Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 146

Search results for: graphic calculators

146 Graphic Calculator Effectiveness in Biology Teaching and Learning

Authors: Nik Azmah Nik Yusuff, Faridah Hassan Basri, Rosnidar Mansor

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to find out the effectiveness of using Graphic calculators (GC) with Calculator Based Laboratory 2 (CBL2) in teaching and learning of form four biology for these topics: Nutrition, Respiration and Dynamic Ecosystem. Sixty form four science stream students were the participants of this study. The participants were divided equally into the treatment and control groups. The treatment group used GC with CBL2 during experiments while the control group used the ordinary conventional laboratory apparatus without using GC with CBL2. Instruments in this study were a set of pre-test and post-test and a questionnaire. T-Test was used to compare the student’s biology achievement while a descriptive statistic was used to analyze the outcome of the questionnaire. The findings of this study indicated the use of GC with CBL2 in biology had significant positive effect. The highest mean was 4.43 for item stating the use of GC with CBL2 had saved collecting experiment result’s time. The second highest mean was 4.10 for item stating GC with CBL2 had saved drawing and labelling graphs. The outcome from the questionnaire also showed that GC with CBL2 were easy to use and save time. Thus, teachers should use GC with CBL2 in support of efforts by Malaysia Ministry of Education in encouraging technology-enhanced lessons.

Keywords: biology experiments, Calculator-Based Laboratory 2 (CBL2), graphic calculators, Malaysia Secondary School, teaching/learning

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145 A Forbidden-Minor Characterization for the Class of Co-Graphic Matroids Which Yield the Graphic Element-Splitting Matroids

Authors: Prashant Malavadkar, Santosh Dhotre, Maruti Shikare

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The n-point splitting operation on graphs is used to characterize 4-connected graphs with some more operations. Element splitting operation on binary matroids is a natural generalization of the notion of n-point splitting operation on graphs. The element splitting operation on a graphic (cographic) matroid may not yield a graphic (cographic) matroid. Characterization of graphic (cographic) matroids whose element splitting matroids are graphic (cographic) is known. The element splitting operation on a co-graphic matroid, in general may not yield a graphic matroid. In this paper, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for the cographic matroid to yield a graphic matroid under the element splitting operation. In fact, we prove that the element splitting operation, by any pair of elements, on a cographic matroid yields a graphic matroid if and only if it has no minor isomorphic to M(K4); where K4 is the complete graph on 4 vertices.

Keywords: binary matroids, splitting, element splitting, forbidden minor

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
144 Principles of Editing and Storytelling in Relation to Editorial Graphic Design

Authors: Melike Tascioglu

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This paper aims to combine film editing principles to basic design principles to explore what graphic designers do in terms of storytelling. The sequential aspect of film is designed and examined through the art of editing. Examining the rules, principles and formulas of film editing can be a method for graphic designers to further practice the art of storytelling. Although there are many research and publications on design basics, time, pace, dramatic structure and choreography are not very well defined in the area of graphic design. In this era of creative storytelling and interdisciplinary collaboration, not only film editors but also graphic designers and students in the arts and design should understand the theory and practice of editing to be able to create a strong mise-en-scène and not only a mise-en-page.

Keywords: design principles, editing principles, editorial design, film editing, graphic design, storytelling

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143 Rendering of Indian History: A Study Based on Select Graphic Novels

Authors: Akhila Sara Varughese

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In the postmodern society, visual narratives became an emerging genre in the field of literature. Graphic literature focuses on the literal and symbolic layer of interpretation. The most salient feature of graphic literature is its exploration of the public history of events and life narratives. The Indian graphic literature re-interprets the canon, style and the form of texts in Indian Writing in English and it demands a new literacy and the structure of the English literature. With the help of visual-verbal language, the graphic narratives discuss various facets of contemporary India. Graphic novels have firmly identified itself with the art of storytelling because of its capability of expressing human experiences to the most. In the textual novels, the author usually deserts the imagination of the readers, but in the case of graphic narratives, due to the presence of visual elements, the interpretation becomes simpler. India is the second most populous country in the world with a long tradition of history and culture. Indian literature always tries to reconstruct Indian history in various modes of representation. The present paper focuses on the fictional articulation of Indian history through the graphic narratives and analyses how some historical events in India portrays. The paper also traces the differences in rendering the history in graphic novels with that of textual novels. The paper discusses how much the blending of words and images helps in represent the Indian history by analyzing the graphic novels like Kashmir Pending by Naseer Ahmed, Delhi Calm by Vishwajyoti Ghosh and Munnu by Malik Sajad.

Keywords: graphic novels, Indian history, representation, visual-verbal literacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
142 Madame Bovary in Transit: from Novel to Graphic Novel

Authors: Hania Pasandi

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Since its publication in 1856, Madame Bovary has established itself as one of the most adapted texts of French literature. Some eighteen film adaptations and twenty-seven rewritings of Madame Bovary in fiction to date shows a great enthusiasm for recreating Flaubert’s masterpiece in a variety of mediums. Posy Simmonds’ 1999 graphic novel, Gemma Bovery stands out among these adaptations as the graphic novel with its visual and narrative structure offers a new reading experience of Madame Bovary, while combining Emma Bovary’s elements with contemporary social, cultural, and artistic discourses. This paper studies the transposition of Flaubert’s Madame Bovary (1857) to late twentieth-century Britain in Posy Simmonds’ 1999 graphic novel, Gemma Bovery by exploring how it borrows the essential flaubertian themes, from its source text to incorporate it with contemporary cultural trends.

