Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 100

Search results for: facade

100 High-Rise Building with PV Facade

Authors: Jiří Hirš, Jitka Mohelnikova

Abstract:

A photovoltaic system integrated into a high-rise building façade was studied. The high-rise building is located in the Central Europe region with temperate climate and dominant partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions. The PV façade has been monitored since 2013. The three-year monitoring of the façade energy generation shows that the façade has an important impact on the building energy efficiency and sustainable operation.

Keywords: buildings, energy, PV façade, solar radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
99 Thermal Behavior of a Ventilated Façade Using Perforated Ceramic Bricks

Authors: Helena López-Moreno, Antoni Rodríguez-Sánchez, Carmen Viñas-Arrebola, Cesar Porras-Amores

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The ventilated façade has great advantages when compared to traditional façades as it reduces the air conditioning thermal loads due to the stack effect induced by solar radiation in the air chamber. Optimizing energy consumption by using a ventilated façade can be used not only in newly built buildings but also it can be implemented in existing buildings, opening the field of implementation to energy building retrofitting works. In this sense, the following three prototypes of façade where designed, built and further analyzed in this research: non-ventilated façade (NVF); slightly ventilated façade (SLVF) and strongly ventilated façade (STVF). The construction characteristics of the three facades are based on the Spanish regulation of building construction “Technical Building Code”. The façades have been monitored by type-k thermocouples in a representative day of the summer season in Madrid (Spain). Moreover, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures, studying the thermal lag in the ventilated and no-ventilated façades has been designed. Results show that STVF façade presents higher levels of thermal inertia as the thermal lag reduces up to 100% (daily mean) compared to the non-ventilated façade. In addition, the statistical analysis proves that an increase of the ventilation holes size in STVF façades does not improve the thermal lag significantly (p > 0.05) when compared to the SLVF façade.

Keywords: ventilated façade, energy efficiency, thermal behavior, statistical analysis

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98 Using Tilted Façade to Reduce Thermal Discomfort in a UK Passivhaus Dwelling for a Warming Climate

Authors: Yahya Lavafpour, Steve Sharples

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This study investigated the potential negative impacts of future UK climate change on dwellings. In particular, the risk of overheating was considered for a Passivhaus dwelling in London. The study used dynamic simulation modelling software to investigate the potential use of building geometry to control current and future overheating risks in the dwelling for London climate. Specifically, the focus was on the optimum inclination of a south façade to make use of the building’s shape to self-protect itself. A range of different inclined façades were examined to test their effectiveness in reducing the overheating risk. The research found that implementing a 115° tilted façade could completely eliminate the risk of overheating in current climate, but with some consequence for natural ventilation and daylighting. Future overheating was significantly reduced by the tilted façade. However, geometric considerations could not eradicate completely the risk of overheating particularly by the 2080s. The study also used CFD modelling and sensitivity analysis to investigate the effect of the façade geometry on the wind pressure distributions on and around the building surface. This was done to assess natural ventilation flows for alternative façade inclinations.

Keywords: climate change, tilt façade, thermal comfort, passivhaus, overheating

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
97 Parametric Models of Facade Designs of High-Rise Residential Buildings

Authors: Yuchen Sharon Sung, Yingjui Tseng

Abstract:

High-rise residential buildings have become the most mainstream housing pattern in the world’s metropolises under the current trend of urbanization. The facades of high-rise buildings are essential elements of the urban landscape. The skins of these facades are important media between the interior and exterior of high- rise buildings. It not only connects between users and environments, but also plays an important functional and aesthetic role. This research involves a study of skins of high-rise residential buildings using the methodology of shape grammar to find out the rules which determine the combinations of the facade patterns and analyze the patterns’ parameters using software Grasshopper. We chose a number of facades of high-rise residential buildings as source to discover the underlying rules and concepts of the generation of facade skins. This research also provides the rules that influence the composition of facade skins. The items of the facade skins, such as windows, balconies, walls, sun visors and metal grilles are treated as elements in the system of facade skins. The compositions of these elements will be categorized and described by logical rules; and the types of high-rise building facade skins will be modelled by Grasshopper. Then a variety of analyzed patterns can also be applied on other facade skins through this parametric mechanism. Using these patterns established in the models, researchers can analyze each single item to do more detail tests and architects can apply each of these items to construct their facades for other buildings through various combinations and permutations. The goal of these models is to develop a mechanism to generate prototypes in order to facilitate generation of various facade skins.

Keywords: facade skin, grasshopper, high-rise residential building, shape grammar

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96 A Review of the Drawbacks of Current Fixed Connection Façade Systems, Non-Structural Standards, and Ways of Integrating Movable Façade Technology into Buildings

Authors: P. Abtahi, B. Samali

Abstract:

Façade panels of various shapes, weights, and connections usually act as a barrier between the indoor and outdoor environments. They also play a major role in enhancing the aesthetics of building structures. They are attached by different types of connections to the primary structure or inner panels in double skin façade skins. Structural buildings designed to withstand seismic shocks have been undergoing a critical appraisal in recent years, with the emphasis changing from ‘strength’ to ‘performance’. Performance based design and analysis have found their way into research, development, and practice of earthquake engineering, particularly after the 1994 Northridge and 1995 Kobe earthquakes. The design performance of facades as non-structural elements has now focused mainly on evaluating the damage sustained by façade frames with fixed connections, not movable ones. This paper will review current design standards for structural buildings, including the performance of structural and non-structural components during earthquake excitations in order to overview and evaluate the damage assessment and behaviour of various façade systems in building structures during seismic activities. The proposed solutions for each facade system will be discussed case by case to evaluate their potential for incorporation with newly designed connections. Finally, Double-Skin-Facade systems can potentially be combined with movable facade technology, although other glazing systems would require minor to major changes in their design before being integrated into the system.

