Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 181

Search results for: attenuation

181 The Affect of Water Quality on the Ultrasonic Attenuation of Bone Mimic

Authors: A. Elsariti, T. Evans

Abstract:

The propagation mechanisms in the trabecular bone are poorly understood and have been the subject of extended debate; also, steel wool has been evaluated as a potential bone mimic, Its advantages are ready availability, low cost and a wide range of sizes. In this study, both distilled and tap water were used to estimate the ultrasonic attenuation in coarse steel wool. It is clear from the results that the attenuation of coarse steel wool increased as the distance between the transducers decreased, and it is higher in tap water than distilled water. At 9cm distance between the transducers the attenuation was approximately 0.97 and 4.7 dB in distilled and tap water respectively. While it is 6.97 and 12.2 dB in distilled and tap water respectively at distance 4cm. This change in the attenuation between both distilled and tap water is probably due to gas bubbles in the tap water.

Keywords: bone mimic, porosity, tap water, distilled water, ultrasonic attenuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 451
180 Simulation of Gamma Rays Attenuation Coefficient for Some common Shielding Materials Using Monte Carlo Program

Authors: Cherief Houria, Fouka Mourad

Abstract:

In this work, the simulation of the radiation attenuation is carried out in a photon detector consisting of different common shielding material using a Monte Carlo program called PTM. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of atomic weight and the thickness of shielding materials on the gamma radiation attenuation ability. The linear attenuation coefficients of Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), and lead (Pb) elements were evaluated at photons energy of 661:7KeV that are considered to be emitted from a standard radioactive point source Cs 137. The experimental measurements have been performed for three materials to obtain these linear attenuation coefficients, using a Gamma NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. Our results have been compared with the simulation results of the linear attenuation coefficient using the XCOM database and Geant4 codes and reveal that they are well agreed with both simulation data.

Keywords: gamma photon, Monte Carlo program, radiation attenuation, shielding material, the linear attenuation coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
179 The Contribution of Density Fluctuations in Ultrasound Scattering in Cancellous Bone

Authors: A. Elsariti, T. Evans

Abstract:

An understanding of the interaction between acoustic waves and cancellous bone is needed in order to realize the full clinical potential of ultrasonic bone measurements. Scattering is likely to be of central importance but has received little attention to date. Few theoretical approaches have been described to explain scattering of ultrasound from bone. In this study, a scattering model based on velocity and density fluctuations in a binary mixture (marrow fat and cortical matrix) was used to estimate the ultrasonic attenuation in cancellous bone as a function of volume fraction. Predicted attenuation and backscatter coefficient were obtained for a range of porosities and scatterer size. At 600 kHZ and for different scatterer size the effect of velocity and density fluctuations in the predicted attenuation was approximately 60% higher than velocity fluctuations.

Keywords: ultrasound scattering, sound speed, density fluctuations, attenuation coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
178 The Effect of the Acquisition and Reconstruction Parameters in Quality of Spect Tomographic Images with Attenuation and Scatter Correction

Authors: N. Boutaghane, F. Z. Tounsi

Abstract:

Many physical and technological factors degrade the SPECT images, both qualitatively and quantitatively. For this, it is not always put into leading technological advances to improve the performance of tomographic gamma camera in terms of detection, collimation, reconstruction and correction of tomographic images methods. We have to master firstly the choice of various acquisition and reconstruction parameters, accessible to clinical cases and using the attenuation and scatter correction methods to always optimize quality image and minimized to the maximum dose received by the patient. In this work, an evaluation of qualitative and quantitative tomographic images is performed based on the acquisition parameters (counts per projection) and reconstruction parameters (filter type, associated cutoff frequency). In addition, methods for correcting physical effects such as attenuation and scatter degrading the image quality and preventing precise quantitative of the reconstructed slices are also presented. Two approaches of attenuation and scatter correction are implemented: the attenuation correction by CHANG method with a filtered back projection reconstruction algorithm and scatter correction by the subtraction JASZCZAK method. Our results are considered as such recommandation, which permits to determine the origin of the different artifacts observed both in quality control tests and in clinical images.

Keywords: attenuation, scatter, reconstruction filter, image quality, acquisition and reconstruction parameters, SPECT

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
177 Water Depth and Optical Attenuation Characteristics of Natural Water Reservoirs nearby Kolkata City Assessed from Hyperion Hyperspectral and LISS-3 Multispectral Images

Authors: Barun Raychaudhuri

Abstract:

A methodology is proposed for estimating the optical attenuation and proportional depth variation of shallow inland water. The process is demonstrated with EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral and IRS-P6 LISS-3 multispectral images of Kolkata city nearby area centered around 22º33′ N 88º26′ E. The attenuation coefficient of water was found to change with fine resolution of wavebands and in presence of suspended organic matter in water.

