Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 73

Search results for: barium titanate

73 Thermoplastic Polyurethane/Barium Titanate Composites

Authors: Seyfullah Madakbaş, Ferhat Şen, Memet Vezir Kahraman


The aim of this study was to improve thermal stability, mechanical and surface properties of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) with the addition of BaTiO3. The TPU/ BaTiO3 composites having various ratios of TPU and BaTiO3 were prepared. The chemical structure of the prepared composites was investigated by FT-IR. FT-IR spectra of TPU/ barium titanate composites show that they successfully were prepared. Thermal stability of the samples was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The prepared composites showed high thermal stability, and the char yield increased as barium titanate content increased. The glass transition temperatures of the composites rise with the addition of barium titanate. Mechanical properties of the samples were characterized with stress-strain test. The mechanical properties of the TPU were increased with the contribution of the contribution of the barium titanate it increased. Hydrophobicity of the samples was determined by the contact angle measurements. The contact angles have the tendency to increase the hydrophobic behavior on the surface, when barium titanate was added into TPU. Moreover, the surface morphology of the samples was investigated by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM-EDS mapping images showed that barium titanate particles were dispersed homogeneously. Finally, the obtained results prove that the prepared composites have good thermal, mechanical and surface properties and that they can be used in many applications such as the electronic devices, materials engineering and other emergent.

Keywords: barium titanate, composites, thermoplastic polyurethane, scanning electron microscopy

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72 Influence of BaTiO₃ on the Biological Behaviour of Hydroxyapatite: Collagen Composites

Authors: Cristina Busuioc, Georgeta Voicu, Sorin-Ion Jinga


The human bone presents in its dry form piezoelectric properties, which means that a mechanical stress results in electric polarization and an applied electric field causes strain. The immediate consequence was the revealing of piezoelectricity role in bone remodelling, as well as the integration of ceramic materials with piezoelectric behaviour in the composition of unitary or composite biomaterials. Thus, we prepared hydroxyapatite - collagen hybrid materials with barium titanate addition in order to achieve a better osseointegration. Barium titanate powder synthesized by a combined sol-gel-hydrothermal method, commercial hydroxyapatite and laboratory extracted collagen gel were employed as starting materials. Before the composites, fabrication, the powder with piezoelectric features was characterized in detail from the compositional, structural, morphological and electrical point of view. The next step was to elucidate the influence of barium titanate presence especially on the biological properties of the final materials. The biocompatibility of the hybrid supports without or with piezoelectric addition was investigated on mouse osteoblast cells through LDH cytotoxicity assay, LIVE/DEAD cell viability assay, and MTT cell proliferation assay. All results indicated that the analysed materials do not exert cytotoxic effects and present the ability to sustain cell survival and to promote their proliferation. In conclusion, barium titanate nanoparticles exhibit a good biocompatibility and osteoinductive properties, while the derived composite materials based on hydroxyapatite as oxide phase and collagen as polymeric phase can be successfully used for tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: barium titanate, hybrid composites, piezoelectricity, tissue engineering

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71 Investigations on Microstructural and Raman Scattering Properties of B2O3 Doped Ba(Ti1-xZrx)O3 Nanoceramics

Authors: Keri̇m Emre Öksüz, Şaduman Şen, Uğur Şen


0.5 wt. % B2O3–doped Ba (Ti1-xZrx) O3, (x=0-0.4) lead-free nanoceramics were synthesized using the solid-state reaction method by adopting the ball milling technique. The influence of the substitution content on crystallographic structure, phase transition, microstructure and sintering behaviour of BT and BZT ceramics were investigated. XRD analysis at room temperature revealed a structural transformation from tetragonal to rhombohedral with enhancement of ZrO2 content in the barium titanate matrix. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to investigate microstructure and surface morphology of the sintered samples. The evolution of the Raman spectra was studied for various compositions, and the spectroscopic signature of the corresponding phase was determined. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observations revealed enhanced microstructural uniformity and retarded grain growth with increasing Zr content.

Keywords: BaTiO3, barium-titanate-zirconate, nanoceramics, raman spectroscopy

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70 Electrospun Fibre Networks Loaded with Hydroxyapatite and Barium Titanate as Smart Scaffolds for Tissue Regeneration

Authors: C. Busuioc, I. Stancu, A. Nicoara, A. Zamfirescu, A. Evanghelidis


The field of tissue engineering has expanded its potential due to the use of composite biomaterials belonging to increasingly complex systems, leading to bone substitutes with properties that are continuously improving to meet the patient's specific needs. Furthermore, the development of biomaterials based on ceramic and polymeric phases is an unlimited resource for future scientific research, with the final aim of restoring the original tissue functionality. Thus, in the first stage, composite scaffolds based on polycaprolactone (PCL) or polylactic acid (PLA) and inorganic powders were prepared by employing the electrospinning technique. The targeted powders were: commercial and laboratory synthesized hydroxyapatite (HAp), as well as barium titanate (BT). By controlling the concentration of the powder within the precursor solution, together with the processing parameters, different types of three-dimensional architectures were achieved. In the second stage, both the mineral powders and hybrid composites were investigated in terms of composition, crystalline structure, and microstructure so that to demonstrate their suitability for tissue engineering applications. Regarding the scaffolds, these were proven to be homogeneous on large areas and loaded with mineral particles in different proportions. The biological assays demonstrated that the addition of inorganic powders leads to modified responses in the presence of simulated body fluid (SBF) or cell cultures. Through SBF immersion, the biodegradability coupled with bioactivity were highlighted, with fiber fragmentation and surface degradation, as well as apatite layer formation within the testing period. Moreover, the final composites represent supports accepted by the cells, favoring implant integration. Concluding, the purposed fibrous materials based on bioresorbable polymers and mineral powders, produced by the electrospinning technique, represent candidates with considerable potential in the field of tissue engineering. Future improvements can be attained by optimizing the synthesis process or by simultaneous incorporation of multiple inorganic phases with well-defined biological action in order to fabricate multifunctional composites.

