Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11540

Search results for: indoor environmental quality (IEQ)

11540 An Application-Based Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Calculator for Residential Buildings

Authors: Kwok W. Mui, Ling T. Wong, Chin T. Cheung, Ho C. Yu

Abstract:

Based on an indoor environmental quality (IEQ) index established by previous work that indicates the overall IEQ acceptance from the prospect of an occupant in residential buildings in terms of four IEQ factors - thermal comfort, indoor air quality, visual and aural comforts, this study develops a user-friendly IEQ calculator for iOS and Android users to calculate the occupant acceptance and compare the relative performance of IEQ in apartments. The calculator allows the prediction of the best IEQ scenario on a quantitative scale. Any indoor environments under the specific IEQ conditions can be benchmarked against the predicted IEQ acceptance range. This calculator can also suggest how to achieve the best IEQ acceptance among a group of residents.

Keywords: calculator, indoor environmental quality (IEQ), residential buildings, 5-star benchmarks

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11539 Environmental Parameters Influence on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients’ Quality of Life

Authors: Kwok W. Mui, Ling T. Wong, Nai K. K. Fong

Abstract:

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fifth leading cause of death in Hong Kong. Investigators are eager to explore the environmental risk factors for COPD such as air pollution and occupational exposure. Through a cross-sectional survey, this study investigates the impact of air quality to the quality of life of patients with the COPD in terms of the scores of the (Chinese) chronic respiratory questionnaire (CCRQ) and the measurements of indoor air quality (IAQ) and Moser’s activities of daily living (ADL). Strong relationships between a number of indoor/outdoor environmental parameters were found and CRQ sub-scores for patients of COPD and thus indoor air pollutants must be monitored for future studies related to QOL for patients with COPD.

Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), indoor air pollutants, quality of life, chronic respiratory questionnaire (CRQ)

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
11538 Correlation between Indoor and Outdoor Air

Authors: Jamal A. Radaideh, Ziad N. Shatnawi

Abstract:

Both indoor and outdoor air quality is investigated throughout residential areas of Al Hofuf city/ Eastern province of Saudi Arabia through a multi‐week multiple sites measurement and sampling survey. Concentration levels of five criteria air pollutants, including carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrous dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) were measured and analyzed during the study period from January to May 2014. For this survey paper, three different sites, roadside RS, urban UR, and rural RU were selected. Within each site type, six locations were assigned to carryout air quality measurements and to study varying indoor/outdoor air quality for each pollutant. Results indicate that a strong correlation between indoor and outdoor air exists. The I/O ratios for the considered criteria pollutants show that the strongest relationship between indoor and outdoor air is found by analyzing of carbon dioxide, CO2 (0.88), while the lowest is found by both NO2 and SO2 (0.7).

Keywords: criteria air pollutants, indoor/outdoor air pollution, indoor/outdoor ratio, Saudi Arabia

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11537 A Study of the Implications for the Health and Wellbeing of Energy-Efficient House Occupants: A UK-Based Investigation of Indoor Climate and Indoor Air Quality

Authors: Patricia Kermeci

Abstract:

Policies related to the reduction of both carbon dioxide and energy consumption within the residential sector have contributed towards a growing number of energy-efficient houses being built in several countries. Many of these energy-efficient houses rely on the construction of very well insulated and highly airtight structures, ventilated mechanically. Although energy-efficient houses are indeed more energy efficient than conventional houses, concerns have been raised over the quality of their indoor air and, consequently, the possible adverse health and wellbeing effects for their occupants. Using a longitudinal study design over three different weather seasons (winter, spring and summer), this study has investigated the indoor climate and indoor air quality of different rooms (bedroom, living room and kitchen) in five energy-efficient houses and four conventional houses in the UK. Occupants have kept diaries of their activities during the studied periods and interviews have been conducted to investigate possible behavioural explanations for the findings. Data has been compared with reviews of epidemiological, toxicological and other health related published literature to reveals three main findings. First, it shows that the indoor environment quality of energy-efficient houses cannot be treated as a holistic entity as different rooms presented dissimilar indoor climate and indoor air quality. Thus, such differences might contribute to the health and wellbeing of occupants in different ways. Second, the results show that the indoor environment quality of energy-efficient houses can vary following changes in weather season, leaving occupants at a lower or higher risk of adverse health and wellbeing effects during different weather seasons. Third, one cannot assume that even identical energy-efficient houses provide a similar indoor environment quality. Fourth, the findings reveal that the practices and behaviours of the occupants of energy-efficient houses likely determine whether they enjoy a healthier indoor environment when compared with their control houses. In conclusion, it has been considered vital to understand occupants’ practices and behaviours in order to explain the ways they might contribute to the indoor climate and indoor air quality in energy-efficient houses.

Keywords: energy-efficient house, health and wellbeing, indoor environment, indoor air quality

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11536 Influence of Humidity on Environmental Sustainability, Air Quality and Occupant Health

Authors: E. Cintura, M. I. Gomes

Abstract:

Nowadays, sustainable development issues have a key role in the planning of the man-made environment. Ensuring this development means limiting the impact of human activity on nature. It is essential to secure healthy places and good living conditions. For these reasons, indoor air quality and building materials play a fundamental role in sustainable architectural projects. These factors significantly affect human health: they can radically change the quality of the internal environment and energy consumption. The use of natural materials such as earth has many beneficial aspects in comfort and indoor air quality. As well as advantages in the environmental impact of the construction, they ensure a low energy consumption. Since they are already present in nature, their production and use do not require a high-energy consumption. Furthermore, they have a high thermo-hygrometric capacity, being able to absorb moisture, contributing positively to indoor conditions. Indoor air quality is closely related to relative humidity. For these reasons, it can be affirmed that the use of earth materials guarantees a sustainable development and at the same time improves the health of the building users. This paper summarizes several researches that demonstrate the importance of indoor air quality for human health and how it strictly depends on the building materials used. Eco-efficient plasters are also considered: earth and ash mortar. The bibliography consulted has the objective of supporting future experimental and laboratory analyzes. It is necessary to carry on with research by the use of simulations and testing to confirm the hygrothermal properties of eco-efficient plasters and therefore their ability to improve indoor air quality.

