Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Ümit Ustaoglu

17 Manufacturing Commercial Bricks with Construction and Demolition Wastes

Authors: Mustafa Kara, Yasemin Kilic, Bahattin Murat Demir, Ümit Ustaoglu, Cavit Unal


This paper reports utilization of different kind of construction and demolition wastes (C&D) in the production of bricks at industrial scale. Plastered brick waste and tile wastes were collected from ISTAÇ Co. Compost and Recovery Plant, Istanbul, Turkey. Plastered brick waste and tile waste are mixed with brick clay in the proportion of 0-30% and fired at 900ºC. The physical and mechanical properties of the produced bricks were determined and evaluated according to IKIZLER Brick Company Production values, Brick Industry Association (BIA) and Turkish Standards (TS). The resulted showed that plastered brick waste and tile waste can be used to produce good quality brick for various engineering applications in construction and building. The replacement of brick clay by plastered brick waste and tile waste at the levels of 30% has good effects on the compressive strength of the bricks.

Keywords: commercial brick, construction and demolition waste, manufacturing, recycling

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16 Understanding Organizational Capabilities and Dynamic Capabilities in the Context of Micro Enterprises: A Research Agenda

Authors: G. Gurkan Inan, Umit S. Bititci


Purpose of this study is to understand development of organizational capabilities in micro enterprises. Organizational capabilities underpin companies` competitive advantages as well as their ability to respond internal and external change. Current literature is focused on mainly large enterprises, with some interest on SMEs. However there is little research attempting to understand the applicability of organizational capability theories on micro enterprises. In this paper we propose a research framework and a research agenda for addressing this gap.

Keywords: micro enterprises, organizational capabilities, dynamic capabilities, management

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15 Comparison of Acid and Base Pretreatment of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) for Bioethanol Production

Authors: Mustafa Ümi̇t Ünal, Nafi̇z Çeli̇ktaş, Aysun Şener, Sara Betül Dolgun, Duygu Keser


The aim of this study was to compare acid and base pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production. Switchgrass was pretreated with sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% (v/v) at 120, 140, 180 °C for 10, 60 and 90. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated switchgrass samples were carried out using three different enzyme mixtures (22.5 mg cellulase and 75 mg cellobiase /g biomass; 45 mg cellulase and 150 mg cellobiase /g biomass; 90 mg cellulase and 300 mg cellobiase /g biomass). Samples were removed at 24-h interval for fermentable sugar analyses with HPLC. The results showed that use of 90 mg cellulase and 300 mg cellobiase/g biomass resulted in the highest fermentable sugar formation. Furthermore, the highest fermentable sugar yield was obtained by pretreatment at 120 °C for 10 min using 1.0 % sodium hydroxide.

Keywords: switchgrass, acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, base pretreatment, ethanol production

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14 Modeling Sediment Yield Using the SWAT Model: A Case Study of Upper Ankara River Basin, Turkey

Authors: Umit Duru


The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was tested for prediction of water balance and sediment yield in the Ankara gauged basin, Turkey. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and applicability of the SWAT in this region of Turkey. Thirteen years of monthly stream flow, and suspended sediment, data were used for calibration and validation. This research assessed model performance based on differences between observed and predicted suspended sediment yield during calibration (1987-1996) and validation (1982-1984) periods. Statistical comparisons of suspended sediment produced values for NSE (Nash Sutcliffe efficiency), RE (relative error), and R² (coefficient of determination), of 0.81, -1.55, and 0.93, respectively, during the calibration period, and NSE, RE (%), and R² of 0.77, -2.61, and 0.87, respectively, during the validation period. Based on the analyses, SWAT satisfactorily simulated observed hydrology and sediment yields and can be used as a tool in decision making for water resources planning and management in the basin.