Keywords: barium titanate, electrospinning, fibre networks, hydroxyapatite, smart scaffolds

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69 Species Selection for Phytoremediation of Barium Polluted Flooded Soils

Authors: Fabio R. Pires, Paulo R. C. C. Ribeiro, Douglas G. Viana, Robson Bonomo, Fernando B. Egreja Filho, Alberto Cargnelutti Filho, Luiz F. Martins, Leila B. S. Cruz, Mauro C. P. Nascimento


The use of barite (BaSO₄) as a weighting agent in drilling fluids for oil and gas activities makes barium a potential contaminant in the case of spills onto flooded soils, where barium sulfate solubility is increased due to low redox conditions. In order to select plants able to remove barium in such scenarios, seven plant species were evaluated on barium phytoextraction capacity: Brachiaria arrecta; Cyperus cf. papyrus; Eleocharis acutangula; Eleocharis interstincta; Nephrolepsis cf. rivularis; Paspalum conspersum and Typha domingensis. Plants were grown in pots with 13 kg of soil each, and exposed to six barium concentrations (established with BaCl₂): 0; 2.5; 5.0; 10.0; 30.0; 65.0 mg kg-1. To simulate flooding conditions, every pot was manteined with a thin irrigation water depth over soil surface (~1.0 cm). Treatments were carried out in triplicate, and pots were distributed randomly inside the greenhouse. Biometric and chemical analyses were performed throughout the experiment, including Ba²⁺ accumulation in shoots and roots. The highest amount of barium was observed in T. domingensis biomass, followed by C. cf. papyrus. However, the latter exported most of the barium to shoot, especially in higher BaCl₂ doses, while the former accumulated barium preferentially in roots. Thus, barium removal with C. cf. papyrus could be achieved by simply harvesting aerial biomass. The amount of barium in C. cf. papyrus was a consequence of high biomass production rather than barium concentration in plant tissues, whereas T. domingensis showed high barium concentration in plant tissues and high biomass production as well. These results make T. domingensis and C. cf. papyrus potential candidates to be applied in phytoremediation schemes to remove barium from flooded soils.

Keywords: barium sulfate, cyperus, drilling fluids, phytoextraction, Typha

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68 Study on the Relationship between the Emission Property of Barium-Tungsten Cathode and Micro-Area Activity

Authors: Zhen Qin, Yufei Peng, Jianbei Li, Jidong Long


In order to study the activity of the coated aluminate barium-tungsten cathodes during activation, aging, poisoning and long-term use. Through a set of hot-cathode micro-area emission uniformity study device, we tested the micro-area emission performance of the cathode under different conditions. The change of activity of cathode micro-area was obtained. The influence of micro-area activity on the performance of the cathode was explained by the ageing model of barium-tungsten cathode. This helps to improve the design and process of the cathode and can point the way in finding the factors that affect life in the cathode operation.

Keywords: barium-tungsten cathode, ageing model, micro-area emission, emission uniformity

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67 A Physical Treatment Method as a Prevention Method for Barium Sulfate Scaling

Authors: M. A. Salman, G. Al-Nuwaibit, M. Safar, M. Rughaibi, A. Al-Mesri


Barium sulfate (BaSO₄) is a hard scaling usually precipitates on the surface of equipment in many industrial systems, as oil and gas production, desalination and cooling and boiler operation. It is a scale that extremely resistance to both chemical and mechanical cleaning. So, BaSO₄ is a problematic and expensive scaling. Although barium ions are present in most natural waters at a very low concentration as low as 0.008 mg/l, it could result of scaling problems in the presence of high concentration of sulfate ion or when mixing with incompatible waters as in oil produced water. The scaling potential of BaSO₄ using seawater at the intake of seven desalination plants in Kuwait, brine water and Kuwait oil produced water was calculated and compared then the best location in regards of barium sulfate scaling was reported. Finally, a physical treatment method (magnetic treatment method) and chemical treatment method were used to control BaSO₄ scaling using saturated solutions at different operating temperatures, flow velocities, feed pHs and different magnetic strengths. The results of the two methods were discussed, and the more economical one with the reasonable performance was recommended, which is the physical treatment method.

Keywords: magnetic field strength, flow velocity, retention time, barium sulfate

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66 Lanthanum Strontium Titanate Based Anode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors: A. Saurabh Singh, B. Raghvendra, C. Prabhakar Singh


Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are one of the most attractive electrochemical energy conversion systems, as these devices present a clean energy production, thus promising high efficiencies and low environmental impact. The electrodes are the main components that decisively control the performance of a SOFC. Conventional, anode materials (like Ni-YSZ) are operates at very high temperature. Therefore, cost-effective materials which operate at relatively lower temperatures are still required. In present study, we have synthesized La doped Strontium Titanate via solid state reaction route. The structural, microstructural and density of the pellet have been investigated employing XRD, SEM and Archimedes Principle, respectively. The electrical conductivity of the systems has been determined by impedance spectroscopy techniques. The electrical conductivity of the Lanthanum Strontium Titanate (LST) has been found to be higher than the composite Ni-YSZ system at 700 °C.