Keywords: hyperion, hyperspectral, Kolkata, water depth

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
176 The Mass Attenuation Coefficients, Effective Atomic Cross Sections, Effective Atomic Numbers and Electron Densities of Some Halides

Authors: Shivalinge Gowda

Abstract:

The total mass attenuation coefficients m/r, of some halides such as, NaCl, KCl, CuCl, NaBr, KBr, RbCl, AgCl, NaI, KI, AgBr, CsI, HgCl2, CdI2 and HgI2 were determined at photon energies 279.2, 320.07, 514.0, 661.6, 1115.5, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV in a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up using a high resolution, hyper pure germanium detector. The mass attenuation coefficients and the effective atomic cross sections are found to be in good agreement with the XCOM values. From these mass attenuation coefficients, the effective atomic cross sections sa, of the compounds were determined. These effective atomic cross section sa data so obtained are then used to compute the effective atomic numbers Zeff. For this, the interpolation of total attenuation cross-sections of photons of energy E in elements of atomic number Z was performed by using the logarithmic regression analysis of the data measured by the authors and reported earlier for the above said energies along with XCOM data for standard energies. The best-fit coefficients in the photon energy range of 250 to 350 keV, 350 to 500 keV, 500 to 700 keV, 700 to 1000 keV and 1000 to 1500 keV by a piecewise interpolation method were then used to find the Zeff of the compounds with respect to the effective atomic cross section sa from the relation obtained by piece wise interpolation method. Using these Zeff values, the electron densities Nel of halides were also determined. The present Zeff and Nel values of halides are found to be in good agreement with the values calculated from XCOM data and other available published values.

Keywords: mass attenuation coefficient, atomic cross-section, effective atomic number, electron density

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
175 Effect of Wind and Humidity on Microwave Links in North West Libya

Authors: M. S. Agha, A. M. Eshahiry, S. A. Aldabbar, Z. M. Alshahri

Abstract:

The propagation of microwave is affected by rain and dust particles causing signal attenuation and de-polarization. Computations of these effects require knowledge of the propagation characteristics of microwave and millimeter wave energy in the climate conditions of the studied region. This paper presents effect of wind and humidity on wireless communication such as microwave links in the North West region of Libya (Al-Khoms). The experimental procedure is done on three selected antennae towers (Nagaza station, Al-Khoms center station, Al-Khoms gateway station) for determining the attenuation loss per unit length and cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) change. Dust particles are collected along the region of the study, to measure the particle size distribution (PSD), calculate the concentration, and chemically analyze the contents, then the dielectric constant can be calculated. The results show that humidity and dust, antenna height and the visibility affect both attenuation and phase shift; in which, a few considerations must be taken into account in the communication power budget.

Keywords: : Attenuation, scattering, transmission loss.

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
174 Validation of the Formula for Air Attenuation Coefficient for Acoustic Scale Models

Authors: Katarzyna Baruch, Agata Szelag, Aleksandra Majchrzak, Tadeusz Kamisinski

Abstract:

Methodology of measurement of sound absorption coefficient in scaled models is based on the ISO 354 standard. The measurement is realised indirectly - the coefficient is calculated from the reverberation time of an empty chamber as well as a chamber with an inserted sample. It is crucial to maintain the atmospheric conditions stable during both measurements. Possible differences may be amended basing on the formulas for atmospheric attenuation coefficient α given in ISO 9613-1. Model studies require scaling particular factors in compliance with specified characteristic numbers. For absorption coefficient measurement, these are for example: frequency range or the value of attenuation coefficient m. Thanks to the possibilities of modern electroacoustic transducers, it is no longer a problem to scale the frequencies which have to be proportionally higher. However, it may be problematic to reduce values of the attenuation coefficient. It is practically obtained by drying the air down to a defined relative humidity. Despite the change of frequency range and relative humidity of the air, ISO 9613-1 standard still allows the calculation of the amendment for little differences of the atmospheric conditions in the chamber during measurements. The paper discusses a number of theoretical analyses and experimental measurements performed in order to obtain consistency between the values of attenuation coefficient calculated from the formulas given in the standard and by measurement. The authors performed measurements of reverberation time in a chamber made in a 1/8 scale in a corresponding frequency range, i.e. 800 Hz - 40 kHz and in different values of the relative air humidity (40% 5%). Based on the measurements, empirical values of attenuation coefficient were calculated and compared with theoretical ones. In general, the values correspond with each other, but for high frequencies and low values of relative air humidity the differences are significant. Those discrepancies may directly influence the values of measured sound absorption coefficient and cause errors. Therefore, the authors made an effort to determine an amendment minimizing described inaccuracy.