Keywords: graphic novel, Gemma Bovery, Madame Bovary, transposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
141 Communication Design in Newspapers: A Comparative Study of Graphic Resources in Portuguese and Spanish Publications

Authors: Fátima Gonçalves, Joaquim Brigas, Jorge Gonçalves

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As a way of managing the increasing volume and complexity of information that circulates in the present time, graphical representations are increasingly used, which add meaning to the information presented in communication media, through an efficient communication design. The visual culture itself, driven by technological evolution, has been redefining the forms of communication, so that contemporary visual communication represents a major impact on society. This article presents the results and respective comparative analysis of four publications in the Iberian press, focusing on the formal aspects of newspapers and the space they dedicate to the various communication elements. Two Portuguese newspapers and two Spanish newspapers were selected for this purpose. The findings indicated that the newspapers show a similarity in the use of graphic solutions, which corroborate a visual trend in communication design. The results also reveal that Spanish newspapers are more meticulous with graphic consistency. This study intended to contribute to improving knowledge of the Iberian generalist press.

Keywords: communication design, graphic resources, Iberian press, visual journalism

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140 Print Media Framing of National Disasters: A Content Analysis of the Daily Graphic and Daily Guide

Authors: Abena Abokoma Asemanyi

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The study examined how the National Disasters are framed in the print media: a study of Daily Graphic newspaper in Ghana. The communication theories employed to conduct this study was Agenda Setting Theory by McCombs and Shaw and the Framing theory by Goffman and Entman. The media’s coverage of National Disasters are of much concern to the general public. This research seeks to know how the Daily Graphic framed National Disasters that occurred in January 2015 and June 2015 respectively. The January 2015 National Disasters was termed as Fire Outbreaks while the June 2015 National Disasters was Twin Disasters. A total of 43 disaster news stories were analysed for this study. Out of the total number, 9 headline stories were analysed in the month of January 2015 and 34 headline stories were looked at in the month of June 2015. The study came up with five (5) themes. Through Content Analysis, the study also revealed that the theme of Action featured more than the other themes which are Fear, Violence, Sympathy and Confusion. Finally, the study showed the number of days disaster news headlines lasted in the Daily Graphic during the period stated above. It was revealed that the Fire Outbreaks in January 2015 appeared in the Daily Graphic for 8 days while the Twin Disasters appeared in 16 days in June 2015.

Keywords: national disaster framing, ghana, daily graphic, daily guide

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139 Systems Approach to Design and Production of Picture Books for the Pre-Primary Classes to Attain Educational Goals in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Azeez Ayodele Ayodele

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This paper investigated the problem of picture books design and the quality of the pictures in picture books. The research surveyed nursery and primary schools in four major cities in southwest of Nigeria. The instruments including the descriptive survey questionnaire and a structured interview were developed, validated and administered for collection of relevant data. Descriptive statistics was used in analyzing the data. The result of the study revealed that there were poor quality of pictures in picture books and this is due to scarcity of trained graphic designers who understand systems approach to picture books design and production. There is thus a need for more qualified graphic designers, given in-service professional training as well as a refresher course as criteria for upgrading by the stakeholders.

Keywords: pictures, picture books, pre-primary schools, trained graphic designers

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138 Graphic Animation: Innovative Language Learning for Autistic Children

Authors: Norfishah Mat Rabi, Rosma Osman, Norziana Mat Rabi

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It is difficult for autistic children to mix with and be around with other people. Language difficulties are a problem that affects their social life. A lack of knowledge and ability in language are factors that greatly influence their behavior, and their ability to communicate and interact. Autistic children need to be assisted to improve their language abilities through the use of suitable learning resources. This study is conducted to identify weather graphic animation resources can help autistic children learn and use transitive verbs more effectively. The study was conducted in a rural secondary school in Penang, Malaysia. The research subject comprised of three autistic students ranging in age from 14 years to 16 years. The 14-year-old student is placed in A Class and two 16-year-old students placed in B Class. The class placement of the subjects is based on the diagnostic test results conducted by the teacher and not based on age. Data collection is done through observation and interviews for the duration of five weeks; with the researcher allocating 30 minutes for every learning activity carried out. The research finding shows that the subjects learn transitive verbs better using graphic animation compared to static pictures. It is hoped that this study will give a new perspective towards the learning processes of autistic children.