Keywords: IT-SOFC, LST, Lanthanum Strontium Titanate, electrical conductivity

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65 Immiscible Polymer Blends with Controlled Nanoparticle Location for Excellent Microwave Absorption: A Compartmentalized Approach

Authors: Sourav Biswas, Goutam Prasanna Kar, Suryasarathi Bose


In order to obtain better materials, control in the precise location of nanoparticles is indispensable. It was shown here that ordered arrangement of nanoparticles, possessing different characteristics (electrical/magnetic dipoles), in the blend structure can result in excellent microwave absorption. This is manifested from a high reflection loss of ca. -67 dB for the best blend structure designed here. To attenuate electromagnetic radiations, the key parameters i.e. high electrical conductivity and large dielectric/magnetic loss are targeted here using a conducting inclusion [multiwall carbon nanotubes, MWNTs]; ferroelectric nanostructured material with associated relaxations in the GHz frequency [barium titanate, BT]; and a loss ferromagnetic nanoparticles [nickel ferrite, NF]. In this study, bi-continuous structures were designed using 50/50 (by wt) blends of polycarbonate (PC) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). The MWNTs was modified using an electron acceptor molecule; a derivative of perylenediimide, which facilitates π-π stacking with the nanotubes and stimulates efficient charge transport in the blends. The nanoscopic materials have specific affinity towards the PVDF phase. Hence, by introducing surface-active groups, ordered arrangement can be tailored. To accomplish this, both BT and NF was first hydroxylated followed by introducing amine-terminal groups on the surface. The latter facilitated in nucleophilic substitution reaction with PC and resulted in their precise location. In this study, we have shown for the first time that by compartmentalized approach, superior EM attenuation can be achieved. For instance, when the nanoparticles were localized exclusively in the PVDF phase or in both the phases, the minimum reflection loss was ca. -18 dB (for MWNT/BT mixture) and -29 dB (for MWNT/NF mixture), and the shielding was primarily through reflection. Interestingly, by adopting the compartmentalized approach where in, the lossy materials were in the PC phase and the conducting inclusion (MWNT) in PVDF, an outstanding reflection loss of ca. -57 dB (for BT and MWNT combination) and -67 dB (for NF and MWNT combination) was noted and the shielding was primarily through absorption. Thus, the approach demonstrates that nanoscopic structuring in the blends can be achieved under macroscopic processing conditions and this strategy can further be explored to design microwave absorbers.

Keywords: barium titanate, EMI shielding, MWNTs, nickel ferrite

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64 BaFe12O19/Polythiophene Nanocomposite as Electrochemical Supercapacitor Electrode

Authors: H. Farokhi, A. Bahadoran


This paper is focused on the absorbance and magnetic properties of a novel nanocomposite based on conducting polymer, carbon black and barium hexaferrite in epoxy resin on the E-glass fibre substrate. The highly conductive nanocomposite was provided by in-situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of carbon black (C) and barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19) as electromagnetic absorbance material. The structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). SEM images showed the uniformly coated PAni on the surface of carbon black and barium hexaferrite. XRD peaks also verified the presence of carbon black and barium hexaferrite in the nanocomposite. The microwave characteristics determined from the magnetic and dielectric properties of the elastomeric composites obtained from scattering data by fitting the samples in a waveguide, where measured in the frequency in X-band frequency range, the range of 8 to 12 GHz. The reflection losses were evaluated to be less than −5dB over the whole X-band frequency (8–12 GHz) for the thickness of 1.4mm.

Keywords: conductive polymer, magnetic materials, capacitance, electrochemical cell

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63 The Preparation of Titanate Nano-Materials Removing Efficiently Cs-137 from Waste Water in Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Liu De-jun, Fu Jing, Zhang Rong, Luo Tian, Ma Ning


Cs-137, the radioactive fission products of uranium, can be easily dissolved in water during the accident of nuclear power plant, such as Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, Fukushima accidents. The concentration of Cs in the groundwater around the nuclear power plant exceeded the standard value almost 10,000 times after the Fukushima accident. The adsorption capacity of Titanate nano-materials for radioactive cation (Cs+) is very strong. Moreover, the radioactive ion can be tightly contained in the nanotubes or nanofibers without reversible adsorption, and it can safely be fixed. In addition, the nano-material has good chemical stability, thermal stability and mechanical stability to minimize the environmental impact of nuclear waste and waste volume. The preparation of titanate nanotubes or nanofibers was studied by hydrothermal methods, and chemical kinetics of removal of Cs by nano-materials was obtained. The adsorption time with maximum adsorption capacity and the effects of pH, coexisting ion concentration and the optimum adsorption conditions on the removal of Cs by titanate nano-materials were also obtained. The adsorption boundary curves, adsorption isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity of Cs-137 as tracer on the nano-materials were studied in the research. The experimental results showed that the removal rate of Cs-137 in 0.01 tons of waste water with only 1 gram nano-materials could reach above 98%, according to the optimum adsorption conditions.

