Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: antiproliferative

35 γ-Irradiation of Oat β- Glucan: Effect on Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Properties

Authors: Asima Shah, F. A. Masoodi, Adil Gani, Bilal Ahmad Ashwar

Abstract:

The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of γ-rays on the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of β-glucan isolated from oats. The β-glucan was irradiated with 0, 2, 6, and 10 kGy by gamma ray. The samples were characterized by FT-IR, GPC, and quantitative estimation by Megazyme β-glucan assay kit. The average molecular weight of non-irradiated β-glucan was 199 kDa that decreased to 70 kDa at 10 kGy. Both FT-IR spectrum and chemical analysis revealed that the extracted β-glucan was pure having minor impurities. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, lipid peroxidation, reducing power, metal chelating ability and oxidative DNA damage assays. Results revealed that the antioxidant activity of β-glucan increased with the increase in irradiation dose. Irradiated β-glucan also exhibited dose dependent cancer cell growth inhibition with irradiation doses. The study revealed that low molecular weight β-glucan with enhanced antioxidant and antiproliferative activities can be produced by a simple irradiation method.

Keywords: γ-irradiation, antioxidant activity, antiproliferative activity, β-glucan, oats

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34 Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of 5-Phenyl-N3-(4-fluorophenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,4-diamine Derivatives

Authors: L. Mallesha, P. Mallu, B. Veeresh

Abstract:

In the present study, 2, 6-diflurobenzohydrazide and 4-fluorophenylisothiocyanate were used as the starting materials to synthesize 5-phenyl-N3-(4-fluorophenyl)-4H-1, 2, 4-triazole-3, 4-diamine. Further, compound 5-phenyl-N3-(4-fluorophenyl)-4H-1, 2, 4-triazole-3,4-diamine reacted with fluoro substituted benzaldehydes to yield a series of Schiff bases. All the final compounds were characterized using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS and elemental analyses. New compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative effect using the MTT assay method against four human cancer cell lines (K562, COLO-205, MDA-MB231, and IMR-32) for the time period of 24 h. Among the series, few compounds showed good activity on all cell lines, whereas the other compounds in the series exhibited moderate activity.

Keywords: Schiff bases, MTT assay, antiproliferative activity, human cancer cell lines, 1, 2, 4-triazoles

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33 Anti-Cancerous Activity of Sargassum siliquastrum in Cervical Cancer: Choreographing the Fly's Danse Macabre

Authors: Sana Abbasa, Shahzad Bhattiab, Nadir Khan

Abstract:

Sargassum siliquastrum is brown seaweed with traditional claims for some medicinal properties. This research was done to investigate the methanol extract of S. siliquastrum for antiproliferative activity against human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa and its mode of cell death. From methylene blue assay, S. siliquastrum exhibited antiproliferative activity on HeLa cells with IC50 of 3.87 µg/ml without affecting non-malignant cells. Phase contrast microscopy indicated the confluency reduction in HeLa cells and changes on the cell shape. Nuclear staining with Hoechst 33258 displayed the formation of apoptotic bodies and fragmented nuclei. S. siliquastrum also induced early apoptosis event in HeLa cells as confirmed by FITC-Annexin V/propidium iodide staining by flow cytometry analysis. Cell cycle analysis indicated growth arrest of HeLa cells at G1/S phase. Protein study by flow cytometry indicated the increment of p53, slight increase of Bax and unchanged level of Bcl-2. In conclusion, S. siliquastrum demonstrated an antiproliferative activity in HeLa cell by inducing G1/S cell cycle arrest via p53-mediated pathway.

Keywords: sargassum siliquastrum, cervical cancer, P53, antiproleferation

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32 A Prenylflavanoid, HME5 with Antiproliferative Activity in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

Authors: Mashitoh Abd Rahman, Najihah Mohd Hashim, Faiqah Ramli, Syam Mohan, Noraziah Nordin, Hamed Karimian, Hapipah Mohd Ali

Abstract:

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancies. HME5, a prenylflavanoid has been isolated from local medicinal plant. This compound has been reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities including anticancer property. However, the potential of HME5 as an antiproliferative and cytotoxic agent on an ovarian cancer cells has not yet been investigated. In this present study, we examined the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect of HME5 on Caov-3 (Human Ovarian Adenocarcinoma) cell line by using 3-[4,5-dimethylthizol-2-y]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Acridine orange and propidium Iodide (AOPi) and cell cycle analysis study. HME5 has shown to inhibit Caov-3 in a time-dependent manner with the IC50 values of 5µg/ml, 2µg/ml and 1µg/ml after 24h, 48h and 72h treatment, respectively. Morphological study from AOPi analysis showed that HME5 induced apoptosis after 24 and 48h post-treatment. Nevertheless, HME5 exhibited cell cycle arrest at G1 phase as indicated in flow cytometry cell cycle profiling. In conclusion, HME5 inhibited proliferation of Caov-3 through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase.

Keywords: apoptosis, prenylflavanoid, ovarian cancer, HME5

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31 Effects of Fatty Acid Salts and Spices on Dermatophagoides farinae

Authors: Yumeho Obata, Mariko Era, Takayoshi Kawahara, Takahide Kanyama, Hiroshi Morita

Abstract:

Dermatophagoides farinae is major mite allergens in indoors. D. farinae is often swarm over powder products (e.g. wheat flour), because it feeds on starch or protein that are included in them. Eating powder products which are mixed D.farinae causes various allergic symptoms. Therefore, the creation of food additive agents with high safety and control of mite effect is required. Fatty acid salts and spices are known that have pesticidal activities. This study describes the effects of fatty acid salts and spices against Dermatophagoides farinae. Materials and Methods: Potassium salts of 9 fatty acids (C4:0, C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3) were prepared by mixing the fatty acid with the appropriate amount of KOH solution to a concentration of 175 mM and pH 10.5. C12Cu and C12Zn were selected as other fatty acid salts. Cayenne pepper, habanero, Japanese pepper, mustard, jalapeno pepper, curry aroma and cinnamon were selected as spices. D. farina, have been cultured in laboratory. To rear the mites, double-soled dishes containing of sterilized food were put on the big plastic container (30.0 × 20.0 × 20.0cm) which had 100% ammonium nitrate solution in the bottom. Plastic container was placed on incubator at 25 °C and 64 % relative humidity (RH) under dark condition. Sterilized food composed of dried bonito flakes and dried yeast (Ebios), 1:1 by weight. The antiproliferative method, sample and medium culture were mixed in double-soled dish and kept at 25 °C and 64 % RH. Decrease rates were determined 1 week and 4 week after treatment under microscope. D. farina was considered to be dead if appendages did not move when prodded with a pin. Results and Conclusions: The results show that the fatty acids potassium showed no antiproliferative effects against D. farinae. On the other hand, Japanese pepper, mustard, curry aroma and cinnamon were effective to decrease propagative rate (over 80 %) after treatment for 1 week against D. farina. Japanese pepper, curry aroma and cinnamon were effective to decrease propagative rate (approximately 100 %) after treatment for 4 weeks against D. farina. Especially, Japanese pepper and cinnamon showed the fasted and the most consecutive antiproliferative effects. These results indicate that Japanese pepper and cinnamon have high antiproliferative effects against D. farina and suggest spices will be used as a food additive agent.

Keywords: fatty acid salts, spices, antiproliferative effects, dermatophagoides farinae

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30 Synthesis of [1-(Substituted-Sulfonyl)-Piperidin-4-yl]-(2,4-Difluoro-Phenyl)-Methanone Oximes and Their Biological Activity

Authors: L. Mallesha, C. S. Karthik, P. Mallu

Abstract:

A series of new [1-(substituted-benzoyl)-piperidin-4-yl]-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-methanone oxime derivatives, 3(a-f) were synthesized and characterized by different spectral studies. All compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against bacterial strains. These compounds were screened for their antioxidant activity by DPPH• and Fe2+ chelating assay. Antiproliferative effects were evaluated using the MTT assay method against two human cancer cell lines and one astrocytoma brain tumor cell line. Compound 3b exhibited moderate antibacterial activity when compared with other compounds. All the compounds showed antioxidant activity, where compound 3f was the best radical scavenger and Fe2+ ion scavenger. Compounds, 3b, and 3d showed good activity on all cell lines, whereas the other compounds in the series exhibited moderate activity.

Keywords: Piperidine, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiproliferative

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29 New Quinazoline Derivative Induce Cytotoxic Effect against Mcf-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell

Authors: Maryam Zahedi Fard, Nazia Abdul Majid, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla

Abstract:

New quinazoline schiff base 3-(5-bromo-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino)-2-(5-bromo-2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one was investigated for anticancer activity against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line with involved mechanism of apoptosis. The compound demonstrated a remarkable antiproliferative effect, with an IC50 value of 3.41 ± 0.34, after 72 hours of treatment. Morphological apoptotic features in treated MCF-7 cells were observed by AO/PI staining. Furthermore, treated MCF-7 cells subjected to apoptosis death, as exhibited by perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release as well as increase in ROS generation. We also found activation of caspases 3/7 and -9. Moreover, acute toxicity test demonstrated the nontoxic nature of the compound in mice. Our results showed the selected compound significantly induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via intrinsic pathway, which might be considered as a potent candidate for further in vivo and clinical breast cancer studies.

Keywords: antiproliferative effect, MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, apoptosis, caspases

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28 New Bioactive Compounds from Two Chrysanthemum Saharian Species (Asteraceae) Growing in Algeria

Authors: Zahia Kabouche, Ouissem Gherboudj, Naima Boutaghane, Ahmed Kabouche, Laurence Voutquenne-Nazabadioko

Abstract:

Chrysanthemum herbs (Asteraceae) are extensively used as food additives and in folk medicine. Anti-cancer, anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antiproliferative activities as well as antioxidant effects have been reported for Chrysanthemum species. We report the isolation and identification of flavonoids and new and known terpenoids from the endemic species, C. macrocarpum and C. deserticolum “guertoufa”, used in Algerian Sahara as tea drinks and in “couscous” and soups “Chorba”. Structures of the isolated compounds were established by 1-D and 2-D homo and hetero-nuclear NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY), mass spectrometry, UV and comparison with literature data. C. deserticolum extracts were tested by four methods to identify the antioxidant activity namely, ABTS•+, DPPH• scavenging, CUPRAC and ferrous-ions chelating activity methods. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of C. macrocarpum extracts and isolated compounds are also reported here.

Keywords: Chrysanthemum macrocarpum, C. deserticolum, flavonoids, terpenoids, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative

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27 Chromatographic Lipophilicity Determination of Newly Synthesized Steroid Derivatives for Further Biological Analysis

Authors: Milica Z. Karadzic, Lidija R. Jevric, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanovic, Strahinja Z. Kovacevic, Anamarija I. Mandic, Katarina Penov-Gasi, Andrea R. Nikolic, Aleksandar M. Okljesa

Abstract:

In this study, a set of 29 newly synthesized steroid derivatives were investigated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) as a first step in preselection of drug candidates. This analysis presents an experimental determination of chromatographic lipophilicity, and it was conducted to obtain physicochemical characterization of these molecules. As the most widely used bonded phases in RP-HPLC, octadecyl (C18) and octyl (C8) were used. Binary mixtures of water and acetonitrile or methanol were used as mobile phases. Obtained results were expressed as retention factor values logk and they were correlated with logP values. The results showed that both columns provide good estimations of the chromatographic lipophilicity of the molecules included in this study. This analysis was conducted in order to characterize newly synthesized steroid derivatives for further investigation regarding their antiproliferative and antimicrobial activity. This article is based upon work from COST Action (CM1306), supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology).