Keywords: graphic animation, autistic children, language learning, teaching

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137 History and Its Significance in Modern Visual Graphic: Its Niche with Respect to India

Authors: Hemang Madhusudan Anglay, Akash Gaur

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Value of visual perception in today’s context is vulnerable. Visual Graphic broadly and conveniently expresses culture, language and science of art that satisfactorily is a mould to cast various expressions. It is one of the essential parts of communication design which relatively can be used to approach the above areas of expressions. In between the receptors and interpreters, there is an expanse of comprehension and cliché in relation to the use of Visual Graphics. There are pedagogies, commodification and honest reflections where Visual Graphic is a common area of interest. The traditional receptors amidst the dilemma of this very situation find themselves in the pool of media, medium and interactions. Followed by a very vague interpretation the entire circle of communication becomes a question of comprehension vs cliché. Residing in the same ‘eco-system’ these communities who make pedagogies and multiply its reflections sometimes with honesty and sometimes on commercial values tend to function differently. With the advent of technology, which is a virtual space allows the user to access various forms of content. This diminishes the core characteristics and creates a vacuum even though it satisfies the user. The symbolic interpretation of visual form and structure is transmitted in a culture by the means of contemporary media. Starting from a very individualistic approach, today it is beyond Print & Electronic media. The expected outcome will be a study of Ahmedabad City, situated in the Gujarat State of India. It is identity with respect to socio-cultural as well as economic changes. The methodology will include process to understand the evolution and narratives behind it that will encompass diverse community, its reflection and it will sum up the salient features of communication through combination of visual and graphic that is relevant in Indian context trading its values to global scenario.

Keywords: communication, culture, graphic, visual

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136 Translating History in a Brazilian Graphic Novel: A Translation Project for Angola Janga by Marcelo D'Salete

Authors: Carolina Rezende, Julio Cesar Neves Monteiro

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Traditionally, History and fiction are considered to be opposing fields of study. While one is linked to the study of facts, things that have happened within the limits of ‘reality’, the other explores a made-up world, originated from imagination and fantasy. However, despite their apparent discrepancies, there is a fundamental trait that brings them closer. Historical narratives, similarly to fiction ones, are produced based on multiple interpretations of an event, which are transmitted in a rather subjective way by language. It is within this perspective of history and fiction intertwined that this paper aims to discuss the translation of historical facts in the graphic novel Angola Janga, by Marcelo D’Salete, as well as presenting it as a historical document. The novel, which is divided into 11 short stories, narrates the rebellions that took place in Serra da Barriga, between the 16th and 17th centuries, that resulted in the Guerra dos Palmares. The graphic novel in question is a result of the author’s 11-year historical and bibliographical research, which combines history and fiction in order to shed a light of the confrontation that history seems to overlook. Also, the book includes a foreword, glossary, chronological line of Guerra dos Palmares, as well as maps and references used by the author during his research. For that, a few segments from the book will be selected and translated in order to show such connection between history and fiction, and the discussion resulted from it will be based on the works of Southgate (2009), Pym (2001) and D’hulst (2001).

Keywords: graphic novel, history, fiction, Palmares

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135 Pilot Study of the Psychometric Properties of the Test of Predisposition towards the Bullying

Authors: Rosana Choy, Fabiola Henostroza

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Actual theory suggests social-ecological factors as the main framework of bullying. Most previous research in this phenomenon is focused on the identification of bullying attitudes and conducts in puberty and adolescence periods. For this reason, this study is considered as a contribution to the existing knowledge in measuring matters, because of its non-traditional way of evaluation (graphic items), and because of its approach to a distinctive age group, children from 7 to 9 years-old, not regularly examined in current studies in this field. The research used a transversal descriptive investigation design for the development of a graphic test for bullying predisposition. The process began with the operationalization of the variable bullying predisposition, the structuring of the factors and variable indicators of a pilot instrument, evaluation by experts of the items representation, and finally it continued with the test application to children of two types of regular school population in Lima-Peru: private and public schools. The reliability level was 0.85 and the validity of the test corroborated the three-factor structure proposed by the researchers.

Keywords: bullying, graphic test, reliability, validity

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
134 Usability Testing with Children: BatiKids Case Study

Authors: Hestiasari Rante, Leonardo De Araújo, Heidi Schelhowe

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Usability testing with children is similar in many aspects to usability testing with adults. However, there are a few differences that one needs to be aware of in order to get the most out of the sessions, and to ensure that children are comfortable and enjoying the process. This paper presents the need to acquire methodological knowledge for involving children as test users in usability testing, with consideration on Piaget’s theory of cognitive growth. As a case study, we use BatiKids, an application developed to evoke children’s enthusiasm to be involved in culture heritage preservation. The usability test was applied to 24 children from 9 to 10 years old. The children were divided into two groups; one interacted with the application through a graphic tablet with pen, and the other through touch screen. Both of the groups had to accomplish the same amount of tasks. In the end, children were asked to give feedback. The results suggested that children who interacted using the graphic tablet with pen had more difficulties rather than children who interacted through touch screen. However, the difficulty brought by the graphic tablet with pen is an important learning objective in order to understand the difficulties of using canting, which is an important part of batik.