Keywords: preparation, titanate, cs-137, removal, nuclear

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62 Effects of Body Positioning on Videofluoroscopic Barium Esophagram in Healthy Cats

Authors: Hyeona Kim, Kichang Lee, Seunghee Lee, Jeongsu An, Kyungjun Min


Contrast videofluoroscopy is the diagnostic imaging technique for evaluating cat with dysphagia. Generally, videofluoroscopic studies have been done with the cat restrained in lateral recumbency. It is different from the neutral position such as standing or sternal recumbency which is actual swallowing posture. We hypothesized that measurement of esophageal transit and peristalsis would be affected by body position. This experimental study analyzed the imaging findings of barium esophagram in 5 cats. Each cat underwent videofluoroscopy during swallowing of liquid barium and barium-soaked kibble in standing position and lateral recumbency. Esophageal transit time and the number of esophageal peristaltic waves were compared among body positions. Transit time in the cervical esophagus (0.57s), cranial thoracic esophagus (2.5s), and caudal thoracic esophagus(1.10s) was delayed when cats were in lateral recumbency for liquid barium. For kibble, transit time was more delayed than that of liquid through the entire esophagus in lateral recumbency. Liquid and kibble frequently started to delay at thoracic inlet region, transit time in the thoracic esophagus was significantly delayed than the cervical esophagus. In standing position, 60.2% of liquid swallows stimulated primary esophageal peristalsis. In lateral recumbency, 50.5% of liquid swallows stimulated primary esophageal peristalsis. Other variables were not significantly different. Lateral body positioning increases entire esophageal transit time and thoracic esophageal transit time is most significantly delayed. Thus, lateral recumbency decreases the number of primary esophageal peristalsis.

Keywords: barium esophagram, body positioning, cat, videofluoroscopy

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61 Structural, Optical, And Ferroelectric Properties Of BaTiO3 Sintered At Different Temperatures

Authors: Anurag Gaur, Neha Sharma


In this work, we have synthesized BaTiO3 via sol gel method by sintering at different temperatures (600-1000 0C) and studied their structural, optical and ferroelectric properties through X-Ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectrophotometer and PE Loop Tracer. X-Ray diffraction patterns of barium titanate samples show that the peaks of the diffractogram are successfully indexed with the tetragonal structure of BaTiO3 along with some minor impurities of BaCO3. The optical band gap calculated through UV Visible spectrophotometer varies from 4.37 to 3.80 eV for the samples sintered at 600 to 1000 0 C, respectively. The particle size calculated through transmission electron microscopy varies from 20 to 60 nm for the samples sintered at 600 to 1000 0C, respectively. Moreover, it has been observed that the ferroelectricity reduces as we increase the sintering temperature.

Keywords: nanostructures, ferroelectricity, sol-gel method, diffractogram

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60 Grain and Grain Boundary Behavior of Sm Substituted Barium Titanate Based Ceramics

Authors: Parveen Kumar, J. K. Juneja, Chandra Prakash, K. K. Raina


A series of polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics with compositional formula Ba0.80-xSmxPb0.20Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 with x varying from 0 to 0.01 in the steps of 0.0025 has been prepared by solid state reaction method. The dielectric constant and tangent loss was measured as a function of frequency from 100Hz to 1MHz at different temperatures (200-500oC). The electrical behavior was then investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) technique. From the CIS study, it has been found that there is a contribution of both grain and grain boundary in the electrical behavior of such ceramics. Grain and grain boundary resistivity and capacitance were calculated at different temperature using CIS technique. The present paper is about the discussion of grain and grain boundary contribution towards the electrical properties of Sm modified BaTiO3 based ceramics at high temperature.

Keywords: grain, grain boundary, impedance, dielectric

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59 Structural Investigation and Hyperfine Interactions of BaBiₓLaₓFe₁₂₋₂ₓO₁₉ (0.0 ≤ X ≤ 0.5) Hexaferrites

Authors: Hakan Gungunes, Ismail A. Auwal, Abdulhadi Baykal, Sagar E. Shirsath


Barium hexaferrite, BaFe₁₂O₁₉, substituted by Bi³⁺ and La³⁺ (BaBiₓLaₓFe₁₂₋₂ₓO₁₉ where 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) were prepared by solid state synthesis route. The effect of substituted Bi³⁺ and La³⁺ ions on the structure, morphology, magnetic and cation distributions of barium hexaferrite were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. XRD powder patterns were refined by the Rietveld analysis method which confirmed the formation of single phase magneto-plumbite structure and the substitution of La³⁺ and Bi³⁺ ions into the lattice of barium ferrite. These results show that both La³⁺ and Bi³⁺ ions completely enter into barium hexaferrite lattice without disturbing the hexagonal ferrite structure. The EDX spectra confirmed the presence of all the constituents in expected elemental percentage. From 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy data, the variation in line width, isomer shift, quadrupole splitting and hyperfine magnetic field values on Bi and La substitutions have been determined. Cation distribution in the presently investigated hexaferrite system was estimated using the relative area of Mössbauer spectroscopy.

Keywords: hexaferrite, mössbauer, cation distribution, solid state synthesis

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58 Recovery of Boron as Homogeneous Perborate Particles from Synthetic Wastewater by Integrating Chemical Oxo-Precipitation with Fluidized-Bed Homogeneous Granulation

Authors: Chiung-Chin Huang, Jui-Yen Lin, Yao-Hui Huang


Among current techniques of boron removal from wastewater with high boron concentration, chemical oxo-precipitation (COP) is one of the promising methods due to its milder condition. COP uses H2O2 to transform boric acid to perborates which can easily precipitate with barium ions at room temperature. However, the generation of the waste sludge that requires sludge/water separation and sludge dewatering is troublesome. This work presents an innovative technology which integrates chemical oxo-precipitation (COP) with fluidized-bed homogeneous granulation (FBHG) to reclaim boron as homogeneous perborate particles. By conducting COP in a fluidized-bed reactor, the barium perborate can be granulated to form homogeneous particles (>1.0 mm) with low water content (< 10%). Under the suitable condition, more than 70% of boron can be recovered from 600 ppm of boron solution and the residual boron is lower than 100 ppm.