Keywords: air absorption correction, attenuation coefficient, dimensional analysis, model study, scaled modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
173 Adobe Attenuation Coefficient Determination and Its Comparison with Other Shielding Materials for Energies Found in Common X-Rays Procedures

Authors: Camarena Rodriguez C. S., Portocarrero Bonifaz A., Palma Esparza R., Romero Carlos N. A.

Abstract:

Adobe is a construction material that fulfills the same function as a conventional brick. Widely used since ancient times, it is present in an appreciable percentage of buildings in Latin America. Adobe is a mixture of clay and sand. The interest in the study of the properties of this material arises due to its presence in the infrastructure of hospital´s radiological services, located in places with low economic resources, for the attenuation of radiation. Some materials such as lead and concrete are the most used for shielding and are widely studied in the literature. The present study will determine the mass attenuation coefficient of Adobe. The minimum required thicknesses for the primary and secondary barriers will be estimated for the shielding of radiological facilities where conventional and dental X-rays are performed. For the experimental procedure, an X-ray source emitted direct radiation towards different thicknesses of an Adobe barrier, and a detector was placed on the other side. For this purpose, an UNFORS Xi solid state detector was used, which collected information on the difference of radiation intensity. The initial parameters of the exposure started at 45 kV; and then the tube tension was varied in increments of 5 kV, reaching a maximum of 125 kV. The X-Ray tube was positioned at a distance of 0.5 m from the surface of the Adobe bricks, and the collimation of the radiation beam was set for an area of 0.15 m x 0.15 m. Finally, mathematical methods were applied to determine the mass attenuation coefficient for different energy ranges. In conclusion, the mass attenuation coefficient for Adobe was determined and the approximate thicknesses of the most common Adobe barriers in the hospital buildings were calculated for their later application in the radiological protection.

Keywords: Adobe, attenuation coefficient, radiological protection, shielding, x-rays

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
172 Quantifying Wave Attenuation over an Eroding Marsh through Numerical Modeling

Authors: Donald G. Danmeier, Gian Marco Pizzo, Matthew Brennan

Abstract:

Although wetlands have been proposed as a green alternative to manage coastal flood hazards because of their capacity to adapt to sea level rise and provision of multiple ecological and social co-benefits, they are often overlooked due to challenges in quantifying the uncertainty and naturally, variability of these systems. This objective of this study was to quantify wave attenuation provided by a natural marsh surrounding a large oil refinery along the US Gulf Coast that has experienced steady erosion along the shoreward edge. The vegetation module of the SWAN was activated and coupled with a hydrodynamic model (DELFT3D) to capture two-way interactions between the changing water level and wavefield over the course of a storm event. Since the marsh response to relative sea level rise is difficult to predict, a range of future marsh morphologies is explored. Numerical results were examined to determine the amount of wave attenuation as a function of marsh extent and the relative contributions from white-capping, depth-limited wave breaking, bottom friction, and flexing of vegetation. In addition to the coupled DELFT3D-SWAN modeling of a storm event, an uncoupled SWAN-VEG model was applied to a simplified bathymetry to explore a larger experimental design space. The wave modeling revealed that the rate of wave attenuation reduces for higher surge but was still significant over a wide range of water levels and outboard wave heights. The results also provide insights to the minimum marsh extent required to fully realize the potential wave attenuation so the changing coastal hazards can be managed.

Keywords: green infrastructure, wave attenuation, wave modeling, wetland

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
171 Heat and Radiation Influence on Granite-Galena Concrete for Nuclear Shielding Applications

Authors: Mohamed A. Safan, Walid Khalil, Amro Fathalla

Abstract:

Advances in concrete technology and implementation of new materials made it possible to produce special types of concrete for different structural applications. In this research, granite and galena were incorporated in different concrete mixes to obtain high performance concrete for shielding against gamma radiations in nuclear facilities. Chemically prepared industrial galena was used to replace different volume fractions of the fine aggregate. The test specimens were exposed to different conditions of heating cycles and irradiation. The exposed specimens and counterpart unexposed specimens were tested to evaluate the density, the compressive strength and the attenuation coefficient. The proposed mixes incorporating galena showed better performance in terms of compressive strength and gamma attenuation capacity, especially after the exposure to different heating cycles.