Keywords: hygroscopicity, hygrothermal comfort, mortar, plaster

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11535 Enhance Indoor Environment in Buildings and Its Effect on Improving Occupant's Health

Authors: Imad M. Assali

Abstract:

Recently, the world main problem is a global warming and climate change affecting both outdoor and indoor environments, especially the air quality (AQ) as a result of vast migration of people from rural areas to urban areas. Therefore, cities became more crowded and denser from an irregular population increase, along with increasing urbanization caused many problems for the environment such as increasing the land prices, changes in life style, and the new buildings are not adapted to the climate producing uncomfortable and unhealthy indoor building conditions. As interior environments are the places that create the most intimate relationship with the user. Consequently, the indoor environment quality (IEQ) for buildings became uncomfortable and unhealthy for its occupants. The symptoms commonly associated with poor indoor environment such as itchy, headache, fatigue, and respiratory complaints such as cough and congestion, etc. The symptoms tend to improve over time or even disappear when people are away from the building. Therefore, designing a healthy indoor environment to fulfill human needs is the main concern for architects and interior designer. However, this research explores how occupant expectations and environmental attitudes may influence occupant health and satisfaction within the context of the indoor environment. In doing so, it reviews and contributes to the methods and tools used to evaluate only the indoor environment quality (IEQ) components of building performance. Its main aim is to review the literature on indoor human comfort. This is followed by a review of previous papers published related to human comfort. Finally, this paper will provide possible approaches in design level of healthy buildings.

Keywords: sustainable building, indoor environment quality (IEQ), occupant's health, active system, sick building syndrome (SBS)

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11534 Measurement and Research of Green Office Building Operational Performance in China: A Case Study of a Green Office Building in Zhejiang Province

Authors: Xuechen Gui, Jian Ge, Senmiao Li

Abstract:

In recent years, green buildings in China have been developing rapidly and have developed into a wide variety of types, of which office building is a very important part. In many green office buildings, the energy consumption of building operation is high; the indoor environment quality needs to be improved, and the level of occupants’ satisfaction is low. This paper conducted a one-year measurement of operational performance of a green office building in Zhejiang Province. The measurement includes energy consumption of the building's one-year operation, the quality of the indoor environment and occupants’ satisfaction in different seasons. The energy consumption is collected from the power bureau. The quality of the indoor environment have been measured at different measuring points including offices, meeting rooms and reception for the whole year. The satisfaction of occupants are obtained from questionnaires. The results are compared with given standards and goals and the reasons why occupants are dissatisfied with the indoor environment are analyzed. Regarding energy consumption, the energy consumption of the building operational performance is much higher than the standard. Regarding the indoor environment, the temperature and humidity meet the standard for most of the time, but fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration is pretty high. Regarding occupants satisfaction, occupants have a higher expectation for indoor air quality even when the indoor air quality is well and occupants prefer a relatively humid environment. However the overall satisfaction is more than 80%, which indicates that occupants have a higher tolerability.

Keywords: green office building, energy consumption, indoor environment quality, occupants satisfaction, operational performance

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11533 Numerical Simulation of a Combined Impact of Cooling and Ventilation on the Indoor Environmental Quality

Authors: Matjaz Prek

Abstract:

Impact of three different combinations of cooling and ventilation systems on the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) has been studied. Comparison of chilled ceiling cooling in combination with displacement ventilation, cooling with fan coil unit and cooling with flat wall displacement outlets was performed. All three combinations were evaluated from the standpoint of whole-body and local thermal comfort criteria as well as from the standpoint of ventilation effectiveness. The comparison was made on the basis of numerical simulation with DesignBuilder and Fluent. Numerical simulations were carried out in two steps. Firstly the DesignBuilder software environment was used to model the buildings thermal performance and evaluation of the interaction between the environment and the building. Heat gains of the building and of the individual space, as well as the heat loss on the boundary surfaces in the room, were calculated. In the second step Fluent software environment was used to simulate the response of the indoor environment, evaluating the interaction between building and human, using the simulation results obtained in the first step. Among the systems presented, the ceiling cooling system in combination with displacement ventilation was found to be the most suitable as it offers a high level of thermal comfort with adequate ventilation efficiency. Fan coil cooling has proved inadequate from the standpoint of thermal comfort whereas flat wall displacement outlets were inadequate from the standpoint of ventilation effectiveness. The study showed the need in evaluating indoor environment not solely from the energy use point of view, but from the point of view of indoor environmental quality as well.