Keywords: batikids, children, child-computer interaction, usability test

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133 Urban Meetings: Graphic Analysis of the Public Space in a Cultural Building from São Paulo

Authors: Thalita Carvalho Martins de Castro, Núbia Bernardi

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Currently, studies evidence that our cities are portraits of social relations. In the midst of so many segregations, cultural buildings emerge as a place to assemble collective activities and expressions. Through theater, exhibitions, educational workshops, libraries, the architecture approaches human relations and seeks to propose meeting places. The purpose of this research is to deepen the discussions about the contributions of cultural buildings in the use of the spaces of the contemporary city, based on the data and measure collected in the master's research in progress. The graphic analysis of the insertion of contemporary cultural buildings seeks to highlight the social use of space. The urban insertions of contemporary cultural buildings in the city of São Paulo (Brazil) will be analyzed to understand the relations between the architectural form and its audience. The collected data describe a dynamic of flows and the permanence in the use of these spaces, indicating the contribution of the cultural buildings, associated with artistic production, in the dynamics of urban spaces and the social modifications of their milieu. Among the case studies, the research in development is based on the registration and graphic analysis of the Praça das Artes (2012) building located in the historical central region of the city, which after a long period of great degradation undergoes a current redevelopment. The choice of this building was based on four parameters, both on the architectural scale and on the urban scale: urban insertion, local impact, cultural production and a mix of uses. For the analysis will be applied two methodologies of graphic analysis, one with diagrams accompanied by texts and another with the active analysis for open space projects using complementary graphic methodologies, with maps, plants, info-graphics, perspectives, time-lapse videos and analytical tables. This research aims to reinforce the debates between the methodologies of form-use spaces and visual synthesis applied in cultural buildings, in order that new projects can structure public spaces as catalysts for social use, generating improvements in the daily life of its users and in the cities where they are inserted.

Keywords: cultural buildings, design methodologies, graphic analysis, public spaces

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132 Fostering Students' Engagement with Historical Issues Surrounding the Field of Graphic Design

Authors: Sara Corvino

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The aim of this study is to explore the potential of inclusive learning and assessment strategies to foster students' engagement with historical debates surrounding the field of graphic design. The goal is to respond to the diversity of L4 Graphic Design students, at Nottingham Trent University, in a way that instead of 'lowering standards' can benefit everyone. This research tests, measures, and evaluates the impact of a specific intervention, an assessment task, to develop students' critical visual analysis skills and stimulate a deeper engagement with the subject matter. Within the action research approach, this work has followed a case study research method to understand students' views and perceptions of a specific project. The primary methods of data collection have been: anonymous electronic questionnaire and a paper-based anonymous critical incident questionnaire. NTU College of Business Law and Social Sciences Research Ethics Committee granted the Ethical approval for this research in November 2019. Other methods used to evaluate the impact of this assessment task have been Evasys's report and students' performance. In line with the constructivist paradigm, this study embraces an interpretative and contextualized analysis of the collected data within the triangulation analytical framework. The evaluation of both qualitative and quantitative data demonstrates that active learning strategies and the disruption of thinking patterns can foster greater students' engagement and can lead to meaningful learning.

Keywords: active learning, assessment for learning, graphic design, higher education, student engagement

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131 Graphic Narratives: Representations of Refugeehood in the Form of Illustration

Authors: Pauline Blanchet

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In a world where images are a prominent part of our daily lives and a way of absorbing information, the analysis of the representation of migration narratives is vital. This thesis raises questions concerning the power of illustrations, drawings and visual culture in order to represent the migration narratives in the age of Instagram. The rise of graphic novels and comics has come about in the last fifteen years, specifically regarding contemporary authors engaging with complex social issues such as migration and refugeehood. Due to this, refugee subjects are often in these narratives, whether they are autobiographical stories or whether the subject is included in the creative process. Growth in discourse around migration has been present in other art forms; in 2018, there has been dedicated exhibitions around migration such as Tania Bruguera at the TATE (2018-2019), ‘Journeys Drawn’ at the House of Illustration (2018-2019) and dedicated film festivals (2018; the Migration Film Festival), which have shown the recent considerations of using the arts as a medium of expression regarding themes of refugeehood and migration. Graphic visuals are fast becoming a key instrument when representing migration, and the central thesis of this paper is to show the strength and limitations of this form as well the methodology used by the actors in the production process. Recent works which have been released in the last ten years have not being analysed in the same context as previous graphic novels such as Palestine and Persepolis. While a lot of research has been done on the mass media portrayals of refugees in photography and journalism, there is a lack of literature on the representation with illustrations. There is little research about the accessibility of graphic novels such as where they can be found and what the intentions are when writing the novels. It is interesting to see why these authors, NGOs, and curators have decided to highlight these migrant narratives in a time when the mainstream media has done extensive coverage on the ‘refugee crisis’. Using primary data by doing one on one interviews with artists, curators, and NGOs, this paper investigates the efficiency of graphic novels for depicting refugee stories as a viable alternative to other mass medium forms. The paper has been divided into two distinct sections. The first part is concerned with the form of the comic itself and how it either limits or strengthens the representation of migrant narratives. This will involve analysing the layered and complex forms that comics allow such as multimedia pieces, use of photography and forms of symbolism. It will also show how the illustration allows for anonymity of refugees, the empathetic aspect of the form and how the history of the graphic novel form has allowed space for positive representations of women in the last decade. The second section will analyse the creative and methodological process which takes place by the actors and their involvement with the production of the works.