Keywords: building performance, earthquake engineering, glazing system, movable façade technology

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95 Comparative Analysis between Different Proposed Responsive Facade Designs for Reducing the Solar Radiation on the West Facade in the Hot Arid Region

Authors: Merna Ibrahim

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Designing buildings which are sustainable and can control and reduce the solar radiation penetrated from the building facades is such an architectural turn. One of the most important methods of saving energy in a building is carefully designing its facade. Building’s facade is one of the most significant contributors to the energy budget as well as the comfort parameters of a building. Responsive architecture adapts to the surrounding environment causing alteration in the envelope configuration to perform in a more effective way. One of the objectives of the responsive facades is to protect the building’s users from the external environment and to achieve a comfortable indoor environment. Solar radiation is one of the aspects that affects the comfortable indoor environment, as well as affects the energy consumption consumed by the HVAC systems for maintaining the indoor comfortable conditions. The aim of the paper is introducing and comparing between four different proposed responsive facade designs in terms of solar radiation reduction on the west facade of a building located in the hot arid region. In addition, the paper highlights the reducing amount of solar radiation for each proposed responsive facade on the west facade. At the end of the paper, a proposal is introduced which combines the four different axis of movements which reduces the solar radiation the most. Moreover, the paper highlights the definition and aim of the responsive architecture, as well as the focusing on the solar radiation aspect in the hot arid zones. Besides, the paper analyzes an international responsive façade building in Essen, Germany, focusing on the type of responsive facades, angle of rotation, mechanism of movement and the effect of the responsive facades on the building’s performance.

Keywords: kinetic facades, mechanism of movement, responsive architecture, solar radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
94 Damage Assessment of Current Facades in Turkey throughout the Seismic Actions

Authors: Büşra Elibol, İsmail Sait Soyer, Hamid Farrokh Ghatte

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The continuity of the structural and non-structural elements within the envelope of the buildings is one of the fundamental factors in buildings during seismic actions. This investigation aims to make a comparison between Van and İzmir earthquakes in terms of damage assessment of the various facades. A strong earthquake (magnitude 7.2) struck the city of Van in the east of Turkey on 23 October 2011, and similarly, another strong earthquake struck the city of İzmir (magnitude 6.9) in Turkey on 30 October 2020. This paper presents the damage assessment of the current facade systems from multi-story buildings in Van and İzmir, Turkey. This investigation covers the buildings greater than three stories in height, excluding most unreinforced masonry facades. Regarding a building that can have more than one facade system, any of the facade systems are considered individually. Observation of different kinds of damages in the facade is discussed and represented in terms of its performance level throughout the seismic actions. Furthermore, presenting the standard design guidelines (i.e., Turkish seismic design code) is required not only for designers but also for installers of facade systems.

Keywords: damage, earthquake, facade, structural element, seismic action

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93 High Performance Nanomaterials for Sustainable and Modern Façade Application

Authors: Farrin Ghorbanalavi, Nihal Arıoğlu

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The concept of enhancing mechanical /thermal/physical properties of architectural materials is being practiced for over five decades. In comparison with other approaches, the current nanotechnology era equally attracted the structural scientists, engineers, and industries. It simply promises that using building blocks with dimensions in the nano size range makes it possible to design and develop new multi-functional materials. This research focuses on understanding the effects of nanotechnology on the building facade and new facade concepts based on the new possibilities of nanotechnology. Mentioned factors are very prosperous for the comfort as well as sustainability of the building itself. Furthermore, the study suggests that the potential for energy conservation and reduced waste, toxicity, non-renewable resource consumption, and carbon emissions through the architectural applications of nanotechnologies significant. More clearly, it provides us the information about what does the future hold for surface structures.

Keywords: sustainable, nano materials, façade, energy efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 483
92 Optimization Aluminium Design for the Facade Second Skin toward Visual Comfort: Case Studies & Dialux Daylighting Simulation Model

Authors: Yaseri Dahlia Apritasari

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Visual comfort is important for the building occupants to need. Visual comfort can be fulfilled through natural lighting (daylighting) and artificial lighting. One strategy to optimize natural lighting can be achieved through the facade second skin design. This strategy can reduce glare, and fulfill visual comfort need. However, the design strategy cannot achieve light intensity for visual comfort. Because the materials, design and opening percentage of the facade of second skin blocked sunlight. This paper discusses aluminum material for the facade second skin design that can fulfill the optimal visual comfort with the case studies Multi Media Tower building. The methodology of the research is combination quantitative and qualitative through field study observed, lighting measurement and visual comfort questionnaire. Then it used too simulation modeling (DIALUX 4.13, 2016) for three facades second skin design model. Through following steps; (1) Measuring visual comfort factor: light intensity indoor and outdoor; (2) Taking visual comfort data from building occupants; (3) Making models with different facade second skin design; (3) Simulating and analyzing the light intensity value for each models that meet occupants visual comfort standard: 350 lux (Indonesia National Standard, 2010). The result shows that optimization of aluminum material for the facade second skin design can meet optimal visual comfort for building occupants. The result can give recommendation aluminum opening percentage of the facade second skin can meet optimal visual comfort for building occupants.