Keywords: cooling, ventilation, thermal comfort, ventilation effectiveness, indoor environmental quality, IEQ, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
11532 Baby Cot’s Indoor Air Quality

Authors: Wim Zeiler

Abstract:

The indoor quality of occupied space is very important for the well-being of its occupants, especially in the case of babies. The lungs of a young child are still growing and adverse conditions could affect this development. Presently little children spend a lot of their time in day care centers while parents are at work. Little is known about the effects of different indoor environmental factors present in these day care centers and the quality of air of baby cots in which the babies are accommodated in these day care centers. Therefore this research investigated the quality of the accommodation of Dutch day care centers. Besides an extensive literature research actual measurements were performed in baby cots within three-day care center. Some experiments were performed to find out the importance of the configuration and types of baby cots. This research investigated the quality of the accommodation of a Dutch day care center which led to a tool describing the quality needs (e.g., quality standard) for the accommodation of day care centers. The results of our detailed studies were compared with the results of earlier Dutch more global studies in day care centers, in which more than 60 day care centers were investigated. Also the results are compared with the outcomes of research on school ventilation. The results proved that the situation in day care centers is even worse than that of schools within the Netherlands. More attention is needed to improve the current situation.

Keywords: ventilation, baby cots, day care centers, case study

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11531 Improving Indoor Air Quality by Increasing Bio-Based Negative Air Ion Release

Authors: Shuye Jiang, Ali Ma, Srinivasan Ramachandran

Abstract:

Indoor air quality could be improved through traditional air purifiers. However, they may not be environmental products. Here, a bio-based method was employed to improve indoor air quality by increasing negative air ion (NAI) release from ornamental plants. A total of 60 plant species has been screened by evaluating their ability to release NAIs, from which four candidates were selected to further study. All of them are from the Dracaena or fabids clade. These four candidates were then subjected to survey their ability to reduce the concentration of particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 or 10 microns (PM2.5 and PM10) in the growth chamber. High concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were artificially generated by burning a stick of incense for 2 minutes in the closed growth chamber (80cm length × 80cm width × 80cm height), in which the PM2.5 and PM10 concentration were generally around 500 µg/m3 and 1500 µg/m3, respectively. Both PM2.5 and PM10 were naturally reduced to 410 and 670, respectively after two hours in case that no plants were placed inside the chamber. Interestingly, these two sizes of particulars were reduced to 170 µg/m3 and 210 µg/m3, respectively after two hours when plants were placed to the chamber. It took 4 hours for the plants to reduce particular concentration to acceptable level at less than 55 µg/m3 for both PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. However, the PM2.5 and PM10 concentration were still above 200 µg/m3 and 300 µg/m3, respectively after 4 hours in the growth chamber without any plants. These results suggest the contribution of plants to the particulate deposition. However, all of these data are preliminary and the results may be updated by further studies. In addition, the roles of plants in absorbing indoor formaldehyde have also been explored and their absorbing ability is being improved by optimizing their growth conditions and treating with various exogenous agents. Thus, our preliminary studies provide an alternative strategy to improve indoor air quality.

Keywords: bio-based method, indoor air, negative air ion, particulate matter

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11530 Internet of Things for Smart Dedicated Outdoor Air System in Buildings

Authors: Dararat Tongdee, Surapong Chirarattananon, Somchai Maneewan, Chantana Punlek

Abstract:

Recently, the Internet of Things (IoT) is the important technology that connects devices to the network and people can access real-time communication. This technology is used to report, collect, and analyze the big data for achieving a purpose. For a smart building, there are many IoT technologies that enable management and building operators to improve occupant thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and building energy efficiency. In this research, we propose monitoring and controlling performance of a smart dedicated outdoor air system (SDOAS) based on IoT platform. The SDOAS was specifically designed with the desiccant unit and thermoelectric module. The designed system was intended to monitor, notify, and control indoor environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide (CO₂) level. The SDOAS was tested under the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE 62.2) and indoor air quality standard. The system will notify the user by Blynk notification when the status of the building is uncomfortable or tolerable limits are reached according to the conditions that were set. The user can then control the system via a Blynk application on a smartphone. The experimental result indicates that the temperature and humidity of indoor fresh air in the comfort zone are approximately 26 degree Celsius and 58% respectively. Furthermore, the CO₂ level was controlled lower than 1000 ppm by indoor air quality standard condition. Therefore, the proposed system can efficiently work and be easy to use for buildings.

Keywords: internet of things, indoor air quality, smart dedicated outdoor air system, thermal comfort

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11529 An Assessment of Thermal Comfort and Air Quality in Educational Space: A Case Study of Design Studios in the Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria

Authors: Bakr Gomaa, Hana Awad

Abstract:

A stuffy room is one of the indicators of poor indoor air quality. Through working in an educational building in Alexandria, it is noticed that one of the rooms is smelly. A field study is conducted in a private university building in Alexandria to achieve indoor sustainable educational environment. Additionally, the indoor air quality is empirically assessed, and thermal comfort is identified in educational buildings, in studio halls specifically during lecture hours. The current research uses qualitative and quantitative methods in the form of literature review, investigation and test measurements. At a similar time that the teachers and students fill in a questionnaire regarding the concept of indoor climate, thermal comfort variables are determined. The indoor thermal conditions of the studio are assessed through three variables including Fanger’s comfort indicators (calculated using PMV, predicted mean vote and PPD, predicted percentage of dissatisfied people), the actual people clothing and metabolic rate. Actual measurements of air quality are obtained in a case study in an architectural building. Results have proved that indoor climatic conditions as air flow and temperature are inconvenient to inhabitants. Regarding questionnaire results, occupants appear to be uncomfortable in both seasons, with result percentages out of the acceptable range. Finally, further researches will center on how to preserve thermal comfort in school buildings since it has a vital influence on the student’s knowledge.