Keywords: antiproliferative activity, chromatographic lipophilicity, liquid chromatography, steroids

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26 Apoptosis Activity of Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm Bark Methanolic Crude Extract

Authors: P. Narrima, C. Y. Looi, M. A. Mohd, H. M. Ali

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Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm is a member of the Lauraceae family, widely distributed in Southeast Asia. It is from the same genus with avocado (Persea americana Mill), which is widely consumed as food and for medicinal purposes. In the present study, we examined the anticancer properties of Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm bark methanolic crude extract (PDM). PDM exhibited a potent antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 16.68 µg/mL after 48h of treatment. We observed that PDM caused cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as exhibited by increased population at G0/G1 phase, higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and DNA fragmentation. Mechanistic studies showed that PDM caused significant elevation in ROS production, leading to perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and activation of caspases-3/7. On the other hand, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that PDM treatment increased the expression of the proapoptotic molecule, Bax, but decreased the expression of prosurvival proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings imply that PDM could inhibit proliferation in MCF-7 cells via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, indicating its potential as a therapeutic agent worthy of further development.

Keywords: antiproliferative, apoptosis, MCF-7 human breast cancer, Persea declinata

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25 Cloning, Expression and N-Terminal Pegylation of Human Interferon Alpha-2b Analogs and Their Cytotoxic Evaluation against Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Syeda Kiran Shahzadi, Nasir Mahmood, Muhammad Abdul Qadir

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In the current research, three recombinant human interferon alpha-2b proteins (two modified and one normal form) were produced and Pegylated with an aim to produce more effective drugs against viral infections and cancers. The modified recombinant human interferon alpha-2b proteins were produced by site-directed modifications of interferon alpha 2b gene, targeting the amino acids at positions ‘R23’ and ‘H34’. The resulting chemically modified and unmodified forms of human interferon alpha 2b were conjugated with methoxy-polyethylene glycol propanealdehyde (400 KDa) and methoxy-polyethylene glycol succinimidyl succinate (400 KDa). Pegylation of normal and modified forms of Interferon alpha-2b prolong their release time and enhance their efficacy. The conjugation of PEG with modified and unmodified human interferon alpha 2b protein drugs was also characterized with 1H-NMR, HPLC, and SDS-PAGE. Antiproliferative assays of modified and unmodified forms of drugs were performed in cell based bioassays using MDBK cell lines. The results indicated that experimentally produced recombinant human interferon alpha-2b proteins were biologically active and resulted in significant inhibition of cell growth.

Keywords: protein refolding, antiproliferative activities, biomedical applications, human interferon alpha-2b, pegylation, mPEG-propionaldehyde, site directed mutagenesis, E. coli expression

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24 Assessment of Isatin as Surface Recognition Group: Design, Synthesis and Anticancer Evaluation of Hydroxamates as Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

Authors: Harish Rajak, Kamlesh Raghuwanshi

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Histone deacetylase (HDAC) are promising target for cancer treatment. The panobinostat (Farydak; Novartis; approved by USFDA in 2015) and chidamide (Epidaza; Chipscreen Biosciences; approved by China FDA in 2014) are the novel HDAC inhibitors ratified for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma and peripheral T cell lymphoma, respectively. On the other hand, two other HDAC inhibitors, Vorinostat (SAHA; approved by USFDA in 2006) and Romidepsin (FK228; approved by USFDA in 2009) are already in market for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Several hydroxamic acid based HDAC inhibitors i.e., belinostat, givinostat, PCI24781 and JNJ26481585 are in clinical trials. HDAC inhibitors consist of three pharmacophoric features - an aromatic cap group, zinc binding group (ZBG) and a linker chain connecting cap group to ZBG. Herein, we report synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of HDAC inhibitors possessing substituted isatin moiety as cap group which recognize the surface of active enzyme pocket and thiosemicarbazide moiety incorporated as linker group responsible for connecting cap group to ZBG (hydroxamic acid). Several analogues were found to inhibit HDAC and cellular proliferation of Hela cervical cancer cells with GI50 values in the micro molar range. Some of the compounds exhibited promising results in vitro antiproliferative studies. Attempts were also made to establish the structure activity relationship among synthesized HDAC inhibitors.

Keywords: HDAC inhibitors, hydroxamic acid derivatives, isatin derivatives, antiproliferative activity, docking

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23 Metabolites of Polygonum L. Plants Having Antitumor Properties

Authors: Dmitriy Yu. Korulkin, Raissa A. Muzychkina

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The article represents the results of research of antitumor activity of different structural types of plant flavonoids extracted by authors from Polygonum L. plants in commercial reserves at the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. For the first time ever the results comparative research of antitumor activity of plant flavonoids of different structural groups and their synthetic derivatives have been represented. The results of determination of toxicity of flavonoids in single parenteral infusion conditions have been represented. Experimental substantiation of possible mechanisms of antiproliferative and cytotoxic action of flavonoids has been suggested. The perspectives of usage of plant flavonoids as medications and creation of effective dosage forms of antitumor medicines on their basis have been substantiated.

Keywords: antitumor activity, cytotoxicity, flavonoids, Polygonum L., secondary metabolites

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22 Effect of Copper Complexes on Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Line and Human Breast Carcinoma Cell Line

Authors: Katarína Koňariková, Georgios A. Perdikaris, Lucia Andrezálová, Zdeňka Ďuračková, Lucia Laubertová, Helena Gbelcová, Ingrid Žitňanová

Abstract:

Introduction: The continuous demand for new anti-cancer drugs has stimulated chemotherapeutic research based on the use of essential metalloelements with the aim to develop potential drugs with lower toxicity and higher antiproliferative activity against tumors. Copper(II) and its complexes play an important role as suitable species for antiproliferative tests. Objectives: The central objective of the current study was to investigate the potential in vitro anti-proliferative effects of N-salicylidene-L-glutamato copper (II) complexes and molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by tested complexes. In our project we tested N-salicylidene-L-glutamato copper (II) complexes ZK1 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O; MK0 - ([Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O); MK1 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O; MK3 - transbis(ethanol)tetrakis(imidazol)Cu(II)(2+)bis(N-salicylidene-D,L-glutamato-N,O)-KO:KO´-(imidazol); MK5 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-D,L- glutamato)(2-methylimidazol] at concentration range 0.001-100 µmol/L against human colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 and human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7. Methods: Viability was assessed by direct counting of 0.4% trypan blue dye-excluding cells after 24, 48 and 72 hour cultivations with or without copper complex and by MTT assay. To analyze the type of cell death and its mechanism induced by our copper complex we used different methods. To distinguish apoptosis from necrosis we used electrophoretic analysis, to study the activity of caspases 8 and 9 – luminometric analysis and caspase activity 3 colorimetric assay. Results: The observed anti-proliferative effect of the copper complexes appeared to be dose-, time- and cell line- dependent. Human colon carcinoma cells HT-29 appeared to be more sensitive to the complex MK0 ([Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O) than to ZK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O) and MK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O)). Human colon carcinoma cells HT-29 appeared to be more sensitive to the complex than human breast carcinoma cells MCF-7. IC50 decreased with time of incubation (24, 48 and 72h) for HT-29, but increased for MCF-7. By electrophoresis we found apoptotic cell death induced by our copper complexes in HT-29 at concentrations 1, 10, 50 and 100 µmol/L after 48h (ZK1) and 72h (MK0, MK1) and in MCF-7 we did not find apoptosis. We also studied molecular mechanism of apoptosis in HT-29 induced by copper complexes. We found active caspase 9 in HT-29 after ZK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O) and MK1 ([Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O)) influence and active caspase 8 after MK0 ([Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O) influence. Conclusion: Our copper complexes showed cytotoxic activities against human colon carcinoma cells HT-29 and breast cancer cell line MCF-7 in vitro. Apoptosis was activated by mitochondrial pathway (intrinsic pathway) in case of ZK1 [Cu(N-salicylidene-L-glutamato)(H2O)2].H2O; MK1 [Cu(N-salicylidene-5-methyl-L-glutamato)(H2O)].H2O; MK3 - transbis(ethanol)tetrakis(imidazol)Cu(II)(2+)bis(N-salicylidene-D,L-glutamato-N,O)-KO:KO´-(imidazol) and MK5 - [Cu(N-salicylidene-D,L- glutamato)(2-methylimidazol] copper complexes and by death receptors (extrinsic pathway) in case of MK0 [Cu2(N-sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2].2H2O copper complex in HT-29.

Keywords: apoptosis, copper complex, cancer, carcinoma cell line

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21 Synthesis and in-vitro Evaluation of Quinozolines as Potent EGFR Inhibitor

Authors: Vinaya Kambappa, Chinnadurai Mani, Komaraiah Palle

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Non-small cell-lung cancer (NSCLC) cells have increased expression of EGFR, which makes them a potential target for cancer therapy. Based on molecular docking and previous reports, we designed and synthesized quinazoline derivatives as potent EGFR inhibitors. Among the derivatives, three compounds showed good antiproliferative activity against A-549 and H-1299 cells. Furthermore, these compounds inhibited EGFR signaling exhibiting diminishing p-EGFR and its downstream proteins like p-Akt, p-Erk1/2, and p-mTOR; however, it did not alter the levels of EGFR, Akt, Erk1/2 and mTOR proteins. Flow cytometric analysis indicated the accumulation of cells at G1 phase suggesting induction of apoptosis, which was further confirmed by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Our study suggested that quinazoline scaffold can be developed as novel EGFR kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy.

Keywords: apoptosis, non-small cell-lung cancer cells, EGFR, quinazoline

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20 In-silico Analysis of Plumbagin against Cancer Receptors

Authors: Arpita Roy, Navneeta Bharadvaja

Abstract:

Cancer is an uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. It is one of the most serious diseases on which extensive research work has been going on all over the world. Structure-based drug designing is a computational approach which helps in the identification of potential leads that can be used for the development of a drug. Plumbagin is a naphthoquinone derivative from Plumbago zeylanica roots and belongs to one of the largest and diverse groups of plant metabolites. Anticancer and antiproliferative activities of plumbagin have been observed in animal models as well as in cell cultures. Plumbagin shows inhibitory effects on multiple cancer-signaling proteins; however, the binding mode and the molecular interactions have not yet been elucidated for most of these protein targets. In this investigation, an attempt to provide structural insights into the binding mode of plumbagin against four cancer receptors using molecular docking was performed. Plumbagin showed minimal energy against targeted cancer receptors, therefore suggested its stability and potential towards different cancers. The least binding energies of plumbagin with COX-2, TACE, and CDK6 are -5.39, -4.93, -and 4.81 kcal/mol, respectively. Comparison studies of plumbagin with different receptors showed that it is a promising compound for cancer treatment. It was also found that plumbagin obeys the Lipinski’s Rule of 5 and computed ADMET properties which showed drug likeliness and improved bioavailability. Since plumbagin is from a natural source, it has reduced side effects, and these results would be useful for cancer treatment.

Keywords: cancer, receptor, plumbagin, docking

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19 New Quinazoline Derivative Exhibit Cytotoxic Effect agaisnt MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell

Authors: Maryam Zahedifard, Fadhil Lafta Faraj, Nazia Abdul Majid, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla

Abstract:

The new quinazoline Schiff bases have been synthesized through condensation reaction of 2-aminobenzhydrazide with 5-bromosalicylaldehyde and 3-methoxy-5-bromosalicylaldehyde. The compound was investigated for anticancer activity against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. It demonstrated a remarkable antiproliferative effect, with an IC50 value of 3.41±0.34, after 72 hours of treatment. Most apoptosis morphological features in treated MCF-7 cells were observed by AO/PI staining. The results of cell cycle analysis indicate that compounds did not induce S and M phase arrest in cell after 24 hours of treatment. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells treated with compound subjected to apoptosis death, as exhibited by perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome C release as well as increase in ROS generation. We also found activation of caspases 3/7 and -9. Moreover, acute toxicity results demonstrated the nontoxic nature of the compounds in mice. Our results showed the selected compound significantly induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via intrinsic pathway, which might be considered as a potential candidate for further in vivo and clinical breast cancer studies.