Keywords: concrete, galena, shielding, attenuation, radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
170 Attenuation Scale Calibration of an Optical Time Domain Reflectometer

Authors: Osama Terra, Hatem Hussein

Abstract:

Calibration of Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) is crucial for the accurate determination of loss budget for long optical fiber links. In this paper, the calibration of the attenuation scale of an OTDR using two different techniques is discussed and implemented. The first technique is the external modulation method (EM). A setup is proposed to calibrate an OTDR over a dynamic range of around 15 dB based on the EM method. Afterwards, the OTDR is calibrated using two standard reference fibers (SRF). Both SRF are calibrated using cut-back technique; one of them is calibrated at our home institute (the National Institute of Standards – NIS) while the other at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) of the United Kingdom to confirm our results. In addition, the parameters contributing the calibration uncertainty are thoroughly investigated. Although the EM method has several advantages over the SRF method, the uncertainties in the SRF method is found to surpass that of the EM method.

Keywords: optical time domain reflectometer, fiber attenuation measurement, OTDR calibration, external source method

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
169 Effect of Wind and Humidity on Microwave Links in West North Libya

Authors: M. S. Agha, A. M. Eshahiry, S. A. Aldabbar, Z. M. Alshahri

Abstract:

The propagation of microwave is affected by rain and dust particles by way of signal attenuation and de-polarization. Computations of these effects require knowledge of the propagation characteristics of microwave and millimeter wave energy in the climate conditions of the studied region. This paper presents the effect of wind and humidity on wireless communication such as microwave links in the west north region of Libya (Al-Khoms), experimental procedure to study the effects mentioned above. The experimental procedure is done on three selected antennae towers (Nagaza stations, Al-Khoms center stations, Al-Khoms gateway stations) to determining of the attenuation loss per unit length and cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) change which coverage in the studied region, it is required to collect the dust particles carried out by the wind, measure the particles size distribution (PSD), calculate the concentration, and carry chemical analysis of the contents, then the dielectric constant can be calculated. The result showed that effect of the humidity and dust, the antenna height, the visibility, on the complex permittivity effects both attenuation and phase shift, there is some consideration that has to be taken into account in the communication power budget.

Keywords: attenuation, de-polarization, scattering, transmission loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
168 Using Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) for Extracting Acoustic Microwaves (Bulk Acoustic Waves) in Piezoelectric Material

Authors: Hafdaoui Hichem, Mehadjebia Cherifa, Benatia Djamel

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new method for Bulk detection of an acoustic microwave signal during the propagation of acoustic microwaves in a piezoelectric substrate (Lithium Niobate LiNbO3). We have used the classification by probabilistic neural network (PNN) as a means of numerical analysis in which we classify all the values of the real part and the imaginary part of the coefficient attenuation with the acoustic velocity in order to build a model from which we note the Bulk waves easily. These singularities inform us of presence of Bulk waves in piezoelectric materials. By which we obtain accurate values for each of the coefficient attenuation and acoustic velocity for Bulk waves. This study will be very interesting in modeling and realization of acoustic microwaves devices (ultrasound) based on the propagation of acoustic microwaves.

Keywords: piezoelectric material, probabilistic neural network (PNN), classification, acoustic microwaves, bulk waves, the attenuation coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
167 Lamb Waves Propagation in Elastic-Viscoelastic Three-Layer Adhesive Joints

Authors: Pezhman Taghipour Birgani, Mehdi Shekarzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, the propagation of lamb waves in three-layer joints is investigated using global matrix method. Theoretical boundary value problem in three-layer adhesive joints with perfect bond and traction free boundary conditions on their outer surfaces is solved to find a combination of frequencies and modes with the lowest attenuation. The characteristic equation is derived by applying continuity and boundary conditions in three-layer joints using global matrix method. Attenuation and phase velocity dispersion curves are obtained with numerical solution of this equation by a computer code for a three-layer joint, including an aluminum repair patch bonded to the aircraft aluminum skin by a layer of viscoelastic epoxy adhesive. To validate the numerical solution results of the characteristic equation, wave structure curves are plotted for a special mode in two different frequencies in the adhesive joint. The purpose of present paper is to find a combination of frequencies and modes with minimum attenuation in high and low frequencies. These frequencies and modes are recognizable by transducers in inspections with Lamb waves because of low attenuation level.