Keywords: educational buildings, Indoor air quality, productivity, thermal comfort

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11528 Multi-Stage Optimization of Local Environmental Quality by Comprehensive Computer Simulated Person as Sensor for Air Conditioning Control

Authors: Sung-Jun Yoo, Kazuhide Ito

Abstract:

In this study, a comprehensive computer simulated person (CSP) that integrates computational human model (virtual manikin) and respiratory tract model (virtual airway), was applied for estimation of indoor environmental quality. Moreover, an inclusive prediction method was established by integrating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis with advanced CSP which is combined with physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, unsteady thermoregulation model for analysis targeting micro-climate around human body and respiratory area with high accuracy. This comprehensive method can estimate not only the contaminant inhalation but also constant interaction in the contaminant transfer between indoor spaces, i.e., a target area for indoor air quality (IAQ) assessment, and respiratory zone for health risk assessment. This study focused on the usage of the CSP as an air/thermal quality sensor in indoors, which means the application of comprehensive model for assessment of IAQ and thermal environmental quality. Demonstrative analysis was performed in order to examine the applicability of the comprehensive model to the heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) control scheme. CSP was located at the center of the simple model room which has dimension of 3m×3m×3m. Formaldehyde which is generated from floor material was assumed as a target contaminant, and flow field, sensible/latent heat and contaminant transfer analysis in indoor space were conducted by using CFD simulation coupled with CSP. In this analysis, thermal comfort was evaluated by thermoregulatory analysis, and respiratory exposure risks represented by adsorption flux/concentration at airway wall surface were estimated by PBPK-CFD hybrid analysis. These Analysis results concerning IAQ and thermal comfort will be fed back to the HVAC control and could be used to find a suitable ventilation rate and energy requirement for air conditioning system.

Keywords: CFD simulation, computer simulated person, HVAC control, indoor environmental quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
11527 Assessment of Personal Level Exposures to Particulate Matter among Children in Rural Preliminary Schools as an Indoor Air Pollution Monitoring

Authors: Seyedtaghi Mirmohammadi, J. Yazdani, S. M. Asadi, M. Rokni, A. Toosi

Abstract:

There are many indoor air quality studies with an emphasis on indoor particulate matters (PM2.5) monitoring. Whereas, there is a lake of data about indoor PM2.5 concentrations in rural area schools (especially in classrooms), since preliminary children are assumed to be more defenseless to health hazards and spend a large part of their time in classrooms. The objective of this study was indoor PM2.5 concentration quality assessment. Fifteen preliminary schools by time-series sampling were selected to evaluate the indoor air quality in the rural district of Sari city, Iran. Data on indoor air climate parameters (temperature, relative humidity and wind speed) were measured by a hygrometer and thermometer. Particulate matters (PM2.5) were collected and assessed by Real Time Dust Monitor, (MicroDust Pro, Casella, UK). The mean indoor PM2.5 concentration in the studied classrooms was 135µg/m3 in average. The multiple linear regression revealed that a correlation between PM2.5 concentration and relative humidity, distance from city center and classroom size. Classroom size yields reasonable negative relationship, the PM2.5 concentration was ranged from 65 to 540μg/m3 and statistically significant at 0.05 level and the relative humidity was ranged from 70 to 85% and dry bulb temperature ranged from 28 to 29°C were statistically significant at 0.035 and 0.05 level, respectively. A statistical predictive model was obtained from multiple regressions modeling for PM2.5 and indoor psychrometric parameters.

Keywords: particulate matters, classrooms, regression, concentration, humidity

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11526 Indoor Temperature, Relative Humidity and CO₂ Level Assessment in a Publically Managed Hospital Building

Authors: Ayesha Asif, Muhammad Zeeshan

Abstract:

The sensitivity of hospital-microenvironments for all types of pollutants, due to the presence of patients with immune deficiencies, makes them complex indoor spaces. Keeping in view, this study investigated indoor air quality (IAQ) of two most sensitive places, i.e., operation theater (OT) and intensive care unit (ICU), of a publically managed hospital. Taking CO₂ concentration as air quality indicator and temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) as thermal comfort parameters, continuous monitoring of the three variables was carried out. Measurements were recorded at an interval of 1 min for weekdays and weekends, including occupational and non-occupational hours. Outdoor T and RH measurements were also used in the analysis. Results show significant variation (p < 0.05) in CO₂, T and RH values over the day during weekdays while no significant variation (p > 0.05) have been observed during weekends of both the monitored sites. Maximum observed values of CO₂ in OT and ICU were found to be 2430 and 624 ppm, T as 24.7ºC and 28.9ºC and RH as 29.6% and 32.2% respectively.

Keywords: indoor air quality, CO₂ concentration, hospital building, comfort assessment

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11525 Dutch Schools: Their Ventilation Systems

Authors: Milad Golshan, Wim Zeiler

Abstract:

During the last decade research was done to clarify the importance of good Indoor Air Quality in schools. As a result, measurements were undertaken in different types of schools to see whether naturally ventilated schools could provide adequate indoor conditions. Also, a comparison was made between schools with hybrid ventilation and those with complete mechanical ventilation systems. Recently a large survey was undertaken at 60 schools to establish the average current situation of schools in the Netherlands. The results of the questionnaires were compared with those of earlier measured schools. This allowed us to compare different types of schools as well as schools of different periods. Overall it leads to insights about the actual current perceived quality by the teachers as well as the pupils and enables to draw some conclusions about the typical performances of specific types of school ventilation systems. Also, the perceived thermal comfort and controllability were researched. It proved that in around 50% of the schools there were major complains about the indoor air quality causing concentration problems and headaches by the pupils at the end of class. Although the main focus of the latest research was focused more on the quality of recently finished nearly Zero Energy schools, this research showed that especially the main focus school be on the renovation and upgrading of the existing 10.000 schools in the Netherlands.

