Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: ophthalmology

21 Compliance of Systematic Reviews in Ophthalmology with the PRISMA Statement

Authors: Seon-Young Lee, Harkiran Sagoo, Reem Farwana, Katharine Whitehurst, Alex Fowler, Riaz Agha


Background/Aims: Systematic reviews and meta-analysis are becoming increasingly important way of summarizing research evidence. Researches in ophthalmology may represent further challenges, due to their potential complexity in study design. The aim of our study was to determine the reporting quality of systematic reviews and meta-analysis in ophthalmology with the PRISMA statement, by assessing the articles published between 2010 and 2015 from five major journals with the highest impact factor. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE were used to search systematic reviews published between January 2010 and December 2015, in 5 major ophthalmology journals: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Ophthalmology, Archives of Ophthalmology, American Journal of Ophthalmology, Journal of the American Optometric Association. Screening, identification, and scoring of articles were performed independently by two teams, followed by statistical analysis including the median, range, and 95% CIs. Results: 115 articles were involved. The median PRISMA score was 15 of 27 items (56%), with a range of 5-26 (19-96%) and 95% CI 13.9-16.1 (51-60%). Compliance was highest in items related to the description of rationale (item 3,100%) and inclusion of a structured summary in the abstract (item 2, 90%), while poorest in indication of review protocol and registration (item 5, 9%), specification of risk of bias affecting the cumulative evidence (item 15, 24%) and description of clear objectives in introduction (item 4, 26%). Conclusion: The reporting quality of systematic reviews and meta-analysis in ophthalmology need significant improvement. While the use of PRISMA criteria as a guideline before journal submission is recommended, additional research identifying potential barriers may be required to improve the compliance to the PRISMA guidelines.

Keywords: systematic reviews, meta-analysis, research methodology, reporting quality, PRISMA, ophthalmology

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20 Medical Diagnosis of Retinal Diseases Using Artificial Intelligence Deep Learning Models

Authors: Ethan James


Over one billion people worldwide suffer from some level of vision loss or blindness as a result of progressive retinal diseases. Many patients, particularly in developing areas, are incorrectly diagnosed or undiagnosed whatsoever due to unconventional diagnostic tools and screening methods. Artificial intelligence (AI) based on deep learning (DL) convolutional neural networks (CNN) have recently gained a high interest in ophthalmology for its computer-imaging diagnosis, disease prognosis, and risk assessment. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a popular imaging technique used to capture high-resolution cross-sections of retinas. In ophthalmology, DL has been applied to fundus photographs, optical coherence tomography, and visual fields, achieving robust classification performance in the detection of various retinal diseases including macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and retinitis pigmentosa. However, there is no complete diagnostic model to analyze these retinal images that provide a diagnostic accuracy above 90%. Thus, the purpose of this project was to develop an AI model that utilizes machine learning techniques to automatically diagnose specific retinal diseases from OCT scans. The algorithm consists of neural network architecture that was trained from a dataset of over 20,000 real-world OCT images to train the robust model to utilize residual neural networks with cyclic pooling. This DL model can ultimately aid ophthalmologists in diagnosing patients with these retinal diseases more quickly and more accurately, therefore facilitating earlier treatment, which results in improved post-treatment outcomes.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, deep learning, imaging, medical devices, ophthalmic devices, ophthalmology, retina

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19 Clinical Profile, Evaluation, Management and Visual Outcome of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension in a Neuro-Ophthalmology Clinic in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rahaf Mandura


Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) more than 250 mm H₂O, without evidence of meningeal inflammation, space-occupying lesion, or venous thrombosis. The aim of this research is to study the clinical profile, evaluation, management, and visual outcome in a hospital-based population of IIH cases in Jeddah. Methodology: This is a retrospective observational study that included the medical records of all patients referred to neuro-ophthalmology service for evaluation of papilledema. The medical records have been reviewed from October 2018 to February 2020 at Jeddah Eye Hospital (JEH), Saudi Arabia. A total of fifty-one patients presented with papilledema in the studied period. Forty-seven patients met our inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Results: Most of the patients were females (43, 91.5%) with a mean age of presentation of 30.83±11.40 years. The most common presenting symptom was headache (40 patients, 85.1%), followed by transient visual obscuration (20 patients, 42.6%), and reduced visual acuity (15 patients, 31.9%). All 47 patients were started on medical treatment with oral acetazolamide with four patients (8.5%) shifted to topiramate because of the lack of response or intolerance to acetazolamide while four patients (8.5%) underwent lumbar-peritoneal shunt because of inadequate control of the disease despite the treatment with medical therapy. For both eyes, the change in visual acuity across all assessment points was statistically significant. Nevertheless, there were no significant changes in the visual field findings among all of the compared assessment points. Conclusion: The present study has shown that IIH-related papilledema is common in young female patients with headaches, transient visual obscurations and reduced visual acuity. Those are the commonest symptoms in our IIH population. Medical treatment of IIH is significantly efficacious and should be considered in order to enhance the prognosis of IIH-related complications. Therefore, the visual status should be frequently monitored for these patients.