Keywords: aluminium material, Facade, second skin, visual comfort

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
91 Effect of Double-Skin Facade Configuration on the Energy Performance of Office Building in Maritime Desert Climate

Authors: B. Umaru Mohammed, Faris A. Al-Maziad, Mohammad Y. Numan

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One of the most important factors affecting the energy performance within a building is a carefully and efficiently designed facade. The primary aim of this research was to identify and present the potentiality of utilising Double-Skin Facade (DSF) construction and critically examine its effect on the energy consumption of an office building located within a maritime desert climate as to the conventional single-skin curtain wall system. A comparative analysis of the effect on the overall energy consumption within an office building was investigated in which a combination of various Double-Skin Facade configurations, systems, and cavity depths, glazing types and orientations were utilised. A computer dynamic modelling was utilised in order to ensure accurate calculations and efficient simulations of the various DSF systems due to the complex nature of the various functions within the Facade cavity. Through the use of the dynamic thermal modelling simulations, the best cavity size glazed type and orientation were determined to lead to a detailed analysis of the efficiency of each respective combination of Double-Skin Facade construction. As such the optimal facade combination for use within an office building located in a maritime desert climate was identified. Results demonstrated that a multi-story Facade, depending on its configuration, save up to 5% on annual cooling loads respect to a Corridor Facade and while vented can save unto 12% when compared to the single skin façade, on annual cooling load in the maritime desert climate. The selected configuration of the DSF from SSF saves an overall annual cooling load of 32%.A comparative analysis of the effect on the overall energy consumption within an office building was investigated in which a combination of various Double-Skin Facade configurations, systems, and cavity depths, glazing types and orientations were utilized. A computer dynamic modelling was utilized in order to ensure accurate calculations and efficient simulations of the various DSF systems due to the complex nature of the various functions within the Facade cavity. Through the use of the dynamic thermal modelling simulations, the best cavity size glazed type and orientation were determined to lead to a detailed analysis of the efficiency of each respective combination of Double-Skin Facade construction. As such the optimal facade combination for use within an office building located in a maritime desert climate was identified. Results demonstrated that a multi-story Facade, depending on its configuration, save up to 5% on annual cooling loads respect to a Corridor Facade and while vented can save unto 12% when compared to the single skin facade, on annual cooling load in the maritime desert climate. The selected configuration of the DSF from SSF saves an overall annual cooling load of 32%.

Keywords: computer dynamics modelling, comparative analysis, energy computation, double skin facade, single skin curtain wall, maritime desert climate

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
90 Biobased Facade: Illuminated Natural Fibre Polymer with Cardboard Core

Authors: Ralf Gliniorz, Carolin Petzoldt, Andreas Ehrlich, Sandra Gelbrich, Lothar Kroll

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The building envelope is integral part of buildings, and renewable resources have a key role in energy consumption. So our aim was the development and implementation of a free forming facade system, consisting of fibre-reinforced polymer, which is built up of commercial biobased resin systems and natural fibre reinforcement. The field of application is aimed in modern architecture, like the office block 'Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V.' with its oak wood recyclate facade. The build-up of our elements is a classically sandwich-structured composite: face sheets as fibre-reinforced composite using polymer matrix, here a biobased epoxy, and natural fibres. The biobased core consists of stuck cardboard structure (BC-flute). Each element is manufactured from two shells in a counterpart, via hand lay-up laminate. These natural fibre skins and cardboard core have adhered 'wet-on-wet'. As a result, you get the effect of translucent face sheets with matrix illumination. Each created pixel can be controlled in RGB-colours and form together a screen at buildings. A 10 x 5 m² area 'NFP-BIO' with 25 elements is planned as a reference object in Chemnitz. The resolution is about 100 x 50 pixels. Specials are also the efficient technology of production and the possibility to extensively 3D-formed elements for buildings, replacing customary facade systems, which can give out information or advertising.

Keywords: biobased facade, cardboard core, natural fibre skins, sandwich element

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
89 Determination of Resistance to Freezing of Bonded Façade Joint

Authors: B. Nečasová, P. Liška, J. Šlanhof

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Verification of vented wooden façade system with bonded joints is presented in this paper. The potential of bonded joints is studied and described in more detail. The paper presents the results of an experimental and theoretical research about the effects of freeze cycling on the bonded joint. For the purpose of tests spruce timber profiles were chosen for the load bearing substructure. Planks from wooden plastic composite and Siberian larch are representing facade cladding. Two types of industrial polyurethane adhesives intended for structural bonding were selected. The article is focused on the preparation as well as on the subsequent curing and conditioning of test samples. All test samples were subjected to 15 cycles that represents sudden temperature changes, i.e. immersion in a water bath at (293.15 ± 3) K for 6 hours and subsequent freezing to (253.15 ± 2) K for 18 hours. Furthermore, the retention of bond strength between substructure and cladding was tested and strength in shear was determined under tensile stress. Research data indicate that little, if any, damage to the bond results from freezing cycles. Additionally, the suitability of selected group of adhesives in combination with timber substructure was confirmed.

Keywords: adhesive system, bonded joints, wooden lightweight façade, timber substructure

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88 Role of Facade in Sustainability Enhancement of Contemporary Iranian Buildings

Authors: H. Nejadriahi

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A growing demand for sustainability makes sustainability as one of the significant debates of nowadays. Energy saving is one of the main criteria to be considered in the context of sustainability. Reducing energy use in buildings is one of the most important ways to reduce humans’ overall environmental impact. Taking this into consideration, study of different design strategies, which can assist in reducing energy use and subsequently improving the sustainability level of today's buildings would be an essential task. The sustainability level of a building is highly affected by the sustainability performance of its components. One of the main building components, which can have a great impact on energy saving and sustainability level of the building, is its facade. The aim of this study is to investigate on the role of facade in sustainability enhancement of the contemporary buildings of Iran. In this study, the concept of sustainability in architecture, the building facades, and their relationship to sustainability are explained briefly. Following that, a number of contemporary Iranian buildings are discussed and analyzed in terms of different design strategies used in their facades in accordance to the sustainability concepts. The methods used in this study are descriptive and analytic. The results of this paper would assist in generating a wider vision and a source of inspiration for the current designers to design and create environmental and sustainable buildings for the future.