Keywords: graphic novel, refugee, communication, media, migration

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
130 Immersive and Interactive Storytelling: Exploring Narratives and Online Multisensory Experience for Cultural Memory and Collective Awareness through Graphic Novel

Authors: Cristina Greco

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The spread of the digital and we-based technologies has led to a transformation process, which has coincided with an increase in the number of cases who are beyond the mainstream storytelling and its codes on the interaction with the user. On the base of a previous research on i-docs and virtual museums, this study analyses interactive and immersive online Graphic Novel – one-page, animated, illustrated, and hybrid – to reflect on the transformational implications of this expressive form on the user perception, remembrance, and awareness. The way in which the user experiences a certain level of interaction with the story and immersion in the semantic and figurative universe would bring user’s attention, activating introspection and self-reflection processes, perception, imagination, and creativity. This would have to do with the involvement of different senses – visual, proprioceptive, tactile, auditory, and vestibular – and the activation of a phenomenon of synaesthesia (involuntary cross-modal sensory association) – where, for example, the aural reconnect the user to another sense, providing a multisensory experience. The case studies show specific forms of interactive and immersive graphic novel and reflect on application that has sought to engage innovative ways to communicate different messages and stimulate cultural memory and collective awareness. The visual semiotic and narrative analysis of the distinctive traits of such a complex textuality, along with a study of the user’s experience through observation in naturalistic settings and interviews, allows us to question the functioning of these configurations, with regard to the relationships between the figurative dimension, the perceptive activity, and their impact on the user’s engagement.

Keywords: collective awareness, cultural memory, graphic novel, interactive and immersive storytelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
129 A Study on the Non-Destructive Test Characterization of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Using Thermo-Graphic Camera

Authors: Hee Jae Shin, In Pyo Cha, Min Sang Lee, Hyun Kyung Yoon, Tae Ho Kim, Yoon Sun Lee, Lee Ku Kwac, Hong Gun Kim

Abstract:

Non-destructive testing and evaluation techniques for assessing the integrity of composite structures are essential to both reduce manufacturing costs and out of service time of transport means due to maintenance. In this study, Analyze into non-destructive test characterization of carbon fiber reinforced plastics(CFRP) internal and external defects using thermo-graphic camera and transient thermography method. non-destructive testing were characterized by defect size(∅8,∅10,∅12,∅14) and depth(1.2mm,2.4mm).

Keywords: Non-Destructive Test (NDT), thermal characteristic, thermographic camera, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics(CFRP).

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128 Developing Artistic Concepts for Kindergarten Children in Egypt Using Graphic Activities

Authors: Mona Yacoub, Ahmed Amin Mousa

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The current work presents a program for children in Egypt. This program involved a collection of artistic activities that purposes to improve some language, artistic skills of kindergarten children. The researchers have prepared a questionnaire for the link between the target group and the content. The questionnaire has been presented to experts for adjudicating. The program was applied to a group of 30 children. Another questionnaire has been prepared by the researchers for measuring the activities’ effect on the children. The second questionnaire was considered as the pre-test and post-test. Finally, after applying the activities and the questionnaire, the researchers detected a significant difference in favor of the post-test results.

Keywords: Developing, concepts, kindergarten, children, graphic activities

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127 Development of Automatic Laser Scanning Measurement Instrument

Authors: Chien-Hung Liu, Yu-Fen Chen

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This study used triangular laser probe and three-axial direction mobile platform for surface measurement, programmed it and applied it to real-time analytic statistics of different measured data. This structure was used to design a system integration program: using triangular laser probe for scattering or reflection non-contact measurement, transferring the captured signals to the computer through RS-232, and using RS-485 to control the three-axis platform for a wide range of measurement. The data captured by the laser probe are formed into a 3D surface. This study constructed an optical measurement application program in the concept of visual programming language. First, the signals are transmitted to the computer through RS-232/RS-485, and then the signals are stored and recorded in graphic interface timely. This programming concept analyzes various messages, and makes proper presentation graphs and data processing to provide the users with friendly graphic interfaces and data processing state monitoring, and identifies whether the present data are normal in graphic concept. The major functions of the measurement system developed by this study are thickness measurement, SPC, surface smoothness analysis, and analytical calculation of trend line. A result report can be made and printed promptly. This study measured different heights and surfaces successfully, performed on-line data analysis and processing effectively, and developed a man-machine interface for users to operate.

Keywords: laser probe, non-contact measurement, triangulation measurement principle, statistical process control, labVIEW

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126 On the Dwindling Supply of the Observable Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