Keywords: idiopathic intracranial hypertension, intracranial hypertension, papilledema, headache

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18 Analyzing the Causes of Amblyopia among Patients in Tertiary Care Center: Retrospective Study in King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center

Authors: Hebah M. Musalem, Jeylan El-Mansoury, Lin M. Tuleimat, Selwa Alhazza, Abdul-Aziz A. Al Zoba


Background: Amblyopia is a condition that affects the visual system triggering a decrease in visual acuity without a known underlying pathology. It is due to abnormal vision development in childhood or infancy. Most importantly, vision loss is preventable or reversible with the right kind of intervention in most of the cases. Strabismus, sensory defects, and anisometropia are all well-known causes of amblyopia. However, ocular misalignment in Strabismus is considered the most common form of amblyopia worldwide. The risk of developing amblyopia increases in premature children, developmentally delayed or children who had brain lesions affecting the visual pathway. The prevalence of amblyopia varies between 2 to 5 % in the world according to the literature. Objective: To determine the different causes of Amblyopia in pediatric patients seen in ophthalmology clinic of a tertiary care center, i.e. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH&RC). Methods: This is a hospital based, random retrospective, based on reviewing patient’s files in the Ophthalmology Department of KFSH&RC in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Inclusion criteria: amblyopic pediatric patients who attended the clinic from 2015 to 2016, who are between 6 months and 18 years old. Exclusion Criteria: patients above 18 years of age and any patient who is uncooperative to obtain an accurate vision or a proper refraction. Detailed ocular and medical history are recorded. The examination protocol includes a full ocular exam, full cycloplegic refraction, visual acuity measurement, ocular motility and strabismus evaluation. All data were organized in tables and graphs and analyzed by statistician. Results: Our preliminary results will be discussed on spot by our corresponding author. Conclusions: We focused on this study on utilizing various examination techniques which enhanced our results and highlighted a distinguished correlation between amblyopia and its’ causes. This paper recommendation emphasizes on critical testing protocols to be followed among amblyopic patient, especially in tertiary care centers.

Keywords: amblyopia, amblyopia causes, amblyopia diagnostic criterion, amblyopia prevalence, Saudi Arabia

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17 A Unique Immunization Card for Early Detection of Retinoblastoma

Authors: Hiranmoyee Das


Aim. Due to late presentation and delayed diagnosis mortality rate of retinoblastoma is more than 50% in developing counties. So to facilitate the diagnosis, to decrease the disease and treatment burden and to increase the disease survival rate, an attempt was made for early diagnosis of Retinoblastoma by including fundus examination in routine immunization programs. Methods- A unique immunization card is followed in a tertiary health care center where examination of pupillary reflex is made mandatory in each visit of the child for routine immunization. In case of any abnormality, the child is referred to the ophthalmology department. Conclusion- Early detection is the key in the management of retinoblastoma. Every child is brought to the health care system at least five times before the age of 2 years for routine immunization. We should not miss this golden opportunity for early detection of retinoblastoma.

Keywords: retinoblastoma, immunization, unique, early

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16 Ocular Biometry: Common Etiologies of Difference More Than 0.33mm between Axial Lengths of the 2 Eyes

Authors: Ghandehari Motlagh, Mohammad


Purpose: We tried to find the most common etiologies for anisometropia in pre-op cataract cases: axial or refractive. Methods: In this cross-sectional study ,41 pre-op cataract eyes with more than 0.33 difference between axial lengths of 2 eyes were enrolled.Considered for each 1mm difference between axial lengths in long eyes( AXL more than 25):1.75-2.00 D of anisometropia, for normal eyes(AXL: 22- 25):2.50D and for short eyes (AXL less than 22):3.50-3.75 D as axial anisometropia. If there are more or lesser anisometropia, we recorded as refractive anisometropia. Results: Average of anisometropia :4.24 D, prevalence of PK or LK :1 (2.38%), kc:1(2.38%), glaucoma surgery: 1(2.38%), and pseudophakic status of the opposite eye 8(19.04%). Prevalence of axial anisometropia:21 (52.4%) and refractive anisometropia 20(47.6%).Then on basis of this study we can rely on the patient’s refraction exactly before phaco for evaluation of axial length differences between the 2 eyes, because most of the anisometropias are axial. Conclusion: In most cases, cataract does not induce significant change in refractive error (secondary myopia) and AXL difference between the 2 eyes are correlated with it can be used for cataract patient’s ocular biometry evaluation. Pre-cataract refraction is a valuable variable should be measured and recorded in routin eye examination.