Keywords: calibration, GIS, sediment yield, SWAT, validation

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13 Prospective Teachers’ Comments on Both Students’ Misconceptions and Their

Authors: Mihriban Hacisalihoğlu Karadeniz, Figen Bozkuş, Tuğba Baran, Ümit Akar


Creating the correct symmetry of conceptual knowledge about students, conceptual information about the symmetry of the instructors is important. However, teachers’, the students should be aware of the existing misconceptions and be able to develop strategies to correct these misconceptions. In this study, the purpose, the prospective teachers’, the students’ explanations for corrections of misconceptions and misconceptions were asked to be introduced. The working group during the 2012-2013 academic year, Kocaeli University Faculty of Education Mathematics Education consists of studying at the twenty-six prospective teachers. The study adopted a qualitative approach. The data prepared by the researchers were obtained with an open-ended test. As a result of analysis of the data, prospective with teaching the concept of symmetry observed in more developed practical solutions. These solutions are focused on the method, students utilization mirrors, paper folding, such as using a square piece of registration of events. Prospective teachers’ who think this way, students observed that overlooked the creation of conceptual knowledge.

Keywords: symmetry concepts, misconceptions, elementary mathematics, prospective teachers-students

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12 Risk Assessment for Aerial Package Delivery

Authors: Haluk Eren, Ümit Çelik


Recent developments in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have begun to attract intense interest. UAVs started to use for many different applications from military to civilian use. Some online retailer and logistics companies are testing the UAV delivery. UAVs have great potentials to reduce cost and time of deliveries and responding to emergencies in a short time. Despite these great positive sides, just a few works have been done for routing of UAVs for package deliveries. As known, transportation of goods from one place to another may have many hazards on delivery route due to falling hazards that can be exemplified as ground objects or air obstacles. This situation refers to wide-range insurance concept. For this reason, deliveries that are made with drones get into the scope of shipping insurance. On the other hand, air traffic was taken into account in the absence of unmanned aerial vehicle. But now, it has been a reality for aerial fields. In this study, the main goal is to conduct risk analysis of package delivery services using drone, based on delivery routes.

Keywords: aerial package delivery, insurance estimation, territory risk map, unmanned aerial vehicle, route risk estimation, drone risk assessment, drone package delivery

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11 Investigation of the Field Trip Method’s Effectiveness: As a Way of Improving Pre-Service Teachers’ Views on Environmental Education

Authors: Abuzer Akgün, Ümit Duruk


This study was carried out in a period of four weeks thanks to voluntarily participation of twenty eight pre-service teachers enrolled diverse departments in Faculty of Education. The purpose of the study was to point out how pre-service teachers views on environmental education were affected by field trips. Prior to data collection, four open-ended questions were prepared and administered to all pre-service teachers in the working group. Data gathered at first and final week of the field trip were compared in a qualitative approach using content analysis. In conclusion, it is obvious that most of the participants don’t feel themselves quiet enough about environmental education and state this reason as a providing justification to participate voluntarily in the study. In the secondary school teaching context, they mostly emphasize on the vital importance of the environmental awareness level of the pupils in the schools. They also seem to think that they get a detailed knowledge of environmental education and claim that they will use this knowledge in order to bring up next generations in their professional career as teachers. Lastly, they state that observing the deteriorating materials directly in their own settings, might be more effective as regards improving environmental awareness.

Keywords: science education, environmental education, environmental issues, field trip method

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10 Difficulties Encountered in the Process of Supporting Reading Skills of a Student with Hearing Loss Whose Inclusion Was Ongoing and Solution Proposals

Authors: Ezgi Tozak, H. Pelin Karasu, Umit Girgin


In this study, difficulties encountered in the process of supporting the reading skills of a student with hearing loss whose inclusion was ongoing and the solutions improved during the practice process were examined. The study design was action research. Participants of this study, which was conducted between the dates of 29 September 2016 and 22 February 2017, consisted of a student with hearing loss, a classroom teacher, a teacher in the rehabilitation center, researcher/teacher and validity committee members. The data were obtained through observations, validity committee meeting, interviews, documents, and the researcher diary. Research findings show that in the process of supporting reading skills of the student with hearing loss, the student's knowledge of concepts was limited, and the student had difficulties in feeling and identification of sounds, reading and understanding words-sentences and retelling what he/she listened to. With the purpose of overcoming these difficulties in the implementation process, activities were prepared towards concepts, sound education, reading and understanding words and sentences, and retelling what you listen to; these activities were supported with visual materials and real objects and repeated with diversities.