Authors: Jia-Chao Wang

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The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) freed during the recombination era can be considered as a photon source of small duration; a one-time event happened everywhere in the universe simultaneously. If space is divided into concentric shells centered at an observer’s location, one can imagine that the CMB photons originated from the nearby shells would reach and pass the observer first, and those in shells farther away would follow as time goes forward. In the Big Bang model, space expands rapidly in a time-dependent manner as described by the scale factor. This expansion results in an event horizon coincident with one of the shells, and its radius can be calculated using cosmological calculators available online. Using Planck 2015 results, its value during the recombination era at cosmological time t = 0.379 million years (My) is calculated to be Revent = 56.95 million light-years (Mly). The event horizon sets a boundary beyond which the freed CMB photons will never reach the observer. The photons within the event horizon also exhibit a peculiar behavior. Calculated results show that the CMB observed today was freed in a shell located at 41.8 Mly away (inside the boundary set by Revent) at t = 0.379 My. These photons traveled 13.8 billion years (Gy) to reach here. Similarly, the CMB reaching the observer at t = 1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 Gy are calculated to be originated at shells of R = 16.98, 29.96, 37.79, 46.47, 53.66, 55.91, 56.62, 56.85 and 56.92 Mly, respectively. The results show that as time goes by, the R value approaches Revent = 56.95 Mly but never exceeds it, consistent with the earlier statement that beyond Revent the freed CMB photons will never reach the observer. The difference Revert - R can be used as a measure of the remaining observable CMB photons. Its value becomes smaller and smaller as R approaching Revent, indicating a dwindling supply of the observable CMB radiation. In this paper, detailed dwindling effects near the event horizon are analyzed with the help of online cosmological calculators based on the lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model. It is demonstrated in the literature that assuming the CMB to be a blackbody at recombination (about 3000 K), then it will remain so over time under cosmological redshift and homogeneous expansion of space, but with the temperature lowered (2.725 K now). The present result suggests that the observable CMB photon density, besides changing with space expansion, can also be affected by the dwindling supply associated with the event horizon. This raises the question of whether the blackbody of CMB at recombination can remain so over time. Being able to explain the blackbody nature of the observed CMB is an import part of the success of the Big Bang model. The present results cast some doubts on that and suggest that the model may have an additional challenge to deal with.

Keywords: blackbody of CMB, CMB radiation, dwindling supply of CMB, event horizon

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125 An Effort at Improving Reliability of Laboratory Data in Titrimetric Analysis for Zinc Sulphate Tablets Using Validated Spreadsheet Calculators

Authors: M. A. Okezue, K. L. Clase, S. R. Byrn

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The requirement for maintaining data integrity in laboratory operations is critical for regulatory compliance. Automation of procedures reduces incidence of human errors. Quality control laboratories located in low-income economies may face some barriers in attempts to automate their processes. Since data from quality control tests on pharmaceutical products are used in making regulatory decisions, it is important that laboratory reports are accurate and reliable. Zinc Sulphate (ZnSO4) tablets is used in treatment of diarrhea in pediatric population, and as an adjunct therapy for COVID-19 regimen. Unfortunately, zinc content in these formulations is determined titrimetrically; a manual analytical procedure. The assay for ZnSO4 tablets involves time-consuming steps that contain mathematical formulae prone to calculation errors. To achieve consistency, save costs, and improve data integrity, validated spreadsheets were developed to simplify the two critical steps in the analysis of ZnSO4 tablets: standardization of 0.1M Sodium Edetate (EDTA) solution, and the complexometric titration assay procedure. The assay method in the United States Pharmacopoeia was used to create a process flow for ZnSO4 tablets. For each step in the process, different formulae were input into two spreadsheets to automate calculations. Further checks were created within the automated system to ensure validity of replicate analysis in titrimetric procedures. Validations were conducted using five data sets of manually computed assay results. The acceptance criteria set for the protocol were met. Significant p-values (p < 0.05, α = 0.05, at 95% Confidence Interval) were obtained from students’ t-test evaluation of the mean values for manual-calculated and spreadsheet results at all levels of the analysis flow. Right-first-time analysis and principles of data integrity were enhanced by use of the validated spreadsheet calculators in titrimetric evaluations of ZnSO4 tablets. Human errors were minimized in calculations when procedures were automated in quality control laboratories. The assay procedure for the formulation was achieved in a time-efficient manner with greater level of accuracy. This project is expected to promote cost savings for laboratory business models.

Keywords: data integrity, spreadsheets, titrimetry, validation, zinc sulphate tablets

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124 Architecture Performance-Related Design Based on Graphic Parameterization

Authors: Wenzhe Li, Xiaoyu Ying, Grace Ding

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Architecture plane form is an important consideration in the design of green buildings due to its significant impact on energy performance. The most effective method to consider energy performance in the early design stages is parametric modelling. This paper presents a methodology to program plane forms using MATLAB language, generating 16 kinds of plane forms by changing four designed parameters. DesignBuilder (an energy consumption simulation software) was proposed to simulate the energy consumption of the generated planes. A regression mathematical model was established to study the relationship between the plane forms and their energy consumption. The main finding of the study suggested that there was a cubic function relationship between the depth-ratio of U-shaped buildings and energy consumption, and there is also a cubic function relationship between the width-ratio and energy consumption. In the design, the depth-ratio of U-shaped buildings should not be less than 2.5, and the width-ratio should not be less than 2.

Keywords: graphic parameterization, green building design, mathematical model, plane form

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123 Existential Absurdity, Alienation and Death in Charles Forsman’s The End of the Fxxxing World, I Am Not Okay With This, and Slasher

Authors: Renukha Devi Anandan

Abstract:

Charles Forsman’s The End of The Fxxxing World, I Am Not Okay With This, and Slasher invariably deals with existential themes. They reflect the perplexed situation of the characters torn between the search for existence and the constraints of human conditions that impede them from such realization, ensuing a dilemma deeply-rooted in absurdity and alienation. These characters are social misfits who fail to fashion their existence and develop harmoniously. Therefore, the present paper adopts an Existential approach to examine the vignettes of alienation and absurdity vis-à-vis the characters’ speech, actions, and thoughts. Furthermore, this paper explores the role of death either as a self-destructive behavior or the eternal freedom of man in graphic novels. Findings portrayed how the characters’ absurd existence surrounded by the void, would eventually develop into death. Finally, the study revealed that Forsman’s distinctive serial illustration not only unveiled the predicaments of the characters through their hard-boiled smokescreens in the 21st-century social paradigm but also established graphic novels as part and parcel of a literary genre.