Keywords: barium, perborate, chemical oxo-precipitation, boron removal, fluidized-bed, granulation

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57 Study on Sintering System of Calcium Barium Sulphoaluminate by XRD Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Xiaopeng Shang, Xin YU, Jun CHANG


Calcium barium sulphoaluminate (CBSA), derived from calcium sulphoaluminate(CSA), has excellent cementitious properties. In this study, the sintering system of CBSA with a theoretical stoichiometric Ca3BaAl6SO16 was investigated. Rietveld refinement was performed using TOPAS 4.2 software to quantitatively calculate the content of CBSA and the actual ionic site occupancy of Ba2+. The results indicate that the contents of Ca4-xBaxAl6SO16 increases with increasing sintering temperature in the 1200℃-1400℃ ranges. When sintered at 1400℃ for 180min, the content of CBSA reaches 88.4%. However, CBSA begins to decompose at 1440℃ and the content of which decreases. The replacement rate of Ba2+ was also enlarged by increasing sintering temperature and prolonged sintering time. Sintering at 1400℃ for 180min is considered as the optimum when replacement rate of Ba2+ and the content of CBSA were taken into account. Ca3.2Ba0.8Al6SO16 with a content of 88.4% was synthesized.

Keywords: calcium barium sulphoaluminate, sintering system, Ba2+ replacement rate, Rietveld refinement

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56 Dielectric and Impedance Spectroscopy of Samarium and Lanthanum Doped Barium Titanate at Room Temperature

Authors: Sukhleen Bindra Narang, Dalveer Kaur, Kunal Pubby


Dielectric ceramic samples in the BaO-Re2O3-TiO2 ternary system were synthesized with structural formula Ba2-xRe4+2x/3Ti8O24 where Re= rare earth metal and Re= Sm and La where x varies from 0.0 to 0.6 with step size 0.1. Polycrystalline samples were prepared by the conventional solid state reaction technique. The dielectric, electrical and impedance analysis of all the samples in the frequency range 1KHz- 1MHz at room temperature (25°C) have been done to get the understanding of electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation and their correlation. Dielectric response of the samples at lower frequencies shows dielectric dispersion while at higher frequencies it shows dielectric relaxation. The ac conductivity is well fitted by the Jonscher law (σac = σdc+Aωn). The spectroscopic data in the impedance plane confirms the existence of grain contribution to the relaxation. All the properties are found out to be function of frequency as well as the amount of substitution.

Keywords: dielectric ceramics, dielectric constant, loss tangent, AC conductivity, impedance spectroscopy

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55 Importance of CT and Timed Barium Esophagogram in the Contemporary Treatment of Patients with Achalasia

Authors: Sanja Jovanovic, Aleksandar Simic, Ognjan Skrobic, Dragan Masulovic, Aleksandra Djuric-Stefanovic


Introduction: Achalasia is an idiopathic primary esophageal motility disorder characterized by esophageal peristalsis and impaired swallow-induced relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). It is a rare disease that affects both genders with an incidence of 1/100.000 and a prevalence rate of 10/100,000 per year. Objective: Laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) represents a therapy of choice for patients with achalasia, providing excellent outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of computed tomography (CT) in analyzing achalasia subtypes and timed barium esophagogram (TBE) in evaluation of LHM success, as a part of standardized diagnostic protocol. Method: Fifty-one patients with achalasia, confirmed by manometric studies, in addition to standardized diagnostic methods, underwent CT and TBE. CT was done with multiplanar reconstruction, measuring the wall thickness above the esophago-gastric junction in the axial plane. TBE was performed preoperatively and two days postoperatively swallowing low-density barium sulfate, and plane upright frontal films were performed 1, 2 and 5 minutes after the ingestion. In all patients, LHM was done, and pre and postoperative height and weight of the barium column were compared. Results: According to CT findings we divided patients into 3 subtypes of achalasia according to wall thickness: < 4mm as subtype one, between 4 - 9mm as II, and > 10 mm as subtype 3. Correlation of manometric results, as a reference values, and CT findings indicated CT sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 70 % in establishing subtypes of achalasia. The preoperative values of TBE at 1, 2 and 5 minutes were: median barium column height 17.4 ± 7.4, 15.9 ± 6.2 and 13.9 ± 6.2 cm; median column width 5 ± 1.5, 4.7 ± 1.6 and 4.5 ± 1.8 cm respectively. LHM significantly reduced these values (height 7 ± 4.6, 5.8 ± 4.2, 3.7 ± 3.4 cm; width 2.9 ± 1.3, 2.6 ± 1.3 and 2.4 ± 1.4 cm), indicating the quantitative estimates of emptying as excellent (p value < 0.01). Conclusion: CT has high sensitivity and specificity in evaluation of achalasia subtypes, and can be introduced as an additional method for standardized evaluation of these patients. The quantitative assessment of TBE based on measurements of the barium column is an accurate and beneficial method, which adequately estimates esophageal emptying success of LHM.