Keywords: quinazoline Schiff base, apoptosis, MCF-7, caspase, cell cycle, acute toxicity

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18 Discovery, Design and Synthesis of Some Novel Antitumor 1,2,4-Triazine Derivatives as C-Met Kinase Inhibitors

Authors: Ibrahim M. Labouta, Marwa H. El-Wakil, Hayam M. Ashour, Ahmed M. Hassan, Manal N. Saudi

Abstract:

The receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met is an attractive target for therapeutic treatment of cancers nowadays. Among the wide variety of heterocycles that have been explored for developing c-Met kinase inhibitors, the 1,2,4-triazines have been rarely investigated, although they are well known in the literature to possess antitumor activities. Herein we describe the design and synthesis of a novel series of 1,2,4-triazine derivatives possessing N-acylarylhydrazone moiety and another series combining the 1,2,4-triazine scaffold to the well-known anticancer drug 6-MP in order to explore their “double-drug” effect. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antitumor activity against three c-Met addicted cancer cell lines (A549, HT-29 and MKN-45). Most compounds showed moderate to excellent antiproliferative activity and four compounds showed potent inhibitory activity more than the reference drug Foretinib against one or more cancer cell lines. The obtained results revealed that the potent compounds are highly selective to A549 (lung adenocarcinoma) cancer cell line. The c-Met kinase inhibitory activity of the potent derivatives is still under investigation. The present study clearly demonstrates that the 1,2,4-triazine core ring exhibits promising antitumor activity with potential c-Met kinase inhibitory activity.

Keywords: 1, 2, 4-triazine, antitumor, c-Met inhibitor, double-drug

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17 PEG-b-poly(4-vinylbenzyl phosphonate) Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Drug Carrier System: Biological and Physicochemical Characterization

Authors: Magdalena Hałupka-Bryl, Magdalena Bednarowicz, Ryszard Krzyminiewski, Yukio Nagasaki

Abstract:

Due to their unique physical properties, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are increasingly used in medical applications. They are very useful carriers for delivering antitumor drugs in targeted cancer treatment. Magnetic nanoparticles (PEG-PIONs/DOX) with chemotherapeutic were synthesized by coprecipitation method followed by coating with biocompatible polymer PEG-derivative (poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate). Complete physicochemical characterization was carried out (ESR, HRTEM, X-ray diffraction, SQUID analysis) to evaluate the magnetic properties of obtained PEG-PIONs/DOX. Nanoparticles were investigated also in terms of their stability, drug loading efficiency, drug release and antiproliferative effect on cancer cells. PEG-PIONs/DOX have been successfully used for the efficient delivery of an anticancer drug into the tumor region. Fluorescent imaging showed the internalization of PEG-PIONs/DOX in the cytoplasm. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that PEG-PIONs/DOX preferentially accumulate in tumor region via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. The present findings show that synthesized nanosystem is promising tool for potential magnetic drug delivery.

Keywords: targeted drug delivery, magnetic properties, iron oxide nanoparticles, biodistribution

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16 Effect of Post and Pre Induced Treatment with Hesperidin in N-Methyl N-Nitrosourea Induced Mammary Gland Cancer in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats

Authors: Vinay Kumar Theendra

Abstract:

The main objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of hesperidin in the treatment of breast cancer and causing less (or) no bone marrow depression which is the major side effect of the present anticancer drugs treating breast cancer, also to evaluate the mechanisms through which these compounds are exerting their effect. Breast cancer is induced by administering N-methyl N-Nitrosourea (MNU) at a dose of 50mg/kg body weight. Upon the termination of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed by the method of cervical dislocation. The animals were dissected along the ventral midline and were grossly examined for the presence of tumors. Then the tumours were removed along with the stroma. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were estimated by using ELISA method. The first occurrence of palpable tumors was eight weeks after carcinogen treatment and the final tumour incidence was 100% in the MNU alone and topical treated rats. Whereas in rats of other treatment groups there is decreased tumour incidence which might be due to their antitumour activity. Hesperidin therapy inhibited angiogenesis which can be evident from the significant reduction in serum as well as tumour VEGF concentrations in comparison to the untreated mammary carcinoma bearing rats. Hesperidin is promising agents that exert direct antitumor and also antiangiogenic, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities. Even though the potency is little lesser than standard drug vincristine, it has been proved to be safe without effecting haematological count.

Keywords: hesperidin, VEGF, COX 2, N-methyl N-nitrosourea

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15 Application of Computational Chemistry for Searching Anticancer Derivatives of 2-Phenazinamines as Bcr-Abl Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

Authors: Gajanan M. Sonwane

Abstract:

The computational studies on 2-phenazinamines with their protein targets have been carried out to design compounds with potential anticancer activity. This strategy of designing compounds possessing selectivity over specific tyrosine kinase has been achieved through G-QSAR and molecular docking studies. The objective of this research has been to design newer 2-phenazinamine derivatives as Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors by G-QSAR, molecular docking studies followed by wet-lab studies along with evaluation of their anticancer potential. Computational chemistry was done by using VLife MDS 4.3 and Autodock 4.2 followed by wet-lab experiments for synthesizing 2-phenazinamine derivatives. The chemical structures of ligands in 2D were drawn by employing Chemdraw 2D Ultra 8.0 and were converted into 3D. These were optimized by using a semi-empirical method called MOPAC. The protein structure was retrieved from RCSC protein data bank as a PDB file. The binding interactions of protein and ligands were done by using PYMOL. The molecular properties of the designed compounds were predicted in silico by using Osiris property explorer. The parent compound 2-phenazinamine was synthesized by reduction of 2, 4-dinitro-N-phenyl-benzenamine in the presence of tin chloride followed by cyclization in the presence of nitrobenzene and magnesium sulfate. The derivatization at the amino function of 2-phenazinamine was performed by treating parent compound with various aldehydes in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and urea to afford 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-(phenazine-2-yl) thiazolidine-4-one. Synthesized 39 novel derivatives of 2-phenazinamine and performed antioxidant activity, anti antiproliferative on the bulb of onion and anticancer activity on cell line showing significant competition with marked blockbuster drug imatinib.