Keywords: building facade, contemporary buildings, Iran, sustainability

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87 Micro-Oculi Facades as a Sustainable Urban Facade

Authors: Ok-Kyun Im, Kyoung Hee Kim

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We live in an era that faces global challenges of climate changes and resource depletion. With the rapid urbanization and growing energy consumption in the built environment, building facades become ever more important in architectural practice and environmental stewardship. Furthermore, building facade undergoes complex dynamics of social, cultural, environmental and technological changes. Kinetic facades have drawn attention of architects, designers, and engineers in the field of adaptable, responsive and interactive architecture since 1980’s. Materials and building technologies have gradually evolved to address the technical implications of kinetic facades. The kinetic façade is becoming an independent system of the building, transforming the design methodology to sustainable building solutions. Accordingly, there is a need for a new design methodology to guide the design of a kinetic façade and evaluate its sustainable performance. The research objectives are two-fold: First, to establish a new design methodology for kinetic facades and second, to develop a micro-oculi façade system and assess its performance using the established design method. The design approach to the micro-oculi facade is comprised of 1) façade geometry optimization and 2) dynamic building energy simulation. The façade geometry optimization utilizes multi-objective optimization process, aiming to balance the quantitative and qualitative performances to address the sustainability of the built environment. The dynamic building energy simulation was carried out using EnergyPlus and Radiance simulation engines with scripted interfaces. The micro-oculi office was compared with an office tower with a glass façade in accordance with ASHRAE 90.1 2013 to understand its energy efficiency. The micro-oculi facade is constructed with an array of circular frames attached to a pair of micro-shades called a micro-oculus. The micro-oculi are encapsulated between two glass panes to protect kinetic mechanisms with longevity. The micro-oculus incorporates rotating gears that transmit the power to adjacent micro-oculi to minimize the number of mechanical parts. The micro-oculus rotates around its center axis with a step size of 15deg depending on the sun’s position while maximizing daylighting potentials and view-outs. A 2 ft by 2ft prototyping was undertaken to identify operational challenges and material implications of the micro-oculi facade. In this research, a systematic design methodology was proposed, that integrates multi-objectives of kinetic façade design criteria and whole building energy performance simulation within a holistic design process. This design methodology is expected to encourage multidisciplinary collaborations between designers and engineers to collaborate issues of the energy efficiency, daylighting performance and user experience during design phases. The preliminary energy simulation indicated that compared to a glass façade, the micro-oculi façade showed energy savings due to its improved thermal properties, daylighting attributes, and dynamic solar performance across the day and seasons. It is expected that the micro oculi façade provides a cost-effective, environmentally-friendly, sustainable, and aesthetically pleasing alternative to glass facades. Recommendations for future studies include lab testing to validate the simulated data of energy and optical properties of the micro-oculi façade. A 1:1 performance mock-up of the micro-oculi façade can suggest in-depth understanding of long-term operability and new development opportunities applicable for urban façade applications.

Keywords: energy efficiency, kinetic facades, sustainable architecture, urban facades

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86 Wind Load Reduction Effect of Exterior Porous Skin on Facade Performance

Authors: Ying-Chang Yu, Yuan-Lung Lo

Abstract:

Building envelope design is one of the most popular design fields of architectural profession in nowadays. The main design trend of such system is to highlight the designer's aesthetic intention from the outlook of building project. Due to the trend of current façade design, the building envelope contains more and more layers of components, such as double skin façade, photovoltaic panels, solar control system, or even ornamental components. These exterior components are designed for various functional purposes. Most researchers focus on how these exterior elements should be structurally sound secured. However, not many researchers consider these elements would help to improve the performance of façade system. When the exterior elements are deployed in large scale, it creates an additional layer outside of original façade system and acts like a porous interface which would interfere with the aerodynamic of façade surface in micro-scale. A standard façade performance consists with 'water penetration, air infiltration rate, operation force, and component deflection ratio', and these key performances are majorly driven by the 'Design Wind Load' coded in local regulation. A design wind load is usually determined by the maximum wind pressure which occurs on the surface due to the geometry or location of building in extreme conditions. This research was designed to identify the air damping phenomenon of micro turbulence caused by porous exterior layer leading to surface wind load reduction for improvement of façade system performance. A series of wind tunnel test on dynamic pressure sensor array covered by various scale of porous exterior skin was conducted to verify the effect of wind pressure reduction. The testing specimens were designed to simulate the typical building with two-meter extension offsetting from building surface. Multiple porous exterior skins were prepared to replicate various opening ratio of surface which may cause different level of damping effect. This research adopted 'Pitot static tube', 'Thermal anemometers', and 'Hot film probe' to collect the data of surface dynamic pressure behind porous skin. Turbulence and distributed resistance are the two main factors of aerodynamic which would reduce the actual wind pressure. From initiative observation, the reading of surface wind pressure was effectively reduced behind porous media. In such case, an actual building envelope system may be benefited by porous skin from the reduction of surface wind pressure, which may improve the performance of envelope system consequently.