Keywords: achalasia, computed tomography, esophagography, myotomy

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54 Hydrogen Production By Photoreforming Of n-Butanol And Structural Isomers Over Pt Doped Titanate Catalyst

Authors: Hristina Šalipur, Jasmina Dostanić, Davor Lončarević, Matej Huš


Photocatalytic water splitting/alcohol photoreforming has been used for the conversion of sunlight energy in the process of hydrogen production due to its sustainability, environmental safety, effectiveness and simplicity. Titanate nanotubes are frequently studied materials since they combine the properties of photo-active semiconductors with the properties of layered titanates, such as the ion-exchange ability. Platinum (Pt) doping into titanate structure has been considered an effective strategy in better separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs and lowering the overpotential for hydrogen production, which results in higher photocatalytic activity. In our work, Pt doped titanate catalysts were synthesized via simple alkaline hydrothermal treatment, incipient wetness impregnation method and temperature-programmed reduction. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the prepared catalysts were investigated using various characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 physisorption, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The activities of the prepared Pt-doped titanate photocatalysts were tested for hydrogen production via photocatalytic water splitting/alcohol photoreforming process under simulated solar light irradiation. Characterization of synthesized Pt doped titanate catalysts showed crystalline anatase phase, preserved nanotubular structure and high specific surface area. The result showed enhancement of activity in photocatalytic water splitting/alcohol photoreforming in the following order 2-butanol>1-butanol>tert-butanol, with obtained maximal hydrogen production rate of 7.5, 5.3 and 2 mmol g-1 h-1, respectively. Different possible factors influencing the hole scavenging ability, such as hole scavenger redox potential and diffusivity, adsorption and desorption rate of the hole scavenger on the surface and stability of the alcohol radical species generated via hole scavenging, were investigated. The theoretical evaluation using density functional theory (DFT) further elucidated the reaction kinetics and detailed mechanism of photocatalytic water splitting/alcohol photoreforming.

Keywords: hydrogen production, platinum, semiconductor, water splitting, density functional theory

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53 Dose Saving and Image Quality Evaluation for Computed Tomography Head Scanning with Eye Protection

Authors: Yuan-Hao Lee, Chia-Wei Lee, Ming-Fang Lin, Tzu-Huei Wu, Chih-Hsiang Ko, Wing P. Chan


Computed tomography (CT) scan of the head is a good method for investigating cranial lesions. However, radiation-induced oxidative stress can be accumulated in the eyes and promote carcinogenesis and cataract. In this regard, we aimed to protect the eyes with barium sulfate shield(s) during CT scans and investigate the resultant image quality and radiation dose to the eye. Patients who underwent health examinations were selectively enrolled in this study in compliance with the protocol approved by the Ethics Committee of the Joint Institutional Review Board at Taipei Medical University. Participants’ brains were scanned with a water-based marker simultaneously by a multislice CT scanner (SOMATON Definition Flash) under a fixed tube current-time setting or automatic tube current modulation (TCM). The lens dose was measured by Gafchromic films, whose dose response curve was previously fitted using thermoluminescent dosimeters, with or without barium sulfate or bismuth-antimony shield laid above. For the assessment of image quality CT images at slice planes that exhibit the interested regions on the zygomatic, orbital and nasal bones of the head phantom as well as the water-based marker were used for calculating the signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios. The application of barium sulfate and bismuth-antimony shields decreased 24% and 47% of the lens dose on average, respectively. Under topogram-based TCM, the dose saving power of bismuth-antimony shield was mitigated whereas that of barium sulfate shield was enhanced. On the other hand, the signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios of DSCT images were decreased separately by barium sulfate and bismuth-antimony shield, resulting in an overall reduction of the CNR. In contrast, the integration of topogram-based TCM elevated signal difference between the ROIs on the zygomatic bones and eyeballs while preferentially decreasing the signal-to-noise ratios upon the use of barium sulfate shield. The results of this study indicate that the balance between eye exposure and image quality can be optimized by combining eye shields with topogram-based TCM on the multislice scanner. Eye shielding could change the photon attenuation characteristics of tissues that are close to the shield. The application of both shields on eye protection hence is not recommended for seeking intraorbital lesions.

Keywords: computed tomography, barium sulfate shield, dose saving, image quality

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52 Domain Switching Characteristics of Lead Zirconate Titanate Piezoelectric Ceramic

Authors: Mitsuhiro Okayasu


To better understand the lattice characteristics of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics, the lattice orientations and domain-switching characteristics have been directly examined during loading and unloading using various experimental techniques. Upon loading, the PZT ceramics are fractured linear and nonlinearly during the compressive loading process. The strain characteristics of the PZT ceramic were directly affected by both the lattice and domain switching strain. Due to the piezoelectric ceramic, electrical activity of lightning-like behavior occurs in the PZT ceramics, which attributed to the severe domain-switching leading to weak piezoelectric property. The characteristics of domain-switching and reverse switching are detected during the loading and unloading processes. The amount of domain-switching depends on the grain, due to different stress levels. In addition, two patterns of 90˚ domain-switching systems are characterized, namely (i) 90˚ turn about the tetragonal c-axis and (ii) 90˚ rotation of the tetragonal a-axis. In this case, PZT ceramic was loaded by the thermal stress at 80°C. Extent of domain switching is related to the direction of c-axis of the tetragonal structure, e.g., that axis, orientated close to the loading direction, makes severe domain switching. It is considered that there is 90˚ domain switching, but in actual, the angle of domain switching is less than 90˚, e.g., 85.4° ~ 90.0°. In situ TEM observation of the domain switching characteristics of PZT ceramic has been conducted with increasing the sample temperature from 25°C to 300°C, and the domain switching like behavior is directly observed from the lattice image, where the severe domain switching occurs less than 100°C.

