-up index (NDBI), Urban index (UI), Built-up index (BUI) and Normalized difference bareness index (NDBAI) are used to get the high accuracy urban built-up area. Therefore, this study will point out a variable approach to automatically mapping typical enhanced built-up and bare land changes (EBBI) with simple indices and according to the outputs of indexes. Therefore, the percentage of the outputs of enhanced built-up and bareness index (EBBI) of the sentinel-2A can be realized with 48.4% of accuracy than the other index of Landsat images which are 15.6% in 1990 where there is increasing urban expansion area from 43.6% in 1990 to 92.5% in 2020 on the study area for last thirty years.

Keywords: built-up area, EBBI, NDBI, NDBAI, urban index

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
9 Water Quality Calculation and Management System

Authors: H. M. B. N Jayasinghe

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The water is found almost everywhere on Earth. Water resources contain a lot of pollution. Some diseases can be spread through the water to the living beings. So to be clean water it should undergo a number of treatments necessary to make it drinkable. So it is must to have purification technology for the wastewater. So the waste water treatment plants act a major role in these issues. When considering the procedures taken after the water treatment process was always based on manual calculations and recordings. Water purification plants may interact with lots of manual processes. It means the process taking much time consuming. So the final evaluation and chemical, biological treatment process get delayed. So to prevent those types of drawbacks there are some computerized programmable calculation and analytical techniques going to be introduced to the laboratory staff. To solve this problem automated system will be a solution in which guarantees the rational selection. A decision support system is a way to model data and make quality decisions based upon it. It is widely used in the world for the various kind of process automation. Decision support systems that just collect data and organize it effectively are usually called passive models where they do not suggest a specific decision but only reveal information. This web base system is based on global positioning data adding facility with map location. Most worth feature is SMS and E-mail alert service to inform the appropriate person on a critical issue. The technological influence to the system is HTML, MySQL, PHP, and some other web developing technologies. Current issues in the computerized water chemistry analysis are not much deep in progress. For an example the swimming pool water quality calculator. The validity of the system has been verified by test running and comparison with an existing plant data. Automated system will make the life easier in productively and qualitatively.

Keywords: automated system, wastewater, purification technology, map location

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8 Organ Dose Calculator for Fetus Undergoing Computed Tomography

Authors: Choonsik Lee, Les Folio

Abstract:

Pregnant patients may undergo CT in emergencies unrelated with pregnancy, and potential risk to the developing fetus is of concern. It is critical to accurately estimate fetal organ doses in CT scans. We developed a fetal organ dose calculation tool using pregnancy-specific computational phantoms combined with Monte Carlo radiation transport techniques. We adopted a series of pregnancy computational phantoms developed at the University of Florida at the gestational ages of 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 38 weeks (Maynard et al. 2011). More than 30 organs and tissues and 20 skeletal sites are defined in each fetus model. We calculated fetal organ dose-normalized by CTDIvol to derive organ dose conversion coefficients (mGy/mGy) for the eight fetuses for consequential slice locations ranging from the top to the bottom of the pregnancy phantoms with 1 cm slice thickness. Organ dose from helical scans was approximated by the summation of doses from multiple axial slices included in the given scan range of interest. We then compared dose conversion coefficients for major fetal organs in the abdominal-pelvis CT scan of pregnancy phantoms with the uterine dose of a non-pregnant adult female computational phantom. A comprehensive library of organ conversion coefficients was established for the eight developing fetuses undergoing CT. They were implemented into an in-house graphical user interface-based computer program for convenient estimation of fetal organ doses by inputting CT technical parameters as well as the age of the fetus. We found that the esophagus received the least dose, whereas the kidneys received the greatest dose in all fetuses in AP scans of the pregnancy phantoms. We also found that when the uterine dose of a non-pregnant adult female phantom is used as a surrogate for fetal organ doses, root-mean-square-error ranged from 0.08 mGy (8 weeks) to 0.38 mGy (38 weeks). The uterine dose was up to 1.7-fold greater than the esophagus dose of the 38-week fetus model. The calculation tool should be useful in cases requiring fetal organ dose in emergency CT scans as well as patient dose monitoring.