Keywords: inclusion, reading process, supportive education, student with hearing loss

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9 Synthesis and Characterization of Some Novel Carbazole Schiff Bases (OLED)

Authors: Baki Cicek, Umit Calisir


Carbazoles have been replaced lots of studies from 1960's to present and also still continues. In 1987, the first diode device had been developed. Thanks to that study, light emitting devices have been investigated and developed and also have been used on commercial applications. Nowadays, OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diodes) technology is using on lots of electronic screen such as (mobile phone, computer monitors, televisions, etc.) Carbazoles were subject a lot of study as a semiconductor material. Although this technology is used commen and widely, it is still development stage. Metal complexes of these compounds are using at pigment dyes because of colored substances, polymer technology, medicine industry, agriculture area, preparing rocket fuel-oil, determine some of biological events, etc. Becides all of these to preparing of schiff base synthesis is going on intensely. In this study, some of novel carbazole schiff bases were synthesized starting from carbazole. For that purpose, firstly, carbazole was alkylated. After purification of N-substituted-carbazole was nitrated to sythesized 3-nitro-N-substituted and 3,6-dinitro-N-substituted carbazoles. At next step, nitro group/groups were reduced to amines. Purified with using a type of silica gel-column chromatography. At the last step of our study, with sythesized 3,6-diamino-N-substituted carbazoles and 3-amino-N-substituted carbazoles were reacted with aldehydes to condensation reactions. 3-(imino-p-hydroxybenzyl)-N-isobutyl -carbazole, 3-(imino-2,3,4-trimethoxybenzene)-N-butylcarbazole, 3-(imino-3,4-dihydroxybenzene)-N-octylcarbazole, 3-(imino-2,3-dihydroxybenzene)-N-octylkarbazole and 3,6-di(α-imino-β-naphthol) -N-hexylcarbazole compounds were synthesized. All of synthesized compounds were characterized with FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and LC-MS.

Keywords: carbazole, carbazol schiff base, condensation reactions, OLED

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8 Evaluation of the Relationship between Fluorosis and Stylohyoid Ligament Calcification Detected on Panoramic Radiograph

Authors: Recep Duzsoz, Ozlem Gormez, Umit Memis, Selma Demer, Hikmet Orhan


Stylohyoid ligament is a connective tissue extending from apex of the styloid process to small horn of the hyoid bone. The normal length of styloid process ranges from 20 to 30 mm and measurements more than 30 mm is named stylohyoid ligament calcification (SLC). Fluorosis is a health problem that arises in individuals who intake large amounts of fluor long periods of time. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fluorosis on SLC. This study has been conducted on 100 patients who had SLC detected on panoramic radiograph. The study group was consisted of 50 patients with dental fluorosis and control group was consisted of 50 patients without dental fluorosis. Length and thickness of SLC were measured and the type of SLC was determined on panoramic radiographs. There was no statistically significant differences between the study and control group for SLC length, thickness and type. The thickness of left and right SLC of severe dental fluorosis group was statistically significant higher than moderate dental fluorosis group (p < 0,05). Cervicopharyngeal trauma, tonsillectomy, endocrine disease in menopause, persistent mesenchymal tissue, mechanical stress have reported as etiology of SLC in the literature and studies are still ongoing. It was reported that fluorosis as a factor on calcification of some ligaments in body (posterior longitudunal ligament, ligamentum flavum and transverse atlantal ligament) previously but relationship between fluorosis with SLC was not investigated. Our study is unique because it is the first study on SLC thickness measurements on panoramic radiographs and the relationship between fluorosis and SLC to our knowledge. According to the obtained results, it is thought that fluorosis may have an effect on SLC in thickness due to the relationship between dental fluorosis severity with SLC thickness and this study will contribute to the progress of the future studies.

Keywords: calcification, fluorosis, ligament, stylohyoid

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7 Rapid and Easy Fabrication of Collagen-Based Biocomposite Scaffolds for 3D Cell Culture