Keywords: existentialism, absurdity, alienation, death, self-destruction, eternal freedom

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122 General Purpose Graphic Processing Units Based Real Time Video Tracking System

Authors: Mallikarjuna Rao Gundavarapu, Ch. Mallikarjuna Rao, K. Anuradha Bai

Abstract:

Real Time Video Tracking is a challenging task for computing professionals. The performance of video tracking techniques is greatly affected by background detection and elimination process. Local regions of the image frame contain vital information of background and foreground. However, pixel-level processing of local regions consumes a good amount of computational time and memory space by traditional approaches. In our approach we have explored the concurrent computational ability of General Purpose Graphic Processing Units (GPGPU) to address this problem. The Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) with adaptive weighted kernels is used for detecting the background. The weights of the kernel are influenced by local regions and are updated by inter-frame variations of these corresponding regions. The proposed system has been tested with GPU devices such as GeForce GTX 280, GeForce GTX 280 and Quadro K2000. The results are encouraging with maximum speed up 10X compared to sequential approach.

Keywords: connected components, embrace threads, local weighted kernel, structuring elements

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121 Augmenting Environmental Graphic Design in Healthcare Workplaces to Help Improve Employee Wellbeing

Authors: Ian Gwilt, Aaron Davis, Aprille Chua

Abstract:

Adopting an empathetic design approach to the use of Environmental Graphic Design (EGD) and Augmented Reality (AR), the research study hypothesizes that using AR technologies to augment the use of EGD in the workplace might be a useful tool for helping to improve the work experience and wellbeing of healthcare professionals working within a healthcare environment such as a hospital or clinic. Healthcare research to date has been primarily concerned with the impact of EGD and/ or AR on the patient experience, with less attention given to how these formsmight impact the work experience of healthcare employees. Although a body of research outlines how AR technologies are being used ina number of sectors,there is limited research on how AR and EGD have been used together as a combined information communication platform. For this research, the term Environmental Graphic Design (EGD) includes all 2D visual aspects of wayfinding, communication, identity, and information placemaking that connect people to the built environment, the term Augmented Reality (AR) describes an interactive experience that uses digital technologies to overlay the physical environment with located digital content. This paper outlines a PhD research study that employs; a contextual review to evaluate the existing studies of EGD and AR in healthcare and a case study in which a design prototype will be developed and tested to ascertain the effectiveness of a digitally augmented EGD on the wellbeing of healthcare professionals in the healthcare context. The findings from the focus group were used to identify what type of AR content and EGD designs might be appropriate for the prototype design. Early findings show that users prefer having information about office events, receiving welcome greetings in different languages, and understanding workplace procedures quickly. They also preferred to have the ability to transform EGD to help destress at work. A theoretical framework has been designed for the study to help analyse and evaluate the potential of the proposed intervention. The EGDAR framework integrates the three basic psychological needs from Self-Determination Theory (Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness) in relation to the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) Model, which explains how job demands and resources interact, predicting occupational well-being. The framework also includes twodesign concepts that underpin the combined EGD/ AR model - Salutogenic Design (SD) and Positive Technology (PT). The EGDAR framework will test to establish whether these types of hybrids physical and digital environmental settings can help fulfil and support the psychological needs of healthcare professionals.

Keywords: environmental graphic design (EGD), augmented reality (AR), workplace wellbeing, research design, healthcare environment, self-determination theory (SDT)

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120 A Case Study of An Artist Diagnosed with Schizophrenia-Using the Graphic Rorschach (Digital version) “GRD”

Authors: Maiko Kiyohara, Toshiki Ito

Abstract:

In this study, we used a psychotherapy process for patient with dissociative disorder and the graphic Rorschach (Digital version) (GRD). A dissociative disorder is a type of dissociation characterized by multiple alternating personalities (also called alternate identity or another identity). "dissociation" is a state in which consciousness, memory, thinking, emotion, perception, behavior, body image, and so on are divided and experienced. Dissociation symptoms, such as lack of memory, are seen, and the repetition of blanks in daily events causes serious problems in life. Although the pathological mechanism of dissociation has not yet been fully elucidated, it is said that it is caused by childhood abuse or shocking trauma. In case of Japan, no reliable data has been reported on the number of patients and prevalence of dissociative disorders, no drug is compatible with dissociation symptoms, and no clear treatment has been established. GRD is a method that the author revised in 2017 to a Graphic Rorschach, which is a special technique for subjects to draw language responses when enforce Rorschach. GRD reduces the burden on both the subject and the examiner, reduces the complexity of organizing data, improves the simplicity of organizing data, and improves the accuracy of interpretation by introducing a tablet computer during the drawing reaction. We are conducting research for the purpose. The patient in this case is a woman in her 50s, and has multiple personalities since childhood. At present, there are about 10 personalities whose main personality is just grasped. The patients is raising her junior high school sons as single parent, but personal changes often occur at home, which makes the home environment inferior and economically oppressive, and has severely hindered daily life. In psychotherapy, while a personality different from the main personality has appeared, I have also conducted psychotherapy with her son. In this case, the psychotherapy process and the GRD were performed to understand the personality characteristics, and the possibility of therapeutic significance to personality integration is reported.