Keywords: computer-aided drug design, tyrosin kinases, anticancer, docking

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14 Anticancer Effect of Resveratrol-Loaded Gelatin Nanoparticles in NCI-H460 Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Cell Lines

Authors: N. Rajendra Prasad

Abstract:

Resveratrol (RSV), a grape phytochemical, has drawn greater attention because of its beneficial ef-fects against cancer. However, RSV has some draw-backs such as unstabilization, poor water solubility and short biological half time, which limit the utili-zation of RSV in medicine, food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, we have encapsulated RSV in gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) and studied its anti-cancer efficacy in NCI-H460 lung cancer cells. SEM and DLS studies have revealed that the prepared RSV-GNPs possess spherical shape with a mean diameter of 294 nm. The successful encapsulation of RSV in GNPs has been achieved by the cross-linker glutaraldehyde probably through Schiff base reaction and hydrogen bond interaction. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that the max-imum of 93.6% of RSV has been entrapped in GNPs. In vitro drug release kinetics indicated that there was an initial burst release followed by a slow and sustained release of RSV from GNPs. The prepared RSV-GNPs exhibited very rapid and more efficient cellular uptake than free RSV. Further, RSV-GNPs treatment showed greater antiproliferative efficacy than free RSV treatment in NCI-H460 cells. It has been found that greater ROS generation, DNA damage and apoptotic incidence in RSV-GNPs treated cells than free RSV treatment. Erythrocyte aggregation assay showed that the prepared RSV-GNPs formulation elicit no toxic response. HPLC analysis revealed that RSV-GNPs was more bioavailable and had a longer half-life than free RSV. Hence, GNPs carrier system might be a promising mode for controlled delivery and for improved therapeutic index of poorly water soluble RSV.

Keywords: resveratrol, coacervation, anticancer gelatin nanoparticles, lung cancer, controlled release

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13 The Immunosuppressive Effects of Silymarin with Rapamaycin on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of T Cell

Authors: Nahid Eskandari, Marjan Ghagozolo, Ehsan Almasi

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Introduction: Silymarin, as a polyphenolic flavonoid derived from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is known to have antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiproliferative, antifibrotic, and antiviral effects. The goal of this study was to determine immunosuppressive effect of Silymarin on proliferation and apoptosis of human T cells in comparison with Rapamycin and FK506. Methods: Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) from healthy individuals were activated with Con A (5µg/ml) and then treated with Silymarin, Rapamycin and FK506 in various concentrations (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10,100 and 200M) for 5 days. PBMCs were examined for proliferation using CFSE assay and the concentration that inhibited 50% of the cell proliferation (IC50) was determined for each treatment. For apoptosis assay using flow cytometry, PBMCs were activated with Con A and treated with IC50 dose of Silymarin, Rapamycin and FK506 for 5 days, then cell apoptosis was analysed by FITC-annexin V/PI staining and flow cytometry. The effects of Silymarin, Rapamycin and FK506 on the activation of PARP (poly ADP ribose polymerase) pathway in PBMCs stimulated with Con A and treated with IC50 dose of drugs for 5 days evaluated using the PathScan cleaved PARP sandwich ELISA kit. Results: This study showed that Silymarin had the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation in vitro. Moreover, our results indicated that 100 μM (P < 0.001) and 200 μM (P < 0.001) of Silymarin has more inhibitory effect on T cells proliferation than FK506 and Rapamycin. Our data showed that the effective doses (IC50) of Silymarin, FK506 and Rapamycin were 3×10-5 µM, 10-8 µM and 10-6 µM respectively. Data showed that the inhibitory effect of Silymarin, FK506 and Rapamycin on T cell proliferation was not due to cytotoxicity and none of these drugs at IC50 concentration had not affected the level of cleaved PARP. Conclusion: Silymarin could be a good candidate for immunosuppressive therapy for certain medical conditions with superior efficacy and lesser toxicity in comparison with other immunosuppressive drugs.

Keywords: silymarin, immunosuppressive effect, rapamycin, immunology

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12 Lymphomas as Estrogen-Regulated Cancers

Authors: M. S. Hasni, J. Guan, K. Yakimchuk, M. Berglund, B. Sander, G. Enblad, R. M. Amini, S. Okret

Abstract:

Lymphomas are generally not considered as endocrine-related cancers. However, most lymphoid malignancies show gender differences in incidence and show prognosis with males being more affected. Furthermore, some epidemiological data indicate a protective role of estrogens against Non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Recent studies have demonstrated estrogen receptor β (ERβ) to be the major ER expressed in normal and malignant cells of lymphoid origin. We have analyzed the effects of estradiol and selective ERα and ERβ agonists on lymphoma growth in culture and in vivo. Treating lymphoma cells with estradiol or ERα selective agonist had minor or no effect on cell growth while selective ERβ agonist treatment showed an antiproliferative effect. When grafting mice with murine T lymphoma cells, male mice developed larger tumors compared to female mice, a difference that was abolished following ovariectomy, demonstrating estrogen-dependent growth in vivo. When subcutaneously grafting lymphoma cells to mice, so far growth of all tested human B lymphoma tumors (Raji and Ramos Burkitt lymphoma, SU.DHL4 (GC) and U2932 (ABC) DLBCL, Granta-519, Maver1 and Z138 MCL cells), were reduced following treatment with ERβ selective agonist (ref. 2 and unpublished). Moreover, the number and size of liver foci of disseminating Raji cells was reduced. We have identified target genes and mechanism that could explain the above effects of ERβ agonists. This included effects on angio and lymphangiogenesis. Now we have further analyzed effects of ERβ agonists on Ibrutinib-sensitive and -insensitive MCL cells in xenograft experiments as well as ERβ expression in primary lymphoma material (DLBCL). Preliminary statistical analysis has been done correlating ERβ expression to other biomarkers and clinical data.