Keywords: computed tomography, fetal dose, pregnant women, radiation dose

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7 Rice Area Determination Using Landsat-Based Indices and Land Surface Temperature Values

Authors: Burçin Saltık, Levent Genç

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In this study, it was aimed to determine a route for identification of rice cultivation areas within Thrace and Marmara regions of Turkey using remote sensing and GIS. Landsat 8 (OLI-TIRS) imageries acquired in production season of 2013 with 181/32 Path/Row number were used. Four different seasonal images were generated utilizing original bands and different transformation techniques. All images were classified individually using supervised classification techniques and Land Use Land Cover Maps (LULC) were generated with 8 classes. Areas (ha, %) of each classes were calculated. In addition, district-based rice distribution maps were developed and results of these maps were compared with Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkSTAT; TSI)’s actual rice cultivation area records. Accuracy assessments were conducted, and most accurate map was selected depending on accuracy assessment and coherency with TSI results. Additionally, rice areas on over 4° slope values were considered as mis-classified pixels and they eliminated using slope map and GIS tools. Finally, randomized rice zones were selected to obtain maximum-minimum value ranges of each date (May, June, July, August, September images separately) NDVI, LSWI, and LST images to test whether they may be used for rice area determination via raster calculator tool of ArcGIS. The most accurate classification for rice determination was obtained from seasonal LSWI LULC map, and considering TSI data and accuracy assessment results and mis-classified pixels were eliminated from this map. According to results, 83151.5 ha of rice areas exist within study area. However, this result is higher than TSI records with an area of 12702.3 ha. Use of maximum-minimum range of rice area NDVI, LSWI, and LST was tested in Meric district. It was seen that using the value ranges obtained from July imagery, gave the closest results to TSI records, and the difference was only 206.4 ha. This difference is normal due to relatively low resolution of images. Thus, employment of images with higher spectral, spatial, temporal and radiometric resolutions may provide more reliable results.

Keywords: landsat 8 (OLI-TIRS), LST, LSWI, LULC, NDVI, rice

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6 Detailed Quantum Circuit Design and Evaluation of Grover's Algorithm for the Bounded Degree Traveling Salesman Problem Using the Q# Language

Authors: Wenjun Hou, Marek Perkowski

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The Traveling Salesman problem is famous in computing and graph theory. In short, it asks for the Hamiltonian cycle of the least total weight in a given graph with N nodes. All variations on this problem, such as those with K-bounded-degree nodes, are classified as NP-complete in classical computing. Although several papers propose theoretical high-level designs of quantum algorithms for the Traveling Salesman Problem, no quantum circuit implementation of these algorithms has been created up to our best knowledge. In contrast to previous papers, the goal of this paper is not to optimize some abstract complexity measures based on the number of oracle iterations, but to be able to evaluate the real circuit and time costs of the quantum computer. Using the emerging quantum programming language Q# developed by Microsoft, which runs quantum circuits in a quantum computer simulation, an implementation of the bounded-degree problem and its respective quantum circuit were created. To apply Grover’s algorithm to this problem, a quantum oracle was designed, evaluating the cost of a particular set of edges in the graph as well as its validity as a Hamiltonian cycle. Repeating the Grover algorithm with an oracle that finds successively lower cost each time allows to transform the decision problem to an optimization problem, finding the minimum cost of Hamiltonian cycles. N log₂ K qubits are put into an equiprobablistic superposition by applying the Hadamard gate on each qubit. Within these N log₂ K qubits, the method uses an encoding in which every node is mapped to a set of its encoded edges. The oracle consists of several blocks of circuits: a custom-written edge weight adder, node index calculator, uniqueness checker, and comparator, which were all created using only quantum Toffoli gates, including its special forms, which are Feynman and Pauli X. The oracle begins by using the edge encodings specified by the qubits to calculate each node that this path visits and adding up the edge weights along the way. Next, the oracle uses the calculated nodes from the previous step and check that all the nodes are unique. Finally, the oracle checks that the calculated cost is less than the previously-calculated cost. By performing the oracle an optimal number of times, a correct answer can be generated with very high probability. The oracle of the Grover Algorithm is modified using the recalculated minimum cost value, and this procedure is repeated until the cost cannot be further reduced. This algorithm and circuit design have been verified, using several datasets, to generate correct outputs.