Keywords: three-layer adhesive joints, viscoelastic, lamb waves, global matrix method

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
166 Modeling of Digital and Settlement Consolidation of Soil under Oedomete

Authors: Yu-Lin Shen, Ming-Kuen Chang

Abstract:

In addition to a considerable amount of machinery and equipment, intricacies of the transmission pipeline exist in Petrochemical plants. Long term corrosion may lead to pipeline thinning and rupture, causing serious safety concerns. With the advances in non-destructive testing technology, more rapid and long-range ultrasonic detection techniques are often used for pipeline inspection, EMAT without coupling to detect, it is a non-contact ultrasonic, suitable for detecting elevated temperature or roughened e surface of line. In this study, we prepared artificial defects in pipeline for Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Testing (EMAT) to survey the relationship between the defect location, sizing and the EMAT signal. It was found that the signal amplitude of EMAT exhibited greater signal attenuation with larger defect depth and length.. In addition, with bigger flat hole diameter, greater amplitude attenuation was obtained. In summary, signal amplitude attenuation of EMAT was affected by the defect depth, defect length and the hole diameter and size.

Keywords: EMAT, artificial defect, NDT, ultrasonic testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
165 Design Study for the Rehabilitation of a Retaining Structure and Water Intake on Site

Authors: Yu-Lin Shen, Ming-Kuen Chang

Abstract:

In addition to a considerable amount of machinery and equipment, intricacies of the transmission pipeline exist in Petrochemical plants. Long term corrosion may lead to pipeline thinning and rupture, causing serious safety concerns. With the advances in non-destructive testing technology, more rapid and long-range ultrasonic detection techniques are often used for pipeline inspection, EMAT without coupling to detect, it is a non-contact ultrasonic, suitable for detecting elevated temperature or roughened e surface of line. In this study, we prepared artificial defects in pipeline for Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer testing (EMAT) to survey the relationship between the defect location, sizing and the EMAT signal. It was found that the signal amplitude of EMAT exhibited greater signal attenuation with larger defect depth and length. In addition, with bigger flat hole diameter, greater amplitude attenuation was obtained. In summary, signal amplitude attenuation of EMAT was affected by the defect depth, defect length and the hole diameter and size.

Keywords: EMAT, artificial defect, NDT, ultrasonic testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
164 Liquid Temperature Effect on Sound Propagation in Polymeric Solution with Gas Bubbles

Authors: S. Levitsky

Abstract:

Acoustic properties of polymeric liquids are high sensitive to free gas traces in the form of fine bubbles. Their presence is typical for such liquids because of chemical reactions, small wettability of solid boundaries, trapping of air in technological operations, etc. Liquid temperature influences essentially its rheological properties, which may have an impact on the bubble pulsations and sound propagation in the system. The target of the paper is modeling of the liquid temperature effect on single bubble dynamics and sound dispersion and attenuation in polymeric solution with spherical gas bubbles. The basic sources of attenuation (heat exchange between gas in microbubbles and surrounding liquid, rheological and acoustic losses) are taken into account. It is supposed that in the studied temperature range the interface mass transfer has a minor effect on bubble dynamics. The results of the study indicate that temperature raise yields enhancement of bubble pulsations and increase in sound attenuation in the near-resonance range and may have a strong impact on sound dispersion in the liquid-bubble mixture at frequencies close to the resonance frequency of bubbles.

Keywords: sound propagation, gas bubbles, temperature effect, polymeric liquid

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
163 Study of Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer to Detect Flaw in Pipeline

Authors: Yu-Lin Shen, Ming-Kuen Chang

Abstract:

In addition to a considerable amount of machinery and equipment, intricacies of the transmission pipeline exist in Petrochemical plants. Long term corrosion may lead to pipeline thinning and rupture, causing serious safety concerns. With the advances in non-destructive testing technology, more rapid and long-range ultrasonic detection techniques are often used for pipeline inspection, EMAT without coupling to detect, it is a non-contact ultrasonic, suitable for detecting elevated temperature or roughened e surface of line. In this study, we prepared artificial defects in pipeline for Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer Testing (EMAT) to survey the relationship between the defect location, sizing and the EMAT signal. It was found that the signal amplitude of EMAT exhibited greater signal attenuation with larger defect depth and length.. In addition, with bigger flat hole diameter, greater amplitude attenuation was obtained. In summary, signal amplitude attenuation of EMAT was affected by the defect depth, defect length and the hole diameter and size.

Keywords: EMAT, NDT, artificial defect, ultrasonic testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
162 Development of Blast Vibration Equation Considering the Polymorphic Characteristics of Basaltic Ground

Authors: Dong Wook Lee, Seung Hyun Kim

Abstract:

Geological structure formed by volcanic activities shows polymorphic characteristics due to repeated cooling and hardening of lava. The Jeju region is showing polymorphic characteristics in which clinker layers are irregularly distributed along with vesicular basalt due to volcanic activities. Accordingly, resident damages and environmental disputes occur frequently in the Jeju region due to blasting. The purpose of this study is to develop a blast vibration equation considering the polymorphic characteristics of basaltic ground in Jeju. The blast vibration equation consists of a functional formula of the blasting vibration constant K that changes according to ground characteristics, and attenuation index n. The case study results in Jeju showed that if there are clinker layers, attenuation index n showed a distribution of -1.11~-1.87, whereas if there are no clinker layers, n was -2.79. Moreover, if there are no clinker layers, the frequency of blast vibration showed a high frequency band from 30Hz to 100Hz, while in rocks with clinker layers it showed a low frequency band from 10Hz to 20Hz.