Keywords: ocular axial length, anisometropia, cataract, ophthalmology and optometry

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15 Diabetic Screening in Rural Lesotho, Southern Africa

Authors: Marie-Helena Docherty, Sion Edryd Williams


The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide. In Sub-Saharan Africa, type 2 diabetes represents over 90% of all types of diabetes with the number of diabetic patients expected to rise. This represents a huge economic burden in an area already contending with high rates of other significant diseases, including the highest worldwide prevalence of HIV. Diabetic complications considerably impact on morbidity and mortality. The epidemiological data for the region quotes high rates of retinopathy (7-63%), neuropathy (27-66%) and microalbuminuria (10-83%). It is therefore imperative that diabetic screening programmes are established. It is recognised that in many parts of the developing world the implementation and management of such programmes is limited by a lack of available resources. The International Diabetes Federation produced guidelines in 2012 taking these limitations into account suggesting that all diabetic patients should have access to basic screening. These guidelines are consistent with the national diabetic guidelines produced by the Lesotho Medical Council. However, diabetic care in Lesotho is delivered at the local level, with variable levels of quality. A cross sectional study was performed in the outpatient department of Maluti Hospital in Mapoteng, Lesotho, a busy rural hospital in the Berea district. Demographic data on gender, age and modality of treatment were collected over a six-week time period. Information regarding 3 basic screening parameters was obtained. These parameters included eye screening (defined as a documented ophthalmology review within the last 12 months), foot screening (defined as a documented foot health assessment by any health care professional within the last 12 months) and secondary prevention (defined as a documented blood pressure and lipid profile reading within the last 12 months). These parameters were selected on the basis of the absolute minimum level of resources in Maluti Hospital. Renal screening was excluded, as the hospital does not have access to reliable renal profile checks or urinalysis. There is however a fully functioning on-site ophthalmology department run by a senior ophthalmologist with the ability to provide retinal photography, retinal surgery and photocoagulation therapy. Data was collected on 183 type 2 diabetics. 112 patients were male and 71 were female. The average age was 43 years. 4 patients were diet controlled, 140 patients were on oral hypoglycaemic agents (metformin and/or glibenclamide), and 39 patients were on a combination of insulin and oral hypoglycaemics. In the preceding 12 months, 5 patients had undergone eye screening (3%), 24 patients had undergone foot screening (13%), and 31 patients had lipid profile testing (17%). All patients had a documented blood pressure reading (100%). Our results show that screening is poorly performed in the basic indicators suggested by the IDF and the Lesotho Medical Council. On the basis of these results, a screening programme was developed using the mnemonic SaFE; secondary prevention, foot and eye care. This is simple, memorable and transferable between healthcare professionals. In the future, the expectation would be to expand upon this current programme to include renal screening, and to further develop screening pertaining to secondary prevention.

Keywords: Africa, complications, rural, screening

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14 Frequency of Refractive Errors in Squinting Eyes of Children from 4 to 16 Years Presenting at Tertiary Care Hospital

Authors: Maryum Nawaz


Purpose: To determine the frequency of refractive errors in squinting eyes of children from 4 to 16 years presenting at tertiary care hospital. Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study was done. Place and Duration: The study was conducted in Pediatric Ophthalmology, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar. Materials and Methods: The sample size was 146 keeping 41.45%5 proportion of refractive errors in children with squinting eyes, 95% confidence interval and 8% margin of error under WHO sample size calculations. Non-probability consecutive sampling was done. Result: Mean age was 8.57±2.66 years. Male were 89 (61.0%) and female were 57 (39.0%). Refractive error was present in 56 (38.4%) and was not present in 90 (61.6%) of patients. There was no association of gender, age, parent refractive errors, or early usage of electric equipment with the refractive errors. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of refractive errors in a patient with strabismus. There is no association of age, gender, parent refractive errors, or early usage of electric equipment in the occurrence of refractive errors. Further studies are recommended for confirmation of these.

Keywords: strabismus, refractive error, myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism

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13 Prediction of Changes in Optical Quality by Tissue Redness after Pterygium Surgery

Authors: Mohd Radzi Hilmi, Mohd Zulfaezal Che Azemin, Khairidzan Mohd Kamal, Azrin Esmady Ariffin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd Tamrin, Norfazrina Abdul Gaffur, Tengku Mohd Tengku Sembok


Purpose: The purpose of this study is to predict optical quality changes after pterygium surgery using tissue redness grading. Methods: Sixty-eight primary pterygium participants were selected from patients who visited an ophthalmology clinic. We developed a semi-automated computer program to measure the pterygium fibrovascular redness from digital pterygium images. The outcome of this software is a continuous scale grading of 1 (minimum redness) to 3 (maximum redness). The region of interest (ROI) was selected manually using the software. Reliability was determined by repeat grading of all 68 images and its association with contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and visual acuity (VA) was examined. Results: The mean and standard deviation of redness of the pterygium fibrovascular images was 1.88 ± 0.55. Intra- and inter-grader reliability estimates were high with intraclass correlation ranging from 0.97 to 0.98. The new grading was positively associated with CSF (p<0.01) and VA (p<0.01). The redness grading was able to predict 25% and 23% of the variance in the CSF and the VA respectively. Conclusions: The new grading of pterygium fibrovascular redness can be reliably measured from digital images and show a good correlation with CSF and VA. The redness grading can be used in addition to the existing pterygium grading.