Keywords: quantum computing, quantum circuit optimization, quantum algorithms, hybrid quantum algorithms, quantum programming, Grover’s algorithm, traveling salesman problem, bounded-degree TSP, minimal cost, Q# language

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5 An Algebraic Geometric Imaging Approach for Automatic Dairy Cow Body Condition Scoring System

Authors: Thi Thi Zin, Pyke Tin, Ikuo Kobayashi, Yoichiro Horii

Abstract:

Today dairy farm experts and farmers have well recognized the importance of dairy cow Body Condition Score (BCS) since these scores can be used to optimize milk production, managing feeding system and as an indicator for abnormality in health even can be utilized to manage for having healthy calving times and process. In tradition, BCS measures are done by animal experts or trained technicians based on visual observations focusing on pin bones, pin, thurl and hook area, tail heads shapes, hook angles and short and long ribs. Since the traditional technique is very manual and subjective, the results can lead to different scores as well as not cost effective. Thus this paper proposes an algebraic geometric imaging approach for an automatic dairy cow BCS system. The proposed system consists of three functional modules. In the first module, significant landmarks or anatomical points from the cow image region are automatically extracted by using image processing techniques. To be specific, there are 23 anatomical points in the regions of ribs, hook bones, pin bone, thurl and tail head. These points are extracted by using block region based vertical and horizontal histogram methods. According to animal experts, the body condition scores depend mainly on the shape structure these regions. Therefore the second module will investigate some algebraic and geometric properties of the extracted anatomical points. Specifically, the second order polynomial regression is employed to a subset of anatomical points to produce the regression coefficients which are to be utilized as a part of feature vector in scoring process. In addition, the angles at thurl, pin, tail head and hook bone area are computed to extend the feature vector. Finally, in the third module, the extracted feature vectors are trained by using Markov Classification process to assign BCS for individual cows. Then the assigned BCS are revised by using multiple regression method to produce the final BCS score for dairy cows. In order to confirm the validity of proposed method, a monitoring video camera is set up at the milk rotary parlor to take top view images of cows. The proposed method extracts the key anatomical points and the corresponding feature vectors for each individual cows. Then the multiple regression calculator and Markov Chain Classification process are utilized to produce the estimated body condition score for each cow. The experimental results tested on 100 dairy cows from self-collected dataset and public bench mark dataset show very promising with accuracy of 98%.

Keywords: algebraic geometric imaging approach, body condition score, Markov classification, polynomial regression

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4 Case Study of Migrants, Cultures and Environmental Crisis

Authors: Christina Y. P. Ting

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Migration is a global phenomenon with movements of migrants from developed and developing countries to the host societies. Migrants have changed the host countries’ demography – its population structure and also its ethnic cultural diversity. Acculturation of migrants in terms of their adoption of the host culture is seen as important to ensure that they ‘fit into’ their adopted country so as to participate in everyday public life. However, this research found that the increase of the China-born migrants’ post-migration consumption level had impact on Australia’s environment reflected not only because of their adoption of elements of the host culture, but also retention of aspects of Chinese culture – indicating that the influence of bi-culturalism was in operation. This research, which was based on the face-to-face interview with 61 China-born migrants in the suburb of Box Hill, Melbourne, investigated the pattern of change in the migrants’ consumption upon their settlement in Australia. Using an ecological footprint calculator, their post-migration footprints were found to be larger than pre-migration footprint. The uniquely-derived CALD (Culturally and Linguistically Diverse) Index was used to measure individuals’ strength of connectedness to ethnic culture. Multi-variant analysis was carried out to understand which independent factors that influence consumption best explain the change in footprint (which is the difference between pre-and post-migration footprints, as a dependent factor). These independent factors ranged from socio-economic and demographics to the cultural context, that is, the CALD Index and indicators of acculturation. The major findings from the analysis were: Chinese culture (as measured by the CALD Index) and indicators of acculturation such as length of residency and using English in communications besides the traditional factors such as age, income and education level made significant contributions to the large increase in the China-born group’s post-migration consumption level. This paper as part of a larger study found that younger migrants’ large change in their footprint were related to high income and low level of education. This group of migrants also practiced bi-cultural consumption in retaining ethnic culture and adopting the host culture. These findings have importantly highlighted that for a host society to tackle environmental crisis, governments need not only to understand the relationship between age and consumption behaviour, but also to understand and embrace the migrants’ ethnic cultures, which may act as bridges and/or fences in relationships. In conclusion, for governments to deal with national issues such as environmental crisis within a cultural diverse population, it necessitates an understanding of age and aspects of ethnic culture that may act as bridges and fences. This understanding can aid in putting in place policies that enable the co-existence of a hybrid of the ethnic and host cultures in order to create and maintain a harmonious and secured living environment for population groups.