Keywords: blast vibration equation, basaltic ground, clinker layer, blasting vibration constant, attenuation index

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
161 Empirical Prediction of the Effect of Rain Drops on Dbs System Operating in Ku-Band (Case Study of Abuja)

Authors: Tonga Agadi Danladi, Ajao Wasiu Bamidele, Terdue Dyeko

Abstract:

Recent advancement in microwave communications technologies especially in telecommunications and broadcasting have resulted in congestion on the frequencies below 10GHz. This has forced microwave designers to look for high frequencies. Unfortunately for frequencies greater than 10GHz rain becomes one of the main factors of attenuation in signal strength. At frequencies from 10GHz upwards, rain drop sizes leads to outages that compromises the availability and quality of service this making it a critical factor in satellite link budget design. Rain rate and rain attenuation predictions are vital steps to be considered when designing microwave satellite communication link operating at Ku-band frequencies (112-18GHz). Unreliable rain rates data in the tropical regions of the world like Nigeria from radio communication group of the international Telecommunication Union (ITU-R) makes it difficult for microwave engineers to determine a realistic rain margin that needs to be accommodated in satellite link budget design in such region. This work presents an empirical tool for predicting the amount of signal due to rain on DBS signal operating at the Ku-band.

Keywords: attenuation, Ku-Band, microwave communication, rain rates

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
160 Compensation of Cable Attenuation in Step Current Generators to Enable the Convolution Method for Calibration of Current Transducers

Authors: P. Treyer, M. Kujda, H. Urs

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to digitally compensate for the apparent discharge time constant of the coaxial cable so that the current step response is flat and can be used to calibrate current transducers using the convolution method. For proper use of convolution, the step response record length is required to be at least the same as the waveform duration to be evaluated. The current step generator based on the cable discharge is compared to the Blumlein generator. Moreover, the influence of each component of the system on the performance of the step is described, which allows building the appropriate measurement set-up. In the end, the calibration of current viewing resistors dedicated to high current impulse is computed.

Keywords: Blumlein generator, cable attenuation, convolution, current step generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
159 Ultrasonic Spectroscopy of Polymer Based PVDF-TrFE Composites with CNT Fillers

Authors: J. Belovickis, V. Samulionis, J. Banys, M. V. Silibin, A. V. Solnyshkin, A. V. Sysa

Abstract:

Ferroelectric polymers exhibit good flexibility, processability and low cost of production. Doping of ferroelectric polymers with nanofillers may modify its dielectric, elastic or piezoelectric properties. Carbon nanotubes are one of the ingredients that can improve the mechanical properties of polymer based composites. In this work, we report on both the ultrasonic and the dielectric properties of the copolymer polyvinylidene fluoride/tetrafluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) of the composition 70/30 mol% with various concentrations of carbon nanotubes (CNT). Experimental study of ultrasonic wave attenuation and velocity in these composites has been performed over wide temperature range (100 K – 410 K) using an ultrasonic automatic pulse-echo tecnique. The temperature dependences of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation showed anomalies attributed to the glass transition and paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition. Our investigations showed mechanical losses to be dependent on the volume fraction of the CNTs within the composites. The existence of broad hysteresis of the ultrasonic wave attenuation and velocity within the nanocomposites is presented between cooling and heating cycles. By the means of dielectric spectroscopy, it is shown that the dielectric properties may be tuned by varying the volume fraction of the CNT fillers.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, polymer composites, PVDF-TrFE, ultrasonic spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
158 Effect of Wind and Humidity on Microwave Links in Al-Khoms City-Libya

Authors: Mustafa S. Agha, Asma M. Eshahriy

Abstract:

The propagation of electromagnetic waves in millimeter band is severely affected by rain, and dust particles in terms of attenuation and de-polarization. The computations of dust and/or sand storms require knowledge of electrical properties of the scattering particles and climate conditions at the studied region in the west north region of Libya. (Al -Khoms) To compute the effect of dust and sand particles on the propagation of electromagnetic waves, it is required to collect the sand particles carried out by the wind, measure the particles size distribution (PSD), calculate the concentration, and carry chemical analysis of the contents, then the dielectric constant can be calculated. The main object of this paper is to study the effect of sand and dust storms on wireless communication, such as microwave links, in the north region of Libya (Al -Khoms) of Libya (Nagaza stations, Al-khoms center stations, Al-khoms gateway stations) by determining of the attenuation loss per unit length and cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) change due to the effect of sand and dust storms on wireless communication systems (GSM signal). The result showed that there is some consideration that has to be taken into account in the communication power budget .