Authors: Esra Turker, Umit Hakan Yildiz, Ahu Arslan Yildiz


The key of regenerative medicine is mimicking natural three dimensional (3D) microenvironment of tissues by utilizing appropriate biomaterials. In this study, a synthetic biodegradable polymer; poly (L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLLCL) and a natural polymer; collagen was used to mimic the biochemical structure of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM), and by means of electrospinning technique the real physical structure of ECM has mimicked. PLLCL/Collagen biocomposite scaffolds enables cell attachment, proliferation and nutrient transport through fabrication of micro to nanometer scale nanofibers. Biocomposite materials are commonly preferred due to limitations of physical and biocompatible properties of natural and synthetic materials. Combination of both materials improves the strength, degradation and biocompatibility of scaffold. Literature studies have shown that collagen is mostly solved with heavy chemicals, which is not suitable for cell culturing. To overcome this problem, a new approach has been developed in this study where polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is used as co-electrospinning agent. PVP is preferred due to its water solubility, so PLLCL/collagen biocomposite scaffold can be easily and rapidly produced. Hydrolytic and enzymatic biodegradation as well as mechanical strength of scaffolds were examined in vitro. Cell adhesion, proliferation and cell morphology characterization studies have been performed as well. Further, on-chip drug screening analysis has been performed over 3D tumor models. Overall, the developed biocomposite scaffold was used for 3D tumor model formation and obtained results confirmed that developed model could be used for drug screening studies to predict clinical efficacy of a drug.

Keywords: biomaterials, 3D cell culture, drug screening, electrospinning, lab-on-a-chip, tissue engineering

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6 Effect of Different Level of Pomegranate Molasses on Performance, Egg Quality Trait, Serological and Hematological Parameters in Older Laying Hens

Authors: Ismail Bayram, Aamir Iqbal, E. Eren Gultepe, Cangir Uyarlar, Umit Ozcınar, I. Sadi Cetingul


The current study was planned with the objective to explore the potential of pomegranate molasses (PM) on performance, egg quality and blood parameters in older laying hens. A total of 240 Babcock white laying hens (52 weeks old) were divided into 5 groups (n=48) with 8 subgroups having 6 hens in each. Pomegranate molasses was added in the drinking water to experimental groups with 0 %, 0.1%, 0.25 %, 0.5%, and 1%, respectively during one month. In our results, egg weight values were remained the same in all pomegranate molasses supplemented groups except 1% group over control. However, feed consumption, egg production, feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg mass, egg yolk cholesterol, body weights, and water consumption remained unaffected (P > 0.05). During mid-study (15 Days) analyses, egg quality parameters such as Haugh unit, eggshell thickness, albumin index, yolk index, and egg yolk color were remained non-significant (P > 0.05) while after final (30 Days) egg analyses, only egg yolk color had positively (P < 0.05) increased in 0.5% group. Moreover, Haugh unit, eggshell thickness, and albumin index were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by the supplementation of pomegranate molasses. Regarding serological parameters, pomegranate molasses did not show any positive effect on cholesterol, total protein, LDL, HDL, GGT, AST, ALT, and glucose level. Similarly, pomegranate molasses also showed non-significant (P > 0.05) results on different blood parameters such as HCT, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, PLT, RDWC, MPV except hemoglobin level. Only hemoglobin level was increased in all experimental groups over control showing that pomegranate molasses can be used as an enhancer in animals with low hemoglobin level.

Keywords: pomegranate molasses, laying hen, egg yield, blood parameters

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5 Grid and Market Integration of Large Scale Wind Farms using Advanced Predictive Data Mining Techniques

Authors: Umit Cali


The integration of intermittent energy sources like wind farms into the electricity grid has become an important challenge for the utilization and control of electric power systems, because of the fluctuating behaviour of wind power generation. Wind power predictions improve the economic and technical integration of large amounts of wind energy into the existing electricity grid. Trading, balancing, grid operation, controllability and safety issues increase the importance of predicting power output from wind power operators. Therefore, wind power forecasting systems have to be integrated into the monitoring and control systems of the transmission system operator (TSO) and wind farm operators/traders. The wind forecasts are relatively precise for the time period of only a few hours, and, therefore, relevant with regard to Spot and Intraday markets. In this work predictive data mining techniques are applied to identify a statistical and neural network model or set of models that can be used to predict wind power output of large onshore and offshore wind farms. These advanced data analytic methods helps us to amalgamate the information in very large meteorological, oceanographic and SCADA data sets into useful information and manageable systems. Accurate wind power forecasts are beneficial for wind plant operators, utility operators, and utility customers. An accurate forecast allows grid operators to schedule economically efficient generation to meet the demand of electrical customers. This study is also dedicated to an in-depth consideration of issues such as the comparison of day ahead and the short-term wind power forecasting results, determination of the accuracy of the wind power prediction and the evaluation of the energy economic and technical benefits of wind power forecasting.