Keywords: contrast sensitivity, pterygium, redness, visual acuity

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12 Preventive and Attenuative Effect of Vitamin E on Selenite-induced Cataract in Rat

Authors: Seyedeh Zeinab Peighambarzadeh, Mehdi Tavana


Cataract is the most common cause of blindness worldwide and its incidence will increase as the World’s population ages. Even in modern ophthalmology, there is no effective medical treatment for cataract except surgery. Development of a drug which could prevent or delay the onset of cataract will lessen this burden and reduce the number of blind patients waiting for cataract surgery. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of vitamin E on Selenite-induced Cataract in Sprague-dawely rats. Cataracts were induced in rats by administration of sodium selenite. On postpartum day ten, in group I, saline was injected subcutaneously. Group II rat pups received subcutaneous injection of vitamin E (60mg/kg B.W.) at day 8 postpartum and every other day thereafter. Group III and IV rat pups received a subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (13mg/kg B.W.) at day 10 postpartum. Group IV also received subcutaneous injection of vitamin E (60mg/kg B.W.) at day 8 postpartum and every other day thereafter. The development of cataract in rats was assessed clinically by slit-lamp biomicroscope from day 14 up to postpartum day 28. After sacrifice, extricated pup lenses were analyzed for total and soluble protein concentrations and eletrophoretic pattern (SDS-PAGE). There was no opacification of lens in Group I and II. There was mature cataract in 95% of Group III. In group IV, 55% of rats developed sub capsular or cortical cataract. Cataractous and biochemical changes of the crystalline lens proteins due to selenite can be retard or prevented by vitamin E.

Keywords: preventive effect, selenite-induced cataract, vitamin E, rat

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11 Addressing Ophthalmic and Vascular Diabetic Complications in South Asians

Authors: Haaris Khan, Farhad Udwadia


South Asians are the fastest-growing immigrant population in Canada and are 3-4 times more likely to develop diabetes. In a primary care setting, language barriers continue to persist as a prominent obstacle when delivering crucial health information. Given the abundance of languages in the South Asian community and the varying levels of English fluency, there is compelling evidence that these language barriers can adversely impact health outcomes. The microvascular and macrovascular complications of poor diabetic management are well established and universally recognized. However, these are often difficult concepts to grasp for even individuals fluent in English. In order to lessen the burden of language barriers, we developed a comprehensive guide in various languages that discuss the complications and screening guidelines for diabetic and prediabetic patients. The guide is presented in the form of a pamphlet, with an electronic version being constructed as well, that provides basic information on diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy as well as the screening recommendations. We also conducted a review of the literature around the topic and incorporated our findings into our project. Our goal is for primary care physicians to have this resource and to be able to provide the link or pamphlet to patients in need. Our presentation also provides a comprehensive overview of some of the other barriers that individuals in the South Asian community face when seeking care. Given the staggering number of individuals in the South Asian community with diabetes and the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes and its complications, effective community-specific strategies are needed to mitigate the potential consequences of poor diabetes management.

Keywords: diabetes, patient education, ophthalmology, vascular surgery

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10 Incidence and Causes of Elective Surgery Cancellations in Songklanagarind Hospital, Thailand

Authors: A. Kaeotawee, N. Bunmas, W. Chomthong


Background: The cancellation of elective surgery is a major indicator of poor operating room efficiency. Furthermore, it is recognized as a major cause of emotional trauma to patients as well as their families. This study was carried out to assess the incidence and causes of elective surgery cancellation in our setting and to find the appropriate solutions for better quality management. Objective: To determine the incidence and causes of elective surgery cancellations in Songklanagarind Hospital. Material and Method: A prospective survey was conducted from September to November 2012. All patients who had their scheduled elective operations cancelled were assessed. Data was collected on the following 2 components: (1) patient demographics;(2) main reasons for cancellations, which were grouped into patient-related factors and organizational-related factors. Data are reported as a percentage of patients whose operations were cancelled. The association between cancellation status and patient demographics was assessed using univariate logistic regression. Results: 2,395 patients were scheduled for elective surgery and of these 343 (14.3%) had their operations cancelled. Cardiothoracic surgery had the highest rate of cancellations (28.7%) while the least number of cancellations occurred in ophthalmology (10.1%). The main reasons for cancellations were related to the unit's organization (53.6%), due to the surgeon (48.4%). Patient related causes (46.4%), due to non medical reasons (32.1%). The most common cause of cancellation by the surgeon was lack of theater time (21.3%), by patients due to the patient’s nonappearance (25.1%). Cancellation was significantly associated with type of patient, health insurance, type of anesthesia and specialties (p<0.05). Conclusion: Surgery cancellations by surgeons relating to a lack of theater time was a significant problem in our setting. Appropriate solutions for better quality improvement are needed.

Keywords: elective cases, surgery cancellation, quality management, appropriate solutions

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9 Effect of Smoking on Tear Break-Up Time and Basal Tear Secretion