Keywords: lymphomas, estrogen receptors, cancer, liver foci

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11 Synthetic Coumarin Derivatives and Their Anticancer Properties

Authors: Kabange Kasumbwe, Viresh Mohanlall, Bharti Odhav, Venu Narayanaswamy

Abstract:

Coumarins are naturally occurring plant metabolites known for their pharmacological properties such as anticoagulant, antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. The pharmacological and biochemical properties and curative applications of coumarins depend on the substitution around the coumarin core structure. In the present study, seven halogenated coumarins CMRN1-CMRN7 were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activity. The cytotoxicity potential of the test compounds was evaluated against UACC62 (Melanoma), MCF-7 (Breast cancer) and PBM (Peripheral Blood Mononuclear) cell lines using MTT assay keeping doxorubicin as standard drug. The apoptotic potential of the coumarin compounds was evaluated against UACC62 (Melanoma) cell by assessing their morphological changes, membrane change, mitochondria membrane potential; pro-apoptotic changes were investigated using the AnnexinV-PI staining, JC-1, caspase-3 enzyme kits respectively on flow cytometer. The synthetic coumarin has strongly suppressed the cell proliferation of UACC-62 (Melanoma) and MCF-7 (Breast) Cancer cells, the higher toxicity of these compounds against UACC-62 (Melanoma) and MCF-7 (Breast) were CMRN3, CMRN4, CMRN5, CMRN6. However, compounds CMRN1, CMRN2, and CMRN7 had no significant inhibitory effect. Furthermore the active compounds CMRN3, CMRN4, CMRN5, CMRN6 exerted antiproliferative effects through apoptosis induction against UACC-62 (Melanoma), suggesting their potential could be considered as attractive lead molecules in the future for the development of potential anticancer agents since one of the important criteria in the development of therapeutic drugs for cancer treatment is to have high selectivity and less or no side-effects on normal cells and these compounds had no inhibitory effect against the PBMC cells.

Keywords: coumarin, MTT, apoptosis, cytotoxicity

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10 Apoptosis Inducing Potential of Onosma Bracteata Wall. in Mg-63 Human Osteosarcoma Cells via cdk2/Cyclin E Pathway

Authors: Ajay Kumar, Satwinderjeet Kaur

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Onosma bracteata Wall. (Boraginaceae), is known to be a medicinal plant, useful in the treatment of body swellings, abdominal pain and urinary calculi, etc. The present study focused on the radical scavenging and cancer growth inhibitory properties of isolates from O. bracteata. Obea fraction demonstrated noticeable free radical scavenging ability along with antiproliferative activity in human osteosarcoma MG-63, human neuroblastoma IMR-32, and human lung cancer A549 cell lines using MTT assay with GI50 values of 88.56, 101.61 and 112.7 μg/ml, respectively. The scanning electron and confocal microscopy studies showed morphological alterations including nuclear condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies in osteosarcoma MG-63 cells. Obea fraction in osteosarcoma MG-63 cells augmented the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. Flow cytometry analysis revealed the Obea treated cells to be arrested in the G0/G1 phase in a dose dependent manner supported by the observed increase in the early apoptotic cell population. Western blotting analysis showed that the expression of p-NF-kB, COX-2, p-Akt, and Bcl-xL decreased whereas, the expression of GSK-3β, p53, caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins increased. The downregulation of Bcl-2, Cyclin E, CDK2 and mortalin gene expression and upregulation of p53 genes was unfolded in RT-qPCR studies. The presence of catechin, kaempferol, Onosmin A and epicatechin, as revealed in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) studies, contributes towards the chemopreventive potential of O. bracteata which can be tapped for chemotherapeutic use.

Keywords: apoptosis, confocal microscopy, HPLC, mitochondria membrane potential, reactive oxygen species

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9 Design and Synthesis of Some Pyrimidine Derivatives as Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Hematologic Malignancies

Authors: Ibrahim M. Labouta, Gina N. Tageldin, Salwa M. Fahmy, Hayam M. Ashour, Mounir A. Khalil, Tamer M. Ibrahim, Nefertiti A. El-Nikhely

Abstract:

Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a critical effector molecule in B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling transduction. It regulates B cell proliferation, development and survival. Since BTK is widely expressed in many B cell leukaemias and lymphomas, targeting BTK by small molecules inhibitors became an attractive idea as new treatment modalities for B cell mediated hematologic malignancies. Ibrutinib is the 1st generation BTK inhibitor, approved by FDA for treatment of relapsed mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It binds irreversibly to the unique cysteine (Cys481) within the ATP-binding pocket of BTK. Besides ibrutinib, many irreversible covalent BTK inhibitors comprising pyrimidine nucleus such as spebrutinib (phase IIb) showed high selectivity and potency when compared to it. In this study, the designed compounds were based on 5-cyano-2-methylsulfanyl pyrimidine core and decorated with electrophilic warheads which are essential for the optimal activity for targeted covalent inhibition (TCI). However, modifications at pyrimidine C4 or C6 were made by introduction of substituted amines which are provided to behave differently. The synthesized derivatives were evaluated for their anticancer activity in leukemia cell lines (e.g. THP-1). Results showed that, some derivatives exhibited antiproliferative activity with IC50 ranged from 5-50 μM, The in vitro enzymatic inhibitory assay for these compounds against BTK is still under investigation. Nevertheless, we could conclude from the initial biological screening that, the synthesized 4 or 6-subsitituted aminopyrimidines represent promising and novel antileukemic agents. Meanwhile, further studies are still needed to attribute this activity through targeting BTK enzyme and inhibition of BCR signaling pathway.