Keywords: multi-layer facade, porous media, facade performance, turbulence and distributed resistance, wind tunnel test

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
85 Printing Thermal Performance: An Experimental Exploration of 3DP Polymers for Facade Applications

Authors: Valeria Piccioni, Matthias Leschok, Ina Cheibas, Illias Hischier, Benjamin Dillenburger, Arno Schlueter, Matthias Kohler, Fabio Gramazio

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The decarbonisation of the building sector requires the development of building components that provide energy efficiency while producing minimal environmental impact. Recent advancements in large-scale 3D printing have shown that it is possible to fabricate components with embedded performances that can be tuned for their specific application. We investigate the potential of polymer 3D printing for the fabrication of translucent facade components. In this study, we explore the effect of geometry on thermal insulation of printed cavity structures following a Hot Box test method. The experimental results are used to calibrate a finite-element simulation model which can support the informed design of 3D printed insulation structures. We show that it is possible to fabricate components providing thermal insulation ranging from 1.7 to 0.95 W/m2K only by changing the internal cavity distribution and size. Moreover, we identify design guidelines that can be used to fabricate components for different climatic conditions and thermal insulation requirements. The research conducted provides the first insights into the thermal behaviour of polymer 3DP facades on a large scale. These can be used as design guidelines for further research toward performant and low-embodied energy 3D printed facade components.

Keywords: 3D printing, thermal performance, polymers, facade components, hot-box method

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84 Investigation of Light Transmission Characteristics and CO2 Capture Potential of Microalgae Panel Bioreactors for Building Façade Applications

Authors: E. S. Umdu, Ilker Kahraman, Nurdan Yildirim, Levent Bilir

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Algae-culture offers new applications in sustainable architecture with its continuous productive cycle, and a potential for high carbon dioxide capture. Microalgae itself has multiple functions such as carbon dioxide fixation, biomass production, oxygen generation and waste water treatment. Incorporating microalgae cultivation processes and systems to building design to utilize this potential is promising. Microalgae cultivation systems, especially closed photo bioreactors can be implemented as components in buildings. And these systems be accommodated in the façade of a building, or in other urban infrastructure in the future. Application microalgae bio-reactors of on building’s façade has the added benefit of acting as an effective insulation system, keeping out the heat of the summer and the chill of the winter. Furthermore, microalgae can give a dynamic appearance with a liquid façade that also works as an adaptive sunshade. Recently, potential of microalgae to use as a building component to reduce net energy demand in buildings becomes a popular topic and innovative design proposals and a handful of pilot applications appeared. Yet there is only a handful of examples in application and even less information on how these systems affect building energy behavior. Further studies on microalgae mostly focused on single application approach targeting either carbon dioxide utilization through biomass production or biofuel production. The main objective of this study is to investigate effects of design parameters of microalgae panel bio-reactors on light transmission characteristics and CO2 capture potential during growth of Nannochloropsis occulata sp. A maximum reduction of 18 ppm in CO2 levels of input air during the experiments with a % light transmission of 14.10, was achieved in 6 day growth cycles. Heat transfer behavior during these cycles was also inspected for possible façade applications.

Keywords: building façade, CO2 capture, light transmittance, microalgae

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83 Factors in a Sustainability Assessment of New Types of Closed Cavity Facades

Authors: Zoran Veršić, Josip Galić, Marin Binički, Lucija Stepinac

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With the current increase in CO₂ emissions and global warming, the sustainability of both existing and new solutions must be assessed on a wide scale. As the implementation of closed cavity facades (CCF) is on the rise, a variety of factors must be included in the analysis of new types of CCF. This paper aims to cover the relevant factors included in the sustainability assessment of new types of CCF. Several mathematical models are being used to describe the physical behavior of CCF. Depending on the type of CCF, they cover the main factors which affect the durability of the façade: thermal behavior of various elements in the façade, stress, and deflection of the glass panels, pressure inside a cavity, exchange rate, and the moisture buildup in the cavity. CCF itself represents a complex system in which all mentioned factors must be considered mutually. Still, the façade is only an envelope of a more complex system, the building. Choice of the façade dictates the heat loss and the heat gain, thermal comfort of inner space, natural lighting, and ventilation. Annual consumption of energy for heating, cooling, lighting, and maintenance costs will present the operational advantages or disadvantages of the chosen façade system in both the economic and environmental aspects. Still, the only operational viewpoint is not all-inclusive. As the building codes constantly demand higher energy efficiency as well as transfer to renewable energy sources, the ratio of embodied and lifetime operational energy footprint of buildings is changing. With the drop in operational energy CO₂ emissions, embodied energy emissions present a larger and larger share in the lifecycle emissions of the building. Taken all into account, the sustainability assessment of a façade, as well as other major building elements, should include all mentioned factors during the lifecycle of an element. The challenge of such an approach is a timescale. Depending on the climatic conditions on the building site, the expected lifetime of CCF can exceed 25 years. In such a time span, some of the factors can be estimated more precisely than others. The ones depending on the socio-economic conditions are more likely to be harder to predict than the natural ones like the climatic load. This work recognizes and summarizes the relevant factors needed for the assessment of new types of CCF, considering the entire lifetime of a façade element and economic and environmental aspects.

Keywords: assessment, closed cavity façade, life cycle, sustainability

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82 The Impact of Rising Architectural Façade in Improving Terms of the Physical Urban Ambience Inside the Free Space for Urban Fabric - the Street- Case Study the City of Biskra

Authors: Rami Qaoud, Alkama Djamal

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When we ask about the impact of rising architectural façade in improving the terms physical urban ambiance inside the free space for urban fabric. Considered as bringing back life and culture values and civilization to these cities. And This will be the theme of this search. Where we have conducted the study about the relationship that connects the empty and full of in the urban fabric in terms of the density construction and the architectural elevation of its façade to street view. In this framework, we adopted in the methodology of this research the technical field experience. And according to three types of Street engineering(H≥2W, H=W, H≤0.5W). Where we conducted a field to raise the values of the physical ambiance according to three main axes of ambiance. The first axe 1 - Thermal ambiance. Where the temperature values were collected, relative humidity, wind speed, temperature of surfaces (the outer wall-ground). The second axe 2- Visual ambiance. Where we took the values of natural lighting levels during the daytime. The third axe 3- Acoustic ambiance . Where we take sound values during the entire day. That experience, which lasted for three consecutive days, and through six stations of measuring, where it has been one measuring station for each type of the street engineering and in two different way street. Through the obtained results and with the comparison of those values. We noticed the difference between this values and the three type of street engineering. Where the difference the calorific values of air equal 4 ° C , in terms of the visual ambiance the difference in the direct lighting natural periods amounted six hours between the three types of street engineering. As well in terms of sound ambience, registered a difference in values of up 15 (db) between the three types. This difference in values indicates The impact of rising architectural façade in improving the physical urban ambiance within the free field - street- for urban fabric.