Keywords: attenuation, scattering, transmission loss, electromagnetic waves

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
157 Effects of Duct Geometry, Thickness and Types of Liners on Transmission Loss for Absorptive Silencers

Authors: M. Kashfi, K. Jahani

Abstract:

Sound attenuation in absorptive silencers has been analyzed in this paper. The structure of such devices is as follows. When the rigid duct of an expansion chamber has been lined by a packed absorptive material under a perforated membrane, incident sound waves will be dissipated by the absorptive liners. This kind of silencer, usually are applicable for medium to high frequency ranges. Several conditions for different absorptive materials, variety in their thicknesses, and different shapes of the expansion chambers have been studied in this paper. Also, graphs of sound attenuation have been compared between empty expansion chamber and duct of silencer with applying liner. Plane waves have been assumed in inlet and outlet regions of the silencer. Presented results that have been achieved by applying finite element method (FEM), have shown the dependence of the sound attenuation spectrum to flow resistivity and the thicknesses of the absorptive materials, and geometries of the cross section (configuration of the silencer). As flow resistivity and thickness of absorptive materials increase, sound attenuation improves. In this paper, diagrams of the transmission loss (TL) for absorptive silencers in five different cross sections (rectangle, circle, ellipse, square, and rounded rectangle as the main geometry) have been presented. Also, TL graphs for silencers using different absorptive material (glass wool, wood fiber, and kind of spongy materials) as liner with three different thicknesses of 5 mm, 15 mm, and 30 mm for glass wool liner have been exhibited. At first, the effect of substances of the absorptive materials with the specific flow resistivity and densities on the TL spectrum, then the effect of the thicknesses of the glass wool, and at last the efficacy of the shape of the cross section of the silencer have been investigated.

Keywords: transmission loss, absorptive material, flow resistivity, thickness, frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
156 Energy Content and Spectral Energy Representation of Wave Propagation in a Granular Chain

Authors: Rohit Shrivastava, Stefan Luding

Abstract:

A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Studying the energy as well as spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like soil. The study of these properties is aimed at modeling wave propagation for oil, mineral or gas exploration (seismic prospecting) or non-destructive testing for the study of internal structure of solids. The study of Energy content (Kinetic, Potential and Total Energy) of a pulse propagating through an idealized one-dimensional discrete particle system like a mass disordered granular chain can assist in understanding the energy attenuation due to disorder as a function of propagation distance. The spectral analysis of the energy signal can assist in understanding dispersion as well as attenuation due to scattering in different frequencies (scattering attenuation). The selection of one-dimensional granular chain also helps in studying only the P-wave attributes of the wave and removing the influence of shear or rotational waves. Granular chains with different mass distributions have been studied, by randomly selecting masses from normal, binary and uniform distributions and the standard deviation of the distribution is considered as the disorder parameter, higher standard deviation means higher disorder and lower standard deviation means lower disorder. For obtaining macroscopic/continuum properties, ensemble averaging has been used. Interpreting information from a Total Energy signal turned out to be much easier in comparison to displacement, velocity or acceleration signals of the wave, hence, indicating a better analysis method for wave propagation through granular materials. Increasing disorder leads to faster attenuation of the signal and decreases the Energy of higher frequency signals transmitted, but at the same time the energy of spatially localized high frequencies also increases. An ordered granular chain exhibits ballistic propagation of energy whereas, a disordered granular chain exhibits diffusive like propagation, which eventually becomes localized at long periods of time.

Keywords: discrete elements, energy attenuation, mass disorder, granular chain, spectral energy, wave propagation

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
155 Wireless Optic Last Mile Multi-Gbit/s Communication System

Authors: Manea Viorel, Puscoci Sorin, Stoichescu Dan Alexandru

Abstract:

Free Space Optics (FSO) is an optical telecommunication system that uses laser beam to transmit data at high bit rates via terrestrial atmosphere. This article describes a method to obtain higher bit rates, under unfavorable weather conditions using multiple optical beams, which carry information with low optical power. Optical link quality assessment is given by the attenuation on different weather conditions. The goal of this paper is to compare two transmission techniques: mono and multi beam, both affected by atmospheric attenuation, using OOK and L-PPM modulation. Link availability is evaluated using eye-diagram that provides information about the overall bit error rate of the system.