Keywords: renewable energy sources, wind power, forecasting, data mining, big data, artificial intelligence, energy economics, power trading, power grids

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4 Mentor and Peer Feed-Back on Micro-Teaching: As a Tool for Enhancing of Pre-Service Teachers' Teaching Practices

Authors: Ayhan Cinici, Mustafa Ozden, Umit Duruk, Gulden Akdag


The purpose of this study was to investigate how feedbacks left from two different sources (mentors and peers) during microteaching sessions effecting preservice teachers’ teaching skills and views on science teaching. Sampling process is twofold in the study. As part of qualitative research, among other counterparts, case study method was chosen and respectively, constructed six working groups in which there were six preservice teachers, totally from thirty six preservice teachers enrolled in the third grade of Elementary Education Department by random assignment. Subsequently, one preservice teacher from all groups was appointed as the moderator of those groups (totally six moderators). Rest of them taking part remained as audience in all groups. At the beginning of the instructional process, all participants were asked to watch some videos by which someone already recorded. After watching these videos, they were also given a chance to discuss their ideas and impressions regarding microteaching in the classroom atmosphere. Both academic staff as mentors and participants as preservice teachers took role in the process of determining which teaching skills would be taken into consideration as part of microteaching sessions. Each group were gathered at regular intervals throughout twelve weeks together with their mentor who guided them and performed their microteaching. Data was collected using reflective diaries by which researchers constructed for both preservice teachers playing role as teacher of the group and preservice teachers playing role as audience during these microteaching sessions. Semi structured interviews were also carried out with only preservice teachers playing role as teachers of the groups. Findings from these reflective diaries and semi structured interviews were analysed by descriptive statistics and content analysis method. With regard to these findings, explanatory themes and subthemes were categorized and supported by direct citations. The results reveal that preservice teachers playing role as the teachers of the each group consider “content knowledge” as the most important aspect among other teaching skills. Furthermore, preservice teachers also point out that the more they get feedback on any teaching skill, the more they get motivated to develop it.

Keywords: teacher education, microteaching, mentor, peer feedback

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3 An Investigation into the Views of Gifted Children on the Effects of Computer and Information Technologies on Their Lives and Education

Authors: Ahmet Kurnaz, Eyup Yurt, Ümit Çiftci


In this study, too, an attempt was made to reveal the place and effects of information technologies on the lives and education of gifted children based on the views of gifted. To this end, the effects of information technologies on gifted are general skills, technology use, academic and social skills, and cooperative and personal skills were investigated. These skills were explored depending on whether or not gifted had their own computers, had internet connection at home, or how often they use the internet, average time period they spent at the computer, how often they played computer games and their use of social media. The study was conducted using the screening model with a quantitative approach. The sample of the study consisted of 129 gifted attending 5-12th classes in 12 provinces in different regions of Turkey. 64 of the participants were female while 65 were male. The research data were collected using the using computer of gifted and information technologies (UCIT) questionnaire which was developed by the researchers and given its final form after receiving expert view. As a result of the study, it was found that UCIT use improved foreign language speaking skills of gifted, enabled them to get to know and understand different cultures, and made use of computer and information technologies while they study. At the end of the study these result were obtained: Gifted have positive idea using computer and communication technology. There are differences whether using the internet about the ideas UCIT. But there are not differences whether having computer, inhabited city, grade level, having internet at home, daily and weekly internet usage durations, playing the computer and internet game, having Facebook and Twitter account about the UCIT. UCIT contribute to the development of gifted vocabulary, allows knowing and understand different cultures, developing foreign language speaking skills, gifted do not give up computer when they do their homework, improve their reading, listening, understanding and writing skills in a foreign language. Gifted children want to have transition to the use of tablets in education. They think UCIT facilitates doing their homework, contributes learning more information in a shorter time. They'd like to use computer-assisted instruction programs at courses. They think they will be more successful in the future if their computer skills are good. But gifted students prefer teacher instead of teaching with computers and they said that learning can be run from home without going to school.