Authors: Kalsoom Rani


Tobacco contains nicotine, which causes addiction to many toxic chemicals. In the world, people consume it in the form of smoke, chew, and sniffing, smoke of it is composed of almost 7000 active chemicals, which are very harmful to human health as well as for eye health, inhalation of tobacco smoke and fumes can accelerate and cause many blinding eye diseases. Dry eye and smoking have not been covered extensively in researches; more studies are required to unveil the relationship between smoking and dry eye. This study was conducted to determine the quantity and quality of tears in smokers. 60 subjects participated in the study, which was divided into two groups on the basis of consumption of cigarettes per day with age matched non smokers of 15-50 years. All participants have gone through a study based questioner, eye examination, and diagnostic 'Dry Eye Tests' for evaporative tears evaluation and measurement of basal tear secretion. Subjects were included in the criteria of 10 cigarettes per day with a minimum duration of 1 year; passive smokers for control groups were excluded. The study was carried out in a Medina Teaching Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan, ophthalmology department for the duration of 8 months. Mean values for tear break up time (TBUT), was reported 10sec with SD of +3.74 in controlled group, 5sec with SD + 2.32 in smokers and 4sec SD +3.77 heavy smokers in right eye (RE) and left eye (LE) 10.35sec with SD of +3.88 in controlled 5sec with SD + 2.3 in smokers and much reduced TBUT in heavy smokers was 3.85sec SD+2.20. Smoking has a very strong association with TRUT with a significance of P=.00 both eyes. Mean Schirmer-I value of the subjects was reported 12.6mm with SD + 8.37 in RE and 12.59mm with SD + 8.96 LE. The mean Schirmer-II test value was reported in the right, and left eye with a mean value for control was 20.23mm with SD + 8.93, 20.75mm with SD + 8.84 respectively, and in Smokers 9.90mm with SD + 5.74, and 10.07mm with SD + 6.98, and in heavy smokers 7.7mm, SD + 3.22 and 6.9, SD + 3.50 mm, association with smoking showed p=.001 in RE and .003 in LE. Smoking has deteriorated effect on both evaporative tear and aqueous tear secretion and causing symptoms of dry eye burning, itching, redness, and watering with epithelial cell damage.

Keywords: tear break-up time, basal tear secretion, smokers, dry eye

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8 Bilateral Choroidal Metastases as the Presenting Manifestation of Lung Adenocarcinoma in a Young, Non-smoking Female: A Case Report

Authors: Paras Agarwal


Background: Initially believed to be rare, metastases to the eye are the most common ocular malignancy. The choroid’s high perfusion rate not only makes it the most susceptible ocular site for tumour seeding, but also promotes its growth. The cancers most frequently responsible for choroidal metastases originate from the breast and lung, although a significant proportion have unidentified primaries at the time of presentation. Case Presentation: This case report describes a 34 year old female presenting to the ophthalmology department with a one month history of painless distorted vision. On fundus examination, she was noted to have bilateral choroidal lesionsand subsequently underwent a comprehensive diagnostic work-up. The patient was diagnosed with metastatic pulmonary adenocarcinoma, despite lacking conventional risk factors. As she was found to have a mutation in EGFR, the patient was commenced on tyrosine-kinase inhibition with afatinib. The choroidal lesions regressed with a significant improvement in visual acuity and a dramatic anatomical reduction of the choroidal masses. Conclusions: Our case demonstrates the importance of considering metastases as a differential diagnosis for choroidal lesions. Appropriate and thorough history-taking, examination and investigations may be required in order to deduce the underlying cause. Our case is unusual in view of the choroidal lesion being the primary manifestation of metastatic lung cancer in a young patient with no known risk factors. Early recognition of choroidal metastases is important as it is often the first sign of tumour dissemination and will prompt earlier treatment with systemic medications such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy or hormonal therapy. Our case report also demonstrates the efficacy of afatinib for the treatment of choroidal metastases, with morphological and functional improvements observed with regard to the choroidal metastatic tumour.

Keywords: choroidal neoplasm, choroidal naevus, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, metastases, lung cancer

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7 Rare Diagnosis in Emergency Room: Moyamoya Disease

Authors: Ecem Deniz Kırkpantur, Ozge Ecmel Onur, Tuba Cimilli Ozturk, Ebru Unal Akoglu


Moyamoya disease is a unique chronic progressive cerebrovascular disease characterized by bilateral stenosis or occlusion of the arteries around the circle of Willis with prominent arterial collateral circulation. The occurrence of Moyamoya disease is related to immune, genetic and other factors. There is no curative treatment for Moyamoya disease. Secondary prevention for patients with symptomatic Moyamoya disease is largely centered on surgical revascularization techniques. We present here a 62-year old male presented with headache and vision loss for 2 days. He was previously diagnosed with hypertension and glaucoma. On physical examination, left eye movements were restricted medially, both eyes were hyperemic and their movements were painful. Other neurological and physical examination were normal. His vital signs and laboratory results were within normal limits. Computed tomography (CT) showed dilated vascular structures around both lateral ventricles and atherosclerotic changes inside the walls of internal carotid artery (ICA). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography (MRA) revealed dilated venous vascular structures around lateral ventricles and hyper-intense gliosis in periventricular white matter. Ischemic gliosis around the lateral ventricles were present in the Digital Subtracted Angiography (DSA). After the neurology, ophthalmology and neurosurgery consultation, the patient was diagnosed with Moyamoya disease, pulse steroid therapy was started for vision loss, and super-selective DSA was planned for further investigation. Moyamoya disease is a rare condition, but it can be an important cause of stroke in both children and adults. It generally affects anterior circulation, but posterior cerebral circulation may also be affected, as well. In the differential diagnosis of acute vision loss, occipital stroke related to Moyamoya disease should be considered. Direct and indirect surgical revascularization surgeries may be used to effectively revascularize affected brain areas, and have been shown to reduce risk of stroke.