Keywords: school ventilation, indoor air quality, perceiver thermal comfort, comparison different types

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11524 Portable Environmental Parameter Monitor Based on STM32

Authors: Liang Zhao, Chongquan Zhong

Abstract:

Introduction: According to statistics, people spend 80% to 90% of time indoor, so indoor air quality, either at home or in the office, greatly impacts the quality of life, health and work efficiency. Therefore, indoor air quality is very important to human activities. With the acceleration of urbanization, people are spending more time in indoor activity. The time in indoor environment, the living space, and the frequency interior decoration are all increasingly increased. However, housing decoration materials contain formaldehyde and other harmful substances, causing environmental and air quality problems, which have brought serious damage to countless families and attracted growing attention. According to World Health Organization statistics, the indoor environments in more than 30% of buildings in China are polluted by poisonous and harmful gases. Indoor pollution has caused various health problems, and these widespread public health problems can lead to respiratory diseases. Long-term inhalation of low-concentration formaldehyde would cause persistent headache, insomnia, weakness, palpitation, weight loss and vomiting, which are serious impacts on human health and safety. On the other hand, as for offices, some surveys show that good indoor air quality helps to enthuse the staff and improve the work efficiency by 2%-16%. Therefore, people need to further understand the living and working environments. There is a need for easy-to-use indoor environment monitoring instruments, with which users only have to power up and monitor the environmental parameters. The corresponding real-time data can be displayed on the screen for analysis. Environment monitoring should have the sensitive signal alarm function and send alarm when harmful gases such as formaldehyde, CO, SO2, are excessive to human body. System design: According to the monitoring requirements of various gases, temperature and humidity, we designed a portable, light, real-time and accurate monitor for various environmental parameters, including temperature, humidity, formaldehyde, methane, and CO. This monitor will generate an alarm signal when a target is beyond the standard. It can conveniently measure a variety of harmful gases and provide the alarm function. It also has the advantages of small volume, convenience to carry and use. It has a real-time display function, outputting the parameters on the LCD screen, and a real-time alarm function. Conclusions: This study is focused on the research and development of a portable parameter monitoring instrument for indoor environment. On the platform of an STM32 development board, the monitored data are collected through an external sensor. The STM32 platform is for data acquisition and processing procedures, and successfully monitors the real-time temperature, humidity, formaldehyde, CO, methane and other environmental parameters. Real-time data are displayed on the LCD screen. The system is stable and can be used in different indoor places such as family, hospital, and office. Meanwhile, the system adopts the idea of modular design and is superior in transplanting. The scheme is slightly modified and can be used similarly as the function of a monitoring system. This monitor has very high research and application values.

Keywords: indoor air quality, gas concentration detection, embedded system, sensor

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11523 Cost-Effective Indoor-Air Quality (IAQ) Monitoring via Cavity Enhanced Photoacoustic Technology

Authors: Jifang Tao, Fei Gao, Hong Cai, Yuan Jin Zheng, Yuan Dong Gu

Abstract:

Photoacoustic technology is used to measure effect absorption of a light by means of acoustic detection, which provides a high sensitive, low-cross response, cost-effective solution for gas molecular detection. In this paper, we proposed an integrated photoacoustic sensor for Indoor-air quality (IAQ) monitoring. The sensor consists of an acoustically resonant cavity, a high silicon acoustic transducer chip, and a low-cost light source. The light is modulated at the resonant frequency of the cavity to create an enhanced periodic heating and result in an amplified acoustic pressure wave. The pressure is readout by a novel acoustic transducer with low noise. Based on this photoacoustic sensor, typical indoor gases, including CO2, CO, O2, and H2O have been successfully detected, and their concentration are also evaluated with very high accuracy. It has wide potential applications in IAQ monitoring for agriculture, food industry, and ventilation control systems used in public places, such as schools, hospitals and airports.

Keywords: indoor-air quality (IAQ) monitoring, photoacoustic gas sensor, cavity enhancement, integrated gas sensor

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11522 Indoor and Outdoor Concentration of PM₁₀, PM₂.₅ and PM₁ in Residential Building and Evaluation of Negative Air Ions (NAIs) in Indoor PM Removal

Authors: Hossein Arfaeinia, Azam Nadali, Zahra Asadgol, Mohammad Fahiminia

Abstract:

Indoor and outdoor particulate matters (PM) were monitored in 20 residential buildings in a two-part study. In part I, the levels of indoor and outdoor PM₁₀, PM₂.₅ and PM₁ was measured using real time GRIMM dust monitors. In part II, the effect of negative air ions (NAIs) method was investigated on the reduction of indoor concentration of PM in these residential buildings. Hourly average concentration and standard deviation (SD) of PM₁₀ in indoor and outdoor at residential buildings were 90.1 ± 33.5 and 63.5 ± 27.4 µg/ m3, respectively. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM₂.₅ in residential buildings were 49.5 ± 18.2 and 39.4± 18.1 µg/ m3 and for PM₁ the concentrations were 6.5 ± 10.1and 4.3 ± 7.7 µg/ m3, respectively. Indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios and concentrations of all size fractions of PM were strongly correlated with wind speed and temperature whereas a good relationship was not observed between humidity and I/O ratios of PM. We estimated that nearly 71.47 % of PM₁₀, 79.86 % of PM₂.₅ and of 61.25 % of PM₁ in indoor of residential buildings can be removed by negative air ions.