Keywords: PZT, lead zirconate titanate, piezoelectric ceramic, domain switching, material property

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51 Growth and Characterization of Bis-Thiourea Nickel Barium Chloride Single Crystals

Authors: Rakesh Hajiyani, Chetan Chauhan, Harshkant Jethva, Mihir Joshi


Metal bis-thiourea type organo-metallic crystals are popular as non-linear optical materials. Bis-thiourea nickel barium chloride was synthesized and crystals were grown by slow aqueous solvent evaporation technique. The transparent and colorless crystals having maximum dimensions of 13 mm x 8 mm x 2.2 mm were obtained. The EDAX was carried out to estimate the content of nickel and barium in the grown crystals. The powder XRD analysis suggested orthorhombic crystal structure with unit cell parameters as: a= 9.70 Å, b= 10.68 Å and c= 17.95 Å. The FTIR spectroscopy study confirmed the presence of various functional groups. The UV-vis spectroscopy study indicated that the crystals were transparent in the visible region with 90% transmittance level further optical parameters were studied. From the TGA it was found that the crystals remained stable up to 170 0C and then decomposed through two decomposition stages. The dielectric study was carried out in the frequency range of applied field from 500 Hz to 1 MHz. The variations of dielectric constant, dielectric loss were studied with frequency. It was found that the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss decreased as the frequency of applied field increased. The results are discussed.

Keywords: crystal growth, dielectric study, optical parameters, organo-metallic crystals, powder xrd, slow evaporation technique, TGA

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50 Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors: Based Force Sensor Array for Occlusal Force Measurement

Authors: Sheng-Che Chen, Keng-Ren Lin, Che-Hsin Lin, Hao-Yuan Tseng, Chih-Han Chang


Teeth play an important role in providing the essential nutrients. The force loading of chewing on the crow is important condition to evaluate long-term success of many dental treatments. However, the quantification of the force regarding forces are distributed over the dental crow is still not well recognized. This study presents an industrial-grade piezoelectric-based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) force sensor for measuring the distribution of the force distribute over the first molar. The developed sensor array is based on a flexible polyimide electrode and barium titanate-based MLCCs. MLCCs are commonly used in the electronic industry and it is a typical electric component composed of BaTiO₃, which is used as a capacitive material. The most important is that it also can be used as a force-sensing component by its piezoelectric property. In this study, to increase the sensitivity as well as to reduce the variation of different MLCCs, a treatment process is utilized. The MLCC force sensors are able to measure large forces (above 500 N), making them suitable for measuring the bite forces on the tooth crown. Moreover, the sensors also show good force response and good repeatability.

Keywords: force sensor array, multilayer ceramic capacitors, occlusal force, piezoelectric

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49 Health of Riveted Joints with Active and Passive Structural Health Monitoring Techniques

Authors: Javad Yarmahmoudi, Alireza Mirzaee


Many active and passive structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques have been developed for detection of the defects of plates. Generally, riveted joints hold the plates together and their failure may create accidents. In this study, well known active and passive methods were modified for the evaluation of the health of the riveted joints between the plates. The active method generated Lamb waves and monitored their propagation by using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) disks. The signal was analyzed by using the wavelet transformations. The passive method used the Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors and evaluated the spectral characteristics of the signals by using Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). The results indicated that the existing methods designed for the evaluation of the health of individual plates may be used for inspection of riveted joints with software modifications.

Keywords: structural health monitoring, SHM, active SHM, passive SHM, fiber bragg grating sensor, lead zirconate titanate, PZT

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48 Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants Using Strontium Titanate Synthesized by Electrospinning Method

Authors: Hui-Hsin Huang, Yi-Feng Lin, Che-Chia Hu


To date, photocatalytic wastewater treatment using solar energy has attracted considerable attention. In this study, strontium titanates with various morphologies, i.e., nanofibers and cubic-like particles, were prepared as photocatalysts using the electrospinning (ES), solid-state (SS), and sol-gel (SG) methods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that ES and SS can be assigned to pure phase SrTiO3, while SG was referred to Sr2TiO4. These samples displayed optical absorption edges at 385-395 nm, indicating they can be activated in UV light irradiation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses revealed that ES SrTiO3 has a uniform fibrous structure with length and diameter of several microns and 100-200 nm, respectively. After loading of nanoparticulate Ag as a co-catalyst onto the surface of strontium titanates, ES sample exhibited highest photocatalytic activity to degrade methylene orange dye solution in comparison to that of SS and SG ones. These results indicate that Ag-loaded ES SrTiO3, which has a desirable SrTiO3 phase and a facile electron transfer along the preferential direction in fibrous structure, can be a promising photocatalyst.