Keywords: headache, Moyamoya disease, stroke, visual loss

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6 The Yield of Neuroimaging in Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department with Isolated Neuro-Ophthalmological Conditions

Authors: Dalia El Hadi, Alaa Bou Ghannam, Hala Mostafa, Hana Mansour, Ibrahim Hashim, Soubhi Tahhan, Tharwat El Zahran


Introduction: Neuro-ophthalmological emergencies require prompt assessment and management to avoid vision or life-threatening sequelae. Some would require neuroimaging. Most commonly used are the CT and MRI of the Brain. They can be over-used when not indicated. Their yield remains dependent on multiple factors relating to the clinical scenario. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing the electronic medical records of patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) with isolated neuro-ophthalmologic complaints. For each patient, data were collected on the clinical presentation, whether neuroimaging was performed (and which type), and the result of neuroimaging. Analysis of the performed neuroimaging was made, and its yield was determined. Results: A total of 211 patients were reviewed. The complaints or symptoms at presentation were: blurry vision, change in the visual field, transient vision loss, floaters, double vision, eye pain, eyelid droop, headache, dizziness and others such as nausea or vomiting. In the ED, a total of 126 neuroimaging procedures were performed. Ninety-four imagings (74.6%) were normal, while 32 (25.4%) had relevant abnormal findings. Only 2 symptoms were significant for abnormal imaging: blurry vision (p-value= 0.038) and visual field change (p-value= 0.014). While 4 physical exam findings had significant abnormal imaging: visual field defect (p-value= 0.016), abnormal pupil reactivity (p-value= 0.028), afferent pupillary defect (p-value= 0.018), and abnormal optic disc exam (p-value= 0.009). Conclusion: Risk indicators for abnormal neuroimaging in the setting of neuro-ophthalmological emergencies are blurred vision or changes in the visual field on history taking. While visual field irregularities, abnormal pupil reactivity with or without afferent pupillary defect, or abnormal optic discs, are risk factors related to physical testing. These findings, when present, should sway the ED physician towards neuroimaging but still individualizing each case is of utmost importance to prevent time-consuming, resource-draining, and sometimes unnecessary workup. In the end, it suggests a well-structured patient-centered algorithm to be followed by ED physicians.

Keywords: emergency department, neuro-ophthalmology, neuroimaging, risk indicators

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5 Telemedicine Services in Ophthalmology: A Review of Studies

Authors: Nasim Hashemi, Abbas Sheikhtaheri


Telemedicine is the use of telecommunication and information technologies to provide health care services that would often not be consistently available in distant rural communities to people at these remote areas. Teleophthalmology is a branch of telemedicine that delivers eye care through digital medical equipment and telecommunications technology. Thus, teleophthalmology can overcome geographical barriers and improve quality, access, and affordability of eye health care services. Since teleophthalmology has been widespread applied in recent years, the aim of this study was to determine the different applications of teleophthalmology in the world. To this end, three bibliographic databases (Medline, ScienceDirect, Scopus) were comprehensively searched with these keywords: eye care, eye health care, primary eye care, diagnosis, detection, and screening of different eye diseases in conjunction with telemedicine, telehealth, teleophthalmology, e-services, and information technology. All types of papers were included in the study with no time restriction. We conducted the search strategies until 2015. Finally 70 articles were surveyed. We classified the results based on the’type of eye problems covered’ and ‘the type of telemedicine services’. Based on the review, from the ‘perspective of health care levels’, there are three level for eye health care as primary, secondary and tertiary eye care. From the ‘perspective of eye care services’, the main application of teleophthalmology in primary eye care was related to the diagnosis of different eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, macular edema, strabismus and aged related macular degeneration. The main application of teleophthalmology in secondary and tertiary eye care was related to the screening of eye problems i.e. diabetic retinopathy, astigmatism, glaucoma screening. Teleconsultation between health care providers and ophthalmologists and also education and training sessions for patients were other types of teleophthalmology in world. Real time, store–forward and hybrid methods were the main forms of the communication from the perspective of ‘teleophthalmology mode’ which is used based on IT infrastructure between sending and receiving centers. In aspect of specialists, early detection of serious aged-related ophthalmic disease in population, screening of eye disease processes, consultation in an emergency cases and comprehensive eye examination were the most important benefits of teleophthalmology. Cost-effectiveness of teleophthalmology projects resulted from reducing transportation and accommodation cost, access to affordable eye care services and receiving specialist opinions were also the main advantages of teleophthalmology for patients. Teleophthalmology brings valuable secondary and tertiary care to remote areas. So, applying teleophthalmology for detection, treatment and screening purposes and expanding its use in new applications such as eye surgery will be a key tool to promote public health and integrating eye care to primary health care.