Keywords: particle matter (PM), indoor air, negative air ions (NAIs), residential building

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11521 NABERS Indoor Environment - a Rating Tool to Benchmark the IEQ of Australian Office Commercial Buildings

Authors: Kazi Hossain

Abstract:

The National Australian Built Environment Rating System (NABERS) is the key industry standard for measuring and benchmarking environmental performance of existing buildings in Australia. Developed and run by the New South Wales government, NABERS measures the operational efficiency of different types of buildings by using a set of tools that provide an easy to understand graphical rating outcome ranged from 0 to 6 stars. This set of tools also include a tool called NABERS IE which enables tenants or building managers to benchmark their buildings indoor environment quality against the national market. Launched in 2009, the number NABERS IE ratings have steadily increased from 10 certified ratings in 2011 to 43 in 2013. However there is a massive uptake of over 50 ratings alone in 2014 making the number of ratings to reach over 100. This paper outlines the methodology used to create this tool, a statistical overview of the tool, and the driving factor that motivates the building owners and managers to use this tool every year to rate their buildings.

Keywords: Acoustic comfort, Indoor air quality, Indoor Environment, NABERS, National Australian Built Environment Rating System, Performance rating, Rating System, Thermal comfort, Ventilation effectiveness, Visual comfort.

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11520 Non-Methane Hydrocarbons Emission during the Photocopying Process

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Aksentijević M. Snežana, Kecić S. Vesna, Oros B. Ivana

Abstract:

The prosperity of electronic equipment in photocopying environment not only has improved work efficiency, but also has changed indoor air quality. Considering the number of photocopying employed, indoor air quality might be worse than in general office environments. Determining the contribution from any type of equipment to indoor air pollution is a complex matter. Non-methane hydrocarbons are known to have an important role of air quality due to their high reactivity. The presence of hazardous pollutants in indoor air has been detected in one photocopying shop in Novi Sad, Serbia. Air samples were collected and analyzed for five days, during 8-hr working time in three-time intervals, whereas three different sampling points were determined. Using multiple linear regression model and software package STATISTICA 10 the concentrations of occupational hazards and micro-climates parameters were mutually correlated. Based on the obtained multiple coefficients of determination (0.3751, 0.2389, and 0.1975), a weak positive correlation between the observed variables was determined. Small values of parameter F indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the concentration levels of non-methane hydrocarbons and micro-climates parameters. The results showed that variable could be presented by the general regression model: y = b0 + b1xi1+ b2xi2. Obtained regression equations allow to measure the quantitative agreement between the variation of variables and thus obtain more accurate knowledge of their mutual relations.

Keywords: non-methane hydrocarbons, photocopying process, multiple regression analysis, indoor air quality, pollutant emission

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11519 Relationship of Indoor and Outdoor Levels of Black Carbon in an Urban Environment

Authors: Daria Pashneva, Julija Pauraite, Agne Minderyte, Vadimas Dudoitis, Lina Davuliene, Kristina Plauskaite, Inga Garbariene, Steigvile Bycenkiene

Abstract:

Black carbon (BC) has received particular attention around the world, not only for its impact on regional and global climate change but also for its impact on air quality and public health. In order to study the relationship between indoor and outdoor BC concentrations, studies were carried out in Vilnius, Lithuania. The studies are aimed at determining the relationship of concentrations, identifying dependencies during the day and week with a further opportunity to analyze the key factors affecting the indoor concentration of BC. In this context, indoor and outdoor continuous real-time measurements of optical BC-related light absorption by aerosol particles were carried out during the cold season (from October to December 2020). The measurement venue was an office located in an urban background environment. Equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentration was measured by an Aethalometer (Magee Scientific, model AE-31). The optical transmission of carbonaceous aerosol particles was measured sequentially at seven wavelengths (λ= 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm), where the eBC mass concentration was derived from the light absorption coefficient (σab) at 880 nm wavelength. The diurnal indoor eBC mass concentration was found to vary in the range from 0.02 to 0.08 µgm⁻³, while the outdoor eBC mass concentration - from 0.34 to 0.99 µgm⁻³. Diurnal variations of eBC mass concentration outdoor vs. indoor showed an increased contribution during 10:00 and 12:00 AM (GMT+2), with the highest indoor eBC mass concentration of 0.14µgm⁻³. An indoor/outdoor eBC ratio (I/O) was below one throughout the entire measurement period. The weekend levels of eBC mass concentration were lower than in weekdays for indoor and outdoor for 33% and 28% respectively. Hourly mean mass concentrations of eBC for weekdays and weekends show diurnal cycles, which could be explained by the periodicity of traffic intensity and heating activities. The results show a moderate influence of outdoor eBC emissions on the indoor eBC level.