Keywords: free space optics, wireless optic, laser communication, spatial diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
154 Quantitative Assessment of Soft Tissues by Statistical Analysis of Ultrasound Backscattered Signals

Authors: Da-Ming Huang, Ya-Ting Tsai, Shyh-Hau Wang

Abstract:

Ultrasound signals backscattered from the soft tissues are mainly depending on the size, density, distribution, and other elastic properties of scatterers in the interrogated sample volume. The quantitative analysis of ultrasonic backscattering is frequently implemented using the statistical approach due to that of backscattering signals tends to be with the nature of the random variable. Thus, the statistical analysis, such as Nakagami statistics, has been applied to characterize the density and distribution of scatterers of a sample. Yet, the accuracy of statistical analysis could be readily affected by the receiving signals associated with the nature of incident ultrasound wave and acoustical properties of samples. Thus, in the present study, efforts were made to explore such effects as the ultrasound operational modes and attenuation of biological tissue on the estimation of corresponding Nakagami statistical parameter (m parameter). In vitro measurements were performed from healthy and pathological fibrosis porcine livers using different single-element ultrasound transducers and duty cycles of incident tone burst ranging respectively from 3.5 to 7.5 MHz and 10 to 50%. Results demonstrated that the estimated m parameter tends to be sensitively affected by the use of ultrasound operational modes as well as the tissue attenuation. The healthy and pathological tissues may be characterized quantitatively by m parameter under fixed measurement conditions and proper calibration.

Keywords: ultrasound backscattering, statistical analysis, operational mode, attenuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
153 Outdoor Visible Light Communication Channel Modeling under Fog and Smoke Conditions

Authors: Véronique Georlette, Sebastien Bette, Sylvain Brohez, Nicolas Point, Veronique Moeyaert

Abstract:

Visible light communication (VLC) is a communication technology that is part of the optical wireless communication (OWC) family. It uses the visible and infrared spectrums to send data. For now, this technology has widely been studied for indoor use-cases, but it is sufficiently mature nowadays to consider the outdoor environment potentials. The main outdoor challenges are the meteorological conditions and the presence of smoke due to fire or pollutants in urban areas. This paper proposes a methodology to assess the robustness of an outdoor VLC system given the outdoor conditions. This methodology is put into practice in two realistic scenarios, a VLC bus stop, and a VLC streetlight. The methodology consists of computing the power margin available in the system, given all the characteristics of the VLC system and its surroundings. This is done thanks to an outdoor VLC communication channel simulator developed in Python. This simulator is able to quantify the effects of fog and smoke thanks to models taken from environmental and fire engineering scientific literature as well as the optical power reaching the receiver. These two phenomena impact the communication by increasing the total attenuation of the medium. The main conclusion drawn in this paper is that the levels of attenuation due to fog and smoke are in the same order of magnitude. The attenuation of fog being the highest under the visibility of 1 km. This gives a promising prospect for the deployment of outdoor VLC uses-cases in the near future.

Keywords: channel modeling, fog modeling, meteorological conditions, optical wireless communication, smoke modeling, visible light communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
152 Ground Motion Modelling in Bangladesh Using Stochastic Method

Authors: Mizan Ahmed, Srikanth Venkatesan

Abstract:

Geological and tectonic framework indicates that Bangladesh is one of the most seismically active regions in the world. The Bengal Basin is at the junction of three major interacting plates: the Indian, Eurasian, and Burma Plates. Besides there are many active faults within the region, e.g. the large Dauki fault in the north. The country has experienced a number of destructive earthquakes due to the movement of these active faults. Current seismic provisions of Bangladesh are mostly based on earthquake data prior to the 1990. Given the record of earthquakes post 1990, there is a need to revisit the design provisions of the code. This paper compares the base shear demand of three major cities in Bangladesh: Dhaka (the capital city), Sylhet, and Chittagong for earthquake scenarios of magnitudes 7.0MW, 7.5MW, 8.0MW and 8.5MW using a stochastic model. In particular, the stochastic model allows the flexibility to input region specific parameters such as shear wave velocity profile (that were developed from Global Crustal Model CRUST2.0) and include the effects of attenuation as individual components. Effects of soil amplification were analysed using the Extended Component Attenuation Model (ECAM). Results show that the estimated base shear demand is higher in comparison with code provisions leading to the suggestion of additional seismic design consideration in the study regions.

Keywords: attenuation, earthquake, ground motion, Stochastic, seismic hazard

Procedia PDF Downloads 175