Keywords: street, physical urban ambience, rising architectural façade, urban fabric

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81 Applying Renowned Energy Simulation Engines to Neural Control System of Double Skin Façade

Authors: Zdravko Eškinja, Lovre Miljanić, Ognjen Kuljača

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This paper is an overview of simulation tools used to model specific thermal dynamics that occurs while controlling double skin façade. Research has been conducted on simplified construction with single zone where one side is glazed. Heat flow and temperature responses are simulated in three different simulation tools: IDA-ICE, EnergyPlus and HAMBASE. The excitation of observed system, used in all simulations, was a temperature step of exterior environment. Air infiltration, insulation and other disturbances are excluded from this research. Although such isolated behaviour is not possible in reality, experiments are carried out to gain novel information about heat flow transients which are not observable under regular conditions. Results revealed new possibilities for adapting the parameters of the neural network regulator. Along numerical simulations, the same set-up has been also tested in a real-time experiment with a 1:18 scaled model and thermal chamber. The comparison analysis brings out interesting conclusion about simulation accuracy in this particular case.

Keywords: double skin façade, experimental tests, heat control, heat flow, simulated tests, simulation tools

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
80 Fuzzy Decision Making to the Construction Project Management: Glass Facade Selection

Authors: Katarina Rogulj, Ivana Racetin, Jelena Kilic

Abstract:

In this study, the fuzzy logic approach (FLA) was developed for construction project management (CPM) under uncertainty and duality. The focus was on decision making in selecting the type of the glass facade for a residential-commercial building in the main design. The adoption of fuzzy sets was capable of reflecting construction managers’ reliability level over subjective judgments, and thus the robustness of the system can be achieved. An α-cuts method was utilized for discretizing the fuzzy sets in FLA. This method can communicate all uncertain information in the optimization process, taking into account the values of this information. Furthermore, FLA provides in-depth analyses of diverse policy scenarios that are related to various levels of economic aspects when it comes to the construction projects' valid decision making. The developed approach is applied to CPM to demonstrate its applicability. Analyzing the materials of glass facades, variants were defined. The development of the FLA for the CPM included relevant construction projec'ts stakeholders that were involved in the criteria definition to evaluate each variant. Using fuzzy Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory Method (DEMATEL) comparison of the glass facade was conducted. This way, a rank, according to the priorities for inclusion into the main design, of variants is obtained. The concept was tested on a residential-commercial building in the city of Rijeka, Croatia. The newly developed methodology was then compared with the existing one. The aim of the research was to define an approach that will improve current judgments and decisions when it comes to the material selection of buildings facade as one of the most important architectural and engineering tasks in the main design. The advantage of the new methodology compared to the old one is that it includes the subjective side of the managers’ decisions, as an inevitable factor in each decision making. The proposed approach can help construction projects managers to identify the desired type of glass facade according to their preference and practical conditions, as well as facilitate in-depth analyses of tradeoffs between economic efficiency and architectural design.

Keywords: construction projects management, DEMATEL, fuzzy logic approach, glass façade selection

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79 Comparison of Two Artificial Accelerated Weathering Methods of Larch Wood with Natural Weathering in Exterior Conditions

Authors: I. Sterbova, E. Oberhofnerova, M. Panek, M. Pavelek

Abstract:

With growing popularity, wood of European larch (Larix decidua, Mill.) is being more often applied into the exterior, usually as facade elements, also without surface treatment. The aim of this work was to compare two laboratory tests of artificial accelerated weathering of wood with two ways of natural weathering in the exterior. To assess changes in selected surface characteristics of larch wood, accelerated weathering methods in the Xenotest and UV chamber were used, both in combination with temperature cycling, for 6 weeks. They were compared with natural weathering results at exposition under 45° and 90° in the exterior for 12 months. The changes of colour, gloss, contact angle of water and also changes in visual characteristics were evaluated. The results of wood surfaces changes after 6 weeks of accelerated weathering in Xenotest are closer to 12 months of natural weathering in the exterior at an angle of 90° compared to the UV chamber testing. The results, especially the colour changes, of the samples exposed at an angle of 45° in the exterior were significantly different. Testing in Xenotest more closely simulates the weathering of façade elements in the exterior compared to the UV chamber testing.

Keywords: larch wood, wooden facade, wood accelerated weathering, weathering methods

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78 Facade Design Impact on the Urban Landscape

Authors: Seyyed Hossein Alavi, Soudabe Mehri Talarposhti

Abstract:

Passages urban landscape is made up of various components that the component parts of the whole and vice versa has relationships. In today’s cities, we have not seen a dual relationship and only one side of the equation which is the relationships of the component parts are considered. However, the effect of the component to whole is stronger and also longer. This means that every time the outer shell of the building was constructed instant impact on the viewers while it takes a long time to understand the impact of the building in its environment and basically, it seems city portrait has the sensory and untouchable effect on observer. Today, building facades are designated individually and in isolation from the context. Designers are familiar with the details of the facade, but they are not informed with the science of combination and its impact on portrait. The importance of city and also more important than that, the city portrait haven’t confirmed for those involved in the building and authorities and the construction been changed to a market for more glaring taste of designers and attracting more business and the city and its landscape has been forgotten. This essay is an attempt to collect a part of the principles and definitions needed on perspective issues and portrait, and it is hoped that it will open arena for more research and studies in this field and other related fields.