Keywords: gifted, using computer, communication technology, information technologies

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2 The Effect of Bihemisferic Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Therapy on Upper Extremity Motor Functions in Stroke Patients

Authors: Dilek Cetin Alisar, Oya Umit Yemisci, Selin Ozen, Seyhan Sozay


New approaches and treatment modalities are being developed to make patients more functional and independent in stroke rehabilitation. One of these approaches is transcranial direct stimulation therapy (tDCS), which aims to improve the hemiplegic upper limb function of stroke patients. tDCS therapy is not in the routine rehabilitation program; however, the studies about tDCS therapy on stroke rehabilitation was increased in recent years. Evaluate the effect of tDCS treatment on upper extremity motor function in patients with subacute stroke was aimed in our study. 32 stroke patients (16 tDCS group, 16 sham groups) who were hospitalized for rehabilitation in Başkent University Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic between 01.08.2016-20.01-2018 were included in the study. The conventional upper limb rehabilitation program was used for both tDCS and control group patients for 3 weeks, 5 days a week, for 60-120 minutes a day. In addition to the conventional stroke rehabilitation program in the tDAS group, bihemispheric tDCS was administered for 30 minutes daily. Patients were evaluated before treatment and after 1 week of treatment. Functional independence measure self-care score (FIM), Brunnstorm Recovery Stage (BRS), and Fugl-Meyer (FM) upper extremity motor function scale were used. There was no difference in demographic characteristics between the groups. There were no significant differences between BRS and FM scores in two groups, but there was a significant difference FIM score (p=0.05. FIM, BRS, and FM scores are significantly in the tDCS group, when before therapy and after 1 week of therapy, however, no difference is found in the shame group (p < 0,001). When FBS and FM scores were compared, there were statistical significant differences in tDCS group (p < 0,001). In conclusion, this randomized double-blind study showed that bihemispheric tDCS treatment was found to be superior to upper extremity motor and functional enhancement in addition to conventional rehabilitation methods in subacute stroke patients. In order for tDCS therapy to be used routinely in stroke rehabilitation, there is a need for more comprehensive, long-termed, randomized controlled clinical trials in order to find answers to many questions, such as the duration and intensity of treatment.

Keywords: cortical stimulation, motor function, rehabilitation, stroke

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1 Sympathetic Skin Response and Reaction Times in Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis; An Overlooked Electrodiagnostic Study

Authors: Oya Umit Yemisci, Nur Saracgil Cosar, Tubanur Ozturk Sisman, Selin Ozen


Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) may result in a wide spectrum of reversible abnormalities in the neuromuscular function. Usually, proximal muscle-related symptoms and neuropathic findings such as mild axonal peripheral neuropathy have been reported. Sympathetic skin responses are useful in evaluating sudomotor activity of the unmyelinated sympathetic fibers of the autonomic nervous system. Neurocognitive impairment may also be a prominent feature of hypothyroidism, particularly in elderly patients. Electromyographic reaction times as a highly sensitive parameter provides. Objective data concerning cognitive and motor functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate peripheral nerve functions, sympathetic skin response and electroneuromyographic (ENMG) reaction times in euthyroid and subclinically hypothyroid patients with a diagnosis of AIT and compare to those of a control group. Thirty-five euthyroid, 19 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and 35 age and sex-matched healthy subjects were included in the study. Motor and sensory nerve conduction studies, sympathetic skin responses recorded from hand and foot by stimulating contralateral median nerve and simple reaction times by stimulating tibial nerve and recording from extensor indicis proprius muscle were performed to all patients and control group. Only median nerve sensory conduction velocities of the forearm were slower in patients with AIT compared to the control group (p=0.019). Otherwise, nerve conduction studies and sympathetic skin responses showed no significant difference between the patients and the control group. However, reaction times were shorter in the healthy subjects compared to AIT patients. Prolongation in the reaction times may be considered as a parameter reflecting the alterations in the cognitive functions related to the primary disease process in AIT. Combining sympathetic skin responses with more quantitative tests such as cardiovascular tests and sudomotor axon reflex testing may allow us to determine higher rates of involvement of the autonomic nervous system in AIT.

Keywords: sympathetic skin response, simple reaction time, chronic autoimmune thyroiditis

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