Keywords: GRD, dissociative disorder, a case study of psychotherapy process, dissociation

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119 Developing Confidence of Visual Literacy through Using MIRO during Online Learning

Authors: Rachel S. E. Lim, Winnie L. C. Tan

Abstract:

Visual literacy is about making meaning through the interaction of images, words, and sounds. Graphic communication students typically develop visual literacy through critique and production of studio-based projects for their portfolios. However, the abrupt switch to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic has made it necessary to consider new strategies of visualization and planning to scaffold teaching and learning. This study, therefore, investigated how MIRO, a cloud-based visual collaboration platform, could be used to develop the visual literacy confidence of 30 diploma in graphic communication students attending a graphic design course at a Singapore arts institution. Due to COVID-19, the course was taught fully online throughout a 16-week semester. Guided by Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle, the two lecturers developed students’ engagement with visual literacy concepts through different activities that facilitated concrete experiences, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation. Throughout the semester, students create, collaborate, and centralize communication in MIRO with infinite canvas, smart frameworks, a robust set of widgets (i.e., sticky notes, freeform pen, shapes, arrows, smart drawing, emoticons, etc.), and powerful platform capabilities that enable asynchronous and synchronous feedback and interaction. Students then drew upon these multimodal experiences to brainstorm, research, and develop their motion design project. A survey was used to examine students’ perceptions of engagement (E), confidence (C), learning strategies (LS). Using multiple regression, it¬ was found that the use of MIRO helped students develop confidence (C) with visual literacy, which predicted performance score (PS) that was measured against their application of visual literacy to the creation of their motion design project. While students’ learning strategies (LS) with MIRO did not directly predict confidence (C) or performance score (PS), it fostered positive perceptions of engagement (E) which in turn predicted confidence (C). Content analysis of students’ open-ended survey responses about their learning strategies (LS) showed that MIRO provides organization and structure in documenting learning progress, in tandem with establishing standards and expectations as a preparatory ground for generating feedback. With the clarity and sequence of the mentioned conditions set in place, these prerequisites then lead to the next level of personal action for self-reflection, self-directed learning, and time management. The study results show that the affordances of MIRO can develop visual literacy and make up for the potential pitfalls of student isolation, communication, and engagement during online learning. The context of how MIRO could be used by lecturers to orientate students for learning in visual literacy and studio-based projects for future development are discussed.

Keywords: design education, graphic communication, online learning, visual literacy

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118 GUI Design of Mathematical Model of Cardiovascular-Respiratory System

Authors: Ntaganda J.M., Maniraguha J.D., Mukeshimana S., Harelimana D, Bizimungu T., Ruataganda E.

Abstract:

This paper presents the design of Graphic User Interface (GUI) in Matlab as interaction tool between human and machine. The designed GUI can be used by medical doctors and other experts particularly the physiologists. Matlab packages and estimated parameters of the mathematical model of cardiovascular-respiratory system developed in Rwandan context are used in GUI. The ordinary differential equations (ODE’s) govern a mathematical model in designing GUI in Matlab and a window that sets model estimated parameters and the measured parameters by any user. For healthy subject, these measured parameters include heart rate, systolic blood and diastolic blood pressure, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood, concentration of bound and dissolved oxygen in the mixed venous blood entering the lungs, and concentration of bound and dissolved carbon dioxide in the mixed venous blood entering the lungs. The results of numerical test give a consistent appearance as empirically known results.

Keywords: Graphic User Interface, mathematical model, cardiovascur-respiratory system, walking physical activity, blood pressure, oxygen

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117 Real-Time Web Map Service Based on Solar-Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Sunghun Jung

Abstract:

The existing web map service providers contract with the satellite operators to update their maps by paying an astronomical amount of money, but the cost could be minimized by operating a cheap and small UAV. In contrast to the satellites, we only need to replace aged battery packs from time to time for the usage of UAVs. Utilizing both a regular camera and an infrared camera mounted on a small, solar-powered, long-endurance, and hoverable UAV, daytime ground surface photographs, and nighttime infrared photographs will be continuously and repeatedly uploaded to the web map server and overlapped with the existing ground surface photographs in real-time. The real-time web map service using a small, solar-powered, long-endurance, and hoverable UAV can also be applied to the surveillance missions, in particular, to detect border area intruders. The improved real-time image stitching algorithm is developed for the graphic map data overlapping. Also, a small home server will be developed to manage the huge size of incoming map data. The map photographs taken at tens or hundreds of kilometers by a UAV would improve the map graphic resolution compared to the map photographs taken at thousands of kilometers by satellites since the satellite photographs are limited by weather conditions.

Keywords: long-endurance, real-time web map service (RWMS), solar-powered, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

Procedia PDF Downloads 213