Keywords: facade, urban housing, urban design, sustainable architecture

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77 Instant Data-Driven Robotics Fabrication of Light-Transmitting Ceramics: A Responsive Computational Modeling Workflow

Authors: Shunyi Yang, Jingjing Yan, Siyu Dong, Xiangguo Cui

Abstract:

Current architectural façade design practices incorporate various daylighting and solar radiation analysis methods. These emphasize the impact of geometry on façade design. There is scope to extend this knowledge into methods that address material translucency, porosity, and form. Such approaches can also achieve these conditions through adaptive robotic manufacturing approaches that exploit material dynamics within the design, and alleviate fabrication waste from molds, ultimately accelerating the autonomous manufacturing system. Besides analyzing the environmental solar radiant in building facade design, there is also a vacancy research area of how lighting effects can be precisely controlled by engaging the instant real-time data-driven robot control and manipulating the material properties. Ceramics carries a wide range of transmittance and deformation potentials for robotics control with the research of its material property. This paper presents one semi-autonomous system that engages with real-time data-driven robotics control, hardware kit design, environmental building studies, human interaction, and exploratory research and experiments. Our objectives are to investigate the relationship between different clay bodies or ceramics’ physio-material properties and their transmittance; to explore the feedback system of instant lighting data in robotic fabrication to achieve precise lighting effect; to design the sufficient end effector and robot behaviors for different stages of deformation. We experiment with architectural clay, as the material of the façade that is potentially translucent at a certain stage can respond to light. Studying the relationship between form, material properties, and porosity can help create different interior and exterior light effects and provide façade solutions for specific architectural functions. The key idea is to maximize the utilization of in-progress robotics fabrication and ceramics materiality to create a highly integrated autonomous system for lighting facade design and manufacture.

Keywords: light transmittance, data-driven fabrication, computational design, computer vision, gamification for manufacturing

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76 Multi-Factor Optimization Method through Machine Learning in Building Envelope Design: Focusing on Perforated Metal Façade

Authors: Jinwooung Kim, Jae-Hwan Jung, Seong-Jun Kim, Sung-Ah Kim

Abstract:

Because the building envelope has a significant impact on the operation and maintenance stage of the building, designing the facade considering the performance can improve the performance of the building and lower the maintenance cost of the building. In general, however, optimizing two or more performance factors confronts the limits of time and computational tools. The optimization phase typically repeats infinitely until a series of processes that generate alternatives and analyze the generated alternatives achieve the desired performance. In particular, as complex geometry or precision increases, computational resources and time are prohibitive to find the required performance, so an optimization methodology is needed to deal with this. Instead of directly analyzing all the alternatives in the optimization process, applying experimental techniques (heuristic method) learned through experimentation and experience can reduce resource waste. This study proposes and verifies a method to optimize the double envelope of a building composed of a perforated panel using machine learning to the design geometry and quantitative performance. The proposed method is to achieve the required performance with fewer resources by supplementing the existing method which cannot calculate the complex shape of the perforated panel.

Keywords: building envelope, machine learning, perforated metal, multi-factor optimization, façade

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75 Experimenting with Clay 3D Printing Technology to Create an Undulating Facade

Authors: Naeimehsadat Hosseininam, Rui Wang, Dishita Shah

Abstract:

In recent years, new experimental approaches with the help of the new technology have bridged the gaps between the application of natural materials and creating unconventional forms. Clay has been one of the oldest building materials in all ancient civilizations. The availability and workability of clay have contributed to the widespread application of this material around the world. The aim of this experimental research is to apply the Clay 3D printing technology to create a load bearing and visually dynamic and undulating façade. Creation of different unique pieces is the most significant goal of this research which justifies the application of 3D printing technology instead of the conventional mass industrial production. This study provides an abbreviated overview of the similar cases which have used the Clay 3D printing to generate the corresponding prototypes. The study of these cases also helps in understanding the potential and flexibility of the material and 3D printing machine in developing different forms. In the next step, experimental research carried out by 3D printing of six various options which designed considering the properties of clay as well as the methodology of them being 3D printed. Here, the ratio of water to clay (W/C) has a significant role in the consistency of the material and the workability of the clay. Also, the size of the selected nozzle impacts the shape and the smoothness of the final surface. Moreover, the results of these experiments show the limitations of clay toward forming various slopes. The most notable consequence of having steep slopes in the prototype is an unpredicted collapse which is the result of internal tension in the material. From the six initial design ideas, the final prototype selected with the aim of creating a self-supported component with unique blocks that provides a possibility of installing the insulation system within the component. Apart from being an undulated façade, the presented prototype has the potential to be used as a fence and an interior partition (double-sided). The central shaft also provides a space to run services or insulation in different parts of the wall. In parallel to present the capability and potential of the clay 3D printing technology, this study illustrates the limitations of this system in some certain areas. There are inevitable parameters such as printing speed, temperature, drying speed that need to be considered while printing each piece. Clay 3D printing technology provides the opportunity to create variations and design parametric building components with the application of the most practiced material in the world.