Keywords: bicultural consumer, CALD index, consumption, ethnic culture, migrants

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3 GIS and Remote Sensing Approach in Earthquake Hazard Assessment and Monitoring: A Case Study in the Momase Region of Papua New Guinea

Authors: Tingneyuc Sekac, Sujoy Kumar Jana, Indrajit Pal, Dilip Kumar Pal

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Tectonism induced Tsunami, landslide, ground shaking leading to liquefaction, infrastructure collapse, conflagration are the common earthquake hazards that are experienced worldwide. Apart from human casualty, the damage to built-up infrastructures like roads, bridges, buildings and other properties are the collateral episodes. The appropriate planning must precede with a view to safeguarding people’s welfare, infrastructures and other properties at a site based on proper evaluation and assessments of the potential level of earthquake hazard. The information or output results can be used as a tool that can assist in minimizing risk from earthquakes and also can foster appropriate construction design and formulation of building codes at a particular site. Different disciplines adopt different approaches in assessing and monitoring earthquake hazard throughout the world. For the present study, GIS and Remote Sensing potentials were utilized to evaluate and assess earthquake hazards of the study region. Subsurface geology and geomorphology were the common features or factors that were assessed and integrated within GIS environment coupling with seismicity data layers like; Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), historical earthquake magnitude and earthquake depth to evaluate and prepare liquefaction potential zones (LPZ) culminating in earthquake hazard zonation of our study sites. The liquefaction can eventuate in the aftermath of severe ground shaking with amenable site soil condition, geology and geomorphology. The latter site conditions or the wave propagation media were assessed to identify the potential zones. The precept has been that during any earthquake event the seismic wave is generated and propagates from earthquake focus to the surface. As it propagates, it passes through certain geological or geomorphological and specific soil features, where these features according to their strength/stiffness/moisture content, aggravates or attenuates the strength of wave propagation to the surface. Accordingly, the resulting intensity of shaking may or may not culminate in the collapse of built-up infrastructures. For the case of earthquake hazard zonation, the overall assessment was carried out through integrating seismicity data layers with LPZ. Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) with Saaty’s Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted for this study. It is a GIS technology that involves integration of several factors (thematic layers) that can have a potential contribution to liquefaction triggered by earthquake hazard. The factors are to be weighted and ranked in the order of their contribution to earthquake induced liquefaction. The weightage and ranking assigned to each factor are to be normalized with AHP technique. The spatial analysis tools i.e., Raster calculator, reclassify, overlay analysis in ArcGIS 10 software were mainly employed in the study. The final output of LPZ and Earthquake hazard zones were reclassified to ‘Very high’, ‘High’, ‘Moderate’, ‘Low’ and ‘Very Low’ to indicate levels of hazard within a study region.

Keywords: hazard micro-zonation, liquefaction, multi criteria evaluation, tectonism

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2 Single Pass Design of Genetic Circuits Using Absolute Binding Free Energy Measurements and Dimensionless Analysis