Keywords: black carbon, climate change, indoor air quality, I/O ratio

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11518 The IVAIRE Study: Relative Performance of Energy and Heat Recovery Ventilators in Cold Climates

Authors: D. Aubin, D. Won, H. Schleibinger, P. Lajoie, D. Gauvin, J.-M. Leclerc

Abstract:

This paper describes the results obtained in a two-year randomized intervention field study investigating the impact of ventilation rates on indoor air quality (IAQ) and the respiratory health of asthmatic children in Québec City, Canada. The focus of this article is on the comparative effectiveness of heat recovery ventilators (HRVs) and energy recovery ventilators (ERVs) at increasing ventilation rates, improving IAQ, and maintaining an acceptable indoor relative humidity (RH). In 14% of the homes, the RH was found to be too low in winter. Providing more cold and dry outside air to under-ventilated homes in winter further reduces indoor RH. Thus, low-RH homes in the intervention group were chosen to receive ERVs (instead of HRVs) to increase the ventilation rate. The installation of HRVs or ERVs led to a near doubling of the ventilation rates in the intervention group homes which led to a significant reduction in the concentration of several key of pollutants. The ERVs were also effective in maintaining an acceptable indoor RH since they avoided excessive dehumidification of the home by recovering moisture from the exhaust airstream through the enthalpy core, otherwise associated with increased cold supply air rates.

Keywords: asthma, field study, indoor air quality, ventilation

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11517 Development of Sustainable Building Environmental Model (SBEM) in Hong Kong

Authors: Kwok W. Mui, Ling T. Wong, F. Xiao, Chin T. Cheung, Ho C. Yu

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This study addresses a concept of the Sustainable Building Environmental Model (SBEM) developed to optimize energy consumption in air conditioning and ventilation (ACV) systems without any deterioration of indoor environmental quality (IEQ). The SBEM incorporates two main components: an adaptive comfort temperature control module (ACT) and a new carbon dioxide demand control module (nDCV). These two modules take an innovative approach to maintain satisfaction of the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) with optimum energy consumption, they provide a rational basis of effective control. A total of 2133 sets of measurement data of indoor air temperature (Ta), relative humidity (Rh) and carbon dioxide concentration (CO2) were conducted in some Hong Kong offices to investigate the potential of integrating the SBEM. A simulation was used to evaluate the dynamic performance of the energy and air conditioning system with the integration of the SBEM in an air-conditioned building. It allows us make a clear picture of the control strategies and performed any pre-tuned of controllers before utilized in real systems. With the integration of SBEM, it was able to save up to 12.3% in simulation and 15% in field measurement of overall electricity consumption, and maintain the average carbon dioxide concentration within 1000ppm and occupant dissatisfaction in 20%.

Keywords: sustainable building environmental model (SBEM), adaptive comfort temperature (ACT), new demand control ventilation (nDCV), energy saving

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11516 Voice over IP Quality of Service Evaluation for Mobile Ad Hoc Network in an Indoor Environment for Different Voice Codecs

Authors: Lina Abou Haibeh, Nadir Hakem, Ousama Abu Safia

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In this paper, the performance and quality of Voice over IP (VoIP) calls carried over a Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) which has a number of SIP nodes registered on a SIP Proxy are analyzed. The testing campaigns are carried out in an indoor corridor structure having a well-defined channel’s characteristics and model for the different voice codecs, G.711, G.727 and G.723.1. These voice codecs are commonly used in VoIP technology. The calls’ quality are evaluated using four Quality of Service (QoS) metrics, namely, mean opinion score (MOS), jitter, delay, and packet loss. The relationship between the wireless channel’s parameters and the optimum codec is well-established. According to the experimental results, the voice codec G.711 has the best performance for the proposed MANET topology

Keywords: wireless channel modelling, Voip, MANET, session initiation protocol (SIP), QoS

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11515 Absorption Control of Organic Solar Cells under LED Light for High Efficiency Indoor Power System

Authors: Premkumar Vincent, Hyeok Kim, Jin-Hyuk Bae

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Organic solar cells have high potential which enables these to absorb much weaker light than 1-sun in indoor environment. They also have several practical advantages, such as flexibility, cost-advantage, and semi-transparency that can have superiority in indoor solar energy harvesting. We investigate organic solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) for indoor application while Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations were run to find the optimized structure. This may provide the highest short-circuit current density to acquire high efficiency under indoor illumination.

Keywords: indoor solar cells, indoor light harvesting, organic solar cells, P3HT:ICBA, renewable energy

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11514 Factors Related to Protective Behavior on Indoor Pollution among Pregnant Women in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand

Authors: Yuri Teraoka, Cheerawit Rattanapan, Aroonsri Mongkolchati

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This cross sectional analytic study was carried out to determine factors related to protective behavior on indoor pollution among pregnant women in Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand. A total of 319 pregnant women were enrolled at three antenatal care clinics in community hospital. Data were collected using simple random sampling from April 2015 to May 2015 using a structured self-administration questionnaire by well-trained research assistants. The result showed that around 73% pregnant women showed low level of low protective behavior on indoor pollution. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression were used to examine the factors and protective behavior on indoor pollution. After adjusting for confounding factors, this study found that tobacco smoking before pregnancy (AOR=2.15, 95% CI: 0.78-5.95) and low environmental health hazard (AOR=1.94, 95% CI: 1.09-3.49) were significant factors related to protective behavior on indoor pollution among pregnant women (p-value < 0.05). In conclusion, this study suggested that environmental health education campaign and environmental implementation program among pregnant woman are needed.