Keywords: photocatalytic degradation, strontium titanate, electrospinning, co-catalyst

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47 The Effect of Additive Acid on the Phytoremediation Efficiency

Authors: G. Hosseini, A. Sadighzadeh, M. Rahimnejad, N. Hosseini, Z. Jamalzadeh


Metal pollutants, especially heavy metals from anthropogenic sources such as metallurgical industries’ waste including mining, smelting, casting or production of nuclear fuel, including mining, concentrate production and uranium processing ends in the environment contamination (water and soil) and risk to human health around the facilities of this type of industrial activity. There are different methods that can be used to remove these contaminants from water and soil. These are very expensive and time-consuming. In this case, the people have been forced to leave the area and the decontamination is not done. For example, in the case of Chernobyl accident, an area of 30 km around the plant was emptied of human life. A very efficient and cost-effective method for decontamination of the soil and the water is phytoremediation. In this method, the plants preferentially native plants which are more adaptive to the regional climate are well used. In this study, three types of plants including Alfalfa, Sunflower and wheat were used to Barium decontamination. Alfalfa and Sunflower were not grown good enough in Saghand mine’s soil sample. This can be due to non-native origin of these plants. But, Wheat rise in Saghand Uranium Mine soil sample was satisfactory. In this study, we have investigated the effect of 4 types of acids inclusive nitric acid, oxalic acid, acetic acid and citric acid on the removal efficiency of Barium by Wheat. Our results indicate the increase of Barium absorption in the presence of citric acid in the soil. In this paper, we will present our research and laboratory results.

Keywords: phytoremediation, heavy metal, wheat, soil

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46 Adsorption of Reactive Dye Using Entrapped nZVI

Authors: P. Gomathi Priya, M. E. Thenmozhi


Iron nanoparticles were used to cleanup effluents. This paper involves synthesis of iron nanoparticles chemically by sodium borohydride reduction of ammonium ferrous sulfate solution (FAS). Iron oxide nanoparticles have lesser efficiency of adsorption than Zero Valent Iron nanoparticles (nZVI). Glucosamine acts as a stabilizing agent and chelating agent to prevent Iron nanoparticles from oxidation. nZVI particles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thus, the synthesized nZVI was subjected to entrapment in biopolymer, viz. barium (Ba)-alginate beads. The beads were characterized using SEM. Batch dye degradation studies were conducted using Reactive black Water soluble Nontoxic Natural substances (WNN) dye which is one of the most hazardous dyes used in textile industries. Effect of contact time, effect of pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, isotherm and kinetic studies were carried out.

Keywords: ammonium ferrous sulfate solution, barium, alginate beads, reactive black WNN dye, zero valent iron nanoparticles

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45 Development and Characterization of Ceramic-Filled Composite Filaments and Functional Structures for Fused Deposition Modeling

Authors: B. Khatri, K. Lappe, M. Habedank, T. Müller, C. Megnin, T. Hanemann


We present a process flow for the development of ceramic-filled polymer composite filaments compatible with the fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing process. Thermoplastic-ceramic composites were developed using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and 10- and 20 vol.% barium titanate (BaTiO3) powder (corresponding to 39.47- and 58.23 wt.% respectively) and characterized for their flow properties. To make them compatible with the existing FDM process, the composites were extruded into filaments. These composite filaments were subsequently structured into tensile stress specimens using a commercially available FDM 3D printer and characterized for their mechanical properties. Rheometric characterization of the material composites revealed non-Newtonian behavior with the viscosity logarithmically decreasing over increasing shear rates, as well as higher viscosities for samples with higher BaTiO3 filler content for a given shear rate (with the ABS+20vol.% BaTiO3 composite being over 50% more viscous compared to pure ABS at a shear rate of 1x〖10〗^3 s^(-1)). Mechanical characterization of the tensile stress specimens exhibited increasingly brittle behavior as well as a linearly decreasing ultimate tensile strength of the material composites with increasing volumetric ratio of BaTiO3 (from σ_max=32.4MPa for pure ABS to σ_max=21.3MPa for ABS+20vol.% BaTiO3). Further studies being undertaken include the development of composites with higher filler concentrations, sintering of the printed composites to yield pure dielectric structures and the determination of the dielectric characteristics of the composites.

Keywords: ceramic composites, fused deposition modeling, material characterization, rapid prototyping

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44 Electro-Optic Parameters of Ferroelectric Particles- Liquid Crystal Composites

Authors: T. D. Ibragimov, A. R. Imamaliyev, G. M. Bayramov


Influence of barium titanate particles on electro-optic properties of liquid crystal 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) with positive dielectric anisotropy and the liquid crystalline (LC) mixture Н-37 consisting of 4-methoxybezylidene-4'–butylaniline and 4-ethoxybezylidene-4'–butylaniline with negative dielectric anisotropy was investigated. It was shown that a presence of particles inside 5СВ and H-37 decreased the clearing temperature from 35.2 °С to 32.5°С and from 61.2 oC to 60.1oC, correspondingly. The threshold voltage of the Fredericksz effect became 0.3 V for the BaTiO3-5CB colloid while the beginning of this effect of the pure 5СВ was observed at 2.1 V. Threshold voltage of the Fredericksz effect increased from 2.8 V to up 3.1 V at additive of particles into H-37. A rise time of the BaTiO3-5CB colloid improved while a decay time worsened in comparison with the pure 5CB at all applied voltages. The inverse trends were observed for the H-37 matrix, namely, a rise time worsened and a decay time improved. Among other things, the effect of fast light modulation was studied at application of the rectangular impulse with direct bias to an electro-optical cell with the BaTiO3 particles+5CB and the pure 5CB. At this case, a rise time of the composite worsened, a decay time improved in comparison with the pure 5CB. The pecularities of electrohydrodynamic instability (EHDI) formation was also investigated into the composite with the H-37 matrix. It was found that the voltage of the EHDI formation decreased, a rise time increased and a decay time decreased in comparison with the pure H-37. First of all, experimental results are explained by appearance of local electric fields near the polarized ferroelectric particles at application of external electric field and an existence of the additional obstacles (particles) for movement of ions.

Keywords: liquid crystal, ferroelectric particles, composite, electro-optics

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