Keywords: BTK inhibitors, hematologic malignancies, structure based drug design (SBDD), targeted covalent inhibitors (TCI)

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8 Cratoxy Formosum (Jack) Dyer Leaf Extract-Induced Human Breast and Liver Cancer Cells Death

Authors: Benjaporn Buranrat, Nootchanat Mairuae

Abstract:

Cratoxylum formosum (Jack) Dyer (CF) has been used for the traditional medicines in South East Asian and Thailand. Normally, northeast Thai vegetables have proven cytotoxic to many cancer cells. Therefore, the present study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying CF-induced cancer cell death and apoptosis on breast and liver cancer cells. The cytotoxicity and antiproliferative effects of CF on the human breast MCF-7 and liver HepG2 cancer cell lines were evaluated using sulforhodamine B assay and colony formation assay. Cell migration assay was measured using wound healing assay. The apoptosis induction mechanisms were investigated through reactive oxygen species formation, caspase 3 activity, and JC-1 activity. Gene expression by real-time PCR and apoptosis related protein levels by Western blot analysis. CF induced MCF-7 and HepG2 cell death by time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CF had the greater cytotoxic potency on MCF-7 more than HepG2 cells with IC50 values of 85.70+4.52 μM and 219.03±9.96 μM respectively, at 24 h. Treatment with CF also caused a dose-dependent decrease in colony forming ability and cell migration, especially on MCF-7 cells. CF induced ROS formation, increased caspase 3 activities, and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, and causing apoptotic body production and DNA fragmentation. CF significantly decreased expression of the cell cycle regulatory protein RAC1 and downstream proteins, cdk6. Additionally, CF enhanced p21 and reduced cyclin D1 protein levels. CF leaf extract induced cell death, apoptosis, antimigration in both of MCF-7 and HepG2 cells. CF could be useful for developing to anticancer drug candidate for breast and liver cancer therapy.

Keywords: cratoxylum formosum (jack) dyer, breast cancer, liver cancer, cell death

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
7 Gene Expression Signature-Based Chemical Genomic to Identify Potential Therapeutic Compounds for Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Yen-Hao Su, Wan-Chun Tang, Ya-Wen Cheng, Peik Sia, Chi-Chen Huang, Yi-Chao Lee, Hsin-Yi Jiang, Ming-Heng Wu, I-Lu Lai, Jun-Wei Lee, Kuen-Haur Lee

Abstract:

There is a wide range of drugs and combinations under investigation and/or approved over the last decade to treat colorectal cancer (CRC), but the 5-year survival rate remains poor at stages II–IV. Therefore, new, more efficient drugs still need to be developed that will hopefully be included in first-line therapy or overcome resistance when it appears, as part of second- or third-line treatments in the near future. In this study, we revealed that heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors have high therapeutic potential in CRC according to combinative analysis of NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository and chemical genomic database of Connectivity Map (CMap). We found that second generation Hsp90 inhibitor, NVP-AUY922, significantly down regulated the activities of a broad spectrum of kinases involved in regulating cell growth arrest and death of NVPAUY922-sensitive CRC cells. To overcome NVP-AUY922-induced upregulation of survivin expression which causes drug insensitivity, we found that combining berberine (BBR), a herbal medicine with potency in inhibiting survivin expression, with NVP-AUY922 resulted in synergistic antiproliferative effects for NVP-AUY922-sensitive and -insensitive CRC cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that treatment of NVP-AUY922-insensitive CRC cells with the combination of NVP-AUY922 and BBR caused cell growth arrest through inhibiting CDK4 expression and induction of microRNA-296-5p (miR-296-5p)-mediated suppression of Pin1–β-catenin–cyclin D1 signaling pathway. Finally, we found that the expression level of Hsp90 in tumor tissues of CRC was positively correlated with CDK4 and Pin1 expression levels. Taken together, these results indicate that combination of NVP-AUY922 and BBR therapy can inhibit multiple oncogenic signaling pathways of CRC.

Keywords: berberine, colorectal cancer, connectivity map, heat shock protein 90 inhibitor

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6 Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of an Enantiomerically Pure β-Dipeptide Derivative through PI3K/Akt-Dependent and -Independent Pathways in Human Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer Cells

Authors: Mei-Ling Chan, Jin-Ming Wu, Konstantin V. Kudryavtsev, Jih-Hwa Guh

Abstract:

Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant disease in men. KUD983 is an enantiomerically pure β-dipeptide derivative, which may have anti-cancer effects. In the present study, KUD983 exhibits powerful activity against hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) PC-3 and DU145 cells. The IC50 values of KUD983 in PC-3 and DU145 cells are 0.56±0.07M and 0.50±0.04 M respectively. KUD983 induced G1 arrest of the cell cycle and subsequent apoptosis associated with the down-regulation of several related proteins including cyclin D1, cyclin E and Cdk4, and the de-phosphorylation of RB. The protein expressions of nuclear and total c-Myc protein, which was able to regulate the expression of both cyclin D1 and cyclin E, were significantly suppressed by KUD983. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an important signaling pathway that influences the energy metabolism, cell cycle, proliferation, survival and apoptosis of cells, and is associated with numerous other signaling pathways. The Western Blot data revealed that KUD983 inhibited PI3K/Akt and mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 pathways. The transient transfection of constitutively active myristylated Akt (myr-Akt) cDNA significantly reversed KUD983-induced caspase activation but did not abolish the suppression of mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 signaling cascade indicating the presence of both Akt-dependent and -independent pathways. Moreover, KUD983-induced effect was collaborated with the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 members (e.g., Bcl-2, and Mcl-1) and IAP family members (e.g., survivin). Furthermore, KUD983 induced autophagic cell death using confocal microscopic examination, investigating the level of conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and flow cytometric detection of AVO-positive cells. Taken together, the data suggest that KUD983 is an anticancer β-dipeptide against HRPCs through the inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptotic and autophagic cell death. The suppression of signaling pathways mediated by c-Myc, PI3K/Akt and mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 and the collaboration with down-regulation of Mcl-1 and survivin may indicate the mechanism of KUD983 against HRPC.

Keywords: β-dipeptide, hormone-refractory prostate cancer, mTOR, PI3K/Akt

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