Authors: Iman Farasat, Howard M. Salis

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Engineered genetic circuits reprogram cellular behavior to act as living computers with applications in detecting cancer, creating self-controlling artificial tissues, and dynamically regulating metabolic pathways. Phenemenological models are often used to simulate and design genetic circuit behavior towards a desired behavior. While such models assume that each circuit component’s function is modular and independent, even small changes in a circuit (e.g. a new promoter, a change in transcription factor expression level, or even a new media) can have significant effects on the circuit’s function. Here, we use statistical thermodynamics to account for the several factors that control transcriptional regulation in bacteria, and experimentally demonstrate the model’s accuracy across 825 measurements in several genetic contexts and hosts. We then employ our first principles model to design, experimentally construct, and characterize a family of signal amplifying genetic circuits (genetic OpAmps) that expand the dynamic range of cell sensors. To develop these models, we needed a new approach to measuring the in vivo binding free energies of transcription factors (TFs), a key ingredient of statistical thermodynamic models of gene regulation. We developed a new high-throughput assay to measure RNA polymerase and TF binding free energies, requiring the construction and characterization of only a few constructs and data analysis (Figure 1A). We experimentally verified the assay on 6 TetR-homolog repressors and a CRISPR/dCas9 guide RNA. We found that our binding free energy measurements quantitatively explains why changing TF expression levels alters circuit function. Altogether, by combining these measurements with our biophysical model of translation (the RBS Calculator) as well as other measurements (Figure 1B), our model can account for changes in TF binding sites, TF expression levels, circuit copy number, host genome size, and host growth rate (Figure 1C). Model predictions correctly accounted for how these 8 factors control a promoter’s transcription rate (Figure 1D). Using the model, we developed a design framework for engineering multi-promoter genetic circuits that greatly reduces the number of degrees of freedom (8 factors per promoter) to a single dimensionless unit. We propose the Ptashne (Pt) number to encapsulate the 8 co-dependent factors that control transcriptional regulation into a single number. Therefore, a single number controls a promoter’s output rather than these 8 co-dependent factors, and designing a genetic circuit with N promoters requires specification of only N Pt numbers. We demonstrate how to design genetic circuits in Pt number space by constructing and characterizing 15 2-repressor OpAmp circuits that act as signal amplifiers when within an optimal Pt region. We experimentally show that OpAmp circuits using different TFs and TF expression levels will only amplify the dynamic range of input signals when their corresponding Pt numbers are within the optimal region. Thus, the use of the Pt number greatly simplifies the genetic circuit design, particularly important as circuits employ more TFs to perform increasingly complex functions.

Keywords: transcription factor, synthetic biology, genetic circuit, biophysical model, binding energy measurement

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1 Reducing Inequalities for the Uptake of Long-Term Reversible Contraceptive Methods through Special Family Planning Camps: A High Impact Service Delivery Model of Family Planning Practices

Authors: Ghulam Mustafa Halepota, Zaib Dahar

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Background: Low acceptance of FP services, particularly in hard to reach areas where geographic, economic, or social barriers limit-service uptake. Moreover, limited resources appeared to be a reflection of dismal contraceptive use in Pakistan. People’s Primary Health Care Initiative (PPHI) is a Public Private Partnership Program of Government of Sindh which aims to improve maternal child health through accessible family planning services in far flung areas. In 2015 PPHI launched special family planning camps to have achieved a rapid improvement in CPR. On quarterly basis, these camps focus on Long Acting Reversible Contraceptives (LARC). These camps are arranged at 250 BHU Plus (24/7 MCHCs). The Organization manages 1140 primary health care facilities all over Sindh province and focuses on maternal, newborn and child health which includes antenatal care, labor/delivery, postnatal care, family planning, immunization, nutrition, BEmONC, CEmONC, diagnostic laboratories, ambulance services. Under the FPRH program, the organization launched special family planning camps in far flung areas to achieve a rapid improvement in CPR-committed to FP 2020 goal. Objective: To assess the performance of special FP camps for the improvement of long acting reversible contraceptive in hard to reach areas. Methodology: Outreach camps are organized on quarterly basis in 250 BHUs and maternal and child health centers (available-24/7). Using observational study design, the study reports 2 years data of special FP camps conducted in 23 various districts of Sindh during April 2015-April 2017. These special camps served a range of modern contraceptive methods including IUCDs, implants, condoms, pills, and injections. Moreover, 125 male medical officers are trained across Sindh in LARC and 554 female have been trained in implants and IUCD insertions. MSI Impact calculator was used to determine health and demographic impact of services. Results: This intervention has brought exceptional results, and the response has been overwhelming in time. Total 2048 special camps during 2015 till April 2017 have been carried out. 231796 MWRAs visited camps 91% opted modern FP, of which 45% opted Implants, 6% selected IUCDs from LARC (long term reversible contraceptive) from short term, 17% opted injectable 18% choose pills, and 12% used condoms. This intervention created a high contraceptive impact in rural Sindh an estimated 125048 FP users have been created, of this 111846 LARC users and 13498 are SARC users, through this intervention an estimated 55774 unintended pregnancies, 36299 live births, 9394, 80 maternal deaths, 926 and 6077 unsafe abortion have been averted. Moreover, the intervention created an economic impact and saved 2,409,563 direct health expenditure on each woman with reproductive age. Conclusion: Special FP Camps along with routine services is an effective and acceptable model for increase in provision of long-acting and permanent methods in hard to reach areas. This innovative approach by PHHI-Sindh has also been adopted in other provinces of Pakistan.

Keywords: inequalities, special camps, family planning services, hard to reach areas

Procedia PDF Downloads 87