Keywords: applications, telehealth, telemedicine, teleophthalmology

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4 The Touch Sensation: Ageing and Gender Influences

Authors: A. Abdouni, C. Thieulin, M. Djaghloul, R. Vargiolu, H. Zahouani


A decline in the main sensory modalities (vision, hearing, taste, and smell) is well reported to occur with advancing age, it is expected a similar change to occur with touch sensation and perception. In this study, we have focused on the touch sensations highlighting ageing and gender influences with in vivo systems. The touch process can be divided into two main phases: The first phase is the first contact between the finger and the object, during this contact, an adhesive force has been created which is the needed force to permit an initial movement of the finger. In the second phase, the finger mechanical properties with their surface topography play an important role in the obtained sensation. In order to understand the age and gender effects on the touch sense, we develop different ideas and systems for each phase. To better characterize the contact, the mechanical properties and the surface topography of human finger, in vivo studies on the pulp of 40 subjects (20 of each gender) of four age groups of 26±3, 35+-3, 45+-2 and 58±6 have been performed. To understand the first touch phase a classical indentation system has been adapted to measure the finger contact properties. The normal force load, the indentation speed, the contact time, the penetration depth and the indenter geometry have been optimized. The penetration depth of a glass indenter is recorded as a function of the applied normal force. Main assessed parameter is the adhesive force F_ad. For the second phase, first, an innovative approach is proposed to characterize the dynamic finger mechanical properties. A contactless indentation test inspired from the techniques used in ophthalmology has been used. The test principle is to blow an air blast to the finger and measure the caused deformation by a linear laser. The advantage of this test is the real observation of the skin free return without any outside influence. Main obtained parameters are the wave propagation speed and the Young's modulus E. Second, negative silicon replicas of subject’s fingerprint have been analyzed by a probe laser defocusing. A laser diode transmits a light beam on the surface to be measured, and the reflected signal is returned to a set of four photodiodes. This technology allows reconstructing three-dimensional images. In order to study the age and gender effects on the roughness properties, a multi-scale characterization of roughness has been realized by applying continuous wavelet transform. After determining the decomposition of the surface, the method consists of quantifying the arithmetic mean of surface topographic at each scale SMA. Significant differences of the main parameters are shown with ageing and gender. The comparison between men and women groups reveals that the adhesive force is higher for women. The results of mechanical properties show a Young’s modulus higher for women and also increasing with age. The roughness analysis shows a significant difference in function of age and gender.

Keywords: ageing, finger, gender, touch

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3 Redefining Doctors' Role in Terms of Medical Errors and Consumer Protection Act to Be in Line with Medical Ethics

Authors: Manushi Srivastava


Introduction: Doctor’s role, and relation with respect to patient care is at the core of medical ethics. The rapid pace of medical advances along with increasing consumer awareness about their rights and hike in cost of effective health care demand a robust, transparent and patient-friendly medical care system. However, doctors’ role performance is still in the frame of activity-passivity model of Doctor-Patient Relationship (DPR) where doctors act as parent and use to instruct their patients, without their consensus that is not going to help in the 21st century. Thus the current situation is a new challenge for traditional doctor-patient relationship after the introduction of Consumer Protection Act (CPA) in medical profession and the same is evidenced by increasing cases of medical litigation. To strengthen this system of medical services, the doctor plays a vital role, and the same should be reviewed in the present context. Objective: To understand the opinion of consultants regarding medical negligence and effect of Consumer Protection Act in terms of current practices of patient care. Method: This is a cross-sectional study in which both quantitative and qualitative methods are applied. Total 69 consultants were selected from multi-specialty hospitals of densely populated Varanasi city catering a population of about 1.8 million. Two-stage sampling was used for selection of respondents. At the first stage, selection of major wards (Medicine, Surgery, Ophthalmology, Gynaecology, Orthopaedics, and Paediatrics) was carried out, which are more susceptible to medical negligence. At the second stage, selection of consultants from the respective wards was carried out. In-depth Interviews were conducted with the help of semi-structured schedule. Two case studies of medical negligence were also carried out as part of the qualitative study. Analysis: Data were analyzed with the help of SPSS software (21.0 trial version). Semi-structured research tool was used to know consultant’s opinion about the pattern of medical negligence cases, litigations and claims made by patient community and inclusion of government medical services in CPA. Statistical analysis was done to describe data, and non-parametric test was used to observe the association between the variables. Analysis of Verbatim was used in case-study. Findings and Conclusion: Majority (92.8%) of consultants felt changes in the behaviour of community (patient) after implementation of CPA, as it had increased awareness about their rights. Less than half of the consultants opined that Medical Negligence is an Unintentional act of doctors and generally occurs due to communication gap and behavioural problem between doctor and patients. Experienced consultants ( > 10 years) pointed out that unethical practice by doctors and mal-intention of patient to harass doctors were additional reasons of Medical Negligence. In-depth interview revealed that now patients’ community expects more transparency and hence they demand cafeteria approach in diagnosis and management of cases. Thus as study results, we propose ‘Agreement Model’ of DPR to re-ensure ethical practice in medical profession.