Keywords: Thailand, environmental health, protective behavior, pregnant women

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11513 Simulation-Based Evaluation of Indoor Air Quality and Comfort Control in Non-Residential Buildings

Authors: Torsten Schwan, Rene Unger

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Simulation of thermal and electrical building performance more and more becomes part of an integrative planning process. Increasing requirements on energy efficiency, the integration of volatile renewable energy, smart control and storage management often cause tremendous challenges for building engineers and architects. This mainly affects commercial or non-residential buildings. Their energy consumption characteristics significantly distinguish from residential ones. This work focuses on the many-objective optimization problem indoor air quality and comfort, especially in non-residential buildings. Based on a brief description of intermediate dependencies between different requirements on indoor air treatment it extends existing Modelica-based building physics models with additional system states to adequately represent indoor air conditions. Interfaces to corresponding HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system and control models enable closed-loop analyzes of occupants' requirements and energy efficiency as well as profitableness aspects. A complex application scenario of a nearly-zero-energy school building shows advantages of presented evaluation process for engineers and architects. This way, clear identification of air quality requirements in individual rooms together with realistic model-based description of occupants' behavior helps to optimize HVAC system already in early design stages. Building planning processes can be highly improved and accelerated by increasing integration of advanced simulation methods. Those methods mainly provide suitable answers on engineers' and architects' questions regarding more exuberant and complex variety of suitable energy supply solutions.

Keywords: indoor air quality, dynamic simulation, energy efficient control, non-residential buildings

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11512 Numerical Investigation of Indoor Environmental Quality in a Room Heated with Impinging Jet Ventilation

Authors: Mathias Cehlin, Arman Ameen, Ulf Larsson, Taghi Karimipanah

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The indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is increasingly recognized as a significant factor influencing the overall level of building occupants’ health, comfort and productivity. An air-conditioning and ventilation system is normally used to create and maintain good thermal comfort and indoor air quality. Providing occupant thermal comfort and well-being with minimized use of energy is the main purpose of heating, ventilating and air conditioning system. Among different types of ventilation systems, the most widely known and used ventilation systems are mixing ventilation (MV) and displacement ventilation (DV). Impinging jet ventilation (IJV) is a promising ventilation strategy developed in the beginning of 2000s. IJV has the advantage of supplying air downwards close to the floor with high momentum and thereby delivering fresh air further out in the room compare to DV. Operating in cooling mode, IJV systems can have higher ventilation effectiveness and heat removal effectiveness compared to MV, and therefore a higher energy efficiency. However, how is the performance of IJV when operating in heating mode? This paper presents the function of IJV in a typical office room for winter conditions (heating mode). In this paper, a validated CFD model, which uses the v2-f model is used for the prediction of air flow pattern, thermal comfort and air change effectiveness. The office room under consideration has the dimensions 4.2×3.6×2.5m, which can be designed like a single-person or two-person office. A number of important factors influencing in the room with IJV are studied. The considered parameters are: heating demand, number of occupants and supplied air conditions. A total of 6 simulation cases are carried out to investigate the effects of the considered parameters. Heat load in the room is contributed by occupants, computer and lighting. The model consists of one external wall including a window. The interaction effects of heat sources, supply air flow and down draught from the window result in a complex flow phenomenon. Preliminary results indicate that IJV can be used for heating of a typical office room. The IEQ seems to be suitable in the occupied region for the studied cases.

Keywords: computation fluid dynamics, impinging jet ventilation, indoor environmental quality, ventilation strategy

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11511 Investigating the Indoor Air Quality of the Respiratory Care Wards

Authors: Yu-Wen Lin, Chin-Sheng Tang, Wan-Yi Chen

Abstract:

Various biological specimens, drugs, and chemicals exist in the hospital. The medical staffs and hypersensitive inpatients expose might expose to multiple hazards while they work or stay in the hospital. Therefore, the indoor air quality (IAQ) of the hospital should be paid more attention. Respiratory care wards (RCW) are responsible for caring the patients who cannot spontaneously breathe without the ventilators. The patients in RCW are easy to be infected. Compared to the bacteria concentrations of other hospital units, RCW came with higher values in other studies. This research monitored the IAQ of the RCW and checked the compliances of the indoor air quality standards of Taiwan Indoor Air Quality Act. Meanwhile, the influential factors of IAQ and the impacts of ventilator modules, with humidifier or with filter, were investigated. The IAQ of two five-bed wards and one nurse station of a RCW in a regional hospital were monitored. The monitoring was proceeded for 16 hours or 24 hours during the sampling days with a sampling frequency of 20 minutes per hour. The monitoring was performed for two days in a row and the AIQ of the RCW were measured for eight days in total. The concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxide (NOₓ), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), relative humidity (RH) and temperature were measured by direct reading instruments. The bioaerosol samples were taken hourly. The hourly air change rate (ACH) was calculated by measuring the air ventilation volume. Human activities were recorded during the sampling period. The linear mixed model (LMM) was applied to illustrate the impact factors of IAQ. The concentrations of CO, CO₂, PM, bacterial and fungi exceeded the Taiwan IAQ standards. The major factors affecting the concentrations of CO, PM₁ and PM₂.₅ were location and the number of inpatients. The significant factors to alter the CO₂ and TVOC concentrations were location and the numbers of in-and-out staff and inpatients. The number of in-and-out staff and the level of activity affected the PM₁₀ concentrations statistically. The level of activity and the numbers of in-and-out staff and inpatients are the significant factors in changing the bacteria and fungi concentrations. Different models of the patients’ ventilators did not affect the IAQ significantly. The results of LMM can be utilized to predict the pollutant concentrations under various environmental conditions. The results of this study would be a valuable reference for air quality management of RCW.

Keywords: respiratory care ward, indoor air quality, linear mixed model, bioaerosol

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