Keywords: clay 3D printing, material capability, undulating facade, load bearing facade

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74 Adopting Precast Insulated Concrete Panels for Building Envelope in Hot Climate Zones

Authors: Mohammed Sherzad

Abstract:

The absorbedness of solar radiation within the concrete building is higher than other buildings type, especially in hot climate zones. However, one of the primary issues of architects and the owners in hot climate zones is the building’s exterior plastered and painted finishing which is commonly used are fading and peeling adding a high cost on maintenance. Case studies of different exterior finishing’ treatments used in vernacular and contemporary dwellings in the United Arab Emirates were surveyed. The traditional plastered façade treatment was more sustainable than new buildings. In addition, using precast concrete insulated sandwich panels with the exposed colored aggregate surface in contemporary designed dwellings sustained the extensive heat reducing the overall cost of maintenance and contributed aesthetically to the buildings’ envelope in addition to its thermal insulation property.

Keywords: precast concrete panels, façade treatment, hot climate

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73 Designing Elevations by Photocatalysis of Precast Concrete Materials, in Reducing Energy Consumption of Buildings: Case Study of Tabriz

Authors: Mahsa Faramarzi Asli, Mina Sarabi

Abstract:

The important issues that are addressed in most advanced industrial countries in recent decades, discussion of minimizing heat losses through the buildings. And the most influential parameters in the calculation of building energy consumption, is heat exchange, which takes place between the interior and outer space. One of the solutions to reduce heat loss is using materials with low thermal conductivity. The purpose of this article, is the effect of using some frontages with nano-concrete photo catalytic precast materials for reducing energy consumption in buildings. For this purpose, estimating the energy dissipation through the facade built with nano-concrete photo catalytic precast materials on a sample building in Tabriz city by BCS 19 software ( topic 19 simulation) is done and the results demonstrate reduce heat loss through the facade nano- concrete.

Keywords: nano materials, optimize energy consumption, themal, stability

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72 Residential Building Facade Retrofit

Authors: Galit Shiff, Yael Gilad

Abstract:

The need to retrofit old buildings lies in the fact that buildings are responsible for the main energy use and CO₂ emission. Existing old structures are more dominant in their effect than new energy-efficient buildings. Nevertheless not every case of urban renewal that aims to replace old buildings with new neighbourhoods necessarily has a financial or sustainable justification. Façade design plays a vital role in the building's energy performance and the unit's comfort conditions. A retrofit façade residential methodology and feasibility applicative study has been carried out for the past four years, with two projects already fully renovated. The intention of this study is to serve as a case study for limited budget façade retrofit in Mediterranean climate urban areas. The two case study buildings are set in Israel. However, they are set in different local climatic conditions. One is in 'Sderot' in the south of the country, and one is in' Migdal Hahemek' in the north of the country. The building typology is similar. The budget of the projects is around $14,000 per unit and includes interventions at the buildings' envelope while tenants are living in. Extensive research and analysis of the existing conditions have been done. The building's components, materials and envelope sections were mapped, examined and compared to relevant updated standards. Solar radiation simulations for the buildings in their surroundings during winter and summer days were done. The energy rate of each unit, as well as the building as a whole, was calculated according to the Israeli Energy Code. The buildings’ facades were documented with the use of a thermal camera during different hours of the day. This information was superimposed with data about the electricity use and the thermal comfort that was collected from the residential units. Later in the process, similar tools were further used in order to compare the effectiveness of different design options and to evaluate the chosen solutions. Both projects showed that the most problematic units were the ones below the roof and the ones on top of the elevated entrance floor (pilotis). Old buildings tend to have poor insulation on those two horizontal surfaces which require treatment. Different radiation levels and wall sections in the two projects influenced the design strategies: In the southern project, there was an extreme difference in solar radiations levels between the main façade and the back elevation. Eventually, it was decided to invest in insulating the main south-west façade and the side façades, leaving the back north-east façade almost untouched. Lower levels of radiation in the northern project led to a different tactic: a combination of basic insulation on all façades, together with intense treatment on areas with problematic thermal behavior. While poor execution of construction details and bad installation of windows in the northern project required replacing them all, in the southern project it was found that it is more essential to shade the windows than replace them. Although the buildings and the construction typology was chosen for this study are similar, the research shows that there are large differences due to the location in different climatic zones and variation in local conditions. Therefore, in order to reach a systematic and cost-effective method of work, a more extensive catalogue database is needed. Such a catalogue will enable public housing companies in the Mediterranean climate to promote massive projects of renovating existing old buildings, drawing on minimal analysis and planning processes.

Keywords: facade, low budget, residential, retrofit

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71 An Integrated CFD and Experimental Analysis on Double-Skin Window

Authors: Sheam-Chyun Lin, Wei-Kai Chen, Hung-Cheng Yen, Yung-Jen Cheng, Yu-Cheng Chen

Abstract:

Result from the constant dwindle in natural resources, the alternative way to reduce the costs in our daily life would be urgent to be found in the near future. As the ancient technique based on the theory of solar chimney since roman times, the double-skin façade are simply composed of two large glass panels in purpose of daylighting and also natural ventilation in the daytime. Double-skin façade is generally installed on the exterior side of buildings as function as the window, so there’s always a huge amount of passive solar energy the façade would receive to induce the airflow every sunny day. Therefore this article imposes a domestic double-skin window for residential usage and attempts to improve the volume flow rate inside the cavity between the panels by the frame geometry design, the installation of outlet guide plate and the solar energy collection system. Note that the numerical analyses are applied to investigate the characteristics of flow field, and the boundary conditions in the simulation are totally based on the practical experiment of the original prototype. Then we redesign the prototype from the knowledge of the numerical results and fluid dynamic theory, and later the experiments of modified prototype will be conducted to verify the simulation results. The velocities at the inlet of each case are increase by 5%, 45% and 15% from the experimental data, and also the numerical simulation results reported 20% improvement in volume flow rate both for the frame geometry design and installation of outlet guide plate.

Keywords: solar energy, double-skin façades, thermal buoyancy, fluid machinery

Procedia PDF Downloads 414