Keywords: doctors, communication, consumer protection act (CPA), medical error

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2 Creation of a Trust-Wide, Cross-Speciality, Virtual Teaching Programme for Doctors, Nurses and Allied Healthcare Professionals

Authors: Nelomi Anandagoda, Leanne J. Eveson


During the COVID-19 pandemic, the surge in in-patient admissions across the medical directorate of a district general hospital necessitated the implementation of an incident rota. Conscious of the impact on training and professional development, the idea of developing a virtual teaching programme was conceived. The programme initially aimed to provide junior doctors, specialist nurses, pharmacists, and allied healthcare professionals from medical specialties and those re-deployed from other specialties (e.g., ophthalmology, GP, surgery, psychiatry) the knowledge and skills to manage the deteriorating patient with COVID-19. The programme was later developed to incorporate the general internal medicine curriculum. To facilitate continuing medical education whilst maintaining social distancing during this period, a virtual platform was used to deliver teaching to junior doctors across two large district general hospitals and two community hospitals. Teaching sessions were recorded and uploaded to a common platform, providing a resource for participants to catch up on and re-watch teaching sessions, making strides towards reducing discrimination against the professional development of less than full-time trainees. Thus, creating a learning environment, which is inclusive and accessible to adult learners in a self-directed manner. The negative impact of the pandemic on the well-being of healthcare professionals is well documented. To support the multi-disciplinary team, the virtual teaching programme evolved to included sessions on well-being, resilience, and work-life balance. Providing teaching for learners across the multi-disciplinary team (MDT) has been an eye-opening experience. By challenging the concept that learners should only be taught within their own peer groups, the authors have fostered a greater appreciation of the strengths of the MDT and showcased the immense wealth of expertise available within the trust. The inclusive nature of the teaching and the ease of joining a virtual teaching session has facilitated the dissemination of knowledge across the MDT, thus improving patient care on the frontline. The weekly teaching programme has been running for over eight months, with ongoing engagement, interest, and participation. As described above, the teaching programme has evolved to accommodate the needs of its learners. It has received excellent feedback with an appreciation of its inclusive, multi-disciplinary, and holistic nature. The COVID-19 pandemic provided a catalyst to rapidly develop novel methods of working and training and widened access/exposure to the virtual technologies available to large organisations. By merging pedagogical expertise and technology, the authors have created an effective online learning environment. Although the authors do not propose to replace face-to-face teaching altogether, this model of virtual multidisciplinary team, cross-site teaching has proven to be a great leveler. It has made high-quality teaching accessible to learners of different confidence levels, grades, specialties, and working patterns.

Keywords: cross-site, cross-speciality, inter-disciplinary, multidisciplinary, virtual teaching

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1 Autologous Blood for Conjunctival Autograft Fixation in Primary Pterygium Surgery: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Mohamed Abdelmongy


Autologous Blood for Conjunctival Autograft Fixation in Primary Pterygium Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Hossam Zein1,2, Ammar Ismail1,3, Mohamed Abdelmongy1,4, Sherif Elsherif1,5,6, Ahmad Hassanen1,4, Basma Muhammad2, Fathy Assaf1,3, Ahmed Elsehili1,7, Ahmed Negida1,7, Shin Yamane9, Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim8,9 and Kazuaki Kadonosono9 BACKGROUND: Pterygium is a benign ocular lesion characterized by triangular fibrovascular growth of conjunctival tissue over the cornea. Patients complain of the bad cosmetic appearance, ocular surface irritation and decreased visual acuity if the pterygium is large enough to cause astigmatism or encroach on the pupil. The definitive treatment of pterygium is surgical removal. However, outcomes are compromised by recurrence . The aim of the current study is to systematically review the current literature to explore the efficacy and safety of fibrin glue, suture and autologous blood coagulum for conjunctivalautograft fixation in primary pterygium surgery. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of fibrin glue compared to sutures and autologous blood coagulum in conjunctival autografting for the surgical treatment of pterygium. METHODS: During preparing this manuscript, we followed the steps adequately illustrated in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions version 5.3, and reported it according to the preferred reporting of systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement guidelines. We searched PubMed, Ovid (both through Medline), ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Central) through January 2017, using the following keywords “Pterygium AND (blood OR glue OR suture)” SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that met the following criteria: 1) comparing autologous blood vs fibrin glue for conjunctivalautograft fixation in primary pterygium surgery 2) comparing autologous blood vs sutures for conjunctivalautograft fixation in primary pterygium surgery DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened the search results, assessed trial quality, and extracted data using standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. The extracted data included A) study design, sample size, and main findings, B) Baseline characteristics of patients included in this review including their age, sex, pterygium site and grade, and graft size. C) Study outcomes comprising 1) primary outcomes: recurrence rate 2) secondary outcomes: graft stability outcomes (graft retraction, graft displacement), operation time (min) and postoperative symptoms (pain, discomfort, foreign body sensation, tearing) MAIN RESULTS: We included 7 RCTs and The review included662eyes (Blood: 293; Glue: 198; Suture: 171). we assess the 1) primary outcomes: recurrence rate 2) secondary outcomes: graft stability outcomes (graft retraction, graft displacement), operation time (min) and postoperative symptoms (pain, discomfort, foreign body sensation, tearing) CONCLUSIONS: Autologous blood for conjunctivalautograft fixation in pterygium surgery is associated with lower graft stability than fibrin glue or sutures. It was not inferior to fibrin glue or sutures regarding recurrence rate. The overall quality of evidence is low. Further well designed RCTs are needed to fully explore the efficacy of this new technique.

Keywords: pterygium, autograft, ophthalmology, cornea

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